Arabs sentence examples

  • His poetry is entirely Sufic, and he was esteemed the greatest mystic poet of the Arabs.

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  • Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs (London, 1907), pp. 394-39 8.

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  • Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.

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  • It is now known, however, that they were true Arabs - as the proper names on their inscriptions show - who had come under Aramaic influence.

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  • During the latter Sassanids it is seldom mentioned, and when the Arabs came to Khorasan (641-642) it was of so little importance that, as Tabari relates, it did not even have a garrison.

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  • Persians and Arabs told the 1 Nativitas et victoriae Alexandri magni regis was the original title.

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  • The Arabs endeavoured to induce Geronimo to renounce Christianity, but as he steadfastly refused to do so he was condemned to death.

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  • The cultivation of oranges, lemons and their congeners (collectively designated in Italian by the term agrumi) is of comparatively modern date, the introduction of the Citrus Bigarcidia being probably due to the Arabs.

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  • But it seems possible that the tradition of marine nomenclature had never perished; that the 'AyaOov SaL�ovos vijvos was really a misunderstanding of some form like Agdaman, while Ni crot Bapouavac survived as Lanka Balus, the name applied by the Arabs to the Nicobars.

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  • 150) concentrated in his writings the final outcome of all Greek geographical learning, and passed it across the gulf of the middle ages by the hands of the Arabs, Ptolemy.

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  • From the 8th to the 11th century a commercial route from India passed through Novgorod to the Baltic, and Arabian coins found in Sweden, and particularly in the island of Gotland, prove how closely the enterprise of the Northmen and of the Arabs intertwined.

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  • As a specific for gout colchicum was early employed by the Arabs; and the preparation known as eau medicinale, much resorted to in the 18th century for the cure of gout, owes its therapeutic virtues to colchicum; but general attention was first directed by Sir Everard Home to the use of the drug in gout.

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  • Anciently the country on both sides of the Euphrates was habitable as far as the river Khabur; at the present time it is all desert from Birejik downward, the camping ground of Bedouin Arabs, the great tribe of Anazeh occupying esh-Sham, the right bank, and the Shammar the left bank, Mesopotamia of the Romans, now called elJezireh or the island.

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  • To these the semi-sedentary Arabs who sparsely cultivate the river valley, dwelling sometimes in huts, sometimes in caves, pay a tribute, called kubbe, or brotherhood, as do also the riverain towns and villages, except perhaps the very largest.

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  • The first of these canals, taken off on the right bank of the river a little below Hit, followed the extreme skirt of the alluvium the whole way to the Persian Gulf near Basra, and thus formed an outer barrier, strengthened at intervals with watch-towers and fortified posts, to protect the cultivated land of the Sawad against the incursions of the desert Arabs.

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  • In the time of the Arabs these were the chief canals, and the cuts from the main channels of the Nahr `Isa, Nahr Sarsar, Nahr Malk (or Nahr Malcha), and Nahr Kutha, reticulating the entire country between the rivers, converted it into a continuous and luxuriant garden.

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  • Under the Arabs the old designation again prevailed and the Euphrates is always described by the Arabian geographers as the river which flows direct to Kufa, while the present stream, passing along the ruins of Babylon to Hillah and Diwanieh, has been universally known as the Nahr Sura.

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  • Below the bifurcation the river of Babylon was again divided into several streams, and indeed the most famous of all the ancient canals was the Arakhat (Archous of the Greeks and Serrat and Nil of the Arabs), which left that river just above Babylon and ran due east to the Tigris, irrigating all the central part of the Jezireh, and sending down a branch through Nippur and Erech to rejoin the Euphrates a little above the modern Nasrieh.

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  • From this point downward, and to some extent above this as far as Samawa, the river forms a succession of reedy lagoons of the most hopeless character, the Paludes Chaldaici of antiquity, el Batihat of the Arabs.

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  • In this vicinity was situated, at the time of the Christian era, the Parthian city of Spasini-Charax, which was succeeded by Bahman Ardashir (Bamishir) under the Sassanians, and by Moharzi under the Arabs.

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  • This ancient system of canalization was inherited from the Persians (who, in turn, inherited it from their predecessors), by the Arabs, who long maintained it in working order, and the astonishing fertility and consequent prosperity of the country watered by the Euphrates, its tributaries and its canals, is noticed by all ancient writers.

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  • They were almost as little entitled to be called pure Scandinavians as the Saracens whom they found in the island were entitled to be called pure Arabs.

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  • We speak of the Saracen very much as we speak of the Norman; for of the Mussulman masters of Sicily very many must have been only artificial Arabs, Africans who had adopted the creed, language and manners of Arabia.

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  • there was a considerable emigration of Arabs into the country.

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  • of Canaan) stood in awe of the demons (Jinn) of the desert, just as the Arabs at the present day described in Doughty's Arabia deserta.

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  • It contains a mass of information as to the life and customs of the early Arabs, and is the most valuable authority we have for their pre-Islamic and early Moslem days.

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  • Ockley's book on the Saracens " first opened his eyes " to the striking career of Mahomet and his hordes; and with his characteristic ardour of literary research, after exhausting all that could be learned in English of the Arabs and Persians, the Tatars and Turks, he forthwith plunged into the French of D'Herbelot, and the Latin of Pocock's version of Abulfaragius, sometimes understanding them, but oftener only guessing their meaning.

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  • A portion of it, containing an elaborate survey of astronomy as known to the Arabs, was translated into Latin in 1342 at the request of Clement VI.

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  • A defensive coalition was formed in which the kings of Cilicia, Hamath, the Phoenician coast, Damascus and Ammon, the Arabs of the Syrian desert, and " Ahabbu Sinai " were concerned.

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  • The desert peoples who paid tribute on this occasion still continued restless, and in 715 Sargon removed men of Tamud, Ibadid, Marsiman, I;Iayapa, " the remote Arabs of the desert," and placed them in the land of Beth-Omri.

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  • In fear of reprisals Antipas (or Antipater), the Idumaean, his counsellor, played on the fears of Hyrcanus and persuaded him to buy the aid of the Nabataean Arabs with promises.

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  • But, when Pompey himself arrived at Damascus, Antipater, who pulled the strings and exploited the claims of Hyrcanus, realized that Rome and not the Arabs, who were cowed by the threats of Scaurus, was the ruler of the East.

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  • He carried with him the Arabs and the princes of Syria, and through Hyrcanus he was able to transform the hostility of the Egyptian Jews into active friendliness.

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  • Musta`riba], a general term for persons not Arab by race who have assimilated themselves to the Arabs.

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  • As they are now known to us, they have undergone a process of partial civilization, first at the hands of the Brahminical Indians, from whom they borrowed a religion, and to some extent literature and an alphabet, and subsequently from intercourse with the Arabs, which has led to the adoption of Mahommedanism by most of them.

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  • In later centuries the Arabs from the west reached the valley of the Indus by their western route, and there established a dynasty which lasted for 300 years.

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  • As early as 712 the Arabs conquered Sind, and by the end of the 11th century the whole of northern India was in Moslem hands.

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  • - The Israelites appear to have been originally a nomadic tribe akin to the Arabs, whom they resemble in their want of political instinct and in their extraordinary religious genius.

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  • Arabs.

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  • - The Arabs have hardly any history before the rise of Islam, although their name is mentioned by surrounding nations from the 9th century B.C. onwards.

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  • With the rise of Mahommedanism occurred a sudden effervescence of the Arabs, who during some centuries threatened to impose not only their political authority but their civilization and new religion on the whole known world.

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  • The collapse of the political power of the Arabs was singularly complete.

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  • It is still one of the least known parts of the globe, and has hardly any political link with the outside, for the Arabs of northern Africa form separate states.

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  • Mathematics were cultivated by the Chinese, Indians and Arabs, but nearly all the sciences based on the observation of nature, including medicine, have remained in a very backward condition.

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  • Much the same, however, might have been said of Europe until two centuries ago, and the scientific knowledge of the Arabs under the earlier Caliphates was equal or superior to that of any of their contemporaries.

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  • Islam has twice obtained a footing in Europe, under the Arabs in Spain and under the Turks at Constantinople.

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  • The Turks, and to some extent the Arabs in Spain, were successful because they first conquered the parts of Asia and Africa adjoining Europe, so that the final invaders were in touch with Asiatic settlements.

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  • He was the youngest of eight sons,' and spent his youth in an occupation which the Hebrews as well as the Arabs seem to have held in low esteem.

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  • BAGGARA (" Cowherds"), African "Arabs" of Semitic origin, so called because they are great cattle owners and breeders.

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  • They are true nomad Arabs, having intermarried little with the Nuba, and have preserved most of their national characteristics.

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  • The missing books were apparently lost early, for there is no reason to suppose that the Arabs who translated or commented on Diophantus ever had access to more of the work than we now have.

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  • The inhabitants of the Kura valley consist principally of Iranian Tates and Talyshes, of Armenians and Lesghians, with Russians, Jews and Arabs.

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  • 4, and in the native inscriptions, it is called Tadmor, and this is the name by which it is known among the Arabs at the present day (Tadmur, Tudmur).

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  • There is reason to believe that before the 6th century B.C. the caravans reached Damascus without coming near the oasis of Tadmor; probably, therefore, we may connect the origin of the city with the gradual forward movement of the nomad Arabs which followed on the overthrow of the ancient nationalities of Syria by the Babylonian Empire (6th century B.C.).

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  • An Arabian merchant city is thus necessarily aristocratic, and its chiefs can hardly be other than pure Arabs of good blood.

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  • (q.v.), and Allath, the chief goddess of the ancient Arabs, were also worshipped at Palmyra.

