Do you like classical music?
Cook in Classical Review, xvii.
In general, the remains of the classical epoch attest the influence of Roman rather than of Greek civilization.
He made Raphael custodian of the classical antiquities of Rome and the vicinity.
Richard Strauss, in his edition of Berlioz's works on Instrumentation, paradoxically characterizes the classical orchestral style as that which was derived from chamber-music. Now it, is true that in Haydn's early days orchestras were small and generally private; and that the styles of orchestral and chamber music were not distinct; but surely nothing is clearer than that the whole history of the rise of classical chamber-music lies in its rapid differentiation from the coarse-grained orchestral style with which it began.
Cook in Classical Review, xvi.
He played that boom, boom, boom classical music all the time.
He won the Ireland scholarship in 1848 and obtained a first class in both the classical and the mathematical schools in 1849.
He felt then, and still more after the Reform Act of 1866, that "we must educate our masters," 1 and he rather scandalized his old university friends by the stress he laid on physical science as opposed to classical studies.
Among the educational establishments of the place must be mentioned the classical school (Gymnasium), founded in 1560, and a school of navigation.
Lever's grammar school, founded in 1641, had Robert Ainsworth, the Latin lexicographer, and John Lempriere, author of the classical dictionary, among its masters.
It appears to have fallen under the Roman sway after the capture of this town, and is spoken of by classical authors as a place almost deserted in their time.
Henderson in Classical Review (April, May, June, 1901); in general D.
There was time for quiet evenings, some jazz and classical music in the Dean's quarters, country and western in Fred's and some totally incomprehensible noise from the small room where Martha Boyd and her boom box now dwelt.
ASTROPALIA (classical Astypalaea), an island, with good harbours, in the south part of the Aegean, situated in 36.5° N.
He and his friend Sir John Cheke were the great classical scholars of the time in England.
In his tenth year, his father, a tax-gatherer, sent him to an uncle at Pontarlier, under whom he commenced his classical studies.
The chief names in this advanced theology connected with Cartesian doctrines are Ludwig Meyer, the friend and editor of Spinoza, author of a work termed Philosophia scripturae interpres (1666); Balthasar Bekker, whose World Bewitched helped to discredit the superstitious fancies about the devil; and Spinoza, whose Tractatus theologico-politicus is in some respects the classical type of rational criticism up to the present day.
And I wouldn't be sitting here in this elegant room, listening to classical guitar music and sipping manhattans with the light of my life, Dean thought.
TUMULUS, a Latin word meaning a heap or mound, also used in classical writings in the secondary sense of a grave.
The classical example is the case of Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch.
As a classical scholar, his scorn of littlenesses sometimes led him into the neglect of minutiae, but he had the higher merit of interpreting ideas.
GEORGIUS MERULA (the Latinized name of Giorgio Mirlani; c. 1 43 0 - 1 494), Italian humanist and classical scholar, was born at Alessandria in Piedmont.
He also published commentaries on portions of Cicero (especially the De finibus), on Ausonius, Juvenal, Curtius Rufus, and other classical authors.
Yet, in the preface to the score Wagner speaks very strongly of the loss of the original character of the horn in the hands of ordinary players; and goes so far as to say that, if experience had not shown that they could be trained to play nearly as smoothly as the classical players, he would have renounced all the advantages of the new mechanism.) 3 trumpets.
The renewal of interest in classical literature was shown in the prohibition of the study of sophistry by any scholar under the age of eighteen, unless he had been pronounced proficient in grammaticals.
A subject so vast and so incapable of classification cannot be discussed here, but its aesthetic principles may be illustrated by the extreme case of the trumpets and horns, which in classical times had no scale except that of the natural harmonic series.
From a linguistic point of view, these treatises with their appendages, the more mystic and recondite Aranyakas and the speculative Upanishads, have to be considered as forming the connecting link between the Vedic and the classical Sanskrit.
Colt Hoare, Classical Tour through Italy, 57 seq.
JEAN FRANCOIS BOISSONADE DE FONTARABIE (1774-1857), French classical scholar, was born at Paris on the 12th of August 1774.
He violently attacked Politian (Poliziano), whose Miscellanea (a collection of notes on classical authors) were declared by Merula to be either plagiarized from his own writings or, when original, to be entirely incorrect.
Here also he wrote Lucinde (1799), an unfinished romance, which is interesting as an attempt to transfer to practical ethics the Romantic demand for complete individual freedom, and Alarcos, a tragedy (1802) in which, without much success, he combined romantic and classical elements.
There he passed nine studious years, chiefly devoted to classical reading, Plato and Tacitus being his favourite authors, because "the former described the ideal man, and the latter man as he really is."
He devoted himself particularly to the study of the classical languages, and became unusually proficient in Latin composition.
Chevreul's classical work.
The swan played a part in classical mythology as the bird of Apollo, and in Scandinavian lore the swan maidens, who have the gift of prophecy and are sometimes confused with the Valkyries, reappear again and again.
A tendency is growing up towards the extension of technical and commercial education in place of the exclusively classical instruction hitherto imparted.
The remains of the amphitheatre are scanty; many of its stones have gone to build the city wall, which must, therefore, at the earliest belong to the end of the classical period.
The accuracy and the paraphernalia are equally exemplified in all Wagner's additions and alterations of the classical orchestral scheme, for these all consist in completing the families of instruments so that each timbre can be presented pure in complete harmony.
Classical and modern chamber-music in the sonata style consists mainly of string-quartets for 2 violins, viola and violoncello; string-trios (rare, because very difficult to write sonorously); pianoforte-trios (pianoforte, violin and violoncello); pianoforte-quartets (pianoforte with string-trio); pianoforte-quintets (pianoforte with string-quartet); string-quintets (with 2 violas, very rarely with 2 violoncellos), and (in two important cases by Brahms) stringsextets.
Rienzis revolution in Rome (3471354), and hi~ establishment of a republic upon a fantastic basis, half classical half feudal, proved the temper of the times; while the rise of dynastic families in the cities of the church, claiming the title of papal vicars, but acting in their own interests, Tb weakened the authority of the Holy See.
FREINSHEIM [FREINSHEMIUS], Johann (1608-1660), German classical scholar and critic, was born at Ulm on the 16th of November 1608.
The Pantheon in Paris was the church built in the classical style by Soufflot; it was begun in 1764 and consecrated to the patroness of the city, Sainte Genevieve.
The breaking of such a promissory oath was called " perjury " (as in classical Latin and in Shakespeare), contrary to modern usage which confines the word to false evidence before a court of justice.
The only relics of classical antiquity are the numerous inscribed altars and bases of statues, as well as architectural fragments, which are found scattered in the courtyards and gardens of the houses in the extensive suburbs which now surround the town, the whole of which were comprised within the limits of the ancient city.
The greatest increase has taken place in technical educarion, where it has been much more rapid than in classical education.
But when Pali first became known to Europeans it was already used also, by those who wrote in Pali, of the language of the later writings, which bear the same relation to the standard literary Pali of the canonical texts as medieval does to classical Latin.
He shows that in the 3rd century B.C. the language used throughout northern India was practically one, and that it was derived directly from the speech of the Vedic Aryans, retaining many Vedic forms lost in the later classical Sanskrit.
Of classical Pali in northern India subsequent to the canon there is but little evidence.
Rendall); Classical Review, xix.
The preliminary, or classical examination, is usually that of university matriculation, or its equivalent.
According to this scheme only the old choir was left; the nave and transepts were to be rebuilt after the classical style, with a lofty dome at the crossing - not unlike the plan eventually carried out.
Meanwhile the new facts were the subject of original study by philosophers and by practical men without reference to classical traditions.
ELAM, the name given in the Bible to the province of Persia called Susiana by the classical geographers, from Susa or Shushan its capital.
Passing over the Messabatae, who inhabited a valley which may perhaps be the modern MahSabadan, as well as the level district of Yamutbal or Yatbur which separated Elam from Babylonia, and the smaller districts of Characene, Cabandene, Corbiana and Gabiene mentioned by classical authors, we come to the fourth principal tribe of Susiana, the Cissii (Aesch.
Thus it is quite in accordance with the outlook of the classical period that Plato in his Laws (909-910) should prohibit all possession of private shrines or performance of private rites; "let a man go to a temple to pray, and let any one who pleases join with him in the prayer."
This interval was diligently devoted to the pursuit of classical and historical studies, to preparing himself for ordination, and to searching investigations, under the stimulus of continual discussion with a band of talented and congenial associates, of the profoundest questions in theology, ecclesiastical polity and social philosophy.
Under Arnold's superintendence the school became not merely a place where a certain amount of classical or general learning was to be obtained, but a sphere of intellectual, moral and religious discipline, where healthy characters were formed, and men were trained for the duties, and struggles and responsibilities of life.
These superbly invented and designed compositions, gorgeous with all splendour of subject-matter and accessory, and with the classical learning and enthusiasm of one of the master-spirits of the age, have always been accounted of the first rank among Mantegna's works.
In the latest empire Ausonius, Symmachus, Apollinaris, Sidonius and other Gaulish writers, chiefly of Gallia Comata, kept alive the classical literary tradition, not only for Gaul but for the world.
Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship (ed.
In 1827, with Stephen Elliott (1771-1830), the naturalist, he founded the Southern Review, of which he was the sole editor after Elliott's death until 1834, when it was discontinued, and to which he contributed articles on law, travel, and modern and classical literature.
