or "Abu Ya`kub" (1163-1184), and Ya`kub I.
AVICENNA [Abu 'Ali al-Husain ibn 'Abdallah ibn Sinai (980-1037), Arabian philosopher, was born at Afshena in the district of Bokhara.
The remaining ten or twelve years of Avicenna's life were spent in the service of Abu Ya`far 'Ala Addaula, whom he accompanied as physician and general literary and scientific adviser, even in his numerous campaigns.
The family name of the principal branch of this tribe is Abu Sin, and Gedaref, an important town in the centre of the Shukria country, was formerly called Suk Abu Sin.
The minaret was built by Abu Tachfin, sultan of Tlemcen, in 1324.
After the defeat of the Abyssinians at Debra Sin in August 1887 Gondar was looted and fired by the dervishes under Abu Anga.
RAJPUTANA, a collection of native states in India, under the political charge of an agent to the governor-general, who resides at Abu in the Aravalli Hills.
Mount Abu is at the south-western extremity of the range, and the north-eastern end may be said to terminate near Khetri in the Shaikhawati district of Jaipur, although a series of broken ridges is continued in the direction of Delhi.
at Abu; but, except in the south-west highlands of the Aravallis, rain is most abundant in the south-east.
Among the latter are the mosques at Ajmere and the temples on Abu.
Abu Zaid also wrote on India, and his work is the most important that we possess before the epoch-making discoveries of Marco Polo.
3 Gauhar Shad was the wife of Shah Rukh (1404-1447), and was murdered by that monarch's successor Abu Said, August I, 1457.
In the 10th century Jacob al-Qirqisani wrote his Kitab al-anwar, on law, Solomon ben Yeruham (against Seadiah) and Yefet ben 'Ali wrote exegetical works; in the 11th century Abu'l-faraj Furgan, exegesis, and Yusuf al-Basir against Samuel ben Hophni.
His system was' adopted by Abu'l-walid ibn Jannah, of Saragossa (died early in the nth century), in his lexicon (Kitab al-usul, in Arabic) and other works.
The hidden imam of the common Shiites is, however, the twelfth imam, Mahommed Abu`l-Qasim, who disappeared mysteriously in 879.
A railway, built in 1909-1910, connects Khartum, Wad Medani and Sennar with Kordofan, the White Nile being bridged near Goz Abu Guma.
Their kingdom cannot have been of large extent, as Nabonidus in a contemporary inscription (Cylinder from Abu Habba, VR.
Abu '1 Kasim Mansur (or Hasan), who took the nom de plume of Firdousi, author of the epic poem the Shahnama, or "Book of Kings," a complete history of Persia in nearly 60,000 verses, was born at Shadab, a suburb of Tus, about the year 329 of the Hegira (941 A.D.), or earlier.
Abu Mansur, the governor of Tus, patronized him and encouraged him by substantial pecuniary support.
Being presented to the seven poets who were then engaged on the projected epic, Abu 'I Kasim was admitted to their meetings, and on one occasion improvised a verse, at Mahmud's request, in praise of his favourite Ayaz, with such success that the sultan bestowed upon him the name of Firdousi, saying that he had converted his assemblies into paradise (Firdous).
IBN KHALDUN [Abu Zaid ibn Mahommed ibn Mahommed ibn Khaldun] (1332-1406), Arabic historian, was born at Tunis.
In 1352 he obtained employment under the Marinid sultan Abu Inan (Faris I.) at Fez.
He here continued to render great service to Abu Salem (Ibrahim III.), Abu Inan's successor, but, having offended the prime minister, he obtained permission to emigrate to Spain, where, at Granada, he was received with great cordiality by Ibn al Ahmar, who had been greatly indebted to his good offices when an exile at the court of Abu Salem.
The favours he received from the sovereign excited the jealousy of the vizier, and he was driven back to Africa (1364), where he was received with great cordiality by the sultan of Bougie, Abu Abdallah, who had been formerly his companion in prison.
On the fall of Abu Abdallah Ibn Khaldun raised a large force amongst the desert Arabs, and entered the service of the sultan of Tlemcen.
The greater part of the old village of Luxor lay inside the courts: it was known also as Abu '1 Haggag from a Moslem saint of the 7th century, whose tombmosque, mentioned by Ibn Batuta, stands on a high heap of debris in the court of Rameses.
l5 Baron Oppenheim's excavations at Tell Halaf have resulted in the recovery of reliefs of barbaric style, simulating the Syro-Hittite, from the palace of a local king, Kapara, of about the same period as Sinjirli and Sakchegozii (Toth-9th centuries B.C.), and pottery of all ages, going back to the chalcolithic period.ls The neolithic and chalcolithic pottery of Mesopotamia and Persia is one of the chief archaeological discoveries of late years in the Near East, and attention has recently been directed to it again by the important finds at Abu Shahrein (the ancient Eridu) and Tell el `Obeid, near Ur.
The only stone building in southern Babylonia is the town wall of Eridu (Abu Shahrein), which is built of rude lumps of a local coral rag.
The history, Tarikh Bulgar, said to have been written in the 12th century by an Arabian cadi of the city Bolgari, has not yet been discovered; but the Arabian historians, Ibn Foslan, Ibn Haukal, Abul Hamid Andalusi, Abu Abdallah Harnati, and several others, who had visited the kingdom, beginning with the 10th century, have left descriptions of it.
- Idrisi (1154) the world by Abu Jafar Mahommed ben Musa of Khiva, the librarian of the caliph el Mamun (833), declares them to be superior to the maps of Ptolemy or Marinus, but maps of a later date by Istakhri (950) or Ibn al Wardi (1349) are certainly of a most rudimentary type.
In the suburb of Muazzam, on the western side of the river, is the tomb of Abu Hanifa, the canon lawyer.
JAHIZ (ABU ' Uthman ` Amr Ibn Bahr Ul-Jahiz; i.e.
He also pushed his investigations into the great temple of Edfu, visited Elephantine and Philae, cleared the great temple at Abu Simbel of sand (1817), made excavations at Karnak, and opened up the sepulchre of Seti I.
palatinus) was comes palatii regni, the first palatine being Abu Samuel (c. 1041).
Archimedes' problem of dividing a sphere by a plane into two segments having a prescribed ratio,was first expressed as a cubic equation by Al Mahani, and the first solution was given by Abu Gafar al Hazin.
Either to the 10th or the 11th century must be referred the name of another Arabian physician who has also attained the position of a classic, Abu'l Qasiin or Abulcasis, of El-Zahra, near Cordova, in Spain.
Of these the earliest is Avenzoar or Abumeron, that is, Abu Merwan `Abd al-Malik Ibn Zuhr (beginning of 12th century), a member of a family which gave several distinguished members to the medical profession.
IBN TUFAIL, or ToFAIL [Abu Bakr Mahommed ibn `Abd-ulMalik ibn Tufail ul-Qaisi] (d.
He became secretary to the governor of Granada, and later physician and vizier to the Mohad caliph, Abu Ya`qub Yusuf.
The primitive seaport of the country, Eridu, the seat of the worship of Ea the culture-god, was a little south of Ur (at Abu Shahrain or Nowawis on the west side of the Euphrates).
Nasir Khosrau (Nasiri Khusru), Abu Mu'in-ed-din Nasir b.
AVENZOAR, or Abumeron [Abu Merwan 'Abdal-Malik ibn Zuhr], Arabian physician, who flourished at the beginning of the 12th century, was born at Seville, where he exercised his profession with great reputation.
This points to the mound of debris called Tell-el-Jezari near the village of Abu Shusheh.
north of Coast of Hodeda, and the Farsan group, off the Abu Arish coast, Yemen.