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  • The ruins of Palmyra greatly interested the Arabs, and are commemorated in several poems quoted by Yaqut and others; they are referred to by the early poet Nabigha as proofs of the might of Solomon and his sovereignty over their builders the Jinn (Derenbourg, Journ.

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  • Nisibis early became the seat of a Jacobite bishop and of a Nestorian metropolitan, and under the Arabs (when it continued to flourish and became the centre of the district of Diya`r Rebi`a) the population of the town and neighbourhood was still mostly Christian, and included numerous monasteries.

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  • Sicily was still more the meeting-place of East and West than the kingdom of Jerusalem; and the Arabs of Spain gave more to the culture of Europe than the Arabs of Syria.

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  • Without being intolerant, the Turks were a rougher and ruder race than the Arabs of Egypt whom they displaced; while the wars between the Fatimites of Egypt and the Abbasids of Bagdad, whose cause was represented by the Seljuks, made Syria (one of the natural battle-grounds of history) into a troubled and unquiet region.

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  • The Arabs had begun the conquest of Sicily from the East Roman empire in 827, and they had attacked the mainland of Italy as early as 840.

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  • about 1016; and, in a thirty years' war which lasted from 1060 to 1090, the Normans, under a banner blessed by Pope Alexander II., wrested Sicily from the Arabs.

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  • Along with this paid cavalry went another branch of the army, the Turcopuli, a body of light cavalry, recruited from the Syrians and Mahommedans, and using the tactics of the Arabs; while an infantry was found among the Armenians, the best soldiers of the East, and the Maronites, who furnished the kingdom with archers.

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  • To the crusading king of I The manorial system in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem was a continuation of the village system as it had existed under the Arabs.

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  • He depreciates unduly the Western civilization of the early middle ages, and exalts the civilization of the Arabs; and starting from these two premises, he concludes that modern civilization is the offspring of the Crusades, which first brought East and West together.

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  • The common use of armorial bearings, and the practice of the tournament, may be Oriental in their origin; the latter has its affinities with the equestrian exercises of the Jerid, and the former, though of prehistoric antiquity, may have received a new impulse from contact with the Arabs.

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  • The pointed arch owes nothing to the Arabs; it is already used in England in early Norman work.

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  • received an impulse, largely, it is true, from the Arabs of Spain, but also from the East; Leonardo Fibonacci, the first Christian algebraist, had travelled in Syria and Egypt.

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  • Side by side with Beha-ud-din's life of Saladin, Ibn Athir's work is the most considerable historical record written by the Arabs.

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  • In the steppe-land and in the southern trans-Jordanic districts are numbers of true Arabs, mostly belonging to the great Anazeh family, which has been coming northwards from Nejd in detachments since the 13th century.

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  • In many cases it is obvious that the political antipathy of the natives to the Arabs has found expression in the formation of such sects.

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  • But considerable success has been achieved in inducing the Syrian Arabs to settle and in supplying a counteracting influence to their unrest by the establishment of agricultural colonies, e.g.

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  • Over against its want of originality must be set the fact, not merely that Syrian culture ultimately spread extensively towards the West, but that the Syrians (as is shown by the inscriptions of Teima, &c.) long before the Christian era exercised over the northern Arabs a perceptible influence which afterwards, about the beginning of the r st century, became much stronger through the kingdom of the Nabataeans.

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  • The art of writing was, derived by the Arabs from the Syrians.

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  • Under the early caliphs the Arabs divided Syria into the following military districts (gonds).

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  • Rodrigo Diaz, called de Bivar, from the place of his birth, better known by the title given him by the Arabs as the Cid (El Seid, the lord), and El Campeador, the champion par excellence, was of a noble family, one of whose members in a former generation had been elected judge of Castile.

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  • On the fall of Abu Abdallah Ibn Khaldun raised a large force amongst the desert Arabs, and entered the service of the sultan of Tlemcen.

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  • The great work by which he is known is a "Universal History," but it deals more particularly with the history of the Arabs of Spain and Africa.

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  • Its Arabic title is Kitab ul'Ibar, wa diwan el Mubtada wa'l Khabar, fi ayyamul`Arab wa'l`Ajam wa'l Berber; that is, "The Book of Examples and the Collection of Origins and Information respecting the History of the Arabs, Foreigners and Berbers."

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  • of the history of the Arabs and other peoples from the remotest antiquity until the author's own times; book iii.

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  • But the Arabs did not acquire their knowledge of this literature at first hand.

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  • The earliest Hellenic culture in the East was Syrian, and the Arabs made their first acquaintance with Greek chemistry, as with Greek philosophy, mathematics, medicine, &c., by the intermediary of Syriac translations.

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  • With the spread of their empire to Spain the Arabs took with them their knowledge of Greek medicine and science, including alchemy, and thence it passed, strengthened by the infusion of a certain Jewish element, to the nations of western Europe, through the medium of Latin translations.

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  • If this view be accepted, an entirely new light is thrown on the achievements of the Arabs in the history of chemistry.

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  • 1 But the chemical knowledge attributed to the Arabs has been so attributed largely on the basis of the contents of the Latin Geber, regarded as a translation from the Arabic Jaber.

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  • If, then, those contents do not represent the knowledge of Jaber, and if the contents of other Latin translations which there is reason to believe are really made from the Arabic, show little, if any, advance on the knowledge of the Alexandrian Greeks, evidently the part played by the Arabs must be less, and that of the Westerns greater, than Gibbon is prepared to admit.

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  • The chemical knowledge of Egyptian metallurgists and jewellers, he holds, was early transmitted to the artisans of Rome, and was preserved throughout the dark ages in the workshops of Italy and France until about the 13th century, when it was mingled with the theories of the Greek alchemists which reached the West by way of the Arabs.

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  • The fundamental theory of the transmutation of metals is to be found in the Greek alchemists, although in details it was modified and elaborated by the Arabs and the Latin alchemists.

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  • Immediately after his accession, while he was engaged in a campaign against the Arabs, his brother-in-law, an Armenian named Artavasdus, a supporter of the image-worshippers, had been proclaimed emperor, and it was not till the end of 743 that Constantine re-entered Constantinople.

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  • against the Arabs, Sla y s and Bulgarians.

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  • pp. 9311 3 (against his theory of the introduction of Baal among the Arabs see, M.

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  • Pippin took Septimania from the Arabs, and after a stubborn war of nearly eight years' duration (760-68) succeeded in taking Aquitaine from its duke, Waifer.

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  • If he said so, he was speaking of the Ptolemaic cosmogony as known to him through the Arabs, and his vaunt was a humorous proof of his scientific instinct.

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  • Fighting with the Arabs followed, and in 1889 the company handed over their settlement to the German imperial government.

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  • Although the conquest of Persia by the Arabs took place in A.D.

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  • From the Alexandrians the science passed to the Arabs, who made discoveries and improved various methods of separating substances, and afterwards, from the 11th century, became seated in Europe, where the alchemical doctrines were assiduously studied until the 15th and 16th centuries.

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  • The subjugation of such districts could only be by a system of effective military occupation and would be a work of time; but Alexander made a beginning by punitive expeditions, as occasion offered, calculated to reduce the free tribes to temporary quiet; we hear of such expeditions in the case of the Pisidians, the tribes of the Lebanon, the Uxii (in Khuzistan), the Tapyri (in the Elburz), the hill-peoples of Bajaor and Swat, the Cossaei (in Kurdistan); an expedition against the Arabs was in preparation when Alexander died.

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  • Therefore the Arabs designate the whole complex of towns which lay together around Seleucia and Ctesiphon and formed the residence of the Sassanids by the name Madain, "the cities," - their number is often given as seven.

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  • Indian astrono mers found apt pupils there among the Arabs; the works of 1 R.

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  • The charts in use of the medieval navigators of the Indian Ocean - Arabs, Persians or Dravidas - were equal in value if not superior to the charts of the Mediterranean.

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  • A first meridian, separating a leeward from a windward region, passed through Ras Kumhari (Comorin) and was thus nearly identical with the first meridian of the Indian astronomers which passed through the sacred city of Ujjain (Ozere of Ptolemy) or the meridian of Azin of the Arabs.

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  • But these intruders seem to have been successively absorbed in the Somali stock; and the Arabs never succeeded in establishing permanent communities in this region.

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  • Many of these ruins are attributable to the Arabs, but older remains are traditionally ascribed to a people who were " before the Galla."

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  • There is also a profitable shark fishery in the hands of Arabs.

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  • This mullah, Mahommed bin Abdullah by name, had made several pilgrimages to Mecca, where he had attached himself to a sect which enjoined strict observance of the tenets of Islam and placed an interdiction on the use of the leaves of the kat plant - much sought after by the coast Arabs and Somali for their stimulating and intoxicating properties.

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  • There are a number of Arabs, Abyssinians, Indians, and about 2000 Europeans and Levantines.

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  • Lambert (who was assassinated by Arabs, June 1859) had the support of his government, which viewed with alarm the establishment (1857) of the British on Perim Island, at the entrance to the Red Sea.

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  • The story of the destruction of the library by the Arabs is first told by Bar-hebraeus (Abulfaragius), a Christian writer who lived six centuries later; and it is of very doubtful authority.

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  • Papyrus was cultivated and manufactured for writing material by the Arabs in Egypt down to the time when the growing industry of paper in the 8th and 9th centuries rendered it no longer a necessity.

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  • 16, and of the modern Arabs.

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  • Of the Semitic races the Arabs - over whom, however, the Turkish rule is little more than nominal - number scme 7 millions, and in addition to about 300,000 Jews there is a large number of Syrians.

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  • A large part of the foreign trade is in their hands, and at the season of the sheep-shearing their agents and representatives are found everywhere among the Bedouins and Madan Arabs of the interior, purchasing the wool and selling various commodities in return.