Smith's Classical Dictionary has notices of some thirty of the name.
He became a good classical scholar, and learnt to speak and write in French with facility and elegance.
P. McKinlay in Harvard Classical Studies, 1907; M.
And the Moslem came on the scenes bringing, as a gift for Christendom, fuller knowledge of classical, especially Aristotelian, texts.
Classical anatomical memoirs are those of L.
It was only then, too, that a reform was started in secondary education, with the object of revising the so-called " classical " system favoured in the lyceums since the 'seventies, the complete failure of which has been demonstrated after nearly thirty years of experiment.
The middle schools are maintained by the state, which contributes 25% of the expenditure of the classical and technical schools, by the fees of the pupils (30%), and by donations from the zemstvos and municipalities.
The steady tendency of Russian society towards increasing the number of secondary schools, where instruction would be based on the study of the natural sciences, is checked by the government in favour of the classical gymnasiums. 5 Sunday schools and public lectures are virtually prohibited.
GUARINO [GUARINUS] DA VERONA (1370-1460), one of the Italian restorers of classical learning, was born in 1370 at Verona, and studied Greek at Constantinople, where for five years he was the pupil of Manuel Chrysoloras.
The classical model for all apocalyptic is to be found in Dan.
There are a Roman Catholic and two Evangelical churches, a pilgrimage chapel, dating from 1100, a ducal chateau, built by a son of the elector John George about the end of the 16th century (now utilized as government offices), classical, technical and commercial schools and a hospital.
Of an enthusiastic temperament, accomplished in classical literature, he seems while a pagan to have courted discussion with the converts to Christianity.
From 1854 to 1859 he edited the Journal of Classical and Sacred Philology.
He had previously written his commentaries on the epistles to the Galatians (1865), Philippians (1868) and Colossians (1875), the notes to which were distinguished by sound judgment and enriched from his large store of patristic and classical learning.
In classical times it was a community of perioeci, politically dependent on Sparta, though doubtless with a municipal life of its own.
Rivoira, in the book cited below, shows that many of the characteristic architectural details can be traced back to a classical and in particular a Roman origin, and were not derived from the East, e.g.
Giovanni Evangelista, erected by Galla Placidia in fulfilment of a vow made on her voyage from Constantinople, has been entirely rebuilt, though the columns are ancient (the Corinthian capitals are probably from a classical building), and the crypt may be original.
classical forms, variety of treatment and freedom of colouring, while the processions are monotonous and inferior in execution, intended rather to produce a decorative effect than beauty of form.
The central fact of her cult was the story of her daughter Persephone (Proserpine), a favourite subject in classical poetry.
From 1860 to 1870 he was professor of history at the faculty of letters at Strassburg, where he had a brilliant career as a teacher, but never yielded to the influence exercised by the German universities in the field of classical and Germanic antiquities.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about classical scholars.
The principal Philistine tribe is indeed known in the biblical records as the Cherethims or Cretans, and the Minoan name and the cult of the Cretan Zeus were preserved at Gaza to the latest classical days.
The recent excavations by the British School on the site of the Dictaean temple at Palaikastro bear out this conclusion, and an archaic marble head of Apollo found at Eleutherna shows that classical tradition was not at fault in recording the existence of a very early school of Greek sculpture in the island, illustrated by the names of Dipoenos and Scyllis.
14 a account of these is preserved in a MS. description of the island drawn up under the Venetians about 1538, and existing in the library of St Mark (published by Falkener, Museum of Classical Antiquities, ii.
The building, of beautiful classical design, and admirably adapted to its uses, was completed in 1916.
(1875, &c.); Haverfield, " The Abolition of the Dictatorship," in Classical Review, iii.
That he displayed considerable classical knowledge, was a good linguist, a ready and versatile writer of verse, and above all that he possessed an astounding memory, seems certain, not only from the evidence of men of his own time, but from the fact that even Joseph Scaliger (Prima Scaligerana, p. 58, 1669) speaks of his attainments with the highest praise.
The more important sectarian schools are Wake Forest College (Baptist, opened 1834 as a " manual labour and classical institute "; as a college, 1838) at Wake Forest, 16 m.
aus den Tropen, (1893), contain classical observations on American species.
JAMES HENRY MONK (1784-1856), English divine and classical scholar, was born at Buntingford, Herts.
The establishment of the classical tripos was in great measure due to his efforts.
The main idea is the same as in the classical account.
This double identification enabled Cassiodorus to bring the favoured race into line with the peoples of classical antiquity, to interweave with their history stories about Hercules and the Amazons, to make them invade Egypt, to claim for them a share in the wisdom of the semi-mythical Scythian philosopher Zamolxis.
And thus the hasty pamphlet of a half-educated Gothic monk has been forced into prominence, almost into rivalry with the finished productions of the great writers of classical antiquity.
- The classical edition is that of Mommsen (in Mon.
Next he sought to prepare the inactive form of the acid by artificial means; and after great and long-continued labour he succeeded, and was led to the commencement of his classical researches on fermentation, by the observation that when the inactive acid was placed in contact with a special form of mould (Penicillium glaucum) the right-handed acid alone was destroyed, the left-handed variety remained unchanged.
He received his classical education in Rouen, entered the magistracy and became judge at Montivilliers, near Havre.
Yet some of his earlier productions are distinguished by classical terseness."
Like Jean Hardouin he got to believe that a great deal of what is called classical literature was compiled by anonymous authors at a much later date, and he used frequently to startle his colleagues, the Gustavian academicians, by his audacious paradoxes.
In the legend of Nisus and Scylla there is a trace of the custom which was still observed in classical times in the sacrifice of animals.
culture of classical ages was slightly more developed in Greece so far as the husbandman of Greece and Rome was less able to leave to nature the fertilization of the soil.
He succeeded in abolishing the old-fashioned medieval textbooks and methods of instruction, and led his pupils to the study of the classical authors themselves.
Of what possible use are the works of the so-called classical writers, except in relation to the history of economics and the practical influence of theory in past times ?
It must be clear to every observer that the economists of the classical period, with the one exception of Adam Smith, will speedily share the fate of nearly all scientific writers.
It would be of immense advantage from a scientific point of view if this could be taken for granted, if for a time the work of the classical economists could be considered final so far as it goes, and for the purposes of investigation regarded as the theoretical counterpart of the modern industrial system.
The assumptions, the definitions, the reasoning, the conclusions of the classical writers have been ruthlessly overhauled.
It is useless to suppose that this destructive criticism from within can be neutralized by generously sprinkling the pages of the classical writers with interpretation clauses.
When the aim of the man of affairs and the hypothesis of the economist was unrestricted competition, and measures were being adopted to realize it, general theory such as the classical economists provided was perhaps a sufficiently trustworthy guide for practical statesmen and men of business.
- Mycenae and Tiryns are the two principal sites on which evidence of a prehistoric civilization was remarked long ago by the classical Greeks.
If we fix its introduction to about loon B.C. and make it coincident with the incursion of northern tribes, remembered by the classical Greeks as the Dorian Invasion, we must allow that this incursion did not altogether stamp out Aegean civilization, at least in the southern part of its area.
The true oryx of classical writers was probably the East and North-east African beisa-oryx (Oryx beisa), which is replaced in South Africa by the gemsbuck (oryx gazella).
Thus while among his own colleagues he seemed merely a hypocritical and arrogant priest, in his relations with his brother humanists, such as Cosimo de Medici, he appeared as the student of classical antiquities and especially of Greek theological authors.
According to the classical researches of A.
The classical researches of J.
References to the older classical writings on the Hexapoda are given in the article on Entomology.
Sundevall - equally proficient in classical as in ornithological knowledge - was, in 1863, compelled to leave more than a score of the birds of which Aristotle wrote unidentified.
2 The Seventh of Wotton's De differentiis animalium Libri Decem, published at Paris in 1552, treats of birds; but his work is merely a compilation from Aristotle and Pliny, with references to other classical writers who have more or less incidentally mentioned birds and other animals.
For Belgium the Faune belge of Baron De Selys-Longchamps (8vo, 1842), old as it is, remains the classical work, though the Planches colorises des oiseaux de la Belgique of M.
In classical literature he was the first who made the world acquainted with the Fables of Phaedrus (1596); he also edited the Pervigilium Veneris (1587), and Juvenal and Persius (1585).
The Heath grammar school was founded in 1585 under royal charter for instruction in classical languages.
- Towards the close of the 15th century Venetian architecture began to feel the influence of the classical revival; but, lying far from Rome and retaining still her connexion with the East, Venice did not fall under the sway of the classical ideals either so quickly or so completely as most Italian cities.
The full meaning of the change which had come over Venetian architecture, of the gulf which lies between the early Lombardesque style, so purely characteristic of Venice, and the fully developed classical revival, which now assumed undisputed sway, may best be grasped by comparing the old and the new Procuratie.
The main door of the arsenal is the first example in Venice of the purely classical style.
Having studied classical philology at the university of Giessen, he was appointed (1803) master in the high school, an office which he combined with that of lecturer at the university.
Especially prominent in Europe, classical, medieval and modern, and in East Asia, is the spirit of the lake, river, spring, or well, often conceived as human, but also in the form of a bull or horse; the term Old Nick may refer to the water-horse Nok.
