I am studying about insects in zoology, and I have learned many things about butterflies.
In zoology, the Bipartiti was a name given by P. A.
iv., Zoology (St Petersburg, 1875), though dealing more especially with Siberia, is an invaluable source of information for the Russian fauna generally.
The eastern parts of Australia are very much richer both in their botany and in their zoology than any of the other parts.
Lankester, Introductory Chapter in A Treatise on Zoology; E.
NEMATODA, in zoology, a group of worms. The name Nematoda (Gr.
In zoology, the mollusca are divided into cephalous and acephalous (Acephala), according as they have or have not an organized part of their anatomy as the seat of the brain and special senses.
His ideology, he frankly stated, formed "a part of zoology," or, as we should say, of biology.
Lankester (Homoplasy and Homogeny), " On the Use of the term Homology in Modern Zoology," Ann.
Maas in Results of In its arrangement the muscular tissue the "Albatross " Expedition, forms two s stems: the one composed Museum of Comparative Y P Zoology, Cambridge, Masse, of striated fibres arranged circularly, that U.S.A. is to say, concentrically round the central FIG.
In this same leisurely manner I studied zoology and botany.
This foundation was laid by the joint labours of Francis Willughby (1635-1672) and John Ray (1628-1705), for it is impossible to separate their share of work in natural history more than to say that, while the former more especially devoted himself to zoology, botany was the favourite pursuit of the latter.
The great advance in modern zoology as regards the classification of the Hexapoda lies in the treatment of a heterogeneous assembly which formed Linnaeus's order Neuroptera.
Almost every side of zoology has contributed to the theory of evolution, but of special importance are the facts and theories associated with the names of Gregor Mendel, A.
3 A greater undertaking was Pennant's Arctic Zoology, published in 1785, with a supplement in 1787.
A kindly old pedant, Fulcher interlards his history with much discourse on geography, zoology and sacred history.
Scientific zoology really started in the 16th century with the awakening of the new spirit of observation and exploration, but for a long time ran a separate course uninfluenced by the progress of the medical studies of anatomy and physiology.
Blanchard published some Recherches sur les caracteres osteo- logiques des oiseaux appliquees a la classification naturelle de ces animaux, strongly urging the superiority of such characters over those drawn from the bill or feet, which, he remarks, though they may have sometimes given correct notions, have mostly led to mistakes, and, if observations of habits and food have sometimes afforded happy results, they have often been deceptive; so that, should more be wanted than to draw up a mere inventory of creation or trace the distinctive outline of each species, zoology without anatomy would remain a barren study.
7; Pearson, Grammar of Science; Romanes, Darwin and after Darwin; Sedgwick, Presidential Address to Section Zoology, Brit.
And as the undefinable essence of the force moving the heavenly bodies, the undefinable essence of the forces of heat and electricity, or of chemical affinity, or of the vital force, forms the content of astronomy, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, and so on, just in the same way does the force of free will form the content of history.
In 1828 James Wilson (author of the article Ornithology in the 7th and Wilson 8th editions of the present work) began, under the title of Illustrations of Zoology, the publication of a series of his own drawings (which he did not, however, himself engrave) with corresponding letterpress.
In regard to South Africa, besides the well-known work of Le Vaillant already mentioned, there is the second volume of Sir Andrew Smith's Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa (4to, 1838-1842), which is devoted to birds.
Latreille,2 rightly estimating the value of these differences, though he was not an original worker in the field of vertebrate zoology, proposed to separate Brongniart's Batrachia from the class of Reptilia proper, as a group of equal value, for which he retained the Linnaean name of Amphibia.
Fleming, Fleming already the author of a harmless and extremely orthodox Philosophy of Zoology, pointed out in 1829 in the Quarterly Review (xli.
Shaw's Zoology of New Holland (4to, 1794) added those of a few more, as did J.
As the number of species of insects is believed to exceed that of all other animals taken together, it is no wonder that their study should form a special division of zoology with a distinctive name.
(From Parker and Haswell, Text-book of Zoology, after Leuckart.) ll, 19, /' FIG.46.
It is now generally recognized that it is mere tautology to speak of zoology and comparative anatomy, and that museum naturalists must give attention as well to the inside as to the outside of animals.
His only unfortunate contribution to entomology - indeed to zoology generally - was his theory of pre-formation, which taught the presence within the egg of a perfectly formed but miniature adult.
In 1830 John Edward Gray commenced the Illustrations of Indian Zoology, a series of plates of vertebrated animals, G w but mostly of birds, from drawings, it is believed by dlcke..
This seems to have been his last attempt; for, two years later, his Bibliography of Zoology shows little trace of his favourite theory, though nothing he had uttered in its support was retracted.
Gray, first in the Appendix to Dieffenbach's Travels in New Zealand (2843) and then in the ornithological portion of the Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S.
It was not until the 19th century that the microscope, thus early applied by Leeuwenhoek, Malpighi, Hook and Swammerdam to the study of animal structure, was perfected as an instrument, and accomplished for zoology its final and most important service.
