He wrote a large work on the Christian doctrine of justification and atonement, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and Versohnung, published during the years 1870-74, and in 1880-86 a history of pietism (Die Geschichte des Pietismus).
Ritschl, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and VersOhnung (3rd ed., 1889); Unterricht in der Christlichen Lehre (very many editions); and Theologie and Metaphysik (2nd ed., 1887), give his main position.
Helfferich, Die christliche Mystik (1842); L.
Noack, Die christliche Mystik des Mittelalters (1853); J.
Gorres, Die christliche Mystik (new ed., 18 791880); Rufus M.
Nitzsch, the Deutsche Zestschrift fur christliche Wissenschaft and christliches Leben.
His chief work, however, was Die christliche Lehre der Siinde (2 vols., 1839; 5th ed., 1867; Eng.
Abhandlungen (1870), and Das christliche Leben (3rd ed., 1847).
His chief works were Theologische Encykloptidie and Methodologie (1837) and Die christliche Ethik (1842, Eng.
His Christliche Dogmatik (3 vols., 1849-1852, new edition, 1870) "contains many fruitful and suggestive thoughts, which, however, are hidden under such a mass of bold figures and strange fancies, and suffer so much from want of clearness of presentation, that they did not produce any lasting effect" (Otto Pfleiderer).
in Die christliche Welt (Leipzig, autumn 1903), a profound criticism of M.
In 1906 appeared Die christliche Religion, mit Einschluss der israelitisch judischen Religion, in collaboration with A.
This, with other attempts to liberalize religion, brought him into conflict with the ecclesiastical authorities of Mecklenburg, and in 1858 he was deprived of his professorship. He then travelled throughout Germany, demanding justice, telling the story of his life (Christliche Selbstgesprdche, 1861), and lecturing on the life of Jesus (Die Geschichte Jesu.
trans., 1866; German by himself, 4th ed., 1897); Christliche Ethik (1871; Eng.
Schwegler (Der Montanismus and die christliche Kirche des 2ten Jahrhunderts, Tubingen, 1841).
Schweizer (Christliche Glaubenslehre nach prot.
Ritschl, Die christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and Versohnung (1870-1874); G.
He was followed by many disciples, among them Schroeckh (Christliche Kirchengeschichte, 1772 ff.
by Torrey), who wrote in a sympathetic spirit and with special stress upon the religious side of the subject, and has been followed by many disciples, for instance, Hagenbach, Schaff and Herzog; and Baur (Das Christenthum and die christliche Kirche, 1853 ff.), the most brilliant of all, whose many historical works were dominated by the principles of the Hegelian philosophy and evinced both the merits and defects of that school.
die christliche Kirche des 2ten Jahrhunderts (1841), in which he pointed out for the first time that Montanism was much more than an isolated outbreak of eccentric fanaticism in the early church, though he himself introduced fresh misconceptions by connecting it with Ebionitism as he conceived the latter.
In his Christliche Dogmatik (2 vols., 1858-1859) he argues that the record of revelation is human and was historically conditioned: it can never be absolutely perfect; and that inspiration, though originating directly with God, is continued through human instrumentality.
Uhlhorn, Die christliche Liebesthiitigkeit im Mittelalter (Stuttgart, 1884); articles in Herzog-Hauck's Realencyklopddie fiir protestantische Theologie, xi.
The most important of his works are: - Beitrage zur Einleitung in das Alte Testament (2 vols., 1806-1807); Kommentar fiber die Psalmen (181 I), which has passed through several editions, and is still regarded as of high authority; Lehrbuch der hebraisch jiidischen Archaologie (1814); Ober Religion and Theologie (1815); a work of great importance as showing its author's general theological position; Lehrbuch der christlichen Dogmatik (1813-1816); Lehrbuch der historisch-kritischen Einleitung in die Bibel (1817); Christliche Sittenlehre (1819-1821); Einleitung in das Neue Testament (1826); Religion, ihr Wesen, ihre Erscheinungsform, and ihr Einfluss auf das Leben (1827); Das Wesen des christlichen Glaubens (1846); and Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch zum Neuen Testament (1836-1848).
As a critic Ebrard occupied a very moderate standpoint; as a writer his chief works were Christliche Dogmatik (2 vols., 1851), Vorlesungen fiber praktische Theologie (1864), Apologetik (1874-1875, Eng.
Das manichdische Religionssystem appeared in 1831, Apollonius von Tyana in 1832, Die christliche Gnosis in 1835, and Ober das Christliche im Platonismus oder Socrates and Christus in 1837.