Outside the European area vegetation spirits of all kinds seem to be conceived, as a rule, as anthropomorphic; in classical Europe, and parts of the Slavonic area at the present day, the tree spirit was believed to have the form of a goat, or to have goats' feet.
classical scholar see J.
The fascinating subjects of insect bionomics and life-history were dealt with in the classical memoirs (1734-1742) of the Frenchman R.
Three years later he removed to Warrington as classical tutor in a new academy, and there he attended lectures on chemistry by Dr Matthew Turner of Liverpool and pursued those studies in electricity which gained him the fellowship of the Royal Society in 1766 and supplied him with material for his History of Electricity.
The present structure, which dates from 1347, has its Gothic character disguised by a classical facade with Ionic pillars and much tasteless modernization.
In Irish literature, however, the Druids are frequently mentioned, and their functions in the island seem to correspond fairly well to those of their Gaulish brethren described by classical writers.
His studies, both at school and university, were classical and theological.
Nothing marks the secular attitude of the Italians at an epoch which decided the future course of both Renaissance and Reformation more strongly than the mundane proclivities of this apostolic secretary, heart and soul devoted to the resuscitation of classical studies amid conflicts of popes and antipopes, cardinals and councils, in all of which he bore an official part.
Her star was the planet Venus, and classical writers give her the epithet Caelestis and Urania.
It was said by classical writers to be of Etruscan origin, and to have been founded, under the name Felsina, from Perusia by Aucnus or Ocnus.
The processes and extent of the manufacture were revolutionized at about the beginning of the 19th century by Chevreul's classical investigations on the fats and oils, and by Leblanc's process for the manufacture of caustic soda from common salt.
This classical work is still a favourite among students, the improvements on its methods made since its publication being rather in details than in general principles.
While modern research has added considerably to our knowledge of prehistoric Athens, a still greater light has been thrown on the architecture and topography of the city in the earlier historic or " archaic " era, the subsequent age of Athenian greatness, and the period of decadence which set in with the Macedonian conquest; the first extends from the dawn of history to 480-479 B.C., when the city was destroyed by the Persians; the second, or classical, age closes in 322 B.C., when Athens lost its political independence after the Lamian War; the third, or Hellenistic, in 146 B.C., when the state fell under Roman protection.
The centre of commercial and civic life of the older group of communities, as of the greater city of the classical age, was the Agora or market.
It is now generally agreed that the Agora of classical times covered the low ground between the hill of the " Theseum," the Areopagus and the Pnyx; and Pausanias, in the course of his description, appears to have reached its southern end.
The fine marble lion of the classical period which stood at the mouth of the Cantharus harbour gave the Peiraeus its medieval and modern names of Porto Leone and Porto Draco; it was carried away to Venice by Morosini.
classical Persians, after whose departure the existing north period: its wall was erected in the time of Themistocles; many fortifica- columns, metopes and other fragments from the tions and area.
The only extant structures of the classical period are the Hephaesteum, the Dionysiac theatre, and the choragic monument of Lysicrates.
Owing to the numbers and activity of its institutions, both native and foreign, for the prosecution of research and the encouragement of classical studies, Athens has become Scientific once more an international seat of learning.
The Feast of Tabernacles is one of the few Jewish festivals, described in classical writers.
On a hill behind the town are the ruins of a medieval castle, but no ancient Greek remains have been discovered, although some travellers have identified the site with that of the classical Pharae or Pherae.
In his classical thesis Berthollet vigorously attacked the results deduced by Bergman, who had followed in his table of elective attractions the path traversed by Stahl and S.
The classical investigation of Liebig and Friedrich Wihler on the radical of benzoic acid (" Uber das Radikal der Benzoesaure," Ann.
Moreover, the higher problems of rhythmic movement in the classical sonata forms are far beyond the scope of academic teaching; which is compelled to be contented with a practical plausibility of musical design; and the instrumental music which was considered the highest style of art in 18 3 0 was as far beyond Wagner's early command of such plausibility as it was obviously already becoming a mere academic game.
With the growing certainty of touch a stiffness of movement appears which gradually disturbs the listener who can appreciate freedom, whether in the classical forms which Wagner has now abolished, or in the majestic flow of Wagner's later style.
These intellectual principles are, of course, not without their own ground in physical sensation; but it is evident that Debussy appeals beyond them to a more primitive instinct; and on it he bases an almost perfectly coherent system of which the laws are, like those of i 2th-century music, precisely the opposite of those of classical harmony.
The only illogical point in his system is that the beauty of his dreamlike chords depends not only on his artful choice of a timbre that minimizes their harshness, but also on the fact that they enter the ear with the meaning they have acquired through centuries of harmonic evolution on classical lines.
This is of constant occurrence in classical pianoforte music, in which thick chords are subjected to polyphonic laws only in their top and bottom notes, while the inner notes make a solid mass of sound in which numerous consecutive fifths and octaves are not only harmless but essential to the balance of tone.
The present influence of Wagnerian harmony is, then, somewhat indefinite, since the most important real phenomena of later music indicate a revolt both from it and from earlier classical methods.
The highest English authority on Wagner is his friend Dannreuther, whose article in Grove's Dictionary is classical.
For the Oxyrhynchus fragment see Classical Review (January 1898), and C. van Jan in Bursian's Jahresbericht, civ.
In 1834 the family moved to Munich, where the parents took leading roles in the classical German drama, until they retired from the stage: the mother in 1865 and the father in 1878.
A friend describes Wesley at this time as "a young fellow of the finest classical taste, and the most liberal and manly sentiments."
The very large number of classical and other Greek papyri, of the Ptolemaic and later periods, which have been recovered in Egypt, are noticed in the article on Palaeography.
Zoroaster was already famous in classical antiquity as the founder of the widely renowned wisdom of the Magi.
The original entrance to the cemetery leads directly into a spacious corridor with no loculi, but recesses for sarcophagi, and decorations of the classical style of the 2nd century.
D.)/n==Authorities== - The classical work on the catacombs of Rome is G.
They deal chiefly with the games of the circus and works of art, and the language shows the author to have been well acquainted with the legends and antiquities of the classical period of Rome.
The convent was suppressed by Duke Maurice in 1543, and was by him converted into a school (the Fiirsten Schule), one of the most renowned classical schools in Germany, which counts Lessing and Gellert among its former pupils.
Among the Christians, especially the Armenians, the Greeks of Smyrna and the Syrians of Beirut, it has long embraced a considerable range of subjects, such as classical Greek, Armenian and Syriac, as well as modern French, Italian and English, modern history, geography and medicine.
Much valuable information is to into three periods, which may be termed respectively the pre-classical, the classical and the post-classical.
With the accession of Selim's son, Suleiman I., the classical period begins.
Hitherto all Ottoman writing, even the most highly Classical finished, had been somewhat rude and uncouth; but.
The classical period comes to an end with Nedim; its brightest time is that which falls between the rise of Nef'i and the death of Nedim, or, more roughly, that extending from the accession of Ahmed I.
Under the name of Humayun Nama (Imperial Book) 'Ali Chelebi made a highly esteemed translation of the well-known Persian Classical classic Anvar-i Suheyli, dedicating it to Suleiman I.
VOSSIUS [Voss], Gerhard Johann (1577-1649), German classical scholar and theologian, was the son of Johannes Voss, a Protestant of the Netherlands, who fled from persecution into the Palatinate and became pastor in the village near Heidelberg where Gerhard was born.
Ritschl's recommendation, appointed to an extraordinary professorship of classical philology in the university of Basel, and rapidly promoted to an ordinary professorship. Here he almost immediately began a brilliant literary activity, which gradually assumed a more and more philosophical character.
The chief town of every province is provided with a classical gymnasium for boys and a gymnasium or progymnasium for girls; but the education there received is not of a high grade, and the desire of the local population for " real schools " is not satisfied.
Harrison, Classical Review, April 1880).
Harrison in Classical Review (June 1894), Athena Ergane is the goddess of the fruits of the field and the procreation of children.
His interest was not, however, confined to theological literature; he annotated the margins of his classical texts with numerous scholia (many of which are preserved), and had several MSS.
Mr. Bryce, already favourably regarded in America as the author of a classical work on the American Commonwealth, made himself thoroughly at home in the country; and, after the fashion of American ministers or ambassadors in England, he took up with eagerness and success the role of public orator on matters outside party politics, so far as his diplomatic duties permitted.
The subject of transformation in general has been treated by Sophus Lie in the classical work Theorie der Transformationsgruppen.
for a sum of £25; for a liquor measure or glass containing less than a half-pint; and in America for a literal translation of a foreign or classical author, a "crib."
et Belles Lettres, 1907, P. 466; Classical Review, 1907, December, p. 255).
of Matthew's gospel is a classical instance of the distinction between the formalism of the Pharisaic code and genuine religion.
His journal and letters show that he had made acquaintance with a large number of languages, including Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, Coptic, Ethiopic, as well as the classical and the principal modern European languages.
The calling up of the spirit of Samuel by the Witch at Endor when consulted by Saul is the classical example (I Sam.
In 1873 James Clerk Maxwell published his classical Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, in which Faraday's ideas were translated into a mathematical form.
Fowler in Classical Review, July 1896).