Few branches of zoology have been more valuable as a meetingground for professional and amateur naturalists than entomology, and not seldom has the amateur - as in the case of Westwood - developed into a professor.
ZOOLOGY (from Gr.?"wov, a living thing, and Xo yos, theory), that portion of biology which relates to animals, as distinguished from that portion (Botany) which is concerned with plants.
Naturalists who deal specially with museum collections have been compelled, it is true, for other reasons to attach an increasing importance to what is called the type specimen, but they find that this insistence on the individual, although invaluable from the point of view of recording species, is unsatisfactory from the point of view of scientific zoology; and propositions for the amelioration of this condition of affairs range from a refusal of Linnaean nomenclature in such cases, to the institution of a division between master species for such species as have been properly revised by the comparative morphologist, and provisional species for such species as have been provisionally registered by those working at collections.
Unfortunately none of these, however, can be compared for singularity with Archaeopteryx or with some American fossil forms next to be noticed, for their particular It is true that from the time of Buffon, though he scorned any regular classification, geographical distribution had been occasionally held to have something to do with systematic arrangement; but the way in which the two were related was never clearly put forth, though people who could read between the lines might have guessed the secret from Darwin's Journal of Researches, as well as from his introduction to the Zoology of the " Beagle" Voyage.
of A Treatise on Zoology, 1900).
for permission to use figs.22,43,44 and 45,which are taken from Parker and Haswell's Text-book of Zoology; and to Messrs.
Anatomy and the study of animal mechanism, animal physics and animal chemistry, all of which form part of a true zoology, were excluded from the usual definition of the word by the mere accident that the zoologist had his museum but not his garden of living specimens as the botanist had; 1 and, whilst the zoologist was thus deprived of the means of anatomical and physiological study - only later supplied by the method of preserving animal bodies in alcohol - the demands of medicine for a knowledge of the structure of the human animal brought into existence a separate and special study of human anatomy and physiology.
Havundersiigelser, Serie Hydrografi (Copenhagen 1904-20), contain important papers; the publications of the university of California (Zoology) deal with the work of the Scripps Inst.
The zoology of Australia and Tasmania presents a very conspicuous point of difference from that of other regions of the globe, in the prevalence of non-placental mammalia.
3 Here there is no need to enter into details of the history of evolution; but there was possibly no branch of zoology in which so many of the best informed and consequently the most advanced of its workers sooner accepted the principles of evolution than ornithology, and of course the effect upon its study was very marked.
Thus Bionomics is treated in such articles as Evolution, Heredity, Variation, Mendelism, Reproduction, Sex, &C.; Zoo-dynamics under Medicine, Surgery, Physiology, Anatomy, Embryology, and allied articles; Plasmology under Cytology, Protoplasm, &C.; and Philosophical Zoology under numerous headings, Evolution, Biology, &C. See also Zoological Distribution, Palaeontology, Ocranography, Microtomy, &C.
BANTIN, or BANTING, the native name of the wild ox of Java, known to the Malays as sapi-utan, and in zoology as Bos (Bibos) sondaicus.
(After Lankester and Boerne from Parker and Haswell's Textbook of Zoology, Macmillan & Co.) these open into irregular swollen vessels which are the veins or venous sinuses.
Thus mysticism was finally banished from the domain of biology, and zoology became one of the physical sciences - the science which seeks to arrange and discuss the phenqmena of animal life and form, as the outcome of the operation of the laws of physics and chemistry.
Thus comparative anatomy came into existence as a branch of inquiry apart from zoology, and it was only in the latter part of the 19th century that the limitation of the word " zoology " to a knowledge of animals which expressly excludes the consideration of their internal structure was rejected by the general consent of those concerned in the progress of science.
The influence of these great academies of the 17th century on the progress of zoology was precisely to effect that bringing together of the museum-men and the physicians or anatomists which was needed for further development.
A subdivision of zoology which was at one time in favour is simply into morphology and physiology, the study of form and structure on the one hand, and the study of Scope the activities and functions of the forms and structures of zoo- on the other.
The principal contributors to the " Transactions " of this section of the academy were--for anatomy and physiology, Coloman Balogh, Eugene Jendrassik, Joseph Lenhossek and Lewis Thanhoffer; for zoology, John Frivaldszky, John Kriesch and Theodore Margo; for botany, Frederick Hazslinszky, Lewis Juranyi and Julius Klein; for mineralogy and geology, Joseph Szabo, Max Hantken, Joseph Krenner, Anthony Koch and Charles Hoffman; for physics, Baron Lorando Eotviis, Coloman Szily and Joseph Sztoczek; for chemistry, Charles Than and Vincent Wartha; for meteorology, Guido Schenzl.
Indeed, the historical and present importance of this aspect or branch of zoological science is so great that the name " zoology " has until recently been associated entirely with it, to the exclusion of the study of minute anatomical structure and function which have been distinguished as anatomy and physiology.