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  • After this time the city disappears from history; and, whether or not its ruin was caused by the Arabs, they seem to have made no settlement there.

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  • The Lake Of Bizerta, called Tinja by the Arabs, abounds in excellent fish, especially mullets, the dried roe of which, called botargo, is largely exported, and the fishing industry employs a large proportion of the inhabitants.

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  • The town became a Roman colony, and was conquered by the Arabs in the 7th century.

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  • In 647 the Arabs penetrated into Ifrikia, which was destined to fall for ever out of the grasp of the Romans.

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  • From this city as their base the Arabs, under Kotaiba (Qotaiba) ibn Moslim, early in the 8th century brought under subjection Balkh, Bokhara, Ferghana and Kashgaria, and penetrated into China as far as the province of Kan-suh.

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  • It is an important centre for the control of the Bedouin Arabs, and has a garrison of about 1000 troops, including a special corps of mule-riders.

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  • Many sanguinary broils now ensued, in the course of which Jugjevan was murdered, and the executive authority was much weakened by the usurpations of the Arabs and other chiefs.

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  • The islands were already known to the Arabs, from whom they get their name.

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  • The bulk of the inhabitants are Hallenga "Arabs."

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  • The doctrines and the works the works of Aristotle had been transmitted by the of Aris- Nestorians to the Arabs, and among those kept alive by a tole.

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  • The inhabitants are of two distinct tribes, one, the Aduan, of Berber stock, the other a branch of the Sha'ambah Arabs.

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  • The Arabs became the custodians of Indian and Greek science, whilst Europe was rent by internal dissensions.

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  • Under the rule of the Abbasids, Bagdad became the centre of scientific thought; physicians and astronomers from India and Syria flocked to their court; Greek and Indian manuscripts were translated (a work commenced by the Caliph Mamun (813-833) and ably continued by his successors); and in about a century the Arabs were placed in possession of the vast stores of Greek and Indian learning.

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  • Although the foundations of the geometrical resolution of cubic equations are to be ascribed to the Greeks (for Eutocius assigns to Menaechmus two methods of solving the equation x 3 = a and x 3 = 2a 3), yet the subsequent development by the Arabs must be regarded as one of their most important achievements.

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  • The Greeks had succeeded in solving an isolated example; the Arabs accomplished the general solution of numerical equations.

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  • Turning to the Arabs in the West we find the same enlightened spirit; Cordova, the capital of the Moorish empire in Spain, was as much a centre of learning as Bagdad.

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  • Badakshan proper is peopled by Tajiks, Turks and Arabs, who speak the Persian and Turki languages, and profess the orthodox doctrines of the Mahommedan law adopted by the Sunnite sect; while the mountainous districts are inhabited by Tajiks, professing the Shiite creed and speaking distinct dialects in different districts.

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  • This was notably the case with some of the Aristotelian writings, so that in this field, as in some others, the Syriac writers handed on the torch of Greek thought to the Arabs, by whom it was in turn transmitted to medieval Europe.

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  • - Here we may first mention George, Bishop of the Arabs (f724), who wrote commentaries on Scripture, and tracts and homilies on church sacraments, and finished the Hexaemeron of Jacob of Edessa.

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  • It must be remembered that the Arabs, who inhabit an extremely hot country, are very fully clothed, while the Fuegians at the extremity, of Cape Horn, exposed to all the rigours of an antarctic climate, have, as sole protection, a skin attached to the body by cords, so that it can be shifted to either side according to the direction of the wind.

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  • 69) the Arabs under Xerxes wore a long cloak fastened by a girdle.

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  • a long plaited lock (or later a lappet) on the side of their head in imitation of the youthful Horus, and the peculiar tonsure adopted by the later Arabs of Sinai was inspired by the desire to copy their god Orotal-Dionysus.'

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  • The Bishop Gregentius denounced as heathenish the rites in which the Arabs wore masks (W.

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  • It was cultivated by the Arabs in Spain about 961, and is mentioned in an English leechbook of the 10th century, but seems to have disappeared from western Europe till reintroduced by the crusaders.

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  • But Constantine, exhausted by the war with the Arabs, was unable to prevent the Bulgars, a tribe of Finno-Ugrian race, from crossing the Danube and settling in the district where their name still survives.

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  • The tribute paid by the Arabs was used to purchase the good will of the new settlers.

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  • They are traversed by the Anapus, with its tributary the Cyane, the latter famous for the papyrus planted by the Arabs, which here alone in Europe grows wild in the stream.

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  • When the Arabs possessed themselves of the scattered remains of Greek culture, the works of Galen were more highly esteemed than any others except those of Aristotle.

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  • Through the Arabs the Galenical system found its way back again to western Europe.

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  • Another work, on obstetrics, now lost, was equally famous, and procured for him, among the Arabs, the name of "the Obstetrician."

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  • At the same time the Arabs became acquainted with Indian medicine, and Indian physicians lived at the court of Bagdad.

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  • He was the first of the Arabs to treat medicine in a comprehensive and encyclopaedic, manner, surpassing probably in voluminousness Galen himself, though but a small proportion of his works are extant.

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  • The Latin medical writers were necessarily unknown to the Arabs; and this was partly the cause that even in Europe Galenic medicine assumed such a preponderance, the methodic school and Celsus being forgotten or neglected.

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  • By their relations with the farther East, the Arabs became acquainted with valuable new remedies which have held their ground till modern times; and their skill in chemistry enabled them to prepare new chemical remedies, and form many combinations of those already in use.

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  • After this time the foreign influence predominated; and by the time that the Aristotelian dialectic, in the introduction of which the Arabs had so large a share, prevailed in the schools of Europe, the Arabian version of Greek medicine reigned supreme in the medical world.

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  • 97) states that the Arabs brought every year to Darius as tribute woo talents of frankincense.

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  • Another work was a commentary on Euclid (referred to by the Arabs as" the book of the resolution of doubts in Euclid ") from which quotations have survived in an-Nairizi's commentary.

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  • This main northern feeder passes through the country of the Homr Arabs and Bahr-el-Homr may be adopted as its name.

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  • In the 7th century it was invaded by the Arabs, who held the country until it was reoccupied by Nicephorus II.

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  • The sugar-cane was introduced by the Arabs in the middle ages into Egypt, Sicily and the south of Spain where it flourished until the abundance of sugar in the colonies caused its cultivation to be abandoned.

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  • At Gunde-Shapur in this region " sugar was prepared with art " about the time of the Arab conquest, 3 and manufacture on a large scale was carried on at Shuster, Sus and Askar-Mokram throughout the middle ages.4 It has been plausibly conjectured that the art of sugar refining, which the farther East learned from the Arabs, was developed by the famous physicians of this region, in whose pharmacopoeia sugar had an important place.

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  • Under the Arabs the growth and manufacture of the cane spread far and wide, from India to Sus in Morocco (Edrisi, ed.

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  • The larger antelopes, so common on the African side of the Gulf of Aden, are not found, except one variety, the Oryx beatrix (called by the Arabs, wild cow), which is an inhabitant of the Nafud between Tema and Hail; it is about the size of a donkey, white, and with long straight horns.

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  • The great majority of the horses that come into the market as Arabs, are bred in the northern desert and in Mesopotamia, by the various sections of the Aneza and Shammar tribes, who emigrated from Nejd generations ago, taking with them the original Nejd stock.

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  • The great wealth of the Arabs is in their flocks of sheep and goats; they are led out to pasture soon after sunrise, and in the hotter months drink every second day.

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  • The people, according to their own traditions, are derived from two stocks, the pure Arabs, descended from Kahtan or Joktan, fourth in descent from Shem; and the Mustarab or naturalized Arabs, from Ishmael.

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  • In the desert, too, there is a widely scattered tribe, the Salubi, which from its name (Salib, cross) is conjectured to be of early Christian origin; they are great hunters, killing ostriches and gazelles; the Arabs despise them as an inferior race, but do not harm them; they pay a small tax to the tribe under whose protection they live, and render service as labourers, for which they receive in the spring milk and cheese; at the date harvest they get wages in kind; with this, and the produce of the chase, they manage to exist in the desert without agriculture or flocks.

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  • From the earliest times the conservation of water has been one of the serious cares of the Arabs.

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  • Of all these stories current at the time of Mahomet, the only ones of any value are the accounts of the " days of the Arabs," i.e.

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  • The Old Testament references to Arabs were obscure.

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  • The inhabitants of this land are said in Tabari's history to have been of three classes: - (s) The Tanukh (Tnuhs), who lived in tents and were made up of Arabs from the Tehama and Nejd, who had united in Bahrein to form a new tribe, and who migrated from there to Hira, probably at the beginning or middle of the 3rd century A.D., when the Arsacid power was growing weak.

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  • In the following year, according to Procopius, Justinian perceived the value of the Ghassanids as an outpost of the Roman empire, and as opponents of the Persian dependants of Hira, and recognized Harith as king of the Arabs and patrician of the Roman empire.

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  • In Oman the Arabs, who were chiefly engaged in fishing and seafaring, were Azdites mixed with Persians.

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  • Byzantium); others as in the Hejaz were ruled in smaller communities by members of leading families, while in various parts of the peninsula were wandering Arabs still maintaining the traditions of old family and tribal rule, forming no state, sometimes passing, as suited them, under the influence and protection of one or another of the greater powers.

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  • To these may be added a certain number of Jewish tribes and families deriving their origin partly from migrations from Palestine, partly from converts among the Arabs themselves.

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  • Though the external conquests of the Arabs belong more properly to the period of the caliphate, yet they were the natural outcome of the prophet's ideas.