PETER WILHELM FORCHHAMMER (1801-1894), German classical archaeologist, was born at Husum in Schleswig on the 23rd of October 1801.
His travels had convinced him that a full and comprehensive knowledge of classical antiquity could only be acquired by a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Roman monuments and works of art, and a detailed examination of the topographical and climatic conditions of the chief localities of the ancient world.
PIERRE HENRI LARCHER (1726-1812), French classical scholar and archaeologist, was born at Dijon on the 12th of October 1726.
The present structure, the foundationstone of which was laid in 1789, is a classical building, enclosing an extensive quadrangle.
The museum and lecture-rooms of the Royal College of Surgeons occupy a handsome classical building in Nicolson Street.
Classical concerts and concerts of the better sort, chiefly held in the M ` Ewan and Music Halls, are well attended, and lectures are patronized to a degree unknown in most towns.
The Achaean kingdom fell before the incoming Dorians, and throughout the classical period the history of Laconia is that of its capital Sparta (q.v.).
All these government offices are in classical style.
a kind of clover (Classical Review, December 1906, p. 435).
The middle schools comprise classical schools (gymnasia) which are preparatory for the universities and other " high schools," and modern schools (Realschulen) preparatory for the technical schools.
The attempts of the Habsburgs to conquer Transylvania drew down upon them two fresh Turkish invasions, the first in 1552, when the sultan's generals captured Temesvar and fifty-four lesser forts or fortresses, and the second in 1566, memorable as Suleiman's last descent upon Hungary, and also for the heroic defence of Szigetvar by Miklos Zrinyi, one of the classical sieges of history.
Csaktornya and Kakony imitated the ancient classical poets, and ErdOsi introduced the hexameter.
The chief representatives of the strictly " classical " school, which adopted the ancient Greek and Latin authors as its models, were David Baroti Szabo, Nicholas Revai, Joseph Rajnis and Benedict Virag.
The " classical " school reached its highest state of culture under Virag, whose poetical works, consisting chiefly of Horatian odes and epistles, on account of the perfection of their style, obtained for him the name of the " Magyar Horace."
translator of Homer, belongs rather to the " popular " than the " classical " school.
The establishment of the " national " or popular " school is attributable chiefly to Andrew Dugonics, though his earliest works, Troia veszedelme (1774) and Ulysses (1780), indicate a classical bias.
By offering rewards for the best original dramatic productions, the academy provided that the national theatre should not suffer from a lack of classical dramas.
A less prolific but more classical writer appeared in Charles Obernyik, whose George Brankovics is, next to Katona's Bank Bdn, one of the best historical tragedies in the language.
- General conceptions with regard to the relations of living things (especially animals) to the universe, to man, and to the Creator, their origin and significance: exemplified in the writings of the philosophers of classical antiquity, and of Linnaeus, Goethe, Lamarck, Cuvier, Lyell, H.
The notion of a scala naturae, which had since the days of classical antiquity been a part of the general philosophy of nature amongst those who occupied themselves with such conceptions, now took a more definite form in the minds of skilled zoologists.
With the disappearance of the Scythae as an ethnic and political entity, the name of Scythia gives place in its original seat to that of Sarmatia, and is artificially applied by geographers, on the one hand, to the Dobrudzha, the lesser Scythia of Strabo, where it remained in official use until Byzantine times; on the other, to the unknown regions of northern Asia, the Eastern Scythia of Strabo, the "Scythia intra et extra Imaum" of Ptolemy; but throughout classical literature Scythia generally meant all regions to the north and north-east of the Black Sea, and a Scythian (Scythes) any barbarian coming from those parts.
of those classical authors that his own library did not contain.
of the classical writers.
These works, together with the Prodigios del amor divino (1641), are now forgotten, but Nieremberg's version (1656) of the Imitation is still a favourite, and his eloquent treatise, De la hermosura de Dios y su amabilidad (1649), is the last classical manifestation of mysticism in Spanish literature.
Myres, Classical Review, x.
In the Greek and Roman period foreign influence shows itself very strongly in the introduction of novelties of costume and of classical terms, and the subject belongs rather to the Greek and Roman dress of the age.
P. Grenfell, New Classical Fragments (1897); H.
The extraordinary result obtained by Terence is that, while he has left no trace in any of his comedies of one sketching from the life by which he was surrounded, there is perhaps no more truthful, natural and delicate delineator of human nature, in its ordinary and more level moods, within the whole range of classical literature.
He was more distinctly a foreigner than any of the great classical writers of Rome.
Since then, however, he has been almost up to our own times the most popular and widely read of all medical classics, partly for the qualities already indicated, partly because he was one of the few of those classics accessible to readers of Latin, and partly also because of the purity and classical perfection of his language.
It is important to remember that this obscure stream of tradition flowed on, only partially affected by the influx of Arabian, or even the early revival of purer classical learning.
It was at first very naturally imagined that the simple revival of classical and especially of Greek literature would at once produce the same brilliant results in medicine as in literature and philosophy.
But some parts of Willis's works, such as his descriptions of nervous diseases, and his account (the earliest) of diabetes, are classical contributions to scientific medicine.
Still less was his mind warped by either of the two great systems, the classical and the chemical, which then divided the medical world.
Among the first of these were Antonio Maria Valsalva (1666-1723), still better known as an anatomist; Giovanni Maria Lancisi (1654-1720), also an anatomist, the author of a classical work on the diseases of the heart and aneurisms; and Ippolito Francisco Albertini (1662-1738), whose researches on the same class of diseases were no less important.
The importance in science of Bichat's classical works, especially of the Anatomie generale, cannot be estimated here; we can only point out their value as supplying a new basis for pathology or the science of disease.
He was educated at Glasgow University and at Trinity College, Cambridge (senior optime, and classical honours); was returned to parliament for Stirling as a Liberal in 1868 (after an unsuccessful attempt at a by-election); and became financial secretary at the war office (1871-1874; 1880-1882), secretary to the admiralty (1882-1884), and chief secretary for Ireland (1884-1885).
After rapidly completing his classical studies at the lycee at Chartres, he spent some time in the administrative service and in journalism.
But at last, on the 13th of August 1732, he produced Zaire, the best (with Merope) of all his plays, and one of the ten or twelve best plays of the whole French classical school.
He therefore set all his wonderful cleverness to the task, going so far as to adopt a little even of that Romantic disobedience to the strict classical theory which he condemned, and no doubt sincerely, in Shakespeare.
Compare the classical suffimentum and suffitus from suffio.
3 Classical Latin has but one word (thus or tus) for all sorts of incense.
Both classical and modern education is provided; a large number of scholarships are maintained out of the foundation, and exhibitions from the school to the universities and other higher educational institutions.
Here you can find articles about writers using classical Latin before and during the Roman empire, not medieval or modern latin writers.
In 1849 he was placed in charge of the Philological Seminary at Prague, and two years later was appointed professor of classical philology in Prague University.
And, apart from their value as historical documents, Gentz's writings are literary monuments, classical examples of nervous and luminous German prose, or of French which is a model for diplomatic style.
A good many other examples have been preserved which may be assigned to the same century: the earlier of these bear a resemblance in form to the vessels of silver made in the west of Europe; in the later an imitation of classical forms becomes apparent.
The cathedral of San Pietro, dating from 1141 and restored and enlarged in the i 5th century by Pietro Lombardo, with a classical facade of 1836, has five domes.
Cilicia Trachea is a rugged mountain district formed by the spurs of Taurus, which often terminate in rocky headlands with small sheltered harbours, - a feature which, in classical times, made the coast a resort of pirates, and, in the middle ages, led to its occupation by Genoese and Venetian traders.
The classical Lat.
With Nabu-nazir, the Nabonassar of classical writers, the socalled Canon of Ptolemy begins.
In addition to the Kings' List, other important chronological data consist of references in the classical authorities to the chronological system of Berossus; chronological references to earlier kings occurring in the later native inscriptions, such as Nabonidus's estimate of the period of Khammurabi (or Hammuribi); synchronisms, also furnished by the inscriptions, between kings of Babylon and of Assyria; and the early Babylonian date-lists.
we find well-developed apocalypses; but it is not until we come to Daniel that we have a fully matured and classical example of this class of literature.
Secondary education is provided by one higher and four lower technical schools with 1375 pupils, three ginnasii or lower classical schools, and three licei or higher classical schools, with moo pupils, and three training colleges with over 700 pupils.
AlOt07rLa), the ancient classical name of a district of north-eastern Africa, bounded on the N.
There are classical, modern and commercial schools.
20, has an inaccurate notice from Nearchus of the Indian honey-bearing reed, and various classical writers of the first century of our era notice the sweet sap of the Indian reed or even the granulated saltlike product which was imported from India, or from Arabia and Opone (these being entrepots of Indian trade), 1 under the name of saccharum or aaKxape (from Skr.
of Classical Scholarship (2nd ed., 1906).
During classical times the law kept to the narrow meaning of sacrilegium, but in popular usage it had grown to mean about the same as the English word.
Gaston Paris maintained that French versification was a natural development of popular Latin methods which depended on accent rather than quantity, and were as widely different from classical rules as the Low Latin was from the classical idiom.
The classical accounts of the invasion of Aelius Gallus in 26 B.C. threw little light on the state of Arabia at the time, still less on its past history.
