It has stations on the London & North-Western and the Lancashire & Yorkshire railways, with running powers for the Midland railway.
Thompson, Historical Sketches of Bridlington (1821); Victoria County History: Yorkshire.
THORNABY-ON-TEES, a municipal borough in the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 3 m.
There is now no doubt that William Gascoigne, a young gentleman of Yorkshire, was the first 1 Gran, History of Physical Astronomy, p. 449.
William Crabtree, a friend of his, taking a journey to Yorkshire in 1639 to see Gascoigne, writes thus to his friend Jeremiah Horrocks.
from Liverpool, served by the London & North-Western and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways and the Cheshire lines.
of Leeds by the Midland railway, served also by the Lancashire and Yorkshire railway.
of Huddersfield by the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway, on the river Calder.
His father was one of a Yorkshire family who, for three generations, had been supporters of the Evangelical movement in the Church of England.
(about that of the West Riding of Yorkshire).
He was educated at Richmond, Yorkshire, and entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1809.
Essex was inactive near Oxford; in the west Sir Ralph Hopton had won a series of victories, and in the north Newcastle defeated the Fairfaxes at Adwalton Moor, and all Yorkshire except Hull was in his hands.
In May he defeated a greatly superior royalist force at Grantham, proceeding afterwards to Nottingham in accordance with Essex's plan of penetrating into Yorkshire to relieve the Fairfaxes; where, however, difficulties, arising from jealousies between the officers, and the treachery of John Hotham, whose arrest Cromwell was instrumental in effecting, obliged him to retire again to the association, leaving the Fairfaxes to be defeated at Adwalton Moor.
PUDSEY, a municipal borough in the Pudsey parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 6 m.
B.) S, ifOMAS Osborne, 1st Duke Of (1631-1712), Inglis Statesman, commonly known also by his earlier title of Earl Of Danby, son of Sir Edward Osborne, Bart., of Kiveton, Yorkshire, was born in 1631.
1 Thomas Osborne, the future lord treasurer, succeeded to the baronetcy and estates in Yorkshire on his father's death in 1647, and after unsuccessfully courting his cousin Dorothy Osborne, married Lady Bridget Bertie, daughter of the earl of Lindsey.
He was introduced to public life and to court by his neighbour in Yorkshire, George, 2nd duke of Buckingham, was elected M.P. for York in 1665, and gained the "first step in his future rise" by joining Buckingham in his attack on Clarendon in 1667.
He was appointed the same year lord-lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire, and in 1677 received the Garter.
On the 10th of April 1689 he was created marquess of Carmarthen and was made lord-lieutenant of the three ridings of Yorkshire.
He had for some time lost the real direction of affairs, and in May 1699 he was compelled to retire from office and from the lord-lieutenancy of Yorkshire.
In November of this year he obtained a renewal of his pension of J350o a year from the post office which he was holding in 1 The title was taken, not from Leeds in Yorkshire, but from Leeds in Kent, 41 m.
from Maidstone, which in the 17th century was a more important place than its Yorkshire namesake.
In the House of Lords he was prominent as a determined foe of the prime minister, Lord North, who, after he had resigned his position as chamberlain, deprived him of the office of lordlieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire in 1780.
FILEY, a seaside resort in the Buckrose parliamentary division of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, 91 m.
Cromer is the best-known locality, but it occurs also on other parts of the Norfolk coast, as well as at Yarmouth, Southwold, Aldeburgh and Felixstowe in Suffolk, and as far south as Walton-on-the-Naze in Essex, whilst northwards it is not unknown in Yorkshire.
of Bolton,and 5 m.S.E of Chorley, on the Lancashire and Yorkshire railway.
SEDBERGH, a market town in the Skipton parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 281 m.
Early in July, whilst Richard was absent in Ireland, he landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire.
Aspinall on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway to ascertain the resistance of trains of bogie passenger carriages of different lengths at varying speeds, and the results are recorded in a paper, " Train Resistance," Proc. Inst.
Eng., October 1898), it appeared that the engine resistance was about 35% of the total resistance, and in the train-resistance experiments on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway quoted above the engine resistance was also about 35% of the total resistance, thus confirming the North-Eastern railway results.
It was at Keighley in Yorkshire - where also the first English periodical, the Yorkshire Spiritual Telegraph, was published in 1855 and onwards - that spiritualism as a religious movement first made any mark in England; but this movement, though it spread rather widely, cannot be said to have attained at any time very vigorous proportions.
In Athelstan's reign these animals abounded to such an extent in Yorkshire that a retreat was built by one Acehorn, at Flixton, near Filey, wherein travellers might seek refuge if attacked by them.
Their last retreat was probably in the desolate wolds of Yorkshire.
It lies in the valley of the Tame, close to the junction of the boundaries of Lancashire, Cheshire and Yorkshire, and is surrounded by sharply-rising high ground, especially eastward.
KNARESBOROUGH, a market town in the Ripon parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 162 m.