West of Abu Dhabi a low flat steppe with no settled inhabitants extends up to the Katr peninsula, merging on the north into the saline marshes which border the Persian Gulf, and on the south into the desert.
Wushth -4KW,t4 Abu Dhabl ° ' Masira I Gulf) el Had Aden And Vicinity English ?
Abu Bekr (632-634), the first of these caliphs, was a man of simple life and profound faith.
In the same year Damascus fell into the hands of the Arabs under Abu `Ubaida.
Abu Qais, appointed admiral, showed its usefulness by the capture of Cyprus.
In 652 Abu Sari) with a fleet from Egypt won a naval battle over the Byzantine fleet near Alexandria.
The first task of Abu Bekr had been to reduce those rebels who threatened to destroy that unity even before it was fully established.
At the end of the first year of his caliphate Abu Bekr saw Arabia united under Islam.
In goo `Abu Said al-Jannabi, who had been sent to Bahrein by Haman, had secured a large part of this province and had won the city of Katif (Ketif) which contained many Jews and Persians.
Abu Sa`id was assassinated (913) in his palace at aahsa (which in 926 was fortified and became the Carmathian capital of Bahrein).
His son Sa`id succeeded him, but proved too weak and was deposed and succeeded by his brother Abu Tahir.
So long as Abu Tahir lived the Carmathians controlled Arabia.
In the scarcity of poets at this time two others deserve mention; Abu Mihjan, who made peace with Islam in 630 but was exiled for his love of wine, which he celebrated in his verse (ed.
In the 8th century Abu Nuwas is the greatest poet of his time.
Abu Firas (932-968) was a member of the family of Saif ud-Daula, a soldier whose poems have all the charm that comes from the fact that the writer has lived through the events he narrates (ed.
From the 9th century we have the Hamasas of Abu Tammam and Buhturi, and a collection of poems of the tribe Hudhail (second half ed.
The epistolary style was further cultivated by Hamadhani (q.v.) and carried to perfection by Abu 1`Ala ul Ma`arri.
764), Abu Mashar (d.
Abu Mikhnaf left a great number of monographs on the chief events from the death of the Prophet to the caliphate of Walid II.
This has been essayed by Brunnow in his study on the Kharijites (aeiden, 1884), in which the narrative of Mubarrad in the Kamil is compared with the excerpts of Madaini given by Baladhuri and those of Abu Mikhnaf given by Tabari.
The conclusion reached is that Abu Mikhnaf and Madaini are both well informed and impartial.
Besides these are to be mentioned Abu `Ubaida (d.
Abu `Ubaida was succeeded by Ibn al-A`rabi (d.
1036) wrote a well-known History of the Old Prophets; Abu Nu'aim al-Ispahani (d.
Abu `l-Faraj, better known as Bar-Hebraeus (d.
Other members of the school of Basra were Abu `Ubaida (q.v.), Asma`i (q.v.), Mubarrad (q.v.) and Ibn Duraid.
ABU HAMED, a town of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan on the right bank of the Nile, 345 m.
Abu Hanifa >>
The Almohade Empire soon began to decay, and in 1336 Abu Zakariya, prince of Tunis, was able to proclaim himself independent and found a dynasty, which subsisted till the advent of the Turks.
The Hafsites (so called from Abu IIafs, the ancestor of Abu Zakariya, a Berber chieftain who had been one of the intimate disciples of the Almohade mandi) assumed the title of Prince of the Faithful, a dignity which was acknowledged even at Mecca, when in the days of Mostansir, the second Hafsite, the fall of Bagdad left Islam without a titular head.
The Amir Abu Yakub Yusef besieged Tlemcen in the early years of the 14th century.
An inscription records that the tower was built by order of Abu Yakub Yusef.
In 1248 Tlemcen was captured The by Abu Yahia Yarmorasen (Ghamarasan) who was Sultanate of chief of the Zenata tribe of Berbers and claimed Tlemcen.
The gad-fly (abu), the housefly (hai), the mosquito (ka), the flea (nonzi) and occasionally the bedbug (called by the Japanese kara-mushi because it is believed to be imported from China), are all fully represented, and the dragon-fly (tombO) presents itself in immense numbers at certain seasons.
The highest points of the range, reckoning from the north, are Halimat el-Kabu (8257 ft.), which has a splendid view; the Fatli block, including Tal'at Musa (8721 ft.) and the adjoining Jebel Nebi Baruh (79 00 ft.); and a third group near Bludan, in which the most prominent names are Shakif, Akhyar and Abu'l-Hin (8330 ft.).
When Abu Bekr resolved to invade Syria, he entrusted `Amr with a high command.
al-Walid, whom Abu Bekr sent in all haste from Irak to Syria, he defeated the imperial troops, commanded by Theodorus, the brother of Heraclius, not far from Ramleh in Palestine, on the 31st of July 634.
After this battle he laid siege to Jerusalem, in which enterprise he was seconded a year later by Abu Obeida, then chief commander.
Abu Hamed >>
Abu Nuwas >>
The title Amir ul Muminim, or "commander of the faithful," now borne by the sultan of Turkey, was first assumed by Abu Bekr, and was taken by most of the various dynasties which claimed the caliphate, including the Fatimites, the Spanish Omayyads and the Almohades.
At the northern end of the mudiria is Abu Hamed, important as a railway junction for Dongola mudiria.
1232 by Abu Zakariya the Hafsite.
In the 10th century it suffered severely, being repeatedly pillaged in the wars of the Fatimite caliphs Al-Qaim and Abu Tahir Ismail el Mansur with the Sunnite leader Abu Yazid and the Zenata Berbers.
When Abu Ubaida (or Obaida) attacked the place after the Moslem capture of Damascus (A.D.
Abu Salih records (12th century) that the patriarch used always to send letters twice a year to the kings of Abyssinia and Nubia, till Al Hakim stopped the practice.
One of the principal MS. sources used is the great Kitdb al-Aghani (Book of Songs) of Abu Faraj, which has since been published (20 vols., Boulak, 1868) in Egypt; but no publication of texts can deprive the Essai, which is now very rare, of its value as a trustworthy guide through a tangled mass of tradition.
Abu Bekr and his three (or four) immediate successors are known as the "perfect" caliphs; after them the title was borne by the thirteen Omayyad caliphs of Damascus, and subsequently by the thirty-seven Abbasid caliphs of Bagdad whose dynasty fell before the Turks in 1258.
The invasion of Nadir Shah of Persia came to complete the degradation of the land; and in 1740 the feeble king, Abu 'l-Faiz, paid homage to the conqueror, and was soon after murdered and supplanted by his vizier.
Like Abu Tammam, he was of the tribe of Tai.
While still young, he went to visit Abu Tammam at Homs, and by him was commended to the authorities at Ma'arrat unNu`man, who gave him a pension of 4000 dirhems (about X90) yearly.
Like Abu Tammam he made a collection of early poems, known as the Hamasa (index of the poems contained in it, in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol.
This was made by Giovanni Alfonso Borelli and Abraham Ecchellensis from the free version in Arabic made in 983 by Abu 'l-Fath of Ispahan and preserved in a Florence MS. But the best Arabic translation is that made as regards Books i.-iv.
Al-Mufaddal was a contemporary of IIammad ar-Rawiya and Khalaf al-Ahmar, the famous collectors of ancient Arab poetry and tradition, and was somewhat the junior of Abu 'Amr ibn al-'Ala, the first scholar who systematically set himself to preserve the poetic literature of the Arabs.
He died about fifty years before Abu `Ubaida and al-Asma`i, to whose labours posterity is largely indebted for the arrangement, elucidation and criticism of ancient Arabian verse; and his anthology was put together between fifty and sixty years before the compilation by Abu Tammam of the Ilamasa (q.v.).