Semper, the creators respectively of the parliament house and the museums, are the leaders of the Classical and Renaissance styles which are so strongly represented in Viennese architecture.
It is in Mill's Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy that the classical statement of the Relativity of Knowledge is to be found.
Pedro Paz Soldan was a classical scholar who published three volumes of poems. Carlos Augusto Salaverry is known as one of Peru's best lyrical poets, and Luis Benjamin Cisneros for his two novels, Julia and Edgardo.
The whole plan was based upon defective information and preconceived ideas; it has gone down to history as a classical example of bad generalship, and its author Weyrother, who was perhaps nothing worse than a pedant, as a charlatan.
of Classical Scholarship, i.
From his account and other references in classical authors we gather that in the first century of the Christian era, and probably for hundreds of years before that time, the sides of the mountain were richly cultivated, as they are still, the vineyards being of extraordinary fertility.
The symbol G was a new coinage in the 3rd century B.C. The pronunciation of C throughout the period of classical Latin was that of an unvoiced guttural stop (k).
But in doing this he did not so much call his fellow-countrymen to develop freely their own national sentiments and ideas as send them back to classical example and principle.
He worked hard at his classical lessons, and supplemented the ordinary business of the school by studying mathematics in the holidays.
He was not a fine scholar, in that restricted sense of the term which implies a special aptitude for turning English into Greek and Latin, or for original versification in the classical languages.
They are a very interesting survival of the almost classical Roman style of painting, and appear to be quite free from the generally prevalent Byzantine influence.
He rose to great celebrity as an architect, and designed many graceful and richly sculptured buildings in Venice, Rome and even in France; he used classical forms with great taste and skill, and with much of the freedom of the older medieval architects, and was specially remarkable for his rich and delicate sculptured decorations.
There are an episcopal lyceum, a clerical seminary, a classical and a modern school, and numerous religious houses.
the delusion that nature as represented in the classical pictures (bunjingwa) of China and Japan exists only in the artists imagination.
By the term archaic is to be understood the pure Japanese language of earliest times, and by the term classical the quasi-Chinese language which came into use for literary purposes when Japan appropriated the civilization of her great neighbors.
To women, indeed, from the 8th century onwards may be said to have been entrusted the guardianship of the pure Japanese language, the classical, or Chinese, form being adopted by men.
There are 335 classical dramas of this kind in a compendium called the Yokyoka Tsuge, and many of them are inseparably connected with the names of Kwanami Kiyotsugu (1406) and his son Motokiyo (1455), who are counted the fathers of the art.
His words were taken from sources so classical as to be intelligible to only the highly educated minority.
Established in 1875, it adopted a style midway between the classical ai~d the colloquial, and it appended the syllabic characters to each ideograph, so that its columns becam!
He was essentially a painter of the classical schools, with the speciality of elaborate reproduction of detail in certain sections of animal life, but fortunately this partial concession to truth, emphasized as it was by a rare sense of beauty, did large service.
High relief carving corresponds to the kaisho, or most classical form of writing; medium relief to the gyosho, or semi-cursive style; and low relief to the sOsho or grass character.
KOun carves figures in the round which not only display great power of chisel and breadth of style, but also tell a story not necessarily drawn from the motives of the classical school.
The name, written Aksm and Aksum in the Sabaean and Ethiopic inscriptions in the place, is found in classical and early Christian writers in the forms of Auxome, Axumis, Axume, &c., the first mention being in the Periplus Maris Erythraei (c. A.D.
- Classical references to Axum are collected by Pietschmann in Pauly's Realencyclopiidie (2nd ed.); for the history as derived from the inscriptions see D.
ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM (c.16 551 730), Scottish classical scholar and critic, was born in Ayrshire.
His own account of his school and college training, given in a letter to the same correspondent (6th August 1767), is: "I employed almost my whole time at Oxford in the mathematical and classical knowledge, but more particularly in the latter, so that I understand Latin and Greek tolerably well.
of Classical Scholarship (2nd ed., 1906); A.
HERESY, the English equivalent of the Greek word aipEVCs which is used in the Septuagint for "free choice," in later classical literature for a philosophical school or sect as "chosen" by those who belong to it, in Philo for religion, in Josephus for a religious party (the Sadducees, the Pharisees and the Essenes).
In regard to the fetishism of the Gold Coast NoII' of Africa, Jevons (Introduction to the History of J (y f Religion, pp. 165-166) maintains that" public opinion does not approve of the worship by an individual of a suhman, or private tutelary deity, and that his dealings with it are regarded in the nature of ` black art ' as it is not a god of the community."In China there is a" classical or canonical, primitive and therefore alone orthodox (tsching) and true XIII.
The classical name of Ava is Yadanapura, "the city of precious gems."
The classical specimen of an advanced cosmogony is to be found in the Rig Veda (x.
There are numerous educational institutions, including classical and modern schools, and schools of commerce, navigation and telegraphy.
Amongst the finest of his classical pictures were - "Syracusan Bride leading Wild Beasts in Procession to the Temple of Diana" (1866), "Venus disrobing for the Bath" (1867), "Electra at the Tomb of Agamemnon," and "Helios and Rhodos" (1869), "Hercules wrestling with Death for the Body of Alcestis" (1871), "Clytemnestra" (1874), "The Daphnephoria" (1876), "Nausicaa" (1878), "An Idyll" (1881), two lovers under a spreading oak listening to the piping of a shepherd and gazing on the rich plain below; "Phryne" (1882), a nude figure standing in the sun; "Cymon and Iphigenia" (1884), "Captive Andromache" (1888), now in the Manchester Art Gallery; with the "Last Watch of Hero" (1887), "The Bath of Psyche" (1890), now in the Chantrey Bequest collection; "The Garden of the Hesperides" (1892), "Perseus and Andromeda" and "The Return of Persephone," now in the Leeds Gallery (1891); and "Clytie," his last work (1896).
raised above it, is an impossible attitude, nor do snakes ever climb trees in spiral fashion, the classical artistic mode of representation.
He was already a poet by predilection, an idyllist and steeped in the classical archaism of the time, when, in 1784, his taste for the antique was confirmed by a visit to Rome made in the company of two schoolfellows, the brothers Trudaine.
Among the poems written or at least sketched during this period were L'Oaristys, L'Aveugle, La Jeune Malade, Bacchus,Euphrosine and Ld Jeune Tarentine, the last a synthesis of his purest manner, mosaic though it is of reminiscences of at least a dozen classical poets.
The colouring is that of classic mythology, but the spiritual element is as individual as that of any classical poem by Milton, Gray, Keats or Tennyson.
The five chief representatives of this age who still hold their rank among the great classical writers are Cicero, Caesar and Sallust in prose, Lucretius and Catullus in verse.
Towards the middle of the 4th century we have Decimus Magnus Ausonius, a professor of Bordeaux and afterwards consul (379), whose style is as little like that of classical poetry as is his prosody.
He breathes the old national spirit, and his mastery of classical idiom and versification is for his age extraordinary.
He was well read in the ancient literature; but the task of embodying the Christian spirit in the classical form was one far beyond his powers.
It is written in pure Latin and is strongly tinged by classical influences.
Passing to the university of Gottingen he took his degree in classical philology and ancient history, but the bent of his mind was definitely towards the philosophical side of theology.
The school is primarily divided into classical and modern sides, with a special department for preparation for army, navy or professional examinations.
37), but it can scarcely be an old Latin word, as it is not found in Pliny or other classical writers, and Martial often introduced foreign words into his Latin.
The national kingdoms founded by the Northern races, after the fall of the Roman Empire, under the influence of the classical tradition, are the beginnings of the modern European system; Philip of Macedon foreshadows Theodoric, Charlemagne and William the Conqueror.
It is mentioned by Strabo as the chief town of the Bruttii, and frequently spoken of in classical authors as an important place.
By the time when Latin literature begins, the genuine Roman religion had already been overlaid by foreign cults and modes of thought, by the classical period it was - except in formal observance - practically buried and to a large extent fossilized.
Among objects used are a pool of ink in the hand (Egypt), the liver of an animal (tribes of the North-West Indian frontier), a hole filled with water (Polynesia), quartz crystals (the Apaches and the Euahlayi tribe of New South Wales), a smooth slab of polished black stone (the Huille-che of South America), water in a vessel (Zulus and Siberians), a crystal (the Incas), a mirror (classical Greece and the middle ages), the finger-nail, a swordblade, a ring-stone, a glass of sherry, in fact almost anything.
This fact was not observed (that is, the collections of examples were not made) till recently, when experiments in private non-spiritualist circles drew attention to crystal-gazing, a practice always popular among peasants, and known historically to have survived through classical and medieval times, and, as in the famous case of Dr Dee, after the Reformation.
The flax and forests of its extensive territory are mentioned by classical authors, and we find Tarquinii offering to furnish Scipio with sailcloth in 195 B.C. A bishop of Tarquinii is mentioned in A.D.
He was brought thus into contact with those artistic and classical associations which exercised so marked an influence on his character and opinions.
There can be no doubt that the greater part of his attention was directed to the perusal of classical authors, and to the attempt to realize the true spirit of classical antiquity.
The excavations begun in 1896 by the American school of Classical Studies at Athens, under the direction of Rufus B.
He migrated to Haran 1 in Mesopotamia, apparently the classical Carrhae, on a branch of the Habor.
