From Braun's Liturgische Gewandung.
The whole subject is exhaustively treated by Father Joseph Braun in Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907).
Braun suggested in 1898 that the oscillatory discharge of a Leyden jar should be sent through the primary coil of a transformer and the secondary coil should be interposed between the antenna and an earth connexion.'
Slaby and Braun were the most active.
Braun showed that oscillations suitable for the purposes of electric wave creation in wireless telegraphy could be set up in a circuit consisting of a Leyden jar or jars, a spark gap and an inductive circuit, and communicated to an antenna either by inductive or direct coupling (Brit.
When the methods for effecting this had been worked out practically it finally led to the inventions of Slaby, Braun and others being united into a system called the Telefunken system, which, as regards the transmitter, consisted in forming a closed oscillation circuit comprising a condenser, spark gap and inductance which at one point was attached either directly or through a condenser to the earth or to an equivalent balancing capacity, and at some other point to a suitably tuned antenna.
The inventions of Slaby, Braun and others were put into practice by a German wireless telegraph company, and very much work done in erecting land stations and equipping ships.
Braun also gave an interesting solution of the problem of directive telegraphy.'
Braun, Drahtlose Telegraphie durch Wasser and Luft (Leipzig, 1900); A.
Moissan, Comptes rendus, 1893, 116, p. 1225), or by the Goldschmidt method (Rosenheim and Braun, Zeit.
Haematococcus palustris, Girod (= Chlamydococcus, Braun, Protococcus, Cohn), one of the (Epistola ad Vincentium), who declared that the flagellants were showing a tendency to slight the sacramental confession and penance, were refusing to perform the cullus of the martyrs venerated by the church, and were even alleging their own superiority to the martyrs.
2 On the other hand, the Roman ordines of the 8th and 9th centuries make no mention of the mitre; the evidence goes to prove that this liturgical head-dress was first adopted by the popes some time in the 10th century; and Father Braun shows convincingly that it was in its origin nothing else than the papal regnum or phrygium which, originally worn only at outdoor processions and the like, was introduced into the church, and thus developed into the liturgical mitre, while outside it preserved its original significance as the papal 1 Father Braun, S.
Father Braun (Liturgische Gewandung, p. 457) gives a picture of a seal of Charles IV.
Mitres with horns on either side seem to have been worn till about the end of the 12th century, and Father Braun gives examples of their appearances on episcopal seals in France until far into the 13th.
the early example from the cathedral of Anagni, reproduced by Braun, p. 469).
The tradition of the mitre as an episcopal ornament has, nevertheless, been continuous in the Church of England, " and that on three lines: (i) heraldic usage; (2) its presence on the head of effigies of bishops, of which a number are extant, of the 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th centuries; (3) its presence in funeral processions, where 1 In Father Braun's opinion, expressed to the writer, this mitre, which was formerly at Sens, belongs probably to the 13th century.
Braun and reproduced from his Liturgische Gewandung by permission of B.
From a photograph by Father Joseph Braun, S.
Coptic priests and bishops wear the ballin, a long strip of stuff ornamented From Braun's Lit with crosses &c., and wound turban-wise gische Gewandung.
" Almucia"; Joseph Braun, Die liturgische Gewandung, p. 359, &c. (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907); also the bibliography to the article Vestments.
Braun and A.
- Diagram showing the arrangelength, and this is multiments of Hartmann and Braun's Hotplied and rendered evi- "'ire Ammeter.
Father Braun, to whose kindness the writer is indebted for the above account of the causes of the ritual changes in the Carolingian epoch, adds that the papacy was never narrowminded in its attitude towards local rites, and that it was not until the close of the middle ages, when diversity had become confusion and worse, that it began to insist upon uniformity.
See Braun, Liturg.
From Braun's Liturgische Gewandung, by permission of B.
A dignitary in 1 This is the view of Dr Adrian Fortescue (The Orthodox Eastern Church, p. 406); according to Braun (Lit.
The custom is very ancient, Father Braun giving evidence as to its existence at Rome as early as the 6th century (Liturg.
Father Braun (Die liturg.
Nor is the argument that they are a visible manifestation of the continuity of the Church anything but a doubleedged weapon; for, as Father Braun pertinently asks, if these be their symbolism, of what was their disuse in the Church of England for nigh on 3 00 years a symbol?
Braun, S.J., in his paper on liturgical dress in the Church of England, contributed to Stimmen aus Maria-Laach (1910, Heft 7, Freiburg-im-Breisgau).
A little instrument, supplied by Hartmann and Braun, contains a short length of fine bismuth wire wound into a flat double spiral, half an inch or thereabouts in diameter, and attached to a long ebonite handle.
Braun's article in Oriens christianus, i.
Braun and Hogenberg's map was published in 1572-1573, and the so-called Agas's map was probably produced soon afterwards, and was doubtless influenced by the publication of Braun and Hogenberg's excellent engraving; Norden's maps of London and Westminster are dated 1593.
