Conifers are scantily represented by Callitris and Podocarpus, which is common to all three sub-regions; and Cycads by the endemic Encephalartos and Stangeria.
That the domestic use, however, of the fragrant wood 660v (the Arbor vitae or Callitris quadrivalvis of botanists, the source of the resin sandarach) was known in the Homeric age, is shown by the case of Calypso (Od.
Dr John Lindley considered that some of the cedartrees sent by Hiram, king of Tyre, to Jerusalem might have been procured from Mount Atlas, and have been identical with Callitris quadrivalvis, or arar-tree, the wood of which is hard and durable, and was much in request in former times for the building of temples.
In the Mediterranean region occur Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus Pinea (stone pine), species of juniper, Cedrus atlantica, C. Libani, Callitris quadrivalvis, Pinus montana, &c. Several conifers of economic importance are abundant on the Atlantic side of North America - Juniperus virginiana (red cedar, used in the manufacture of lead pencils, and extending as far south as Florida), Taxodium distichum (swamp cypress), Pinus rigida (pitch pine), P. mitis (yellow pine), P. taeda,P. palustris, &c. On the west side of the American continent conifers play a still more striking role; among them are Chamaecyparis nutkaensis, Picea sitchensis, Libocedrus decurrens, Pseudotsuga Douglasii (Douglas fir), Sequoia sempervirens, S.
Cedrus atlantica, a variety of Abies Pinsapo, Juniperus thurifera, Callitris quadrivalvis, occur in the north-west region, which may be regarded as the southern limit of the Mediterranean region.
Callitris (2 species), Sequoia, Athrotaxis (?) Ginkgo, Podocarpus, Pinus; and several genera of palms, of which the tropical Nipa is the most abundant and most characteristic, among the others being fan-palms of the genera Sabal and Chamaerops.
Among its Gymnosperms are numerous Cupressineae of African affinity belonging to the genera Callitris and Widdringtonia, and a juniper close to one indigenous in Greece.
Aquatic plants, especially water-lilies, are abundant and varied; the soil-dry Callitris and Widdringtonia become scarce.
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