Most of the older churches are classical in design, and the most notable are St George's, in High Street, and the Memorial church of Dr Cooke in May Street.
Idolatrous cults repose so largely on make-believe and credulity that the priests who administered them, perhaps oftener than we know, fell into the kind of imposture and trickery of which the legend of Bel and the dragon represents a classical example.
The scope of the archaeologist's studies must include every department of the ancient history of man as preserved in antiquities of whatever character, be they tumuli along the Baltic, fossil skulls and graven bones from the caves of France, the flint implements, pottery, and mummies of Egypt, tablets and bas-reliefs from Mesopotamia, coins and sculptures of Greece and Rome, or inscriptions, waxen tablets, parchment rolls, and papyri of a relatively late period of classical antiquity.
For the most important historical records that have come to us in recent decades we have to thank the Orientalist, though the classical explorer has been by no means idle.
It remained, then, virtually true, as it had been for two thousand years, that for all that we could learn of the history of the Old Orient in pre-classical days, we must go solely to the pages of the Bible and to a few classical authors, notably Herodotus and Diodorus.
His work in the original unfortunately perished, and all that we know of it we learn through excerpts made by a few later classical writers.
This is only one of many cases where the investigations of the archaeologist have proved not iconoclastic but reconstructive, tending to restore confidence in classical traditions which the scientific historians of the age of Niebuhr and George Cornewall Lewis regarded with scepticism.
We have seen that the general trend of Oriental archaeology has been reconstructive rather than iconoclastic. Equally true Archae- is this of recent classical archaeology.
Here no such ology and revolution has been effected as that which virtually classical created anew the history of Oriental antiquity; yet history.
The researches of the archaeologist are, in short, tending to reconstruct the primitive classical history; and here, as in the Orient, it is evident that historians of the earlier day were constantly blinded by a misconception as to the antiquity of civilization.
For the first century and a half of his special period he is mainly occupied with a review of classical learning, and he adopts the plan of taking short decennial periods and noticing the most remarkable works which they produced.
Haliday's classical papers Entom.
It has a zoological marine station (1897), a museum commemorative of the siege (1895), a cathedral of Classical design and another finished in 1888, monuments of Admirals Nakhimov (1898) and Kornilov (1895) and of General Todleben, and two navigation schools.
P. Postgate in Classical Review, March 1903; W.
Morley determined the densities of hydrogen and oxygen in the course of his classical investigation of the composition of water.
Before discussing the methods now used in detail, a summary of the conclusions reached by Victor Meyer in his classical investigations in this field as to the applicability of the different methods will be given: (I) For substances which do not boil higher than 260° and have vapours stable for 30° above the boiling-point and which do not react on mercury, use Victor Meyer's "mercury expulsion method."
Whilst making the school a strong one on the classical side, he instituted scholarships in natural science, built a laboratory, and gave importance to that side of the school work.
How shall we state his point of departure from the middle ages, his sympathy with prevalent classical enthusiasms, his divination of a new period?
Among its principal buildings are the church of St Andrew (Andreaskirche), which contains numerous monuments of the counts of Mansfeld; the church of St Peter and St Paul (Peter-Paulkirche), containing the font in which Luther was baptized; the royal gymnasium (classical school), founded by Luther shortly before his death in 1546; and the hospital.
He was the last of the classical pulpit orators of the English Church, the last great popular exponent of the traditional Anglican orthodoxy.
TANNEGUY LEFEBVRE (TANAQUILLUS Faber) (1615-1672), French classical scholar, was born at Caen.
Lefebvre, who was by no means a typical student in dress or manners, was a highly cultivated man and a thorough classical scholar.
His scientific work covered a wide range, but his name is best known for the classical researches he carried out on animal fats, published in 1823 (Recherches sur les corps gras d'origine animate).
Near Regensburg are two very handsome classical buildings, erected by Louis I.
In March 1753 he entered St Paul's school, London, where he remained for three years and a half, becoming a proficient classical scholar.
Housman, in Classical Quarterly (April, 1907); C. Cichorius, Untersuchungen zu Lucilius (Berlin, 1908).
John Wesley made great use of it in compiling his Expository Notes upon the New Testament (1755) Besides the two works already described, Bengel was the editor or author of many others, classical, patristic, ecclesiastical and expository.
Hartley, contains a library, museum, art gallery, lecture hall, laboratories, and school of science and art associated with that of South Kensington, London; the foundation was created for the advancement of natural history, astronomy, antiquities, and classical and Oriental literature.
Ndrdlingen, therefore, is a classical instance of the unprofitable and costly bataille rangee of the 17th century.
In Boston and in the towns in its environs are various famous schools, among them the boys' classical school in Boston, founded in 1635, one of the oldest secondary schools in the country.
NAGELSBACH, CARL FRIEDRICH (1806-1859), German classical scholar, was born at Wohrd near Nuremburg on the 28th of March 1806.
It was in the monasteries that the writings of Latin antiquity, both classical and ecclesiastical, were transcribed and preserved.
pestifero vomuit coluber sermone Britannus, is relieved by a treatment not lacking in liveliness and in classical measures.
Weimar owes its importance not to any industrial development, which the grand-dukes discourage within the limits of their Residenz, but to its intimate association with the classical period of German literature, which earned for it the title of the "poets' city" and "the German Athens."
In spite of its classical associations and of modern improvements, Weimar still retains much of its medieval character.
Of the churches the Stadtkirche (parish church), of which Herder became pastor in 1776, is a Gothic building dating from about 1400, but much altered in detail under "classical" influences.
Classical and early Christian usages, E.
The word 6 uXia from iatXEiv (buou, Eau)), meaning communion, intercourse, and especially interchange of thought and feeling by means of words (conversation), was early employed in classical Greek to denote the instruction which a philosopher gave to his pupils in familiar talk (Xenophon, Memorabilia, I.
Dodwell, Classical and Topographical Tour (1819), i.
Vien, the pioneer of the classical reaction in painting..
The classical reaction was now in full tide; Winckelmann was writing, Raphael Mengs.
This severely classical spirit inspired his first important painting, "Date obolum Belisario," exhibited at Paris in 1780.
On the return of the Bourbons the painter was exiled with the other remaining regicides, and retired to Brussels, where he again returned to classical subjects: "Amor quitting Psyche," "Mars disarmed by Venus," &c. He rejected the offer, made through Baron Humboldt, of the office of minister of fine arts at Berlin, and remained at Brussels till his death on the 29th of December 1825.
Subjects and treatment alike are inspired by the passing fashion of an age which had deceived itself into believing that it was living and moving in the spirit of classical antiquity.
The most important of Guido's treatises, and those which are generally acknowledged to be authentic, are Micrologus Guidonis de disciplina artis musicae, dedicated to Bishop Theodald of Arezzo, and comprising a complete theory of music, in 20 chapters; Musicae Guidonis regulae rhythmicae in antiphonarii sui prologum prolatae, written in trochaic decasyllabics of anything but classical structure; Aliae Guidonis regulae de ignoto cantu, identidem in antiphonarii sui prologum prolatae; and the Epistola Guidonis Michaeli monacho de ignoto cantu, already referred to.
P. Mahaffy, History of Greek Classical Literature.
He went up to Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1814, and gained the Craven university scholarship and the chancellor's classical medal.
Allen in Classical Review, May 1906; A.
This Hildesheimer Silberfund excited great interest among classical archaeologists.
It contains four Protestant churches, among them the German church, with a handsome steeple, and the curious circular Lithuanian church, a Roman Catholic church, a Jewish synagogue and a classical school (Gymnasium).
This account of the hero's principal labours, exploits and crimes is derived from the mythologists Apollodorus and Diodorus, who probably followed the Heracleia by Peisander of Rhodes as to the twelve labours or that of Panyasis of Halicarnassus, but sundry variations of order and incident are found in classical literature.
The school is divided into classical and modern sides, and has exhibitions to Oxford and Cambridge universities.
In 1783 he entered the university of Freiburg, where he became a pupil in the seminary for the training of priests, and soon distinguished himself in classical and Oriental philology as well as in biblical exegesis and criticism.
The True Word had very little influence either on the mutual relations of Church and State, or on classical literature.
The inscriptions not only give names of nations corresponding to those in the Bible and in classical authors, but throw a good deal of fresh light on the political history of Yemen.
Thus Regnault in his classical experiments (described below) found that the velocity of the report of a pistol carried through a pipe diminished with the intensity, and his results have been confirmed by J.
Education is provided for at the university of Strassburg, in 21 classical and pro-classical schools, in 18 modern schools, and in nearly 4000 elementary schools.
The town contains numerous educational institutions, including a technical college, a school of painting, a celebrated classical school, which the emperor William II.
WILLIAM MURE (1799-1860), Scottish classical scholar, was born at Caldwell, Ayrshire, on the 9th of July 1799.
This is a remarkably perfect structure with a central dome, columns and mosaics of classical fashion.
In classical and medieval times bridges were constructed of timber or masonry, and later of brick or concrete.
His tutor, Jens Vorde, who prepared him in his eleventh year for the university, praises his extraordinary gifts, his mastery of the classical languages and his almost disquieting diligence.
Here, the times being uneventful and his duties light, he occupied much of his leisure in reading classical and general literature, and acquired those studious habits which clung to him throughout life.