He, no doubt, like al-Asma`i and Abu `Ubaida, also himself visited the areas occupied by the tribes for their camping grounds in the neighbouring desert; and adjacent to Kufa was al-IIIra, the ancient capital of the Lakhmid kings, whose court was the most celebrated centre in pre-Islamic Arabia, where, in the century before the preaching of the Prophet, poets from the whole of the northern half of the peninsula were wont to assemble.
The collection, in its present form, contains 126 pieces of verse, long and short; that is the number included in the recension of al-Anbari, who had the text from Abu `Ikrima of Dabba, who read it with Ibn al-A`rabi, the stepson and inheritor of the tradition of al-Mufaddal.
It is curious that this tradition is ascribed by al-Marzugi and his teacher Abu 'Ali al-Farisi to Abu `Ikrima of Dabba, who is represented by al-Anbari as the transmitter of the correct text from Ibn al-A`rabi.
There is no mention of it in al-Anbari's work, and it is in itself somewhat improbable, as in al-Asma`i's time the schools of Kufa and Basra were in sharp opposition one to the other, and Ibn al-A`rabi in particular was in the habit of censuring al-Asma`i's interpretations of the ancient poems. It is scarcely likely that he would have accepted his rival's additions to the work of his step-father, and have handed them on to Abu `Ikrima with his annotations.
Mutammim ibn Nuwaira, Rabi`a ibn Magrum, 'Abda ibn at-Tabib and Abu Dhu'aib), born in paganism, accepted Islam, their work bears few marks of the new faith.
126), the long elegy by Abu Dhu'aib of Hudhail on the death of his sons; almost every verse of this poem is cited in illustration of some phrase or meaning of a word in the national lexicons.
Many are mere fragments, and even in the longest there are often lacunae; but the compiler evidently set down all that he could collect of a poem from the memory of the rawis, and did not, like Abu Tammam, choose only the best portions.
In 1906 an edition of the whole text, with short glosses taken from al-Anbari's commentary, was published at Cairo by Abu Bakr b.
ABU KLEA, a halting-place for caravans in the Bayuda Desert, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
This is the most bitterly criticized action in his career, but no one but the man on the spot can judge how it is necessary to handle a crowd; and in addition one of the princes, Abu Bukt, heir-apparent to the throne, had made himself notorious for cutting off the arms and legs of English children and pouring the blood into their mothers' mouths.
Soon after, Messianic hopes were active at the time of the fall of the Omayyads, and led to a serious rising under Abu `Isa of Ispahan, who called himself forerunner of the Messiah.
Several Persian missionaries, including the aged and learned Mirza Abu'l-Fazl of Gulpayagan, were thereupon despatched to America by `Abbas Efendi, who was generally accepted by the American Baha'is as " the Master."
Abu Bekr, the caliph).
NAWAWI [ABU] (1233-1278), Arabian writer, was born at Nawa near Damascus.
In the latter city he studied from his eighteenth year, and there, after making the pilgrimage in 1253, he settled as a private scholar until 1267, when he succeeded Abu Shama as professor of tradition at the Ashrafiyya school.
ABU UBAIDA [Ma`mar ibn ul-Muthanna] (728-825), Arabian scholar, was born a slave of Jewish Persian parents in Basra, and in his youth was a pupil of Abu`Amr ibn ul-`Ala.
IBN HAZM [Abu Mahommed `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Hazm] (994-1064), Moslem theologian, was born in a suburb of Cordova.
Spitta, Zur Geschichte Abu `l-Hasan al As`ari's (Leipzig, 1876); A.
But the manifestation of the 7th age is not a Mandi who is yet to come, but the historical person `Ali ibn abu Talib.
This is stated in the crudest form in Sura 1 i of the Majmu`: " I testify that there is no god but `Ali ibn abu Talib."
In the west, isolated peaks, such as Jebel Abu Senum and Jebel Kordofan, rise from 150 to 600 ft.
Though there are no perennial rivers, there are watercourses (khors or wadis) in the rainy season; the chief being the Khor Abu Habl, which traverses the southcentral region.
At Drah abu'l nagga, opposite to it, are tombs of its princes under the VIth Dynasty.
A great temple at Tanis boasted a larger colossus than existed in Thebes: Heliopolis and Memphis must have been lavishly adorned, and the temples of Abu Simbel alone would have been sufficient to satisfy the ambition of many of the great Pharaohs.
The necropolis extends from Kurna in the north through Drah abu'l nagga, the Assasif, and Shekh abd el Kurna to Kurnet Murrai of Medinet Habu.
IBN HISHAM [Abu Mahommed `Abdulmalik ibn Hisham ibn Ayyub ul-Himyari] (d.
They were, however, completely conquered by Abu Bakr, who espoused the defeated chief's widow, Zainab.
In 1061 Abu Bakr made a division of the power he had established, handing over the more settled parts to his cousin Yusef ibn Tashfin, as viceroy, resigning to him also his favourite wife Zainab, who had the reputation of a sorceress.
BAKRI [Abu `Ubaid `Abdallah ibn `Abd ul-`Aziz ul-Bakri], (1040-1094), Arabian geographer, was born at Cordova.
Omar then began to fear that the Koran might be entirely forgotten, and he induced the Caliph Abu Bekr to undertake the collection of all its parts.
From these he wrote a fair copy, which he gave to Abu Bekr, from whom it came to his successor Omar, who again bequeathed it to his daughter IIafsa, one of the widows of the Prophet.
So, on the other hand, there is no single verse or clause which can be plausibly made out to be an interpolation by Zaid at the instance of Abu Bekr, Omar, or Othman.
Abu Sephirl O I ? ?
Zawiet Abu Mesalle Ez.
The principal Coptic church is that of Abu Serga (St Sergius).
In the Der Abu Sephin, to the north of Babylon, is a Coptic church of the 10th century, possessing magnificent carved screens, a pulpit with fine mosaics and a semi-circle of marble steps.
The highest peaks, going from north to south, are Jebels Gharib, Dukhan, Es Shayib, Fatira, Abu Tiur, Zubara and Hammada (Hamata).
East of the oases of Baharia and Farafra is a very striking line of these sand dunes; rarely more than 3 miles wide, it extends almost continuously from Moghara in the north, passing along the west side of Kharga Oasis to a point near the Nile in the neighborhood of Abu Siinbelhaving thus a length of nearly 550 m.
The ruined temples of Abu Simbel are on the west side of the Nile, 56 m.
These are all presided over by a direct descendant of the caliph Abu Bekr, called the Sheikh El-Bekri.
On the 7th of August 1897 Colonel Hunter surprised and annihilated a weak Dervish garrison at Abu Hamed, to which place, by the 31st of October 1897, a railway had been laid across the Nubian desert from Wadi Haifa, a distance of 230 m., the record construction of 5300 yds surveyed, embanked and laid in one day having been attained.
Such are found from the 6th century n.c. in the inscription of Abu Simbel, from the 5th in Herodotus, &c., and abound in Ptolemaic and later documents from the beginning of the 3rd century B.C. onwards.
The principal remaining buildings are part of a court at Memphis, the second temple at Abydos, and the six Nubian temples of Bet el-Wgli, Jerf Husein, Wadi es-Sebtia, Derr, and the grandest of allthe rock-cut temple of Abu Simbel, with its neighboring temple of Hathor.
The excavation of the rock temple of Abu Simbel and the completion of the great hail of Karnak were his greatest achievements in architecture.
Abu Bekr, 3738 (658).
Abu Sofin, 4344 (664665).
Abu Aun Abdalmalik b.
AbU Aun, 137141 (755758)second time.
Abu Salib Yabya b.
Abu Nasr Mahommed b.