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  • The capture of Mecca (630) was not only an evidence of his growing power, which induced Arabs throughout the peninsula to join him, but gave him a valuable centre of pilgrimage, in which he was able by a politic adoption of some of the heathen Arabian ceremonies into his own rites to win men over the more easily to his own cause.

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  • It is true that rival prophets were leading rebellions in various parts of Arabia, that the tax-collectors were not always paid, and that the warriors of the land were much distressed for want of work owing to the brotherhood of Arabs proclaimed by Mahomet.

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  • In the same year Damascus fell into the hands of the Arabs under Abu `Ubaida.

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  • (During these early years the Arabs had not only made conquests by land, but had found an outlet for their energy at sea.

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  • The new national feeling demanded that all Arabs should be free men, so the caliph ordained that all Arab slaves should be freed on easy terms. The solidarity of Arabia survived the first foreign conquests.

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  • It was not intended that Arabs should settle in the conquered lands except as armies of occupation.

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  • Thus it was at first forbidden that Arabs should buy or possess land in these countries.

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  • The Kharijites who had opposed 'Ali on the ground that he had no right to allow the appeal to arbitration, were defeated at Nahrawan or Nahrwan (658), but those who escaped became fierce propagandists against the Koreish, some claiming that the caliph should be chosen by the Faithful from any tribe of the Arabs, some that there should be no caliph at all, that God alone was their ruler and that the government should be carried on by a council.

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  • The accession of Abul 'Abbas (of the house of Hashim) and the transference of the capital of the caliphate from Damascus to Kufa, then Anbar and soon after (in 760) to Bagdad meant still further degradation to Arabia and Arabs.

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  • In one thing only the Arabs conquered to the end; that was in their language.

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  • The Arabs who lived more inland were mostly Bedouin who found the obligations of Islam irksome, and do not seem to have made a very vigorous opposition to the Carmathians who took Hajar the capital of Bahrein in 903.

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  • Deraiya was razed to the ground and the principal towns of Nejd were compelled to admit Egyptian garrisons; but though the Arabs saw themselves powerless to stand before disciplined troops, the Egyptians, on the other hand, had to confess that without useless sacrifices they could not retain their hold on the interior.

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  • In the meantime Sheik Mubarak had found useful allies in the Muntafik Arabs from the lower Euphrates, and the Wahhabis of Riad; the latter under the amir Ibn Saud marched against Ibn Rashid, who at the instigation of the Porte had again threatened Kuwet (Koweit), compelled him to retire to his own territory and took possession of the towns of Bureda and Aneza.

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  • The piracies committed by the Jawasimi Arabs in the gulf compelled the intervention of England, and in 1810 their strongholds were destroyed by a British-Indian expedition.

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  • A Turkish detachment collecting taxes in the Bani Merwan lands north of Hodeda was destroyed by a body of Arabs.

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  • W.) aiterature The literature of Arabia has its origin in the songs, improvisations, recitations and stories of the pre-Mahommedan Arabs.

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  • The first of these is the requirement that each line should have a complete sense in itself; this produces a certain jerkiness, and often led among the Arabs to displacement in the order of the lines in a long poem.

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  • Before Mahomet the ethics of the Arabs were summed up in muruwwa (custom).

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  • The existence of poetry among the northern Arabs was known to the Greeks even in the 4th century (cf.

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  • Mahomet's relation to the poets generally was one of antagonism because of their influence over the Arabs and their devotion to the old religion and customs. Ka`b ibn Zuhair, however, first condemned to death, then pardoned, later won great favour for himself by writing a panegyric of the Prophet (ed.

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  • But the Omayyads (with one exception) were not religious men and, while preserving the outward forms of Islam, allowed full liberty to the pre-Islamic customs of the Arabs and the beliefs and practices of Christians.

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  • 783), a blind poet of Persian descent, shows the ascendancy of Persian influence as he openly rails at the Arabs and makes clear his own leaning to the Persian religion.

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  • From very early times story-tellers and singers found their subjects in the doughty deeds of the tribe on its forays, and sometimes in contests with foreign powers and in the impression produced by the wealth and might of the sovereigns of Persia and Constantinople: The appearance of the Prophet with the great changes that ensued, the conquests that made the Arabs lords of half the civilized world, supplied a vast store of new matter for relations which men were never weary of hearing and recounting.

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  • Baladhuri's excellent Ansab al-Ashraf (Genealogies of the Nobles) is a history of the Arabs on a genealogical plan.

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  • Half a century later began versions from the Greek either direct or through the Syriac. The pieces translated were mostly philosophical; but the Arabs also learned something, however superficially, of ancient history.

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  • The Arabs from early times have always been proud of their language, but its systematic study seems to have arisen from contact with Persian and from the respect for the language of the Koran.

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  • In the 7th century the Arabs who had conquered Egypt penetrated into Lower Nubia, where the two Jawabareh and Al-Gharbiya tribes became powerful, and amalgamated with the Nubas of that district.

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  • These Bosnians (Kalaji as they called themselves) settled in the country and intermarried with the Arabs and Nubians, their descendants still holding lands between Assuan and Derr.

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  • These caves (called by the Arabs Kulat ibn Ma'an) are apparently natural, but were enlarged and fortified.

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  • 448 et seq.), at another to the Turks (c. 580), which would sufficiently explain the signs of Tatar influence in their polity, and also by the testimony of all observers, Greeks, Arabs and Russians, that there was a double strain within the Khazar nation.

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  • Lamartine tells us that the Arabs regard the trees as endowed with the principles of continual existence, and with reasoning and prescient powers, which enable them to prepare for the changes of the seasons.

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  • The term arz is applied by the Arabs to the cedar of Lebanon, to the common pine-tree, and to the juniper; and certainly the "cedars" for masts, mentioned in Ezek.

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  • Far down in the Sahara, to the south of Tunisia, the Arabs report the existence of a wild ass, apparently identical with that of Nubia.

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  • A beautiful little bird almost peculiar to the south of Tunisia and the adjoining regions of Algeria, is a species of bunting (Fringilla), called by the Arabs bu-habibi.

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  • The Arabs of more or less unmixed descent are purely nomads.

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  • The Phoenicians have left no marked trace of their presence; but inasmuch as they were probably of nearly the same race as the Arabs, it would not be easy to distinguish the two types.

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  • .` 620,000 b {l h' Arabs,„ 500,000 Mixed Arab and Berber peoples, say.

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  • Other towns of Tunisia are, on the east coast, Nabeul, pop. about 5000, the ancient Neapolis, noted for the mildness of its climate and its pottery manufactures; Hammamet with 37 00 inhabitants; Monastir (the Ruspina of the Romans), a walled town with 5600 inhabitants and a trade in cereals and oils; Mandiya or Mandia (q.v.; in ancient chronicles called the city of Africa and sometimes the capital of the country) with 8500 inhabitants, the fallen city of the Fatimites, which since the French occupation has risen from its ruins, and has a new harbour (the ancient Cothon or harbour, of Phoenician origin, cut out of the rock is nearly dry but in excellent preservation); and Gabes (Tacape of the Romans, Qabis of the Arabs) on the Syrtis, a group of small villages, with an aggregate population of 16,000, the port of the Shat country and a depot of the esparto trade.

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  • But their rule was troubled by continual wars and insurrections; the support of the Beduin Arabs was imperfectly secured by pensions, which formed a heavy burden on the finances of the state; 1 and in later times the dynasty was weakened by family dissensions.

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  • Taxation was heavy, and the revenue very considerable: Don Juan of Austria, in a report to Philip II., states that the land revenue alone under the last Hafsite was 375,935 ducats, but of this a great part went in tribute to the Arabs.

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  • Disastrous campaigns against the Bulgarians and Arabs afforded her an opportunity of rousing the contempt and hatred of the people against their ruler.

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  • The ancient college (medressa) where many learned Arabs taught - of whom Ibn Khaldun, author of a History of the Berbers, may be mentioned - has entirely disappeared.

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  • The kubba or tomb of Sidi Bu Medin, near the palace, is held in great veneration by the Arabs.

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  • They formerly traded with Arabia and Malaysia, and many Arabs settled amongst them, so that they betray a strong strain of Semitic blood in their features.

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  • 3 Hierapolis of the Greeks, Manbij of the Arabs, a few miles west of the Eu p hrates about latitude 361°.

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  • There are also, besides the Dutch, some Arabs, Chinese and a few Portuguese settlers.

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  • It disappeared, and the small remnants of the imperial possessions on the mainland, Naples and Calabria, passed under the authority of the "patricius" of Sicily, and when Sicily was conquered by the Arabs in the Toth century were erected into the themes of Calabria and Langobardia.

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  • It is hunted by the Arabs for its flesh and to test the speed of their horses and greyhounds; it is during these hunting parties that the young are captured for menagerie purposes.

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  • The Normans came as fellowChristians and deliverers; they found very few Arabs in Malta.

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  • Unable to garrison the island with a large force, the Arabs cleared a zone between the central stronghold, Medina, and the suburb called Rabat, to restrict the fortified area.

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  • Many Arab coins, some Kufic inscriptions and several burial-places were left by the Arabs; but they did not establish their religion or leave a permanent impression on the Phoenician inhabitants, or deprive the Maltese language of the characteristics which differentiate it from Arabic. There is no historical evidence that the domination of the Goths and Vandals in the Mediterranean ever extended to Malta: there are fine Gothic arches in two old palaces at Notabile, but these were built after the Norman conquest of Malta.

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  • The Normans, like the Arabs, were not numerically strong; the rule of both, in Sicily as well as Malta, was based on a recognition of municipal institutions under local officials; the Normans, however, exterminated the Mahommedans.

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  • The African Arabs under Selim Pasha in 1551 ravaged Gozo, after an unsuccessful attempt on Malta, repulsed by cavalry under Upton, an English knight.