See Anatomy and Zoology.
All the fossil plants and animals of every kind are brought from this continent into a great museum; the latitude, longitude and relative elevation of each specimen are precisely recorded; a corps of investigators, having the most exact and thorough training in zoology and botany, and gifted with imagination, will soon begin to restore the geographic and physiographic outlines of the continent, its fresh, brackish and salt-water confines, its seas, rivers and lakes, its forests, uplands, plains, meadows and swamps, also to a certain extent the cosmic relations of this continent, the amount and duration of its sunshine, as well as something of the chemical constitution of its atmosphere and the waters of its rivers and seas; they will trace the progressive changes which took place in the outlines of the continent and its surrounding oceans, following the invasion§ of the land by the sea and the re-emergence of the land and retreatal of the seashore; they will outline the shoals and deeps of its border seas, and trace the barriers which prevented intermingling of the inhabitants of the various provinces of the continent and the surrounding seas.
From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
Such sudden appearances may be demonstrated possibly in zoology and embryology but never can be demonstrated by palaeontology, because of the incompleteness of the geological record.
(1899); " Mollusca," Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, pt.
The change in terminology is chiefly the result of modern conceptions of zoology.
Sedgwick, Textbook of Zoology (1898), i.
Ray Lankester, Treatise on Zoology (1900), pt.
ACETABULUM, the Latin word for a vinegar cup, an ancient Roman vessel, used as a liquid measure (equal to about half a gill); it is also a word used technically in zoology, by analogy for certain cup-shaped parts, e.g.
the chemistry of Lavoisier, the zoology of Lamarck, the astronomy of Laplace and the geology of Lyell.
Struthious birds, was placed beyond cavil, and the author called upon all interested in zoology to aid in further research as to this singular form.
Werewolves, vampires, bigfoot and chupacabra are just some of the creatures currently placed in the category of the paranormal or urban legends until scientific proof places any of these mythological beings into the category of zoology.
Agassiz, Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
The efforts of the best minds in zoology had been directed for thirty years or more to ascertaining with increased accuracy and minuteness the structure, microscopic and gross, of all possible forms of animals, and not only of the adult structure but of the steps of development of that structure in the growth of each kind of organism from the egg to maturity.
From 1874 to 1890 he was professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at University College, London; and from 1891 to 1898 Linacre professor of comparative anatomy at Oxford.
The main divisions which, writing in 1910, the present writer prefers, are those adopted in his Treatise on Zoology (Part II.
(I) General descriptions, zoology, ethnology, economics, &c.: A.
Details of the morphology of plants will be found in the articles relating to the chief groups of plants, those of animals in the corresponding articles on groups of animals, while the classification of animals adopted in this work will be found in the article ZOOLOGY.
(From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv.) and of the female (vaginal) ducts, there is a distinct uterine opening at the opposite end of the body (b).
(From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv.) segment.
(A and B from Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv., C original.) of proglottides or of eggs which are disseminated along with the faeces of the final host and subsequently eaten by herbivorous or omnivorous mammals, insects, worms, molluscs or fish.
(From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv.) the base of the tail; nervous and muscular systems arise; and finally the rostellum and suckers become completely enclosed in the sac formed by the lateral extension of the " hind-body."
Jena (1879, 2 vols.); (2) Id., "Deep-Sea Medusae," Challenger Reports, Zoology, IV.
Protobranchia si After Drew, in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
iii.; Paul Pelseneer, " Mollusca," Treatise on Zoology, edited by E.
In the Amphineura the nervous system, having no (From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
The following are some of the forms Cuvier, Lankester's Treatise on of cormidia that occur: Zoology.
in all other Siphonophores, the ancestral form was a Siphonula, a bilaterally symmetrical Anthomedusa After Haeckel, from Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
Neither the rotation of the shell as a whole nor its helicoid spiral coiling is the immediate cause of the torsion of the body in the individual, for the direction of the torsion is indicated in the segmentation of the ovum, in which there is a complete A B From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
The Hexapoda, being aerial, terrestrial and fresh-water animals, are but occasionally preserved in stratified rocks, and our knowledge of extinct members of the class is therefore fragmentary, while the description, as insects, of various obscure fossils, which are perhaps not even Arthropods, has not tended to the advancement of this branch of zoology.
The true definition of a cryptid is an animal that has not yet been classified by zoology.
In the mining districts of Pennsylvania the organization fell under the control of a lawless element,, 014k (From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
The early collectors of natural curiosities were the founders of zoological science, and to this day the naturalisttraveller and his correlative, the museum curator and systematist, play a most important part in the progress of zoology.
The real dawn of zoology after the legendary period of the middle ages is connected with the name of an Englishman, Edward Wotton, born at Oxford in 1492, who practised Wotton.
The most ready means of noting the progress of zoology during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries is to compare the Aristotle's classificatory conceptions of successive naturalists classifi- with those which are to be found in the works of cation.