(From Braun, in Bronn`s Klassen u.
The polyzoic view is ably championed by Braun (2) and (3).
- (I) Leuckart, The Parasites of Man (Edinburgh, 1886); (2) Braun, The Animal Parasites of Man (London, 1906); (3) Id., " Cestodes " in Braun's Klassen u.
Full references to further literature will be found in Braun's works.
Braun (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 35 8 3) has prepared pentamethylene derivatives from piperidine by the action of phosphorus pentachloride.
Braun, Naumburger Annalen vom Jahre 799 bis 1613 (Naumburg, 1892); Puttrich, Naumburg an der Saale, sein Dom and andre altertumliche Bauwerke (Leipzig, 1841 1843); and Wispel, Entwickelungsgeschichte der Stadt Naumburg an der Saale (Naumburg, 1903).
The anatomical structure of the Trematodes is fairly uniform (Braun).
The anatomy of Distomum hepaticum is fully described in many accessible memoirs [Sommer (io), Marshall and Hurst, Braun (3)].
Braun, "Trematodes," Klassen u.
Braun, Ber., 1888, 21, p. 19).
(Redrawn from Braun's Liturgische Gewandung.) FIG.
Braun, 1907); fiber das Verhiiltniss der bildenden Kiinste zu der Natur (Munich, 1807); Uber die Gottheiten von Samothrake (Stuttgart, 1815).
Otto Braun (1908), who also wrote Schellings geistige Wandlungen in den Jahren 1800-1810 (1906); Rosenkranz, Schelling (1843); L.
As illustrating this process Father Braun (p. 170) cites an interesting correspondence between Archbishop Lanfranc of Canterbury and John of Avranches, archbishop of Rouen, as to the propriety of a bishop wearing a chasuble at the consecration of a church, Lanfranc maintaining as an established principle that the vestment should be reserved for the Mass.
Sometimes the back of the chasuble has no cross, but only a vertical orphrey, and in this case the front, besides the vertical stripe, has a horizontal orphrey just below c d From Braun's Liturgische Gewandung, by permission of the publisher, B.
Father Braun, however, makes it quite clear that this was not the case, and gives proof that this decoration was not even originally conceived as a cross at all, citing early instances of its having been worn by laymen and even by non-Christians (p. 210).
There is some difference of opinion as to the derivation of the vestment in the latter case; the Five Bishops (Report to Convocation, 1908) deriving it, like the cope, from the birrus, while Father Braun considers it, as well as the cope, to be a modification of the paenula.'
Braun, S.J., Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907), pp. 1 492 47, and the bibliography to the article VESTMENTS.
In the Hartmann and Braun form of hot-wire voltmeter, the fine wire is fixed between two supports, and the expansion produced when a current is passed through it causes the wire to sag down, the sag being multiplied by a gear and made to move an indicating needle over a scale.
Eger was the birthplace of the novelist and playwright Braun von Braunthal (1802-1866).
(314-335), who ordered it to be worn by the deacons; but Braun (Liturg.
It is clear, then, that this vestment can only have been assumed with the emperor's permission; and Braun suggests (p. 305) that its use was granted to the patriarchs, after the completion of the schism of East and West, in order "in some sort to give them the character, in outward appearance as well, of popes of the East."
Braun (in Die liturgische Gewandung), by permission of B.
See Joseph Braun, S.J., Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907), pp. 2 47-3 0 5.
In Redrawn from Braun, Liturgische Gewandung.
The Latin word amictus was applied to any wrap-like garment, and, according to Father Braun, the liturgical amice originated in the ordinary neck-cloth worn by all classes of Romans.
The fanone was originally a cloth like the amice and was wrapped round neck and From Braun, Liturgische Gewandung.
See Joseph Braun, S.
Braun, Lessing im Urteile seiner Zeitgenossen (2 vols., 1884); P. Albrecht, Lessings Plagiate (6 vols., 1890 ff.); K.
(From a photograph by Father Joseph Braun, S.
Braun (reproduced in Die liturgische Gewandung).
Braun, Schiller im Urteile seiner Zeitgenossen (3 vols., 1882); J.
Braun, Goethe im Urteile seiner Zeitgenossen (3 vols., 1883-1885); T.
His Christkatholische Dogmatik was published, from his lectures, after his death by two of his students, Achterfeld and Braun (3 vols., 1831-1834).
The other leading verse-writers were Karl Vilhelm Bottiger (1807-1878), the son-in-law and biographer of Tegner, who, in addition to his lyrical poetry, chiefly of the sentimental kind, wrote an admirable series of monographs on Swedish men of letters; Johan Borjesson (1790-1866), the last of the Phosphorists, author of various romantic dramas; Vilhelm August Detlof von Braun (1813-1860), a humorous lyrist; " Talis Qualis," whose real name was Karl Vilhelm August Strandberg (1818-1877); Oscar Patrick Sturzen-Becker (181'- 1869), better known as " Orvar Odd," a lyrical poet who was also the author of a series of amusing sketches of everyday life; and August Teodor Blanche (1811-1868), the popular dramatist.