YabyS abu 1-Hasan al-Armani, 226228 (841842).
Saif al-din Abu Bakr, 635637 (1238-1240).
At his death in 1044 the chief influence passed into the hands of Abu Sad, a Jew, and the former master of the queen-mother, and at the end of four years he was assassinated at the instance of another Jew (Sad4ah, perhaps Zedekiah, b.
His name was Abu Bakr.
The son, Abu Bakr, to whom he had left the throne, was able to maintain himself only a few months on it, being compelled to abdicate on the 4th of August 1341 in favor of his infant brother Kuchuk; the revolution was brought about by Kaustin, a powerful Mameluke of the preceding monarch.
180; the greater Nashi (Abu l-Abbs Abdallah), d.
Beyond Korti lay the very difficult section of the river to Abu Hamed, which was quite unknown.
Stewart returned on the 5th of January, and started again on the 8th, with orders to establish a fort at Abu Klea and to occupy Metemma.
The Desert Column, 1800 men, with 2880 camels in poor condition and 153 horses, found the enemy in possession of Abu Klea wells on the 16th, and was desperately attacked on the 17th.
below Abu Hamed, a point where the Korosko desert route strikes the Nile, 350 m.
He considered it necessary to hold Dongola, and he reported that he was distributing this army along the left bank of the Nile, on the open reach of water between the Hannek cataract and Abu Dom, opposite Merawi.
The khalifa sent the amir Hamdan Abu Angar, a very skilful leader, with an army of over 80,000 men against him.
Abu Angar entered Abyssinia and, in August 1887, attacked Ras Adal in the plain of Debra Sin and, after a prolonged battle, defeated the Abyssinians, captured their camp, and marched on Gondar, the ancient capital of Abyssinia, which he sacked, and then returned into Gallabat.
The Darfurian chiefs then allied themselves with Abu Gemaiza, sheikh of the Masalit Arabs, who had proclaimed himself Khalifa Osman, and was known as the anti-mahdi.
Abu Gemaiza attacked a portion of Osman Adams force, under Abd-elKader, at Kebkebia, 30 m.
His army, however, under Fiki Adam, fought a fierce battle close to El Fasher on the 22nd, which resulted in its defeat and dispersion, and Abu Gemaiza himself dying the following day, the movement collapsed.
Two years later a saint of Sokoto, Abu Naal Muzil el Muhan, collected many followers and for a time threatened the khalifas power, but the revolt gradually died out.
In 1893 the dervish amir, Abu Mariam, fought with the Dinka tribe and was killed and his force destroyed, the fugitives taking refuge in Shakka.
The railway up the right bank of the Nile was continued to Kerma, in order to evade the difficulties of the 3rd cataract; but the sirdar had conceived the bold project of cutting off the great angle of the Nile from Wadi Haifa to Abu Hamed, involving nearly 600 m.
including the 4th cataract, by constructing a railway across the Nubian desert, and so bringing his base at Wadi Haifa within a few hours of his force, when it should have advanced to Abu Hamed, instead of ten days.
to Abu Hamed.
into the desert towards Abu Hamed, when it became necessary, before it was carried farther, to secure that terminus by an advance from Merawi.
He occupied Abu Klea wells and Metemma; recalled the amir Ibrahim Khalil, with 4000 men, from the Ghezira; brought to Omdurman thc army of the west under Mahmudsome 10,000 men; entrusted the line of the AtbaraEd Darner, Adarama, Asubri and El Fasherto Osman Digna; constructed defences in the Shabluka gorge; and personally superintended the organization and drill of the forces gathered at Orndurman, and the collection of vast stores of food and supplies of camels for offensive expeditions.
On the 29th of July, after several reconnaissances, MajorGeneral Hunter, with a flying column, marched up the Nile from near Merawi to Abu Hamed, 133 m.
By the end of the month the gunboats had surmounted the 4th cataract and reached Abu Hamed.
The railway reached Abu Hamed on the 4th of November, and was pushed rapidly forward along the right bank of the Nile towards Berber.
By the end of January the concentration was complete, and the British brigade, under MajorGeneral Gatacre, was at Dakhesh, south of Abu Hamed.
The very next day he encountered Ahmed Fedil at Abu Aadel, drove him from his position with great loss, and captured his camp and a large supply of grain he was convoying to the khalifa.
Nizam-uddin Abu Mahommed Ilyas bin Yusuf, Persian poet, was born 535 A.H.
Khosrau and Shirin was inscribed to the reigning atabeg of Azerbaijan, Abu Ja`far Mahommed Pahlavan, and his brother Kizil Arslan, who, soon after his accession to the throne in 582 A.H., showed his gratitude to the poet by summoning him to his court, loading him with honours, and bestowing upon him the revenue of two villages, Hamd and Nijan.
As for the date of composition, it is evident, from the conflicting statements in the different MSS., that there must have been an earlier and a later recension, the former belonging to 587-589 A.H., and dedicated to the prince of Mosul, `Izz-uddin Mas`ud, the latter made for the atabeg Nusrat-uddin Abu Bakr of Azerbaijan after 593 A.H., since we find in it a mention of Nizaml's last romance Haft Paikar, or the "Seven Beauties," which comprises seven tales related by the seven favourite wives of the Sassanian king Bahramgur.
(767), we find it transferred without question to the mystical brotherhood which appears in Khorasan under Abu Sa'id about 200 A.H.
The raj was founded in 1657 by Abu Ra Kapur, of the Kapur Khatri family of Kotli in Lahore, Punjab, whose descendants served in turn the Mogul emperors and the British government.
The quarrel was taken up by his brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu'l-Abbas as-Saffah, who after a decisive victory on the Greater Zab (750) finally crushed the Omayyads and was proclaimed caliph.
their headquarters run as follows: - Ras el Kheima, Umm el Qaiwein, 'Ajman, Sharja, Dibai, Abu Dhabi, Qatar.
Red ochre, for which there is only a limited market, is mined on Ormuz, Abu Musa and other islands in the Gulf; salt, as deposits, on Ormuz and Qishm I., and by evaporation, near Mohammerah, Fao and elsewhere on both sides of the Gulf; gypsum is widely distributed throughout the Gulf; iron, as haematite and pyrites, widely found through the Ormuz series.
His successor, Abu Bekr, called on the tribes of Arabia to unite and to capture the fertile province.
Heraclius had not sufficient time to prepare to meet this new foe, and was defeated in his first engagement with Abu Bekr.
At the western extremity, Mount Abu, famous for its exquisite Jain temples, rises, as a solitary outpost of the AravalIi hills 5650 ft.
On the extreme east, Mount Parasnath - like Mount Abu on the extreme west, sacred to Jain rites - rises to 4400 ft.
On the western edge of the plateau are the Aravalli hills, which run from near Ahmedabad up to the neighbourhood of Delhi, and include one hill, Mount Abu, over 5000 ft.
At Ajmer, an old meteorological station at the eastern foot of the range, the wind is predominantly south-west, and there and at Mount Abu the south-west monsoon rains are a regularly recurrent phenomenon, - which can hardly be said of the region of scanty and uncertain rainfall that extends from the western foot of the range and merges in the Bikaner desert.
IBN `ARABI [Muhyiuddin Abu `Abdallah ibn ul-'Arabi] (1165-1240), Moslem theologian and mystic, was born in Murcia and educated in Seville.
The Emigrants' leading spirit was Omar; he did not, however, cause homage to be paid to himself, but to Abu Bekr, the friend and father-in-law of the Prophet.
Reign of Abu Bekr.
- Abu Bekr proved himself quite equal to the perilous situation.
- Abu Bekr died after a short reign on the 22nd of August 634, and as a matter of course was succeeded by Omar.