The Swiss professor, Konrad Gesner (1516-1565), is the most voluminous and instructive of these earliest writers on systematic zoology, and was so highly esteemed that his Historia animalium was republished a hundred Gesner.
The commencement of anatomical investigations deserves notice here as influencing the general accuracy and minuteness with which zoological work was prosecuted, but it was not until a late date that their full influence was brought to bear upon systematic zoology by Georges Cuvier (1769-1832).
The most prominent name between that of Gesner and Linnaeus in the history of systematic zoology is that of John Ray (1628-1705).
z considerable use of anatomical characters in his definitions of larger groups, and may thus be considered as the father of modern zoology.
Linnaeus taught zoology and botany as branches of knowledge to be studied for their own intrinsic interest.
Apart from his special discoveries in the anatomy of plants and animals, and his descriptions of new species, the great merit of Linnaeus was his introduction of a method of enumeration and classification which may be said to have created systematic zoology and botany in their present form, and establishes his name for ever as the great organizer, the man who recognized a great practical want in the use of language and supplied it.
Von Baer, however, has another place in the history of zoology, being the first and most striking figure in the introduction of embryology into the consideration of the relations of animals to one another.
It is not easy to exaggerate the service rendered by Owen to the study of zoology by the introduction of this apparently small piece of verbal mechanism; it takes place with the classificatory terms of Linnaeus.
The real centre of progress of systematic zoology was no longer in France nor with the disciples of Cuvier in England, but after his death moved to Germany.
His true greatness can only be estimated by a consideration of the fact that he was a great teacher not only of human and comparative anatomy and zoology but also of physiology, and that nearly all the most distinguished German zoologists and physiologists of the period 1850 to 1870 were his pupils and acknowledged his leadership. The most striking feature about Johann Miller's work, apart from the comprehensiveness of his point of view, in which he added to the anatomical and morphological ideas of Cuvier a consideration of physiology, embryology and microscopic structure, was the extraordinary accuracy, facility and completeness of his recorded observations.
But systematic zoology is now entirely free from any such prejudices, and the Linnaean taint which is apparent even in Haeckel and Gegenbaur may be considered as finally expunged.
(From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv.) purposes inside the cyst, which is itself an organ comparable to an amnion.
Benham in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, part iv.
Proteus (Zoology) >>
A (From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, pt.
From Lankester's Treatise on The life history of the order is almost un Zoology, part iv.) k nown, but at the time of hatching the young FIG.
Benham in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology (1901), pt.
POLYZOA, in zoology, a term (introduced by J.
Thus, physiology is an abstract science; but zoology is concrete.
The classification of the animal kingdom is dealt with in the article ZOOLOGY.
In 1841 he obtained the chair of zoology and comparative anatomy at the Faculty of Sciences in Montpellier, of which he was in 1856 appointed dean.
In 1865 he accepted the professorship of zoology at the Sorbonne, vacant through the death of L.
Migration (Zoology) >>
The zoology of the Bismarck Archipelago is little known.
Minchin (in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, pt.
These two volumes deal with the history, geography, zoology and economic condition of the Ivory Coast.
The physical division between the Asiatic and Australian regions is clearly reflected in the botany and zoology.
Simple galls are those that arise when only one member of a plant is involved; compound galls 1 For figure and description see Zoology of the " Erebus " and " Terror," ii.
Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, ii.
COCKLE, in zoology, a mollusc (Cardium) of the class Lamellibranchia.
In recent years the science of vegetable palaeontology has been given the distinct name of Palaeobotany, so that " palaeontology e' among biologists mainly refers to zoology; but historically the two cannot be disconnected.
Progress in the science also depends upon the pursuit of palaeontology as zoology and not as geology, because it was a mere accident of birth which connected palaeontology so closely with geology.
Sclater, Alfred Russel Wallace and others, largely upon the present distribution of animal life, is now encountering through palaeontology a new and fascinating series of problems. In brief, it must connect living distribution with distribution in past time, and develop a system which will be in harmony with the main facts of zoology and palaeontology.
V.-Relations Of Palaeontology To Other Zoological Methods Systematic Zoology.
The term labrum is used in zoology, of a lip or lip-like part; in entomology it is applied specifically to the upper lip of an insect, the lower lip being termed labium.
aestivare, to spend the aestas, or summer; the word is sometimes spelled "estivation"), literally "summer residence," a term used in zoology for the condition of torpor into which certain animals pass during the hottest season in hot and dry countries, contrasted with the similar winter condition known as hibernation.
- xxxii., medical zoology; xxxiii.
Jacob Grimm, in the first paragraph of c. 37 of his Deutsche Mythologie, writing with his own fellow-countrymen in view, has commended Pliny for condescending, in the midst of his survey of the sciences of botany and zoology, to tell of the folklore of plants and animals, and has even praised him for the pains that he bestowed on his style.
MIMICRY, in zoology, the deceptive and advantageous resemblance presented by defenceless and edible species of animals to other species of animals living in the same locality, which are harmful or distasteful and are consequently avoided by all or by a majority of the enemies of the class to which the mimetic and usually the mimicked species belong.