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  • Towards the end of 639 he led an army of 4000 Arabs into that country.

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  • The surrounding region has been overrun by Arabs and Swahili from the East African coast.

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  • The era in use among the Turks, Arabs and other Mahommedan nations is that of the Hegira or Hejra, the flight of the prophet from Mecca to Medina, 622 A.D.

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  • Unfortunately, before these archives could be removed, the galleries containing them were rifled by the Arabs, and large numbers of the tablets were sold to antiquity dealers, by whom they have been scattered all over Europe and America.

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  • In 700 the Christian population was annihilated by the Arabs, from whom the island was taken in 1123 by Roger of Sicily.

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  • The town was partially restored by Belisarius, and again sacked by the Arabs in the 7th century.

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  • Bona (Arabic annaba, " the city of jujube trees"), which has passed through many vicissitudes, was built by the Arabs, and was for centuries a possession of the rulers of Tunis, who built the Kasbah in 1300.

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  • The want of water made it impossible to maintain a large force near the city, and the brave Arabs routed the Roman cavalry.

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  • They are inhabited by a few families of Arabs, who however speak a dialect differing considerably from the ordinary Arabic. The islands yield some guano.

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  • They consist of the Sirani or Christian descendants of the Portuguese, of Malays, with a Papuan element, Galela men from the north of Halmahera, immigrants from Celebes, with some Chinese and Arabs.

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  • In the region of Somaliland, now the western part of the British protectorate of that name, the Arabs established the Moslem state of Adel or Zaila, with their capital at Zaila on the Gulf of Aden.

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  • t:xo,000,00a ' English Miles s o Long.East32°of Greenwich these above 10,000 were Arabs, Indians, Syrians and Goanese, and 3000 Europeans (over 2000 being Germans).

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  • Where the Arabs have established settlements the coco-palm and mango tree introduced by them give variety to the vegetation.

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  • The island is low and fertile, and extensively planted with coco-nut palms. It is continued southwards by an extensive reef, on which stands the chief village, Chobe, the residence of a few Arabs and Ban y an traders.

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  • Until nearly the middle of the 19th century only the coast lands of the territory now forming German East Africa were known either to Europeans or to the Arabs.

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  • After the final withdrawal of the Portuguese in the early years of the 18th century, the coast towns north of Cape Delgado fell under the sway of the Muscat Arabs, passing from them to the sultan of Zanzibar.

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  • From about 1830, or a little earlier, the Zanzibar Arabs began to penetrate inland, and by 1850 had established themselves at Ujiji on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika.

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  • The Arabs also made their way south to Nyasa.

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  • Wissmann, with 1000 soldiers, chiefly Sudanese officered by Germans, and a German naval contingent, succeeded by the end of 1889 in crushing the power of the Arabs.

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  • ORONTES, the ancient name of the chief Syrian river, also called DRACO, TYPHON and Axrus, the last a native form, from whose revival, or continuous employment in native speech, has proceeded the modern name `Asi ("rebel"), which is variously interpreted by Arabs as referring to the stream's impetuosity, to its unproductive channel, or to the fact that it flows away from Mecca.

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  • The inhabitants in 1909 numbered about 3,5 00, 000 natives, 3000 British Indians and Arabs, and 507 Europeans (British, French, Germans, Italians and Maltese).

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  • Meanwhile the Zanzibar Arabs had reached Buganda in everincreasing numbers as traders; but many of them were earnest 1 The letter was entrusted to Linant de Bellefonds, a Belgian in the Egyptian service, who had been sent to Buganda by Gordon.

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  • The intrigues of the Arabs led him to suspect the designs of the missionaries.

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  • The restless Arabs of Zanzibar had since 1857 steadily advanced Zanzibar influence to Tanganyika, Nyasa, and even through the Masai countries to the north-east coast of Victoria Nyanza and the " back door " of Uganda.

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  • 642, when Alexandria was destroyed by the Arabs.

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  • DIVAN (Arabic diwan), a Persian word, derived probably from Aramaic, meaning a "counting-house, office, bureau, tribunal"; thence, on one side, the "account-books and registers" of such an office, and, on another, the "room where the office or tribunal sits"; thence, again, from "account-book, register," a "book containing the poems of an author," arranged in a definite order (alphabetical according to the rhyme-words), perhaps because of the saying, "Poetry is the register (diwi n) of the Arabs," and from "bureau, tribunal," "a long seat, formed of a mattress laid against the side of the room, upon the floor or upon a raised structure or frame, with cushions to lean against" (Lane, Lexicon, 93 o f.).

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  • The word originally signified a military commander, but very early came to be extended to anyone bearing rule, Mahomet himself being styled by the pagan Arabs amir of Mecca.

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  • In the time of Cambyses Arabs were settled at Jenysos south of Gaza (Herod.

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  • 5), and when Alexander marched upon Egypt, Gaza with its army of Arabs and Persians offered a strenuous resistance.

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  • The men of the heroic age are giants, as were the 'Ad and Thamud to the later Arabs.

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  • After the battle of Kadesiya and the founding of Kufa by the Arabs, Hira lost its importance and fell into decay.

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  • This originated in the East, and was in early use in India, Persia and Arabia, and was introduced into Europe by the Arabs, who had perfected it - perhaps as early as A.D.

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  • In Syria and Egypt the palmist can be seen plying his trade at the cafes; and among the Arabs there are chiromantists who are consulted as to the probable success of enterprises.

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  • Non-Turkish ethnical elements - Albanians, Macedonians, Armenians, Greeks, Arabs, Kurds, Druses - were to be moulded as far as possible into uniformity with the dominant Turkish element.

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  • Other South Arabs, and especially the Sabaeans, doubtless also planted settlers on the northern trade routes, who in process of time united into one community with their North-Arab kinsmen and neighbours.

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  • Doubts as to the greatness and importance of the Sabaean state, as attested by the ancients, and as to the existence of a special Sabaean writing, called " Musnad," of which the Arabs tell, were still current when Niebuhr, in the 18th.

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  • By the Arabs the name was changed to Kolambu, and the town was mentioned by Ibn Batuta in 1346 as the largest and finest in Serendib.

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  • The language of the people of Mosul is a dialect of Arabic, partly influenced by Kurdish and Syriac. The Moslems call themselves either Arabs or Kurds, but the prevalent type, very different from the true Arabian of Bagdad, proves the Aramaean origin of many of their number.

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  • His wisdom excelled that of Egypt and of the children of the East; by the latter may be meant Babylonia, or more probably the Arabs, renowned through all ages for their shrewdness.

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  • In the rainy season this valley becomes a sea, flooded by the discharge of the Khanega; in summer the Arabs dig holes here which supply them with brackish water.

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  • The latter states that the Arabs at that time called the ruin Nowawis, and apparently no longer knew the name Abu-Shahrein.

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  • of Nejef (32° 4' N., 44° 20' E.), was founded by the Arabs after the battle of Kadesiya in A.D.

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  • Relationship of a more intimate kind connects the Hindu lunar mansions with those of the Arabs and Chinese.

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  • They were first enumerated by Alfarghani early in the 9th century, when the Arabs were in astronomy the avowed disciples of the Hindus.

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  • He possessed, to an extraordinary degree, a power of getting into intimate association with the Arabs of the desert, such as has belonged to but one or two of his predecessors in Arabian travel, and he combined with this gift the soldier's instinct and a capacity for leadership which raised him at once to the first rank of commanders in desert warfare.

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  • But what he cared for was the cause of the Arabs, whom he had learned to know and admire, and for whose interests he pleaded at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.

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  • A Hindu strain is evident in Java and others of the western islands; Moors and Arabs (that is, as the names are used in the archipelago, Mahommedans from various countries between Arabia and India) are found more or less amalgamated with many of the Malay peoples; and the Chinese form, from an economical point of view, one of the most important sections of the community in many of the more civilized districts.

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  • Natives, Chinese and Arabs, are given seats, and in certain instances some of the members are elected, but more generally they are appointed by government.

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  • Among the natives and persons assimilated to them were about 537,000 Chinese and 27,000 Arabs.

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  • In the decade1890-1900the increase of the European population was 30.9%, of the Arabs 26.6%, and of the Chinese 16.5%.

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  • ments; the Arabs are nearly all traders, as are some of the Chinese, but a large number of the latter are labourers in the Sumatra tobacco plantations and the tin mines of Banka, Billiton, &c. The bulk of the natives are agriculturists.

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  • As regards the administration of justice, the distinction is maintained between (I) Europeans and persons assimilated with them (who include Christians and Japanese), and (2) natives, together with Chinese, Arabs, &c. The former are subject to laws closely resembling those of the mother country, while the customs and institutions of natives are respected in connexion with the administration of justice to the latter.

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  • Roger practised general toleration to Arabs and Greeks, allowing to each race the expansion of its own civilization.

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  • He drew from the Moslems the mass of his infantry, and St Anselm visiting him at the siege of Capua, 1098, found "the brown tents of the Arabs innumerable."

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  • The population in 1880 was 96,957; in 1898, 115,567; including 94 2 3 Europeans, 26,433 Chinese, 2828 Arabs and 132 other Asiatic foreigners.

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  • But the ramparts were long ago demolished; only natives, Malays, Arabs and Chinese live here, and the great European houses have either fallen into decay or been converted into magazines and warehouses.

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  • Here are found members of the different Indian nations, originally slaves; Arabs, who are principally engaged in navigation, but also trade in gold and precious stones; Javanese, who are cultivators; and Malays, chiefly boatmen and sailors, and adherents of Mahommedanism.