This was followed by his larger histories of dogma, Die christliche Lehre von der Versiihnung in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung bis auf die neueste Zeit (1838), Die christliche Lehre von der Dreieinigkeit and Menschwerdung Gottes in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung (3 vols., 1841-1843), and the Lehrbuch der christlichen Dogmengeschichte (1847).
The change is marked in his Epochen der kirchlichen Geschichtschreibung (1852), Das Christenthum and die christliche Kirche der drei ersten Jahrhunderte (1853), and Die christliche Kirche von Anfang des vierten bis zum Ende des sechsten Jahrhunderts (1859), works preparatory to his Kirchengeschichte, in which the change of view is specially pronounced.
Baur's lectures on the history of dogma, Ausfiihrlichere Vorlesungen fiber die christliche Dogmengeschichte, were published later by his son (1865-1868).
Besides the books mentioned under Mysticism, and those referred to under individual authors, Baur's Die christliche Gnosis in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung (1835) and Hamberger, Stimmen aus dem Heiligthum der christlichen Mystik and Theosophie (1857), may be mentioned.
trans., 1888, especially volumes 3 and 4); Newman Smyth, Old Faiths in New Lights (1879), Through Science to Faith (1902); Henry Drummond, The Ascent of Man (1894); William Ralph Inge, Christian Mysticism (Bampton Lectures, 1894); Wilhelm Herrmann, The Communion of the Christian with God (1895); George William Knox, Direct and Fundamental Proofs of the Christian Religion (1903); Albrecht Ritschl, Die christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and Versohnung (1900).
Schleiermacher, in his Kurze Darstellung des theologischen Studiums, and again in his great System, Der christliche Glaube.
The latter regarded dogmatic as stating in scientific connexion "the doctrine prevailing in a (single) Christian church at a given time" - as "not merely historical (geschichtlich)," but containing an "apologetic element" - as "not confined to the symbolical books, but" including all - even local expressions of the common faith which produce no breach of harmony - and as having for its "very business and task" to "purify and perfect" doctrine (Der christliche Glaube, § 19).
Under the leading of Hegel's distinction, between Vorstellung and Begriff, he had already conceived the idea of his two principal theological works - the Leben Jesu and the Christliche Dogmatik.
In 1840 and the following year he published his Christliche Glaubenslehre (2 vols.), the principle of which is that the history of Christian doctrines is their disintegration.
Zeller (1876-1878), without his Christliche Dogmatik.
Among the many modern accounts in church histories, histories of Christian literature, encyclopaedias, &c., may be mentioned a monograph by Stein, Eusebius Bischof von Caesarea (Wiirzburg, 1859), meagre but useful as far as it goes; the magnificent article by Lightfoot in the Dictionary of Christian Biography; the account by McGiffert in his translation of the Church History; Erwin Preuschen's article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklop. (3rd ed., 1898); the treatment of the Chronology of Eusebius writings in Harnack's Alt - christliche Litteraturgeschichte, ii.
Shedd, New York, 1857-1863), Allgemeine christliche Symbolik (1839).
His works include: Die christliche Lehre von der menschlichen Vollkommenheit (1882), Der Erfahrungsbeweis fur die Wahrheit des Christentums (1897), and Das Johannesevangelium (1900; Eng.
See Augusti, Christliche Archaologie, x.
So Ritschl, following Schleiermacher, Der Christliche Glaube, § 30.
But he grants that much may be said on both sides of that question, and in his own Glaubenslehre he follows ordinary usage and as far as possible banishes Ethics to a Christliche Sittenlehre, a book which has caused him to be regarded by Protestants as the founder of modern Christian Ethics.
1850), a charming production, which holds a place midway between his Reden and his great dogmatic work, Der christliche Glaube, and presents in the persons of its speakers phases of his growing appreciation of Christianity as well as the conflicting elements of the theology of the period.
At the same time he prepared for the press his chief theological work Der christliche Glaube nach den Grundseitzen der evangelischen Kirche (1821-1822; 2nd ed., greatly altered, 1830-1831; 6th ed., 1884).
But he prosecuted his translation of Plato and prepared a new and greatly altered edition of his Christliche Glaube, anticipating the latter in two letters to his friend Dicke (in the Studien and Kritiken, 1829), in which he defended with a masterly hand his theological position generally and his book in particular against opponents on the right and the left.
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