The classic of alpine zoology is F.
The tegmentum is formed by the fold of mantle covering the From Lankester, Treatise on Zoology.
(3) ix., 1901; P. Pelseneer, "Mollusca," Treatise on Zoology, edited by E.
In technical biology each species is designated by two words, one for the genus, printed with an initial capital, and one for the particular species, printed without an initial capital in Zoology, whilst in Botany the habit once common to both subjects is retained, and the specific name if derived from a proper name is printed with a capital.
papyrifera of many botanists), the discrepancies in geography, ethnology and zoology, which have been so troublesome in the past, will disappear; other features, usually considered obscure, will become luminous; and the older and less distorted sagas, at least in their main incidents, will become vivid records of actual geographic exploration."
This is discussed, from the biologist's point of view, in the article Zoology.
(For the zoology, see Swine.) British breeds of pigs are classified as black, white and red.
BABIRUSA (" pig-deer"), the Malay name of the wild swine of Celebes and Buru, which has been adopted in zoology as the scientific designation of this remarkable animal (the only representative of its genus), in the form of Babirusa alfurus.
In the vicinity are the Governor's Mansion, the Supreme Court Building, the State Library, the building of the State Department of Agriculture, housing the State Museum (of geology, mineralogy, agriculture and horticulture, botany, zoology, ethnology, &c.), and the Post Office.
C. Olufsen (1764-1827) was a writer on geography, zoology and political economy.
In zoology, J.
Ray Lankester (preface to the English edition of C. Gegenbaur's Comparative Anatomy), and employed by the same writer in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia (article "Zoology") to denote the eighth phylum, or major division, of coelomate animals.
crepusculum, twilight), of or belonging to the twilight, hence indistinct or glimmering; in zoology the word is used of animals that appear before sunrise or nightfall.
Thenceforward he became a specialist in marine ichthyology, but devoted much time to the investigation, superintendence and exploitation of mines, being superintendent of the Calumet and Hecla copper mines, Lake Superior, from 1866 to 1869, and afterwards, as a stockholder, acquiring a fortune, out of which he gave to Harvard, for the museum of comparative zoology and other purposes, some $500,000.
Of his other writings on marine zoology, most are contained in the bulletins and memoirs of the museum of comparative zoology; but he published in 1865 (with Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, his stepmother) Seaside Studies in Natural History, a work at once exact and stimulating, and in 1871 Marine Animals of Massachusetts Bay.
The laboratory examination may be used in subjects like physics, chemistry, geology, zoology, botany, anatomy, physiology, to test powers of manipulation and knowledge of experimental methods.
It is largely arid and there are no permanent streams. Its zoology resembles that of Sokotra, but the fauna includes land shells and scorpions peculiar to Abd-elKuri.
As regards vertebrate zoology, Afghanistan lies on the frontier of three regions, viz.
In the zoology and botany of California as of the rest of the Pacific Coast, the distinctions between the upper austral and humid transition zones are largely obliterated; and as one passes southward into the arid lands, life forms of both these zones intermingle with those of the arid transition.
Man's place is not even central, as he appears a temporary inhabitant of a minor planet in one of the lesser stellar systems. Every science is involved, and theology has come into conflict with metaphysics, logic, astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology, zoology, biology, history and even economics and medicine.
modern zoology the term has become restricted to the lowest order of the class Hexapoda or true insects.
In 1832 he became full professor of zoology and comparative anatomy there, and held that office until 1840, when he was called to succeed J.
As in zoology, his original researches in physiology were followed by a students' text-book, Lehrbuch der speciellen Physiologie (Leipzig, 1838), which soon reached a third edition, and was translated into French and English.
Bergel (Leipzig, 1885), &c. For these subjects, and for law, zoology, geography, &c. &c., see the full and classified bibliographies in M.
==Fauna== The zoology of Assam presents some interesting features.
In 1812 he was aided by Cuvier to obtain the chair of anatomy and zoology in the Faculty of Sciences at Paris, but subsequently an estrangement grew up between the two men and ended in open enmity.
angelus, an angle), shaped with corners or angles; an adjective used in botany and zoology for the shape of stems, leaves and wings.
Blanford has described with great care and minuteness the zoology of Persia.
Shapur I., who appears to have, had a broader outlook, added to the religious writings a collection of scientific treatises on medicine, asticonomy, mathematics, philosophy, zoology, &c., partly from Indian and Greek sources.
He displayed an early predilection for zoology and ornithology, and in later life became a skilled and enthusiastic collector, particularly of African plants and birds.
(From Gegenbaur.) Much simplified from a coloured plate in Results of the " Albatross" Expedition, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A.
The arrangement is similar in Schizopoda and Stomato From Morse's Zoology.
- Scaphopoda feed on the lowest marine organisms such After Kowalewsky, in Lanas Diatoms, Protozoa, &c. There are 150 's Treatise on Zoology, living and about 275 known fossil species.