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  • Political conditions at the beginning of the middle ages favoured the Nestorian church, and the fact that the Arabs had conquered Syria, Palestine and Egypt, made it possible for her to exert an influence on the Christians in these countries.

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  • The fundamental type of the Arabic sanctuary can be traced through all the Semitic lands, and so appears to be older than the Semitic dispersion; even the technical terms are mainly the same, so that we may justly assume that the more developed ritual and priesthoods of the settled Semites sprang from a state of things not very remote from what we find among the heathen Arabs.

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  • Now among the Arabs, as we have seen, ritual service is the affair of the individual, or of a mass of individuals gathered in a great feast, but still doing worship each for himself and his own private circle; the only public aspect of religion is found in connexion with divination and the oracle to which the affairs of the community are submitted.

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  • i The whole structure of Hebrew society at the time of the conquest was almost precisely that of a federation of Arab tribes, and thereligious ordinances are scarcely distinguishable from those of Arabia, save only that the great deliverance of the Exodus and the period when Moses, sitting in judgment at the sanctuary of Kadesh, had for a whole generation impressed the sovereignty of Jehovah on all the tribes, had created an idea of unity between the scattered settlements in Canaan such as the Arabs before Mahomet never had.

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  • In 711 the Arabs had conquered Spain.

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  • pp. 522-524, 3rd ed., 1867) to be the singular fruit called by the Arabs 'Other, produced by the Asclepias gigantea or procera of botanists.

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  • His fervent faith in the doctrines of Islam was unquestioned, and his ultimate failure was due in considerable measure to the refusal of the Kabyles, Berber mountain tribes whose Mahommedanism is somewhat loosely held, to make common cause with the Arabs against the French.

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  • The Arabic translations of Aristotle passed from the East to the West by being transmitted through the Arab dominions in northern Africa to Spain, which had been conquered by the Arabs in the 8th century.

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  • The inhabitants are chiefly Berbers and Arabs.

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  • In the 7th century Ghadames was conquered by the Arabs.

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  • There are a number of warm mineral springs, containing principally salts of lime, used with success by both Arabs and Europeans in several kinds of disease.

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  • The springs are known to the Arabs as Hammam Meskutin (the " accursed baths ").

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  • (2) Arabs, a numerous class, are found principally in the south.

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  • The Kabyles, Mzabites, Tuareg, Arabs and Moors all profess Mahommedanism, though it is only among the Arabs that its tenets are held in any purity.

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    0
  • Its market is attended by Kabyles, Arabs of the plateaus and people from the Sahara.

    0
    0
  • The eastern quarter belongs to the Jews, of whom there are about 300 families; the western is occupied by the Medabia, Arabs from the Jebel Amur.

    0
    0
  • Amongst the Arabs, lands were either held in common by a whole tribe, under a tenure known as the arch or sabegha, or sometimes, especially in the towns, under a modified form of freehold (melk) by the family.

    0
    0
  • Before doing this, however, it was necessary to define the limits of tribal properties already existing - a work of great difficulty - with a view to their ultimate division, and at the same time to guard against any premature traffic in the rights of Arabs in the lands about to be divided.

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    0
  • These attempts meet with little success, owing in part to racial prejudice and in part to the indifference of the Arabs to education.

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    0
  • The Phoenicians, the Romans, the Vandals, the Byzantines, the Arabs, the Turks and the French, all came from the east or from the north.

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    0
  • The Arabs would pillage which divided Africa Minor between them - the Marinides at Fez, the Abd-el-Wahid at Tlemcen, and the Haf sides at Tunis - were without strength and without authority.

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    0
  • The emperor Napoleon III., in a celebrated letter, wrote that he was as much the emperor of the Arabs as the emperor of the French.

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  • The causes of this insurrection were manifold, and, moreover, interdependent: the injury done to the military prestige of France by its defeats in Europe; the fall of the imperial government, in which, in the eyes of the natives, the authority of France was incarnate; and the insults offered with impunity in the streets by the civil population to the officers, who were loved and respected by the Arabs, at the same time that the decree of Adolphe Cremieux accorded to the Algerine Jews the rights of French citizens.

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    0
  • But this they could not do; and since the version, owing to the limitations of the translators, departs widely from the sense of the original, Christian scholars were on the whole kept much farther from the original meaning than their Jewish contemporaries, who used the Hebrew text; and later, after Jewish grammatical and philological study had been stimulated by intercourse with the Arabs, the relative disadvantages under which Christian scholarship laboured increased.

    0
    0
  • Besides these there are Afghans, Persians, Jews, Arabs and Armenians.

    0
    0
  • Nearly all travellers in the north of Africa mention the Hardhon of the Arabs (Agama stellio), which is extremely common, and has drawn upon itself the hatred of the Mahommedans by its habit of nodding its head, which they interpret as a mockery of their own movements whilst engaged in prayer.

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    0
  • spinipes, the Dab of the Arabs, take mixed food.

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    0
  • Longomontanus, in his Astronomia Danica (1622), gives an account of the method, stating that it is not to be found in the writings of the Arabs or Regiomontanus.

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    0
  • The Arabs had a lion-god, Yaghuth.

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    0
  • The natives are poor, owing chiefly to maladministration, the use of opium and the usury practised by foreigners (Chinese, Arabs, &c.).

    0
    0
  • Though the fairy belief is universally human, the nearest analogy to the shape which it takes in Scotland and Ireland - the "pixies" of south-western England - is to be found in Jan or Jinnis of the Arabs, Moors and people of Palestine.

    0
    0
  • Since then the governor of the town and adjoining district has been a sheikh of the K'ab or Chaab Arabs, a powerful tribe of the Shi'ah branch of Islam.

    0
    0
  • In the Acta Archelai his first name is said to have been Cubricus, which Kessler explains as a corruption of Shuravik, a name common among the Arabs of the Syrian desert.

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    0
  • The population of Aden proper in 1915 was 36,900 and of the whole settlement 46,000, of whom about 23,000 were Arabs and a large part of the remainder Somalis.

    0
    0
  • Al-Mufaddal was a contemporary of IIammad ar-Rawiya and Khalaf al-Ahmar, the famous collectors of ancient Arab poetry and tradition, and was somewhat the junior of Abu 'Amr ibn al-'Ala, the first scholar who systematically set himself to preserve the poetic literature of the Arabs.

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    0
  • The country was in a state of confusion under the weak rule of the amir Yusef, a mere puppet in the hands of a faction, and was torn by tribal dissensions among the Arabs and by race conflicts between the Arabs and Berbers.

    0
    0
  • It fell subsequently into the possession of Arabs and was included in the Mahommedan state of Adel.

    0
    0
  • In the introduction to his work a résumé is given of the history of Hindostan prior to the times of the Mahommedan conquest, and also of the victorious progress of the Arabs through the East.

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    0
  • He was next required to punish inroads of the Saracens on the Italian mainland, and in September 981 he marched into Apulia, where he met at first with considerable success; but an alliance between the Arabs and the Eastern Empire, whose hostility had been provoked by the invasion of Apulia, resulted in a severe defeat on Otto's troops near Stilo in July 982.

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    0
  • The Arabs carried the plant into Spain.

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    0
  • The Chinese, the Arabs, the Greeks, the Etruscans, the Finns and the Italians have all been claimed as originators of the compass.

    0
    0
  • On the other hand, it has been contended that a knowledge of the mariner's compass was communicated by them directly or indirectly to the early Arabs, and through the latter was introduced into Europe.

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  • Robertson asserts (Historical Disquisition concerning Ancient India, p. 227) that the Arabs, Turks and Persians have no original name for the compass, it being called by them Bossola, the Italian name, which shows that the thing signified is foreign to them as well as the word.

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    0
  • These instruments they have from us, and made by our artists, and they do not in the least vary from ours, except that the characters are Arabic. The Arabs are the most skilful navigators of all the Asiatics or Africans; but neither they nor the Indians make use of charts, and they do not much want them; some they have, but they are copied from ours, for they are altogether ignorant of perspective."

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    0
  • That the Arabs must have been acquainted with the compass, and with the construction and use of charts, at a period nearly two centuries previous to Chardin's first voyage to the East, may be gathered from the description given by Barros of a map of all the coast of India, shown to Vasco da Gama by a Moor of Guzerat (about the 15th of July 1498), in which the bearings were laid down "after the manner of the Moors," or "with meridians and parallels very small (or close together), without other bearings of the compass; because, as the squares of these meridians and parallels were very small, the coast was laid down by these two bearings of N.

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    0
  • Further, we learn from Osorio that the Arabs at the time of Gama "were instructed in so many of the arts of navigation, that they did not yield much to the Portuguese mariners in the science and practice of maritime matters."

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  • Stanley, p. 138.) Also the Arabs that navigated the Red Sea at the same period are shown by Varthema to have used the mariner's chart and compass (Travels, p. 31) .

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  • Destroyed by Chosroes in the 7th century A.D., it was partially rebuilt and known as Feimia by the Arabs; and overthrown by an earthquake in 1152.

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  • 20) that the Arabs designated Mesopotamia as an island.

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    0
  • animals in the steppe the first place belongs to the camel; next come goat and sheep (not the ordinary fat-tailed variety); the common buffalo is often kept by the Arabs and the Turkomans on the Euphrates and the Tigris; on the Euphrates is found the Indian zebu.

    0
    0
  • The immigration of Arabs 1 Probably the latest cuneiform document of certain date is a contract of 68 B.C. (cf.

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    0
  • Unfortunately they contain practically nothing that is not of Christian origin.4 On the death of Aurelius Hatra aided Niger against Septimius Severus in 194; Osroene rose against Rome, and Nisibis was besieged and other Roman places taken; but Septimius Severus appeared in person (195), and from Nisibis as headquarters subdued the whole country, of which he made Nisibis metropolis, raising it to the rank of a colony, the Sinjar district, where Arabs from Yemen had settled, being incorporated.