We have already seen that Mahomet himself prepared the way for this transference; Abu Bekr and Omar likewise helped it; the Emigrants were unanimous among themselves in thinking that the precedence and leadership belonged to them as of right.
Sho`ba, and, above all, old Abu Sofian with his son Moawiya.
Abu Bekr followed the Prophet's example.
It was he who appointed Yazid, the son of Abu Sofian, and after his death, his brother Moawiya as governor of Syria, and assigned the province of Egypt to Amr-ibn-el-Ass (`Amr b.
- Moawiya, son of the well-known Meccan chief Abu Sofian, embraced Islam together with his father and his brother Yazid, when the Prophet conquered Mecca, and was, like them, treated with the greatest distinction.
When Abu Bekr sent his troops for the conquest of Syria, Yazid, the eldest son of Abu Sofian, held one of the chief commands, with Moawiya as his lieutenant.
On each side an umpire was appointed, Abu Musa al-Ash`ari, the candidate of Ash`ath, on that of Ali, Amr-ibn-el-Ass (q.v.) on that of Moawiya.
About the same time the constitutional party rose against Ali's vicegerent Mahommed, son of Abu Bekr, who had been the leader of the murderous attack on Othman.
This remarkable man was said to be a bastard of Abu Sofian, the father of Moawiya, and was, by his mother, the brother of Abu Bakra, a man of great wealth and position at Basra.
Ziyad was obdurate, and it was due to his brother Abu Bakra, who persuaded Moawiya to cancel the order, that the threat was not executed.
Moawiya seems also to have acknowledged him as the son of Abu Sofian, and thus as his brother; in 664 this recognition was openly declared.'
But the Shiites were dissatisfied and 1 A single genealogist, Abu Yagazan, says that he was a legitimate son of Abu Sofian, and that his mother was Asma, daughter of A`war.
But all others call his mother Somayya, who is said to have been a slave-girl of Hind, the wife of Abu Sofian, and who became later also the mother of Abu Bakra.
We cannot make out whether Abu Sofian acknowledged him as his son or not.
The hereditary principle had not been recognized by Islam in the cases of Abu Bekr, Omar and Othman; it had had some influence upon the choice of Ali, the husband of Fatima and the cousin of the Prophet.
The example of Abu Bekr proved that the caliph had the right to appoint his successor.
There were, however, not a few who deplored the fact that the throne had passed from the descendants of Abu Sofian.
Meanwhile Mokhtar (son of that Abu `Obaid the Thaqifite who had commanded the Arabs against the Persians in the unfortunate battle of the Bridge), a man of great talents and still greater ambition, after having supported Ibn Zobair in the siege of Mecca, had gone to Kufa, where he joined the Shiites, mostly Persians, and acquired great power.
Hajjaj had set up a balista on the hill of Abu Qobais, whence he.poured on the city a hail of stones, which was suspended only in the days of the pilgrimage.
Hajjaj having promised him amnesty if he would surrender, he went to his mother Asma, the daughter of Abu Bekr, who had reached the age of a hundred years, and asked her counsel.
Suleiman was kind towards the Alids and was visited by several of them, amongst others by Abu Hashim, the son of Mahommed b.
Abu Moslim, the founder of the Abbasid dynasty, proclaimed himself his avenger, and on that occasion adopted the black garments, which remained the distinctive colour of the dynasty.
A year later the governor, Abu`l-Khattar, assigned to his troops for settlement divers countries belonging to the p ublic domain.
On the news of the murder of the caliph, the citizens of Horns (Emesa) put at their head Abu Mahommed as-Sofiani, a grandson of Yazid I., and marched against Damascus.
Abu Mahommed was taken prisoner and shut up with several of his brethren and cousins in the Khadra, the old palace of Moawiya, together with the two sons of Walid II.
Only Abu Mahommed as-Sofiani escaped the murderers.
Thus he paved the way for Abu Moslim.
The other party, that of the ultra-Shiites, named Hashimiya after Abu Hashim the son of Mahommed b.
al-Ilanafiya, and at his decease his son Abu Hashim, from whom Mahommed b.
This man, Abu Moslim by name, was a man of real ability and devoted to his master's cause.
At first the chiefs of the mission were by no means prepared to recognize Abu Moslim as the plenipotentiary of the heir of the Prophet.
Kathir was still leader, but by the end of the year Abu Moslim, whom the majority believed to belong himself to the family of the Prophet, was the acknowledged head of a strong army.
Then, at last, the true significance of Abu Moslim's work was recognized.
But Abu Moslim contrived to re-awaken their mutual distrust and jealousy, and, taking advantage of the opportunity, made himself master of Merv, in Rabia II.
Many Arab chiefs were killed, partly by order of Abu Moslim, partly by their clients.
The latter, however, was strictly forbidden by Abu Moslim.
As soon as Abu Moslim had consolidated his authority, he sent his chief general Qahtaba against Nishapur.
But they arrived at Kufa in the latter half of September 749, where in the meantime the head of the propaganda, Abu Salama, called the wazir of the family of Mahomet, had previously undertaken the government.
This Abu Salama seems to have had scruples against recognizing Abul-Abbas as the successor of his brother Ibrahim, and to have expected that the Mandi, whom he looked for from Medina, would not be slow in making his appearance, little thinking that an Abbasid would present himself as such.
But Abu Jahm, on the instructions of Abu Moslim, declared to the chief officers of the Khorasanian army that the Mandi was in their midst, and brought them to Abu`1-Abbas, to whom they swore allegiance.
Abu Salama also was constrained to take the oath.
132 (28th November 749) Abu'l-Abbas was solemnly proclaimed caliph in the principal mosque of Kufa.
After the conquest of Nehawend, Qahtaba had detached one of his captains, Abu `Aun, to Shahrazur, where he defeated the Syrian army which was stationed there.
Thereupon Abu `Aun occupied the land of Mosul, where he obtained reinforcements from Kufa, headed by Abdallah b.
Ali, an uncle of Abu'l-Abbas, who was to have the supreme command.
Abu Aun, who had been the real leader of the campaign against Merwan, remained in Egypt as its governor.
Ibn Hobaira, who had been besieged in Wasit for eleven months, then consented to a capitulation, which was sanctioned by Abu'l-Abbas.
Ali pretended to grant an amnesty to all Omayyads who should come in to him at Abu Fotros (Antipatris) and acknowledge the new caliph,and even promised them the restitution of all their property.
Ali, another uncle of Abu'l-Abbas, conducted the persecution; in Basra, Suleiman b.
Abu'l-Abbas himself killed those he could lay his hands on in Hira and Kufa, amongst them Suleiman b.
Abu'l-Abbas inaugurated his Caliphate by a harangue in which he announced the era of concord and happiness which was to begin now that the House of the Prophet had been restored to its right.
Notwithstanding these fine words, Abu'l-Abbas did not trust 1 Merwan has been nicknamed al-Ja`di and al-Himar (the Ass).
For their real sympathies, he knew, were with the house of Ali, and Abu Salama their leader, who had reluctantly taken the oath of allegiance, did not conceal his disappointment.
Abu Jahm, the vizier (q.v.; also Mahommedan Institutions), or "helper," of Abu Moslim, advised that Abu Ja`far, the caliph's brother, should be sent to Khorasan to consult Abu Moslim.
The result was that Abu Salama was assassinated, and at the same time Suleiman b.
It is said that Abu Ja`far, whilst in Khorasan, was so impressed by the unlimited power of Abu Moslim, and saw so clearly that, though he called his brother and himself his masters, he considered them as his creatures, that he vowed his death at the first opportunity.
To his brother Abu Ja`far he gave Mesopotamia, Azerbaijan and Armenia; to his uncle Abdallah b.