(1904); Paul Pelseneer, Mollusca; Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, pt.
Both Chapaux and Wauters deal with ethnology and zoology.
Casati (London, 1891), contains much information concerning the peoples, zoology, &c., of the north-eastern parts of the state.
Linnaeus's primarily zoological classification of man did not, however, suit the philosophical opinion of the time, which responded more readily to the systems represented by Buffon, and later by Cuvier, in which the human mind and soul formed an impassable wall of partition between him and other mammalia, so that the definition of man's position in the animal world was treated as not belonging to zoology, but to metaphysics and theology.
In one form or another such a theory of human descent has in our time become part of an accepted framework of zoology, if not as a demonstrable truth, at any rate as a working hypothesis which has no effective rival.
Evidently suggested by the Linnean picture, this is brought up to the modern level of zoology, and continued on to man, forming an introduction to his zoological history hardly to be surpassed.
On both the theories here concerned it would be admitted, in the words of Agassiz (Principles of Zoology, pp. 205-206), that " there is a manifest progress in the succession of beings on the surface of the earth.
Blanford, Observations on the Geology and Zoology of Abyssinia (London, 1870); C. Futterer, "Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Jura in Ost-Afrika," Zeit.
42 (1903) of Bulletin of the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology; S.
Eigenmann, professor of zoology, Indiana State University.
In modern zoology it is the name given to the main genus of a family of worm-shaped lizards, most of which inhabit the tropical parts of America, the West Indies and Africa.
P. Greswell's Geography of Africa south of the Zambesi (Oxford, 1892) deals specially with Cape Colony; the Illustrated Official Handbook of the Cape and South Africa (Cape Town, 1893) includes chapters on the zoology, flora, productions and resources of the colony.
Ray Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, vol.
Brook, "` Challenger Reports," Zoology, xxxii.
(1893); D.C.Danielssen, "Report Norwegian North Atlantic Exploring Expedition," Zoology, xix.
Hertwig, "Challenger Reports," Zoology, vi.
vii.; * "Challenger Reports," Zoology, i.
Moseley, "Challenger Reports," Zoology, ii.
Quelch, "Challenger Reports," Zoology, xvi.
Studer, "Challenger Reports," Zoology, xxxi.
Thus it is that a change, characteristic of modern systematic zoology, is affecting the subdivisions of the classes.
The broader theories of modern zoology might seem to have little bearing on the Echinoderma, for it is not long since the study of these animals was compared to a landlocked sea undisturbed by such storms as rage around the origin of the Vertebrata.
- In addition to the works referred to at the beginning of the article, the following deal with the general subject: Bather, Gregory and Goodrich, "Echinoderma," in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology (London, 1900); F.
Acasta sulcata, Lamk., in the scientific study of zoology had replaced the fabulous tales of medieval writers, it was a long time before the true affinities of the barnacles were appreciated, and they were at first classed with the Mollusca, some of which they closely resemble in external appearance.
In 1847 he became professor of zoology at Giessen, and in 1852 professor of geology and afterwards also of zoology at Geneva, where he died on the 5th of May 1895.
His earlier publications were on zoology; he dealt with the Amphibia (1839), Reptiles (1840), with Mollusca and Crustacea (1845) and more generally with the invertebrate fauna of the Mediterranean (1854).
28, pp. 151-285, of the Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard College; E.
With the revival of learning, however, first one and then another special study became recognized - anatomy, botany, zoology, mineralogy, until at last the great comprehensive term physiology was bereft of all its once-included subject-matter, excepting the study of vital processes pursued by the more learned members of the medical profession.
of Lankester's Treatise on Zoology).
In systematic zoology, however, the use of a division Vermes has been abandoned, as it is now recognized that many of the animals that even a zoologist would describe as worms belong to different divisions of the animal kingdom.
Partly in further development of views unfolded in Babylonia, but chiefly under Greek influences, the scope of astrology was enlarged until it was brought into connexion with practically all of the known sciences, botany, chemistry, zoology, mineralogy, anatomy and medicine.
FROG, 1 a name in zoology, of somewhat wide application, strictly for an animal belonging to the family Ranidae, but also used of some other families of the order Ecaudata of the sub-class Batrachia.
ACTINOZOA, a term in systematic zoology, first used by H.
RESEARCH GROUPS Palaeobiology Research Group We welcome applications from students with backgrounds in geology, zoology, biology, and occasionally physics and/or biomathematics.
Major research and teaching collections cover botany, entomology, mineralogy, paleontology and zoology, mainly from the 18th and early 19th centuries.
invertebrate zoology and plunge.
vertebrate paleontology, moving across the road to the Museum of Zoology.
The scientists who study animals (zoology) are called zoologists.
zoology of the voyage of the Beagle - Birds.
Kurt Jackson studied zoology at St Peters College Oxford during which time he attended art courses at Ruskin College of Art in Oxford.
For my first degree I read zoology at the University of Bristol.
The study of animals, their environment and their behavior is called zoology.