From 1883 to 1901 he was headmaster of Westminster school; and his death, on the 19th of July 1907, deprived classical scholarship in England of one of its most brilliant modern representatives.
iep6s, sacred, and -yXvq 17, carving), the term used by Greek and Latin writers to describe the sacred characters of the ancient Egyptian language in its classical phase.
Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship, i.
Although very poor, he was admitted to the college of Sainte-Barbe, where he received a thorough classical education.
1863), who headed the Cambridge classical tripos in 1886, became head master of Manchester grammar school in 1903.
Himself a Catholic priest - "the glory of the priesthood and the shame" - the tone of the orthodox clergy was distasteful to him; the ignorant hostility to classical learning which reigned in their colleges and convents disgusted him.
The same critic, however, thought Erasmus would have done better "if he had kept more closely to the classical models."
In the annals of classical learning Erasmus may be regarded as constituting an intermediate stage between the humanists of the Latin Renaissance and the learned men of the age of Greek scholarship, between Angelo Poliziano and Joseph Scaliger.
But a classical experiment of A.
26, 2), but it is first clearly set forth by Cyprian, and receives from him its classical expression in the famous sentence " Salus extra ecclesiam non est" (Ep. 73, 21; cf.
(1294-1303), who in the bull Unam Sanctam (130z) gave the papal claims to universal dominion their classical form, quarrelled with Philip IV.
Beauty of form alone was at first sought, and found in the antique; but, with the form, the spirit of the classical attitude towards life was revived.
In 1843 he founded the Jahrbilcher der Gegenwart, and became Privatdozent of philosophy and classical philology in Tubingen university.
" gallows " was translated by furia and patibulum, both words applied in classical Latin to a fork-shaped instrument of punishment fastened on the neck of slaves and criminals.
The hotel de ville, a building in the classical style of the middle of the 17th century, looks on to a picturesque square.
The History of the City of Rome (1865) down to the end of the middle ages was followed by the History of the Kings of Rome (1868), which, upholding against the German school the general credibility of the account of early Roman history, given in Livy and other classical authors, was violently attacked by J.
At Cambridge he was one of the most brilliant classical scholars of his time.
His Latin, like that of Gallus, is far from classical, but he writes with spirit and throws a good deal of light upon 1 The Psalter is called after Margaret, the first wife of King Louis, who died in 1349, by a mere conjecture.
It may be said with truth of Kochanowski that, although the form of his poetry is classical and imitated from classical writers, the matter is Polish, and there is much national feeling in what he has left us.
Although they are imitated from classical writers, he has introduced many scenes of national life, which he describes with much vigour.
Up to this time Polish literature, although frequently rhetorical and too much tinctured with classical influences, had still exhibited signs of genius.
The former was now mixed with Latin and classical expressions; much of the literature consists of fulsome panegyric, verses written on the marriages and funerals of nobles, with conceits and fantastic ideas, devoid of all taste, drawn from their coats of arms. The poets of this period are, as may be imagined, in most cases mere rhymesters; there are, however, a few whose names are worth recapitulating, such as Waclaw Potocki (c. 1622 - c. 1696), now known to have been the author of the Wojna Chocimska, or "War of Khotin," the same campaign which afterwards formed the subject of the epic of Krasicki.
Among the smaller poets of this period may be mentioned Karpifiski (1741-1828), a writer of sentimental elegies in the style then so very much in fashion, and Franciszek Dyonizy Kniaanin (1750-1807), who nourished his muse on classical themes and wrote several plays.
These birds, highly prized from the first, reprobated by the moralist, and celebrated by more than one classical poet, in the course of time were brought in great number to Rome, and ministered in various ways to the luxury of the age.
The church of St Denis, a building in the classical style, erected from 1727 to 1750, and the hotel de ville (1721-1724) both stand in the Place d'Armes opposite the castle.
C. Edwards resigned the principalship of the University College at Aberystwyth to become head of Bala (1891), now a purely theological college, the students of which were sent to the university colleges for their classical training.
The lake was also known in classical times as lacus Amyclanus, from the town of Amyclae or Amunclae, which was founded, according to legend, by Spartan colonists, and probably destroyed by' the Oscans in the 5th century B.C.
The Hartford grammar school, founded in 1638, long managed by the town and in 1847 merged with the classical department of the Hartford public high school, is the oldest educational institution in the state.
There are classical and modern schools and a school of textile industry.
In the New English Dictionary the earliest example of the word " classical " is the phrase " classical and canonical," found in the Europae Speculum of Sir Edwin Sandys (1599), and, as applied to a writer, it is explained as meaning " of the first rank or authority."
It is to this sense of the word that the following article is devoted in two main divisions: (A) the general history of classical (i.e.
470), whose Letters were modelled on those of the younger Pliny, while his poems give proof of a wide though superficial acquaintance with classical literature.
He laments the increasing decline in the classical purity of the Latin language.
The lower limit of the Roman age of classical studies may be conveniently placed in the year 529.
709), "the first Englishman who cultivated classical learning with any success."
In that school the study of " figures of speech " was treated as merely introductory to that of the classical texts.
This was partly due to the recovery of some of the lost works of ancient literature, and the transition from the middle ages to the revival of learning was attended by a general widening of the range of classical studies and by a renewed interest in Plato.
The classical learning of the middle ages was largely secondhand.
In the study of Latin the principal aim of the Italian humanists was the imitation of the style of their classical models.
(b) That part of the Modern Period of classical studies which succeeds the age of the Revival in Italy may be subdivided into three periods distinguished by the names of the nations most prominent in each.
p y P rather than by any special cult of the form of the classical languages.
During the, 8th century the classical scholarship of the Netherlands was under the healthy and stimulating influence of Bentley (1662-1742), who marks the beginning of the English and Dutch period, mainly represented English in Holland by Bentley's younger contemporary and correspondent, Tiberius Hemsterhuys (1685-1766), and the latter scholar's great pupil David Ruhnken (1723-1798).
He is the founder of the systematic and encyclopaedic type of scholarship embodied in the comprehensive term Altertumswissenschaft, or " a scientific knowledge of the old classical world."
We must here be content with simply recording the names of a few of the more prominent representatives of the 19th century in some of the most obvious departments of classical learning.
Classical art and archaeology were represented by F.
The history of classical philology in Germany was written by Conrad Bursian (1830-1883).
Lane were prominent American classical scholars.
- For a full bibliography of the history of classical philology, see E.
The range of studies was widened, however, at Rugby in 1828-1842 by Thomas Arnold, whose interest in ancient history and geography, as a necessary part of classical learning, is attested by his edition of Thucydides; while his influence was still further extended when those who had been trained in his traditions became head masters of other schools.
A certain discontent with the current traditions of classical training found expression in the Essays on a Liberal Education (1867).
Parker, closed his review of the reforms instituted in Germany and France by adding that in England there had classical been but little change.
The same volume included a critical examination of the " Theory of Classical Education " by Henry Sidgwick, and an attack on compulsory Greek and Latin verse composition by F.
Milton, in his Tractate on Education (1644), advances further on Bacon's lines, protesting against the length of time spent on instruction in language, denouncing merely verbal knowledge, and recommending the study of a large number of classical authors for the sake of their subject appointed to consider the studies and examinations of the university, their report of November 1904 on the Previous Examination was fully discussed, and the speeches published in the Reporter for December 17, 1904.
Incidentally, the question of " compulsory Greek " has stimulated a desire for greater efficiency in classical teaching.
In December 1903, a year before the most important of the public discussions at Cambridge, the Classical AssociaAssociation was founded in London.
The aim of that association is " to promote the development, and maintain the well-being, of classical studies, and in particular (a) to impress upon public opinion the claim of such studies to an eminent place in the national scheme of education; (b) to improve the practice of classical teaching by free discussion of its scope and methods; (c) to encourage investigation and call attention to new discoveries; (d) to create opportunities of friendly intercourse and co-operation between all lovers of classical learning in this country."
The question of the curriculum and the time-table in secondary education has occupied the attention of the Classical Association, the British Association and the Education Department of Scotland.
Further efficiency in classical education has been the aim of the movement in favour of the reform of Latin pronunciation.
It was taken up anew by the Cambridge Philological Society in 1886, by the Modern Languages Association in 1901, by the Classical Association in 1904-1905, and the Philological Societies of Oxford and Cambridge in 1906.
Rouse in The Year's Work in Classical Studies (1907 and 1908), chap. i.; J.
Bossuet, in educating the dauphin, added to the ordinary classical routine represented by the extensive series of the " Delphin Classics " the study of history and of science.
On the eve of the Revolution, out of a grand total of 562 classical schools, 384 were in the hands of the clergy and 178 in those of the congregations.
At the moment when the university of Paris was, by the absence of its rivals, placed in complete control of the education of France, she found herself driven to defend the principles of classical education against a crowd of assailants.
The reaction of 1815-1821 in favour of classics was followed by the more liberal programme of Vatimesnil (1829), including, for those who had no taste for a classical education, certain " special courses " (1830), which were the germ of the enseignement special and the enseignement moderne.
In 1863, under Napoleon III., Victor Duruy encouraged the study of history, and also did much for classical learning by founding the Ecole des Hautes Etudes.
Johnson, " Present State of Classical Studies in France," in Classical Review (December 1907).