Ali that of Ahwaz; Abu Moslim, Khorasan and Transoxiana; Mahommed b.
Ash`ath, Fars; Abu 'Aun, Egypt.
In 754 Abu Moslim came to Irak to visit Abu`l-Abbas and to ask his permission to make the pilgrimage to Mecca.
He was received with great honour, but the caliph said that he was sorry not to be able to give him the leadership of the pilgrimage, which he had already purposely entrusted to his brother, Abu Ja`far.
Abu'l-Abbas died on the 13th of Dhu`l-hijja 136 (5th June 754).
He initiated practically nothing without the consent of Abu Jahm, who was thus the real ruler.
In the few cases where he had to decide, he acted under the influence of his brother Abu Ja`far.
- Abu`l-Abbas had designated as his successors first Abu Ja`far, surnamed al-Mansur (the victorious), and after him his cousin `Isa b.
Abu Ja`far was, according to the historians, older than Abu`l-Abbas, but while the mother of the latter belonged to the powerful Yemenite tribe of alHarith b.
Ka`b, the mother of Abu Ja`far was a Berber slave-girl.
Ali, and was therefore preferred by Abu Moslim to his uncles and cousins.
Abu'l-Abbas, however, had promised the succession to his uncle Abdallah b.
When the news of the death of Abu`1-Abbas reached Abdallah, who at the head of a numerous army was on the point of renewing the Byzantine war, he came to Harran, furious at his exclusion, and proclaimed himself caliph.
Abu Moslim marched against him, and the two armies met at Nisibis, where, after a number of skirmishes, a decisive engagement took place (28th November 7 54).
The first care of Mansur was now to get rid of the powerful Abu Moslim, who had thus by another brilliant service strengthened his great reputation.
On pretence of conferring with him on important business of state, Mansur induced him, in spite of the warnings of his best general, Abu Nasr, to come to Madam (Ctesiphon), and in the most perfidious manner caused him to be murdered by his guards.
A witty man, being asked his opinion about Abu Ja`far (Mansur) and Abu Moslim, said, alluding to the Koran 21, verse 22, "if there were two Gods, the universe would be ruined."
Khozaima in Mesopotamia, and by Abu Da`ud, the governor of Khorasan in the east.
Mansur had written to Abdarrahman, announcing the death of Abu`l-Abbas, and requiring him to take the oath of allegiance.
The name of Hashimiya, which the reigning family still retained, was henceforward derived not from Abu Hashim, but from Hashim, the grandfather of Abbas, the great-grandfather of the Prophet.
The reign of Abu'l-Abbas and the first part of that of Mansur had been almost a continuation of the former period.
But now his equals in birth and rank, the Omayyads and the Alids, had been crushed; the principal actors in the great struggle, the leaders of the propaganda and Abu Moslim were out of the way; the caliph stood far above all his subjects; and his only possible antagonists were the members of his own family.
This Khalid, who was descended from an old sacerdotal family in Balkh, and had been one of the trusty supporters of Abu Moslim, Mansur appointed as minister of finance.
Sahl was defeated, and Abu`l-Saraya, no longer content to play a second part, poisoned his chief, Ibn Tabataba, and put in his place another of the family of Ali, Mahommed b.
Abu`l-Saraya's success continued, and several cities of Irak - Basra, Wasit and Madain - fell into his hands.
Abu'l-Saraya, who even struck money in Kufa, began to menace the capital, when Hasan b.
Abu`l-Saraya and Mahommed b.
Harthama, having vanquished Abu'l-Saraya, did not go to Hasan b.
- Abu Ishak al-Motasim had for a long time been preparing himself for the succession.
A proposition by the cadi Abu Yusuf to Harun al-Rashid to renew it had not been adopted.
Khagan, the able vizier of Mohtadi, and by Motamid's talented brother Abu Ahmad al-Mowaffaq; Musa.
When the latter died in the year 891, his son Abu 1.-`Abbas, al-Mo`tadid (" he who seeks his support in God"), was put in his place.
The mighty house of Abu Dolaf in the south-west of Media, which had never ceased to encroach on the Caliphate, was put down.
Abu Sa`id al-Jannabi, who had founded a Carmathian state in Bahrein, the north-eastern province of Arabia (actually called Lahsa), which could become dangerous for the pilgrim road as well as for the commerce of Basra, in the year 900 routed an army sent against him by Motadid, and warned the caliph that it would be safer to let the Carmathians alone.
Far more dangerous, however, for the Caliphate of Bagdad at the time were the Carmathians of Bahrein, then guided by Abu Tahir, the son of Abu Sa`id Jannabi.
The government of Bagdad resolved to crush the Carmathians, but a large army was utterly defeated by Abu Tahir in 315 (927), and Bagdad was seriously threatened.
His own wish was to call Abu Ahmad, a son of Moktafi, or a son of Moqtadir, to the Caliphate, but the majority of generals preferring Qahir because he was an adult man and had no mother at his side, he acquiesced, although he had a personal dislike for him, knowing his selfish and cruel character.
He ill-treated the sons of Moqtadir and Abu Ahmad, and ultimately assassinated his patrons Munis and Yalbak, whose guardianship he resented.
While the Abbasid dynasty was thus dying out in shame and degradation, the Fatimites, in the person of Mo'izz li-din-allah (or Mo`izz Abu Tamin Ma'add) ("he who makes God's religion victorious"), were reaching the highest degree of power and glory in spite of the opposition of the Carmathians, who left their old allegiance and entered into negotiations with the court of Bagdad, offering to drive back the Fatimites, on condition of being assisted with money and troops, and of being rewarded with the government of Syria and Egypt.
He not only caused the mourning for the death of Hosain and other Shiite festivals to be celebrated at Bagdad, but also allowed imprecations against Moawiya and even against Mahomet's wife Ayesha and the caliphs Abu Bekr, Omar and Othman, to be posted up at the doors of the mosques.
With him expired the eastern Caliphate of the Abbasids, which had lasted 524 years, from the entry of Abu`l-Abbas into Kufa.
In vain, three years later, did Abu'l-Qasim Ahmad, a scion of the race of the Abbasids, who had taken refuge in Egypt with Bibars the Mameluke sultan, and who had been proclaimed caliph under the title al-Mostansir billah (" he who seeks help from God"), make an effort to restore a dynasty which was now for ever extinct.
In the inscriptions of Nabonidus the name is written Ishtuvegu (cylinder from Abu Habba V R 64, col.
P.) AMA`I [Abu Said `Abd ul-Malik ibn Quraib] (c. 739-831), Arabian scholar, was born of pure Arab stock in Basra and was a pupil there of Abu `Amr ibn ul- 'Ala.
He was also a student of language and a critic. It was as a critic that he was the great rival of Abu `Ubaida.
It can be traced in the graffiti of the mercenaries of Psammetichus at Abu Simbel in Upper Egypt, where Greeks, Carians and Phoenicians all cut their names upon the legs of the colossal statues.
ABU Abdullah Mahommed, surnamed IBN Batuta (1304-1378), the greatest of Moslem travellers, was born at Tangier in 1304.
BAR - HEBRAEUS or ABU'L-Faraj, a maphrian or catholicus of the Jacobite (Monophysite) Church in the 13th century, and (in Dr. Wright's words) "one of the most learned and versatile men that Syria ever produced."
ALI, in full, 'ALI BEN ABU TALIB (c. 600-661), the fourth of the caliphs or successors of Mahomet, was born at Mecca about the year A.D.
His father, Abu Talib, was an uncle of the prophet, and Ali himself was adopted by Mahomet and educated under his care.
Abu Bekr, Omar and Othman, however, occupied this position before him, and it was not until 656, after the murder of Othman, that he assumed the title of caliph.