The information is in the following book: Robert D. Barnes: invertebrate zoology (pic.
In the third year, students carry out a research project on a topic of their choosing in marine vertebrate zoology.
He was also awarded the class medal for systematic zoology in 1910.
A BSc degree in zoology or applied zoology, such as agricultural zoology or animal psychology is also needed.
Personal Interests: Study of elasmobranchs, and general zoology.
zoology graduates will always be in constant demand in the private sector.
zoology museum " .
zoology collections, with the last transfer taking place in 1975.
Zoology students are based in the Graham Kerr Building which contains an attractive zoology students are based in the Graham Kerr Building which contains an attractive Zoology Museum.
Some of the local species have been adopted as such by 4th year zoology students for their Honors Project.
I have keen interests in animal welfare and crypto zoology.
Agassiz, from Lankester's Treatise on for passive locomotion, Zoology.
Lamarck, while affirming the verbal proposition that animals form a single series, was forced by his vast acquaintance with the details of zoology to limit the assertion to such a series as may be formed out of the abstractions constituted by the common characters of each group.'
(From the Journal of the Linnean Society, Zoology vol.
It occupies a campus of iio acres, has an adjoining farm of 325 acres, and 18 buildings devoted to instruction, 2 dormitories, and a library containing (1906) 67,709 volumes, besides excellent museums of geology, zoology, botany and archaeology and history, the last being owned jointly by the university and by the state archaeological and historical society.
(From the original in the Museum of Zoology of the University of Cambridge.) parrot, of ducks, pigeons, rails, herons, geese and of a dwarf darter, Plotus nanus, all sub-fossil, now extinct.
HEXAPODA (Gr., six, and g obs, foot), a term used in systematic zoology for that class of the Arthropoda, popularly known as insects.
Impressed by the belief that verbosity was the bane of science, he carried terseness to an extreme which frequently created obscurity, and this in no branch of zoology more than in that which relates to birds.
Among others may be mentioned the Genera of Birds by Thomas Pennant, first printed at Edinburgh in 1773, but best known by the edition which appeared in London in 1781; the Elementa Ornithologica and Museum Ornithologicum of Schaffer, published at Ratisbon in 2774 and 1784 respectively; Peter Brown's New Illustrations of Zoology in London in 1776; Hermann's Tabular Affinitatum Animalium at Strasburg in 1783, followed posthumously in 1804 by his Observationes Zoologicae; Jacquin's Beytraege zur Geschichte der Voegel at Vienna in 1784, and in 1790 at the same place the larger work of Spalowsky with nearly the same title; Sparrman's Museum Carlsonianum at Stockholm from 1786 to 1789; and in 1794 Hayes's Portraits of rare and curious Birds from the menagery of Child the banker at Osterley near London.
In 1766 appeared Pennant's British Zoology, a well-illustrated folio, of which a second edition in octavo was published in 1768, and considerable additions (forming the nominally third edition) in 1770, while in 1777 there were two issues, one in octavo, the other in quarto, each called the fourth edition.
In 1767 Pennant, several of whose works have already been named, entered into correspondence with Gilbert White, receiving from him much information, almost wholly drawn from his own observation, for the succeeding editions of the British Zoology.
Most of them are but luxuries, and there is some degree of truth in the remark of Andreas Wagner in his Report on the Progress of Zoology for 1843, drawn up for the Ray Society (p. 60), that they " are not adapted for the extension and promotion of science, but must inevitably, on account of their unnecessary costliness, constantly tend to reduce the number of naturalists who are able to avail themselves of them, and they thus enrich ornithology only to its ultimate injury."
It will be enough merely to name Dumeril's Zoologie analytique (1806) and Gravenhorst's Vergleichende Ubersicht des linneischen and einiger neuern zoologischen Shaw and Systeme (1807); nor need we linger over Shaw's General Zoology, a pretentious compilation continued by Stephens.
It is sufficient here to remark that the author, even then a man of great erudition, must have been aware of the turn which taxonomy was taking; but, not being able to divest himself of the older notion that external characters were superior to those furnished by the study of internal structure, and that Comparative Anatomy, instead of being a part of zoology, was something distinct from it, he seems to have endeavoured to form a scheme which, while not running wholly counter to the teachings of Comparative Anatomists, should yet rest ostensibly on external characters.
After the publication of C. Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) a fresh impetus was given to entomology as to all branches of zoology, and it became generally recognized that insects form a group convenient and hopeful for the elucidation of certain problems of animal evolution.
Hill in Harvard College Museum of Comparative Zoology, Bulletin, vol.
The applications of mathematics to statistics (see Statistics and Probability) should not be lost sight of; the leading fields for these applications are insurance, sociology, variation in zoology and economics.
It will be more appropriate here, without giving what would be a needless repetition of considerations, both historical and theoretical, which appear in other articles, to confine ourselves to two general questions, (I) the history of the various schemes of classification, or Morphography, and (2) the consideration of the main tendencies iii the study of zoology since Darwin.