Braun (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 2915) showed that benzoyl piperidine, when heated with phosphorus pentachloride to 200° C. in sealed tubes, yields benzonitrile, and pentamethylene dichloride, thus leading to a simple method of preparing pentamethylene compounds.
Braun, Liturgische Gewandung, p. 453).
Before this the so-called cappa choralis, a black, bell-shaped, hooded vestment with no liturgical significance, had been worn by the secular and regular clergy at choir services, processions, &c. This was in its origin identical with the chasuble, and if, as Father Braun seems to prove, the cope developed out of this, cope and chasuble have a common source.'
Father Braun cites numerous inventories and the like to show that the cope (pluviale) was originally no more than a more elaborate cappa worn on high festivals or other ceremonial occasions, sometimes by the whole religious community, sometimes - if the stock were limited - by those, e.g.
von Braun, Erinnerungsbleitter aus der Geschichte Altenburgs 1525-1826 (Altenburg, 1876); Mdlzer, Die Landwirtschaft im Herzogtum Altenburg (Stuttgart, 1907); Albrecht, Das Domanenwesen im Herzogtum Saxe-Altenburg (Jena, 1905); and E.
Braun (Liturgische Gewandung, p. 513) thinks that the symbolism of the cross may have had some influence in fixing and propagating the square shape, and he quotes a decree of the synod of Aix (1585) ordering the J g h clergy to wear a biretta sewn in the form of a cross (biretum in modum crucis consuturn, ut ecclesiasticos homines decet).
Braun, S.J., Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg-i-B., 1907); Hierurgica Anglicana, part ii.
Braun devised a form of cathode ray tube, consisting of a vacuum tube having a narrow tubular portion and a bulbous end.
If this patch is also given a displacement in the direction of right angles by examining it in a steadily vibrating mirror, we see a wavy or oscillatory line of light which is an optical representation of the wave form of a current in the coils embracing the Braun tube.
(London, 1901), which contains a list of original papers on the oscillograph; Id., The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy (London, 1906), which gives illustrations of the use of the oscillograph and the Braun cathode ray tube in depicting condenser discharges; also, for the development of the oscillograph, A.
Murdock, " On some Applications of the Braun Cathode Ray Tube," Electrician (1905), 55.335.
conidiumgh our specimen had smaller conidia it was otherwise identical to Braun's description.
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Despite missing two of the first 10 races, Braun currently ranks sixth in the Daytona Prototype championship standings.
But as late as the 9th and 10th centuries the alba is still an everyday as well as a liturgical garment, and we find bishops and synods forbidding priests to sing mass in the alba worn by them in ordinary life (see Braun, p. 62).
Braun, The Electrician, May 25 and June I, 1906.
Father Braun suggests that its assumption by the Greek patriarch was connected with the changes due to the capture of Constantinople by the Turks.
Braun, S.J., Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg-imBreisgau, 1907), pp. 4 2 4-49 8.
- All previous works on vestments have been largely superseded by Father Joseph Braun's Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1907), a monument of careful and painstaking research, profusely illustrated.
Mag., 1894, 38, 488) used a little spiral of the pure electrolytic bismuth wire prepared by Hartmann and Braun; this was placed between the pole-pieces of an electromagnet and subjected to fields of various strengths up to nearly 39,000 units.
P.) 1 The writer is indebted to the courtesy of Father Braun for the following note: - "That the Syrian phaina was formerly a closed mantle of the type of the bell chasuble is clearly proved by the evidence of the miniatures of a Syrian pontifical (dated 1239) in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris (cf.
How far, however, this rule was strictly observed, and what was the relation of the Roman dalmatic to the diaconal alba and subdiaconal tunica, which were in liturgical use in Gaul and Spain so early as the 6th century, are moot points (see Braun, p. 252).
Braun (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 2915) showed that benzoyl piperidine, when heated with phosphorus pentachloride to 200Ã‚° C. in sealed tubes, yields benzonitrile, and pentamethylene dichloride, thus leading to a simple method of preparing pentamethylene compounds.
His management company The Raymond Braun Media Group, which he runs with Scooter Braun, counts Justin Bieber among its clients.
Braun, Mary Beth, et al. Introduction to Massage Therapy.
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Tamara Braun and Thaao Penghlis also did turns on General Hospital albeit many years apart with Braun playing the second Carly Corinthos and Penghlis playing a member of the Cassidine clan.
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Scooter Braun, a former So So Def Records executive, stumbled across Bieber on YouTube.
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Lounge Lizard President Ken Braun sits down with LoveToKnow Web-Design to describe the many aspects and demands of running a popular, successful web design company.
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