Abu Musa was appointed umpire on the part of Ali, and 'Amr-ibn-el-Ass, a veteran diplomatist, on the part of Moawiya.
It is said that 'Amr persuaded Abu Musa that it would be for the advantage of Islam that neither candidate should reign, and asked him to give his decision first.
Abu Musa having proclaimed that he deposed both Ali and Moawiya, `Amr declared that he also deposed Ali, and announced further that he invested Moawiya with the caliphate.
639 the town surrendered to Abu 'Obeida, one of Omar's generals, and the church was turned into a mosque.
ABU, a mountain of Central India, situated in 24° 36' N.
Abu is now the summer residence of the governor-general's agent for Rajputana, and a place of resort for Europeans in the hot weather.
It is 16 miles from the Abu road station of the Rajputana railway.
Ziyad, son of Abu Sofian, in the reign of Moawiya I.), and the policy of eastern expansion brought the Arab armies perpetually into the Persian provinces.
At the same time the Khorasanians bad fought for the old Alid family, not for the Abbasids, and with the murder of Abu Moslim discontent again began to grow among the Shiites.
This family was descended from one Abu Shaja Buya, who claimed to be of the old Sassanian house and had become a chieftain in Dailam.
He had successively fought for the Samanids and the Ziyarids,3 a dynasty of Jorjan, and his son Imad addaula (ed-dowleh, originally Abu 1 Uasan Au) received from Mardawij of the latter house the governorship of Karaj; his second son Rokn addaula (Abu All Uasan) subsequently held Rai and Isfahan, while the third, Moizz addaula (Abu 1 Ilosain Ahmad) secured KermAn, Ahvaz and even Bagdad.
It was at this I Abu Dolaf Qasim b.
His successors were Zahir addaula (ud-daula, ed-dowleh) Abu Mansur Washmagir (935967), Bistun (967976), Shams al Maali Qabus (97&1o12), Falak al Maali Manushahr (1012-1029), Anushirw~n (1029-1042).
lljaitu was a Shiite and even stamped his coins with the names of the twelve Shiite imams. He died in 1316, and was succeeded by Abu Said, his son.
Abu Said died of fever in 1335, and with him the first Mongol or Ilkhan dynasty of Persia practically came to an end.
Then Uasan Kuchuk set up one Sati-beg, Abu Saids daughter, and wife successively of Chupan, Arfa Khan and one Suleiman, the last of whom was khan from 1339 to 1343; in the same time I~Iasan Buzurg set up successively Mahommed, Tugha-Timur and JahanTimur.
Practically from the reign of Abu Said Persia was divided under five minor dynasties, (I) the Jelairids, (2) the Mozaffarids, MInor (3) the Sarbadarids (Serbedarians), (4) the Beni Dynasties.
His son Mobariz ud-din Mahommed, who followed him in 1313, became governor in Fars under Abu Said, in Kerman in 1340, and subsequently made himself independent at Fars and Shiraz (1353) and in Isfahan.
After him Abu Said, grandson of Miran Shah, and once governor of Fars, became a candidate for empire, and allied himself with the Uzbeg Tatars, seized Bokhara, entered Khorasan, and waged war upon the Turkoman tribe aforesaid, which, since the invasion of Azerbaijan, had, under Jahan Shah, overrun Irak, Fars and Kermgn, and pillaged Herat.
It is difficult to assign dates to a few events recorded in Persian history for the eighteen years following the death of Abd ulLatif; and, were it not for chance European missions, the same difficulty would be felt in dealing with the period after the death of Abu Said up to the accession of Ismail Sufi in 1499.
Sultan Ahmad, eldest son of Abu Said, reigned in Bokhara; his brother, Ornar Sheikh, in Ferghana; but the son of the latter, the great Babar, was driven by the Uzbegs to Kabul and India.
The nearest approach to a sovereignty in those parts on the death of Abu Said is that of Uzun Ijasan, the leader of the Ak Kuyun, or White Sheep Turkomans, and conqueror of the Black Sheep, whose chief, Jahan Shah, he defeated and slew.
i According to Langls, the annotator of Chardin, his real designation was Abu l-Fath Izhak, the Sheikh Saifu l-Hakk wu d-Din or pure one of truth and religion.
When intelligence of these events reached Kerm~n, Sadik Khan hastened to Shiraz, proclaimed himself king in place of Abu l-Fatb Khan, whom he declared incompe- ~ M d tent, to reign, and put out the eyes of the young prince.
The most accomplished minstrels of his time were Mlnst,aels Mahommed FarklSdi (or FarSlSwI); Abfl l-Abbks of 10th of BokhSrg, a writer of very tender verses; Abu Century.
The first Persian who employed poetry exclusively for the illustration of Sufic doctrines was Firdousis con- ~ Poets temporary, the renowned sheikh Abu SaId b.
Some of the works, however, with which he has been credited (including the Theoria or Theorica planetarum, and the versions of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine - the basis of the numerous subsequent Latin editions of that well-known work - and of the Almansorius of Abu Bakr Razi) are probably due to a later Gerard, of the 13th century, also called Cremonensis but more precisely de Sabloneta (Sabbionetta).
The Christian story first appears in Greek among the works of John of Damascus, who flourished in the early part of the 8th century, and who, before he adopted the monastic life, had held high office at the court of the caliph Abu Ja`far al-Mansur, as his father Sergius is said to have done before him.
IBN ISHAQ [[[Mahommed Ahmed Ibn Seyyid Abdullah|Mahommed ibn]] Ishaq Abu `Abdallah] (d.
The name Geber has long been used to designate the author of a number of Latin treatises on alchemy, entitled Summa perfectionis magisterii, De investigatione perfectionis, De inventione veritatis, Liber fornacum, Testamentum Geberi Regis Indiae and Alchemia Geberi, and these writings were generally regarded as translations from the Arabic originals of Abu Abdallah Jaber ben Hayyam (Haiyan) ben Abdallah al-Kufi, who is supposed to have lived in the 8th or 9th century of the Christian era.
slope of the "Hill of Evil Counsel" (Jebel Deir Abu Tor), was used as a burial-place for Christian pilgrims from the 6th century A.D.
ALHAZEN (ABU ALI AL-HASAN IBN ALHASAN), Arabian mathematician of the 11th century, was born at Basra and died at Cairo in 1038.
and an elevation of loon to 3000 ft., the highest point being Mount Abu, rising to 5653 ft., near the south-western extremity of the range.
The Masjid Sabz, with its green-tiled dome, is said to be the tomb of a Khwaja, Abu' Narsi Parsar.
ABULFEDA [Abu l-Fida' Isma`il ibn 'Alf `Imad-ud-Dni] (1273-1331), Arabian historian and geographer, was born at Damascus, whither his father Malik ul-Afdal, brother of the prince of Hamah, had fled from the Mongols.
ABU HANIFA AN-NUMAN IBN THABIT Mahommedan canon lawyer, was born at Kufa in A.H.
Abu Klea >>
Immediately beyond these, on the side facing Jebel Abu Kobais, a broad street runs south-east and north-west across the valley.
4 On the similar pelting of the supposed graves of Abu Lahab and his wife (Ibn Jubair, p. I io) and of Abu Righal at Mughammas, see Noldeke's translation of Tabari, p. 208.
Their magnificent series of temples and shrines on Mount Abu, one of the seven wonders of India, is perhaps the most striking outward sign of their wealth and importance.
BOABDIL (a corruption of the name Abu Abdullah), the last Moorish king of Granada, called el chico, the little, and also el zogoybi, the unfortunate.
A son of Muley Abu'l Hassan, king of Granada, he was proclaimed king in 1482 in place of his father, who was driven from the land.
14 a brought to Spain by a merchant from the China seas (Abu I;Iamid of Spain, in Damiri, s.v.).