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    0
  • When in 638 he made another ca attempt, it is said at the entreaty of the Mesopotamian Christians, Arab forces appeared before Rakka, Edessa, Nasibin and other places, and all Mesopotamia was soon in the hands of the Arabs.

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    0
  • The new regime brought welcome relief to the Christian part of the population, for the Arabs took no note of their orthodoxies or heterodoxies.

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    0
  • Pop. 1 7,9 2 5 (94 0 Europeans, 2618 Chinese, 168 Arabs).

    0
    0
  • Taken by the Arabs it was renamed by them Cherchel.

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    0
  • The surrounding country is partly cornland, partly waste, and is inhabited by wandering Arabs.

    0
    0
  • The population numbers 38,000, nearly half being Christian, comprising Turks, Kurds, Arabs, Turkomans, Armenians, Chaldeans, Jacobites and a few Greeks.

    0
    0
  • It was taken c. 638 by the Arabs, and afterwards passed into the hands of the Seljuks and Persians, from whom it was finally captured by Selim I.

    0
    0
  • After the rise of Mahommedanism many Arabs settled on the coast and mixed with the heathen Beja, whose rule of kinship and succession in the female line helped to give the children of mixed marriages a leading position (Makrizi, Khitat, i.

    0
    0
  • 2), Arabs, Greeks, traced the descent of heroic families to the gods.

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    0
  • Kupang, the chief town of the residency, contains some 8000 inhabitants, of whom 145 are Europeans living in well-built houses, 594 Chinese, and 43 Arabs.

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    0
  • This is especially seen in his satires on Arabs (which made him so hated that no man followed his bier when he died).

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    0
  • He delighted in showing that words, fables, customs, &c., which the Arabs believed to be peculiarly their own, were derived from the Persians.

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    0
  • It was held by Vandals, Byzantines and Arabs, and when Mulai Idris passed from Tlemcen to Fez in 788, Tangier was "the oldest and most beautiful city" of the Maghrib.

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    0
  • In 697 we hear of a revolt against Rome led by Sergius the Patrician, who allied himself with the Arabs.

    0
    0
  • - The following table gives the area and estimated population of the several political divisions of Sumatra and of the island as a whole (excluding the small part belonging to the Riouw-Lingga residency): - Of the total population, about 5000 are Europeans, 93,000 Chinese, 2 500 Arabs, 7000 foreigners of other nations, and the rest natives.

    0
    0
  • m., with a population of 23,000,000, among which are 35,000 Europeans, 319,000 Chinese, 15,000 Arabs, and io,000 other immigrant Asiatics.

    0
    0
  • In the 7th century the Arabs invaded Syria, but do not seem to have got into these mountains.

    0
    0
  • The sons of Clovis divided the dominions of their father between them, made themselves masters of Burgundy (532), and in addition received Provence from the Ostrogoths (535); Septimania was not taken from the Arabs till the time of Pippin, the founder of the Carolingian dynasty.

    0
    0
  • There are large herds of camel, the camel-owning Arabs usually owning also large numbers of sheep and goats.

    0
    0
  • The inhabitants are roughly divisible into two types - Arabs in the plains and Nubas in the hills.

    0
    0
  • The nomad Arabs are of two classes, camel owners (Slat El Ilbil) and cattle owners (Baggara), the first-named dwelling in the dry northern regions, the Baggara in southern Kordofan.

    0
    0
  • They speak Arabic and are called Nuba Arabs.

    0
    0
  • The usual habitation built both by Arabs and Nubas is the tukl, a conical-shaped hut made of stone, mud, wattle and daub or straw.

    0
    0
  • The chief difficulty experienced by the administration was to habituate the Arabs and Nubas, both naturally warlike, to a state of peace.

    0
    0
  • In consequence of the anti-slave raiding measures adopted, the Arabs of Talodi in May 1906 treacherously massacred the mamur of that place and 40 men of the Sudanese regiment.

    0
    0
  • In spite of the frequent pillage and destruction of monasteries by Northmen, Saracens, Arabs and other invaders; in spite of the existence of even widespread local abuses, St Benedict's institute went on progressing and consolidating; and on the whole it may be said that throughout the early middle ages the general run of Benedictine houses continued to perform with substantial fidelity the religious and social functions for which they were created.

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    0
  • The population in 1898 was 1,313,383, including 12,434 Europeans, 82,510 Chinese, 3426 Arabs and other Asiatic foreigners.

    0
    0
  • 22 Jacob vows of his own free will to pay tithes, just as the Arabs used to vow the tithe of the increase of the flock (schol.

    0
    0
  • From the latitude of Bagdad northward the region between the two rivers is an arid, waterless, limestone steppe, inhabited only by roving Arabs.

    0
    0
  • Away from the banks of the rivers, between the Euphrates and the Tigris and between the latter and the Persian mountains, are tribes of wandering Arabs, some of whom possess great herds of horses, sheep, goats, asses and camels, while in and by the marshes other tribes, in the transition stage from the nomadic to the settled life, own great herds of buffaloes.

    0
    0
  • These, like the Bedouin Arabs, are practically independent, waging constant warfare among themselves and paying an uncertain tribute to the Turkish government.

    0
    0
  • In East Africa the great revolt of the Arabs in 1888 drove the company out of all their possessions, with the exception of the port of Dar-es-Salam.

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    0
  • " shepherd kings," and some say they were Arabs (another explanation found by Josephus is "captive shepherds").

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    0
  • On the disintegration of the empire, it fell into the hands of the Visigoths, who, in spite of the attacks of the Franks, especially in 585, retained possession till 724, when they were expelled by the Arabs, destined in turn to yield before long to Pippin the Short.

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    0
  • The Moslems of Sicily were busy in civil wars; Arabs fcught against Berbers, both against the African overlord.

    0
    0
  • His love for mathematical science, geography, &c., in which the Arabs excelled, is noteworthy.

    0
    0
  • Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs, 1907, pp. 358-361).

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    0
  • The Koran even goes so far as to make Noah contend against the worship of certain false gods, mentioned by name, who were worshipped by the Arabs of Mahomet's time.

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    0
  • Accordingly the sacred book has not even the artistic form of poetry; which, among the Arabs, includes a stringent metre, as well as rhyme.

    0
    0
  • Rhymed prose was a favourite form of composition among the Arabs of that day, and Mahomet adopted it; but if it imparts a certain sprightliness to some passages, it proves on the whole a burdensome yoke.

    0
    0
  • When we reach the Medina period it becomes, as has been indicated, much easier to understand the revelations in their historical relations, since our knowledge of the history of 1 Since in Arabic also the root itr >) signifies " to have pity," the Arabs must have at once perceived the force of the new name.

    0
    0
  • But now, after the death of the Prophet, most of the Arabs revolted against his successor, and had to be reduced to submission by force.

    0
    0
  • In Northern Nigeria up to the moment of the British occupation the foreign trade was chiefly in the hands of Tripoli Arabs whose caravans crossed the desert at great risk and expense, and carried to the markets of Kuka and Kano tea, sugar and other European goods, taking away the skins and feathers which constituted the principal articles of export to the Mediterranean coast.

    0
    0
  • The Arabic spoken by the middle and higher classes is generally inferior in grammatical correctness and pronunciation to that of the Bedouins of Arabia, but is purer than that of Syria or the dialect spoken by the Western Arabs.

    0
    0
  • It received the name of Masr, properly Misr, which was also applied by the Arabs to Memphis and to Cairo, and is to-day, with the Roman town which preceded it, represented by Masr el-Atika, or " Old Cairo."

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    0
  • By the Arabs Lower Egypt is called Er-Rif, the cultivated or fertile; Upper Egypt Es Said, the happy or fortunate.

    0
    0
  • The Misr of the Arabs is restricted to the same territory.

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    0
  • The turquoise mines of Sinai, in the Wadi Maghara, are worked regularly by the Arabs of the peninsula, who sell the stones in Suez; while there are emerald mines at Jebel Zubara, south of Kosseir.

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    0
  • In the open desert rain falls even more rarely, but it is by no means unknown, and from time to time heavy storms burst, causing sudden floods in the narrow ravines, and drowning both men and animals These are more common in the mountainous region of the Sinai peninsula, where they are much dreaded by the Arabs.

    0
    0
  • above the point where the river divides, and in reference to its situation at the head of the Delta has been called by the Arabs the diamond stud in the handle of the fan of Egypt.

    0
    0
  • by the Arabs who conquered Egypt, but appears not long afterwards to have again become unserviceable.

    0
    0
  • In these figures nomad Arabs or Bedouins, esticoated to number 97,381, are not included.

    0
    0
  • The Bedouins, or the Arabs of the desert, are of two different classes: first, Arabic-speaking tribes who range the deserts as far south as 26 N.; secondly, the tribes inhabiting the desert from Kosseir to Suakin, namely the Hadendoa, Bisharin and the Ababda tribes.

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  • tent-dwelling Arabs, usually encamped in those parts of the desert adjoining the cultivated land.

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    0
  • The troops under Colonel Parsons, Royal Artillery, who beat the Dervishes at Gedaref, were so short of British officers that all orders were necessarily given in Arabic and carried to commanders of units by Arabs.

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    0
  • As a possible explanation of the facts, Erman supposes that a horde of conquering Semites, like the Arabs of a later day, imposed their language on the country, but disappeared, being weakened by the climate or absorbed by the native population.

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    0
  • The quern with rotary motion is late Roman,, and still used by Arabs.