His lectures formed a new departure in the academic treatment of zoology and botany, which, in direct continuity from the middle ages, had hitherto been subjected to the traditions of the medical profession and regarded as mere branches of " materia medica."
A series of other works in zoology followed: Iconographia della fauna Italica (3 vols., Rome, 1832-1841), Catalogo metodico degli uccelli europei (I vol., Bologna, 1842), Catalogo metodico dei pesci europei (1 vol., Naples, 1845, 4to), Catalogo metodico dei mammiferi europei (1 vol., Milan, 1845), Telachorum tabula analytica (Neufchatel, 1838).
Waagen's law of mutation, or the appearance of new parts or organs so gradually that they can be perceived only by following them through successive geologic time stages, appears to be directly contradictory to the saltation principle; it is certainly one of the most firmly established principles of palaeontology, and it constitutes the contribution par excellence of this branch of zoology to the law of evolution, since it is obvious that it could not possibly have been deduced from comparison of living animals but only through the long perspective gained by comparison of animals succeeding each other in time.
There is a museum of zoology and mineralogy in Palazzo Carignano (another of Guarini's buildings), and the royal palace contains the royal armoury (a fine collection made by Charles Albert in 1833) and the royal library with its rich manuscript collection and its 20,000 drawings, among which are sketches by Raphael, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci.
ab, from or away, errare; to wander), a deviation or wandering, especially used in the figurative sense: as in ethics, a deviation from the truth; in pathology, a mental derangement; in zoology and botany, abnormal development or structure.
132-162), Pennant (Arctic Zoology, pp. 291-300) - an admirable summary - and Broderip (Zoological Recreations, pp. I 20 - I 37) - not that all their statements can be wholly accepted.
In the geographical books Varro is supplemented by the topographical commentaries of Agrippa which were completed by the emperor Augustus; for his zoology he relies largely on Aristotle and on Juba, the scholarly Mauretanian king, studiorum claritate memorabilior quam regno (v.
In jurisprudence Andreas Hier (1690-1739) represented the new impulse, and in zoology Erik Pontoppidan, the younger.
The gwyniad (Caregonus) is peculiar to certain waters, as those of Bala Lake, and is fully described by Thomas Pennant in his Zoology (1776).
It has been suggested elsewhere (see Socrates) that the crude and unqualified " realism " of Plato's early manhood gave place in his later years to a theory of natural kinds founded upon a " thoroughgoing idealism," and that in this way he was led to recognize and to value the classificatory sciences of zoology and botany.
"Mantle" is used in many transferred senses, all with the meaning of "covering," as in zoology, for an enclosing sac or integument; thus it is applied to the "tunic" or layer of connective-tissue forming the body-wall of ascidians enclosing muscle-fibres, blood-sinuses and nerves (see Tunicata).
r) by which the blood passes from a pericardial blood-sinus formed by the fused veins into the dorsal vessel or heart (see Lankester's Zoology, part ii., introductory chapter, lgoo), The only exception to this is in the case of minute degenerate forms where the heart has disappeared altogether.
At eleven I talk with teacher and at twelve I study zoology.
As a result I was inspired to do a PhD in vertebrate paleontology, moving across the road to the Museum of Zoology.
Charles Darwin - Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle - Birds.
For my first degree I read Zoology at the University of Bristol.
The information is in the following book: Robert D. Barnes: Invertebrate Zoology (pic.
Being numerate scientists, the skills and expertise of Zoology graduates will always be in constant demand in the private sector.
One on ground floor of building in Zoology department.
This they did to the great loss of the Zoology museum .
Over the years, this material was transferred to the zoology collections, with the last transfer taking place in 1975.
Zoology students are based in the Graham Kerr Building which contains an attractive Zoology Museum.
Some of the local species have been adopted as such by 4th year Zoology students for their Honors Project.
By the early 1920s, the badges had grown to 47 in number, and included colored pictures and included more exotic tasks and achievements such as zoology.
North Dakota State University features over 100 bachelor's degree major areas ranging from agribusiness to equine studies to microbiology to zoology.
Its zoology program is marked as one of the top in the country, as is its communication and signal processing degree.
Kilgore Junior College offers extensive degree programs from accounting to zoology.
These courses include programs in accounting, advertising, agriculture, computer science, classics, journalism, zoology, and lots of studies in between.
Many states offer this perk to senior citizens who want to take anything from art to zoology.
As a teenager, Huxley attended the prestigious Eton college and went on to study at Oxford on a Zoology scholarship.
- xi., zoology; xii.
Although the British representatives of this group should undoubtedly retain their vernacular designations of water-rat and short-tailed field-mouse, the term "vole" is one of great convenience in zoology as a general one for all the members of the group. Systematically voles are classed in the mammalian order Rodentia, in which they constitute the typical section of the subfamily Microtinae in the Muridae, or mouse-group. As a group, voles are characterized by being more heavily built than rats and mice, and by their less brisk movements.
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