Although Tycho Brahe was an original discoverer of this inequality, through whom it became known, Joseph Bertrand of Paris claimed the discovery for Abu 'l-Wefa, an Arabian astronomer, and made it appear that the latter really detected inequalities in the moon's motion which we now know to have been the variation.
The two chief centres of sun-worship in Babylonia were Sippara (Sippar), represented by the mounds at Abu Habba, and Larsa, represented by the modern Senkerah.
M.) Baidawi (`Abdallah ibn `Umar al-Baidawi), Mahommedan critic, was born in Fars, where his father was chief judge, in the time of the Atabek ruler Abu Bakr ibn Sa'd (1226-1260).
A falcon-headed sphinx was dedicated to Harmachis in the temple of Abu Simbel, and is occasionally found in sculptures representing the king as Horus, or Mont, the war-god.
Abu 1-`Abbas as-Saffah, the founder of the Abbasid caliphate, made it his capital, and such it remained until the founding of Bagdad in 762.
On the Nile north of Khartum at the towns of Berber, Abu Hamed, Merawi (Merowe), Dongola and Wadi Haifa.
The first line runs from the Nile at Wadi Haifa across the desert in a direct line to Abu Hamed, and from that point follows more or less closely the right (east) bank of the Nile to Khartum.
In 1905 gold mining recommenced in Nubia, in the district of Urn Nabardi, which is in the desert, about midway between Wadi Halfa and Abu Hamed.
banks from Aswan to Abu Simbel were threatened with inundation and the scientific world took alarm.
For excepting Philae, which belongs as much to Egypt as to Ethiopia, Abu Simbel is the only temple which can be ranked among first rate products of Egyptian genius.
The influence he gained at length aroused the anxiety of the authorities, and in May 1881 a certain Abu Saud, a notorious scoundrel, was sent to Abba Island to bring the sheikh to Khartum.
Abu Saud's mission failed, and Mahommed Ahmed no longer hesitated to call himself al-Mandi al Montasir, "The Expected Guide."
The most important of these are Abu Arish, Bet el Fakih and Zubed in the western Tehama, the latter a thriving town of 20,000 inhabitants and the residence of a Turkish kaimakam; and Abyan and Lahej, the chief place of the independent Abdali tribe, in the southern Tehama.
For Abu'l-Mahasin, an Egyptian historian who died in 1470, writing of IIamdi, a famous highwayman of Bagdad in the 10th century, remarks that he is probably the figure who used to be popularly spoken of as Ahmad al-Danaf (ed.
It would seem that Abu'l-Mahasin had read or heard the stories in the Nights, and was thus led to compare the historical with the fictitious character.
The clouds which strike Kathiawar and Cutch are deprived of a great deal of their moisture by the hills in those countries, and the greater part of the remainder is deposited on Mount Abu and the higher slopes of the Aravalli mountains, leaving but little for Merwara, where the hills are lower, and still less for Ajmere.
Controversial cleric vows to defy mosque ban 18 January 2003 Charity bosses remove Abu Hamza.
controversial cleric vows to defy mosque ban 18 January 2003 Charity bosses remove Abu Hamza.
Book your abu dhabi downtown car hire quickly and securely online with the experts in abu dhabi downtown car rental.
dream on firstname.lastname@example.org Report 10/06/2006, 4:29 PM Matty Joined on 29/01/2004 Posts 1,269 Re: Abu Musab al Zarqawi.
The recipe given here by Abu'l-Qasim produces a body closely akin to that of ancient Egyptian faience.
Abu Muhammad ibn Abi Zayd gave a fatwa to kill a man who was listening to some people discussing what the Prophet looked like.
felucca boat rides are on offer here as well as the option to visit Abu Simbel.
The Nicholas Berg murder video was actually titled " Sheikh Abu Musab al-Zarqawi slaughters an American infidel with his own hands " .
interrogation techniques used in Iraq Abu Ghraib prison bear a striking similarity.
Over the years, CIA and military interrogators have repeatedly attempted to suborn testimony from both men, linking Abu Qatada to al Qaida.
narrated on the authority of Abu Tahir with this chain of transmitters.
Abu ' Ubayd al-Qasim ibn Salam was careful regarding the satirical poems of the Arabs he quoted in his books.
In 1950, the community moved to Mount Abu, a quiet place reputed for its ancient spiritual heritage.
New evidence for the Neolithic settlement of Marawah Island, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Abu'l-Wafa and Abu Nasr Mansur both applied spherical geometry to astronomy and also used formulas involving sin and tan.
suborn testimony from both men, linking Abu Qatada to al Qaida.
Mr Abu Rideh's lawyers say he is too mentally unbalanced to be involved in terrorist activity.
Look who's back... Abu Dhabi television shows a new videotape of President Sadaam Hussein of Iraq.
The amirs of the Muwahhadi Dynasty were as follows:- `Abd-el-Mumin 0145); Yusef II., "Abu Ya`kub" (1163); Ya`kub I., "Abu Yusef el Mansur" (1184); Mahommed III., "En-Nasir" (1199); Yusef III., "Abu Ya`kub el Mustansir" (1214); `Abd-el-Wahid, "El Makhluwi" (1223); `Abd-Allah II., "Abu Mahommed" (1224); Yahya V., "El Mu ` tasim" (1226); Idris III., "El Mamun" (1229); Rashid I., "`Abd-elWahid II."
Meanwhile, he had written to Abu Ya`far, the prefect of Isfahan, offering his services; but the new amir of Hamadan getting to hear of this correspondence, and discovering the place of Avicenna's concealment, incarcerated him in a fortress.
The caliph's librarian, Abu Jafar Muhammad Ben Musa, wrote a geographical work, now unfortunately lost, entitled Rasm el Arsi (" A Description of the World "), which is often referred to by subsequent writers as having been composed on the model of that of Ptolemy.
He was buried in a garden, but Abu'l Kasim Jurjani, chief sheikh of Tus, refused to read the usual prayers over his tomb, alleging that he was an infidel, and had devoted his life to the glorification of fire-worshippers and misbelievers.
This interval sufficed for the old rebel leader Fa'iq, supported by a strong Tatar army under the Ilek Khan Abu'l I;Iosain Nasr I., to turn Nub's successor Mansur II.
In the beginning of 1356, his integrity having been suspected, he was thrown into prison until the death of Abu Inan in 1358, when the vizier al-Hasan ibn Omar set him at liberty and reinstated him in his rank and offices.
Hamdani, in full ABU MAIIOMMED UL- IHASAN IBN AIIMAD IBN' YA ` QUB ULHamdani (d.
From the 10th to the 13th century was the brilliant period of Arabian medicine in Spain.1 The classical period of Arabian medicine begins with Rhazes (Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya el-Razi, A.D.
Here stood Ur (Mugheir, more correctly Muqayyar) the earliest capital of the country; and Babylon, with its suburb, Borsippa (Birs Nimrud), as well as the two Sipparas (the Sepharvaim of Scripture, now Abu Habba), occupied both the Arabian and Chaldaean sides of the river (see Babylon).
Wushth -4KW,t4 Abu Dhabl Ã‚° ' Masira I Gulf) el Had Aden And Vicinity English ?
The Fatimite caliph 'Obaidallah (see Fatimites), to whom Abu Tahir professed allegiance, publicly wrote to him to restore the stone, but there is some reason to believe that he secretly encouraged him to retain it.
In the 9th century two of the best-known poets - Abu Tammam and Bulhturi (q.v.) - were renowned for their knowledge of old poetry (see Hamasa) and were influenced by it in their own verse.
He is said to have had 600 chests of books, chiefly dictata written by or for himself, but in part real books by Abu Mikhnaf (d.