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    0
  • The former, called by the Arabs Mukaukis (Muqauqis) from his Coptic name Pkauchios, had for ten years before the arrival of Amr maintained a fierce persecution of the Jacobite sect, to which the bulk of the Copts belonged.

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    0
  • Since Alexandria could neither have been stormed nor starved out by the Arabs, his motives for surrendering it, and with it the whole of Egypt, have been variously interpreted, some supposing him to have been secretly a convert to Islam.

    0
    0
  • And it would appear that at the time of the attempt by Manuel the Arabs were actually assisted by the Copts, who at the first had found the Moslem lighter than the Roman yoke.

    0
    0
  • Tlabbab (720734) the first government survey by Moslems was made, followed by a census; but before this time the higher administrative posts had been largely taken out of the hands of Copts and filled with Arabs.

    0
    0
  • The rebellion broke out repeatedly in the following years, and in 831 the Copts joined with the Arabs against the government; the state of affairs became so serious that the caliph Mamun himself visited Egypt, arriving at Fostat in February 832; his general Afshin fought a decisive battle with the rebels at Bgshard in the IJauf region, at which the Copts were compelled to surrender; the males were massacred and the women and children sold as slaves.

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    0
  • There he had several hairbreadth escapes, and at last secreted himself among a tribe of Arabs at Ras al-WgdI.

    0
    0
  • The forces destined for this service were led by Ismail, then the youngest son of Mehemet Ali; they consisted of between 4000 and 5000 men, Turks and Arabs, and left Cairo in July 1820.

    0
    0
  • Nubia at once submitted, the Shagia Arabs immediately beyond the province of Dongola were worsted, the remnant of the Mamelukes dispersed, and Sennr reduced without a battle.

    0
    0
  • were not long in revealing themselves- Scarcely a year from the signing of the convention of Kutaya the application by Ibrahim of Egyptian methods of government, notably of the monopolies and conscription, had driven Syrians, Druses and Arabs, who had welcomed him as a deliverer, into revolt.

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    0
  • The square was again heavily attacked, but the Arabs could not get to close quarters and in the evening a bivouac was formed on the Nile.

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    0
  • A squadron of the 9th Royal Lancers, which was dismounted in the thick bush, was driven back with the loss of 9 men; but elsewhere the Arabs never succeeded in closing, and the troops returned to Suakin in the afternoon, leaving the East Surrey regiment in a zeriba covering some low hills near Hashin village.

    0
    0
  • Wad en Nejumi, most of his amirs, and more than I 200 Arabs were killed; 4000 prisoners and 147 standards were taken, and the dervish army practically destroyed.

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    0
  • That night the king died, and the greater part of the army having gone ahead with the prisoners, a party of Arabs pursued the rearguard, which consisted of the kings bodyguard, routed them, and captured the kings body, which was sent to Omdurman to confirm the report of a brilliant victory sent by Zeki Tumal to the khalifa.

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    0
  • The Darfurian chiefs then allied themselves with Abu Gemaiza, sheikh of the Masalit Arabs, who had proclaimed himself Khalifa Osman, and was known as the anti-mahdi.

    0
    0
  • Mahmud and several hundred dervishes were captured, 40 amirs and 3000 Arabs killed, and many more wounded; the rest escaped to Gedaref.

    0
    0
  • In 844 the town fell into the hands of the Arabs, but four years later they were driven out with help supplied by Pope Leo IV.

    0
    0
  • Harsh laws provoked the Samaritans to a revolt, from whose effects Palestine had not recovered when conquered by the Arabs in the following century.

    0
    0
  • 6 Intercourse with India had given Persian mysticism the form of Buddhistic monkery, while the Arabs imitated the Christian anchorites; thus the two movements had an inner kinship and an outer form so nearly identical that they naturally coalesced, and that even the earliest organizations of orders of dervishes, whether in the East or the West, appeared to Mahommedan judgment to be of one type.

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    0
  • The Greek city was destroyed by the Arabs under the Caliph Moawiya in 647, and does not seem to have revived.

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    0
  • 226 and destroyed by the Arabs in 637.

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    0
  • On the Arabs he impressed himself as an enemy very fierce and astute, but as a keeper of his word.

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    0
  • But when the Sassanian empire was overthrown by the Arabs, the conquerors immediately advanced eastwards, and in a few years Bactria and the whole Iran to the banks of the Jaxartes had submitted to the rule of the caliph and of Islam.

    0
    0
  • de Cou was murdered by hired Arabs, but work was continued until the end of the first season, and before the second season could begin, the country was seized by Italians.

    0
    0
  • The Sasaks are estimated at 320,000, the Balinese at 50,000, Europeans number about 40, Chinese 300, and Arabs 170.

    0
    0
  • The inhabitants of this tract are Persians or Arabs who by domicile and intermarriage with Persians have lost nearly all their racial and most of their social characteristics, but retain a dialect of Arabic as their mother tongue.

    0
    0
  • After the Phoenicians, Babylonians, and Arabs came the Persians; though they never aspired to command of the seas and are indeed not a maritime race, the Persian Gulf was no obstacle to them, and at one time or another they occupied Muscat and parts of Oman and Bahrein, and penetrated into the greater part of Arabia.

    0
    0
  • On the other hand, a steady and increasing market was gained for the products of the British Empire, and in particular for those of India; the ports of the Gulf were made safe, not so much for the British as for the Indian trader; nearly 75% of the trade of the Gulf ports was in 1921 with India, and an even greater proportion in the hands of Indians, Persians and Arabs.

    0
    0
  • With the rest of North Africa Mauretania was overrun by the Arabs in the 7th century.

    0
    0
  • the coast towns and the plains of Morocco, occupied largely by Arabs.

    0
    0
  • (For statistics see Somaliland, French.) The inhabitants are of many races - Somali, Danakil, Gallas, Armenians, Jews, Arabs, Indians, besides Greeks, Italians, French and other Europeans.

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  • of the Arabs [London, 1907], pp. 439 sqq.) - From Alexander the Great to A.D.

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  • The Nabataean Arabs and the Greeks of Scythopolis befriended them, but the province generally was hostile.

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    0
  • He collected a huge army and in 636 marched against the Arabs.

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    0
  • Few names or events stand out in the history of this period: perhaps the most interesting personality is that of the Druse prince Fakhr ud-Din (1595-1634), whose expulsion of the Arabs from the coast as far south as Acre and establishment of his own kingdom, in defiance of Ottoman authority - to say nothing of his dilettante cultivation of art, the result of a temporary sojourn in Italy - make him worth a passing notice.

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    0
  • A detachment of troops was sent under General Jean Baptiste Kleber across the plain of Esdraelon to take Nazareth and Tiberias, and defeated the Arabs between Fuleh and Afuleh.

    0
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  • They subdued the Fula and Arabs already settled in the district, and after being converted to Islam under Abdullah, their fourth king (about 1600), they extended their authority over a large number of tribes living to the south and east.

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    0
  • This constellation has been known by many other names - Arcas, Arctophylax, Arcturus minor, Bubuleus, Bubulus, Canis latrans, Clamator, Icarus, Lycaon, Philometus, Plaustri custos, Plorans, Thegnis, Vociferator; the Arabs termed it Aramech or Archamech; Hesychius named it Orion; Jules Schiller, St Sylvester; Schickard, Nimrod; and Weigelius, the Three Swedish Crowns.

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    0
  • The Portuguese found that Sokotra was held by Arabs from Fartak, but the "natives" (a different race) were Christians, though in sad need of conversion.

    0
    0
  • Bonafous, however (Histoire naturelle du mais), quotes authorities (Bock, 1532, Ruel and Fuchs) as believing that it came from Asia, and maize was said by Santa Rosa de Viterbo to have been brought by the Arabs into Spain in the 13th century.

    0
    0
  • The invaders who have most affected the Berber race are the Arabs, but the two races, with a common religion, often a common government, with the same tribal groupings, have failed to amalgamate to any great extent.

    0
    0
  • On the other hand, saints, both male and female, are paid more reverence by Berbers than by Arabs.

    0
    0
  • The Berbers, unlike the Arabs, do not admire fat women.

    0
    0
  • A collection of the various signs of the alphabet has shown thirty-two letters, four more than Arabic. De Slane, in his notes on the Berber historian Ibn Khaldun, shows the following points of similarity to the Semitic class: - its tri-literal roots, the inflections of the verb, the formation of derived verbs, the genders of the second and Arab districts to build mills for the Arabs.

    0
    0
  • Formerly Norfolk trotters held the first place in point of number, but their place has been taken in recent years by English thoroughbreds, Arabs, and especially Australians.

    0
    0
  • From the first da Gama encountered hostility from the " Moors," or rather Arabs, who monopolized the sea-borne trade; but he seems to have found favour with the zamorin, or Hindu raja of Malabar.

    0
    0
  • The Arabs, however, succeed by closing up all the exits from the burrows with a single exception, by which the rodents are forced to escape, and over which a net is placed for their capture.

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    0
  • was Allat, the chief goddess of the ancient Arabs.

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  • Nicholson, A Literary History of the Arabs, pp. 399-404 (London, 1907).

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    0
  • The impetus to the purification of the old Semite religion to which the Hebrews for a long time clung in common with their fellows - the various branches of nomadic Arabs - was largely furnished by the remarkable civilization unfolded in the Euphrates valley and in many of the traditions, myths and legends embodied in the Old Testament; traces of direct borrowing from Babylonia may be discerned, while the indirect influences in the domain of the prophetical books, as also in the Psalms and in the so-called "Wisdom Literature," are even more noteworthy.

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    0
  • It is represented by the great complex of ruin mounds known to the Arabs as Nuffar, written by the earlier explorers Niffer, divided into two main parts by the dry bed of the old Shatt-en-Nil (Arakhat).

    0
    0