(a) During the first twenty years of the 16th century the reform of Latin instruction was carried out by setting aside the old medieval grammars, by introducing new manuals of classical literature, and by prescribing the study of classical authors and the imitation of classical models.
In 1525-1535 there was a marked depression in the classical studies of Germany.
In 1637, when the doubts of Scaliger and Heinsius as to the purity of the Greek of the New Testament prompted the rector of Hamburg to introduce the study of classical authors, any reflection on the style of the Greek Testament was bitterly resented.
(b) In the early part of the period 1650-1800, while Latin continued to hold the foremost place, it was ceasing to be Latin of the strictly classical type.
In these schools the subjects of study included mathematics and natural sciences, geography and history, and modern languages (especially French), with riding, fencing and dancing; Latin assumed a subordinate place, and classical composition in prose or verse was not considered a sufficiently courtly accomplishment.
The new humanism agreed with the Renaissance in its unreserved recognition of the old classical world as a perfect pattern of culture.
The movement had its effect on the schools by discouraging the old classical routine of verbal imitation, and giving a new prominence to Greek and to German.
In 1875 Wiese was succeeded by Bonitz, the eminent Aristotelian scholar, who in 1849 had introduced mathematics and natural science into the schools of Austria, and had substituted the wide reading of classical authors for the prevalent practice of speaking and writing Latin.
In that decree the emperor urged the equal recognition of the classical and the modern Gymnasium, and emphasized the importance of giving more time to Latin and to English in both.
For the Gymnasium the aim of the new scheme is, in Latin, " to supply boys with a sound basis of grammatical training, with a view to their understanding the more important classical writers of Rome, and being thus introduced to the intellectual life and culture of the ancient world "; and, in Greek, " to give them a sufficient knowledge of the language with a view to their obtaining an acquaintance with some of the Greek classical works which are distinguished both in matter and in style, and thus gaining an insight into the intellectual life and culture of Ancient Greece."
In consequence of these changes Greek is now studied by a smaller number of boys, but with better results, and a new lease of life has been won for the classical Gymnasium.
Lastly, by the side of the classical Gymnasium, we now have the " German Reform Schools " of two different types, that of Altona (dating from 1878) and that of Frankfort-on-the-Main (1892).
Among classical teachers an increasing number would prefer a longer course extending over six years for Latin, and at least three for Greek, and some of these would assign to the elementary school the first two of the proposed six years of Latin study.
Some important statistics as to the number studying Latin and Greek in the secondary schools were collected in 1900 by a ‘committee of twelve educational experts representing all parts of the Union, with a view to a uniform course of instruction being pursued in all classical schools.
His work at the Salpetriere exerted a great influence on the development of the science of neurology, and his classical maladies du.
The textual criticism of the classical literatures made way before the textual criticism of the Old Testament: Bentley's Phalaris (1699) preceded any thorough or systematic application of Higher Criticism to any part of the Old Testament; Niebuhr's History of Rome (181i) preceded Ewald's History of Israel (1843-1859).
Lachmann, the famous classical scholar, opened a new era in textual criticism in 1842-1850, in his N.T.
During the early middle ages this region was also known as Ma wara '1 Nahr or Ma-vera-un-nahr, the meaning of which is given in the alternative classical title of Transoxiana.
Turkish, classical Chinese, and Korean versions have been made by the American and British societies jointly.
prefatia, for classical praefatio, praefari, to speak beforehand), an introduction to a book,, also any preliminary or introductory statement.
But the Enneads of his pupil Plotinus are the primary and classical document of Neoplatonism.
The truth is that Smith took up the science when it was already considerably advanced; and it was this very circumstance which enabled him, by the production of a classical treatise, to render most of his predecessors obsolete.
These first two books contain Smith's general economic scheme; and we have stated it as fully as was consistent with the brevity here necessary, because from this formulation of doctrine the English classical school set out, and round it the discussions of more modern times in different countries have in a great measure revolved.
Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship (2nd ed.
Rice Holmes, Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Julius Caesar, 1907, later views in Classical Review, May 1909, and H.
His early mastery of classical literature led him to the study of classic monuments in classic lands, while his equally conspicuous talent for mathematics gave him the laws of form and proportion in architectural design.
It has preserved in the conjugation and in the formation of the plural older forms than the classical Nahuatl itself.
Davidson; Dr Benjamin Davies (1814-1875), professor of oriental and classical languages at Stepney Baptist College; the Rev. A.
St Aldegonde, or Marnix (by which name he is very commonly known), is celebrated for his share in the great development of Dutch literature which followed the classical period represented by such writers as the poet and historian Pieter Hooft.
From the earliest age young Niebuhr manifested extraordinary precocity, and from 1794 to 1796, being already a finished classical scholar and acquainted with several modern languages, he studied at the university of Kiel.
Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship (1908), iii., pp. 78-82.
Used more accurately, it denotes the tribe which invaded India 130-140 B.C. They are the Sacae and Sakai of classical authors and the Se of the Chinese, which may represent an original Sek or Siik.
Readers of Dante know the idea that the dead have no shadows; this was no invention of the poet's but a piece of traditionary lore; at the present day among the Basutos it is held that a man walking by the brink of a river may lose his life if his shadow falls on the water, for a crocodile may seize it and draw him in; in Tasmania, North and South America and classical Europe is found the conception that the soul - o-tab., umbra - is somehow identical with the shadow of a man.
In Europe the corn spirit sometimes immanent in the crop, sometimes a presiding deity whose life does not depend on that of the growing corn, is conceived in some districts in the form of an ox, hare or cock, in others as an old man or woman; in the East Indies and America the rice or maize mother is a corresponding figure; in classical Europe and the East we have in Ceres and Demeter, Adonis and Dionysus, and other deities, vegetation gods whose origin we can readily trace back to the rustic corn spirit.
Forest trees, no less than cereals, have their indwelling spirits; the fauns and satyrs of classical Literature were goat-footed and the tree spirit of the Russian peasantry takes the form of a goat; in Bengal and the East Indies wood-cutters endeavour to propitiate the spirit of the tree which they cut down; and in many parts of the world trees are regarded as the abode of the spirits of the dead.
Hitherto classical and romantic successively, like other European literatures, he first gave it a national direction.
Du Bellay maintained that the French language as it was then constituted was too poor to serve as a medium for the higher forms of poetry, but he contended that by proper cultivation it might be brought on a level with the classical tongues.
Not only were the forms of classical poetry to be imitated, but a separate poetic language and style, distinct from those employed in prose, were to be used.
A brilliant examination for the degree of bachelor procured him, in 1588, admittance on the foundation to the university of Tubingen, where he laid up a copious store of classical erudition, and imbibed Copernican principles from the private instructions of his teacher and life-long friend, Michael Maestlin.
The capitals of these (mainly Corinthian) are also of the classical period.
m 3 ' 4, in classical authors Nivos, Ninus; LXX.
It has a handsome Evangelical church, a classical, a modern and a technical school, and cotton and spinning mills.
He thus views the consecration of the elements as akin to other consecrations; and, like priestly ordination, as involving " a metamorphosis for the better," a phrase which later on became classical.
Giidemann, in Classical Studies in Honour of H.
4-6 to household gods, may suggest that cults of the dead preceded that of Yahweh, nevertheless in the classical age of their religion (see Hebrew Religion) as reflected in the Old Testament, ancestor-worship has already vanished.
The college offers classical, philosophical and scientific courses, and has a school of music and an academic department; in 1907-1908 it had 19 instructors and 257 students, of whom 93 were in the college and 97 were in the school of music. Fairfield has a Carnegie library (1892), and a museum with a collection of laces.
There are a Roman Catholic and a Protestant church, a classical school and an academy of forestry.
Cook in Classical Review, August 1907), called "showing the fig" (faire la figue, far la fica or le fiche), originally prophylactic in character.
In Quebec are a number of so-called classical colleges, most of them affiliated with Laval University.
Gartringen, in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, for the evidence from the side of classical archaeology.
The Orkneys were the Orcades of classical writers, and the word is probably derived from the Norse Orkn, seal, and ey, island.
The extraordinary changes of tide which take place in this passage have been a subject of wonder from classical times.
In ancient classical MSS.
The great works of classical literature are not studied as pathological specimens, and they will be studied the less the more they contain to repel and disquiet the reader.
Most people take their notions of a classical book not from its traditional form but from a "received" or vulgate text.
As frequent allusion is made by classical writers to this embarrassing method of computation, which is carefully retained in the ecclesiastical calendar, we here give a table showing the correspondence of the Roman months with those of modern Europe.
Among its public buildings and institutions are a fine public library (1872) with 80,000 volumes in 1908, the city hall, a state armoury, Somerville Hospital, the city poor house, a Roman Catholic home for the aged, and two high schools (English and classical).
At the head of the educational institutions there is a classical school endowed by Erasmus Smith.
STEPHAN BERGLER, German classical scholar, was born about 1680 at_Kronstadt in Transylvania.
p. 29: "Classical evidence points to the conclusion that in prehistoric ages ...
At the beginning of the reform period there had been much enthusiasm for scientific as opposed to classical education.
Russia required, it was said, not classical scholars, but practical, scientific men, capable of developing her natural resources.
The episcopal seminary on Castle Hill, called the " Seminario Episcopal de Sao Jose," founded in 1739 and devoted exclusively to the education of priests, is the best classical school in the city.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.