An interesting deposit of oolitic magnetic ore occurs in the Dogger (Inferior Oolite) of Rosedale Abbey, in Yorkshire; and a somewhat similar pisolitic ore, of Jurassic age, is known on the continent as chamoisite, having been named from Chamoison (or Chamoson) in the Valais, Switzerland.
by Yorkshire, E.
The Rother rises about Baslow, and flows into Yorkshire, with a northerly course, joining the Don.
The Coal Measures repose upon the Millstone Grit; the largest area of these rocks lies on the east, where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and Nottingham.
The Coal Measures repose upon the Millstone Grit; the largest area of these rocks lieson the east, where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and Nottingham.
Meantime hostilities more car less constant continued with England, but, though in 1322 Edward made an incursion as far as Edinburgh, the internal weakness of his government prevented his gaining any real success, while in October of this year Bruce again ravaged Yorkshire, defeated the English near Byland, and almost captured their king.
In a good soil and position the tree sometimes attains an enormous size: one in Studley Park, Yorkshire, attained nearly 140 ft.
THOMAS HILL GREEN (1836-1882), English philosopher, the most typical English representative of the school of thought called Neo-Kantian, or Neo-Hegelian, was born on the 7th of April 1836 at Birkin, a village in the West Riding of Yorkshire, of which his father was rector.
HALIFAX, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 194 m.
from Bradford, on the Great Northern and the Lancashire & Yorkshire railways.
See Victoria County History, " Yorkshire"; T.
If the lands assigned are situated in Middlesex or Yorkshire, the assignment should be registered under the Middlesex Registry or Yorkshire Registries Acts, as the case may be; and similar provision is now made for the registration by an assignee of his title under the Land Transfer Acts 1875 and 1897.
JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733-1804), English chemist and Nonconformist minister, was born on the 13th of March 1733 at Fieldhead, a hamlet near Birstal in the West Riding of Yorkshire.
Yorkshire, Somerset, Buckingham, France, Switzer land, Spain, Italy, Lower Austria, Baden, Elsass, Hesse, Hanover, Brunswick, Sizran, Tiflis, Siberia, Persia, Madagascar, Alaska, Wyoming, Colorado, Mexico, Argentina.
Yorkshire, Denbigh, Moravia, Bohemia, Baden, Saxony, Vologda, Afa, Kazan, Simbirsk, Samara, Kansas, Wyoming, Oklahoma, Texas (Permo-Carboniferous).
The Hull circuit during the next five years, through its Yorkshire, Western, NorthWestern and Northern Missions, carried on a vigorous campaign with great success, especially among the then semi-savage colliers of Durham and Northumberland.
An act of 1535 declared Hartlepool to be in Yorkshire, but in 1554 it was reinstated in the county of Durham.
of Burnley by the Lancashire and Yorkshire railway.
to a mile (1: 10,560), it was determined in 1840, after the whole of England and Wales, with the exception of Lancashire and Yorkshire, had been completed on one-inch scales, to adopt that scale for the whole of the United Kingdom.
Bulldog, bulldog (miniature), mastiff, Great Dane, Newfoundland (black, white and black, or other than black), St Bernard (rough and smooth), Old English sheepdog, collie (rough and smooth), Dalmatian, poodle, bull terrier, white English terrier, black and tan terrier, toy spaniel (King Charles or black and tan, Blenheim, ruby or red and tricolour), Japanese, Pekingese, Yorkshire terrier, Maltese, Italian greyhound, chowchow, black and tan terrier (miniature), Pomeranian, pug (fawn and black), Schipperke, Griffon Bruxellois, foreign dogs (bouledogues frangais, elk-hounds, Eskimos, Lhasa terriers, Samoyedes and any other varieties not mentioned under this heading).
On the 4th of May 1898 a sub-committee of the Kennel Club decided that the following breeds should be classified as "toy dogs": - Black and tan terriers (under 7 lb), bull terriers (under 8 lb), griffons, Italian greyhounds, Japanese, Maltese, Pekingese, poodles (under 15 in.), pugs, toy spaniels, Yorkshire terriers and Pomeranians.
Byllynge, having become embarrassed in his circumstances, placed his interest in the land in the hands of Penn and Bothers as trustees for his creditors; they invited buyers, and companies of Quakers in Yorkshire and London were amongst :the largest purchasers.
PONTEFRACT (pronounced and sometimes written "Pomfret"), a market town and municipal and parliamentary borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 21 m.
from York, served by the Midland, North-Eastern and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways.
See Victoria County History: Yorkshire; Eighth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts (1870-1897); Book of Entries of the Pontefract Corporation, 1653-1726 (ed.
John Clayton, afterwards chaplain of the Collegiate Church of Manchester, who remained a strong High Churchman; James Hervey, author of Meditations among the Tombs, and Theron and Aspasio; Benjamin Ingham, who became the Yorkshire evangelist; and Thomas Broughton, afterwards secretary of the S.P.C.K., were members of the Holy Club, and George Whitefield joined it on the eve of the Wesleys' departure for Georgia.
Societies were also formed in Somerset, Wilts, Gloucestershire, Leicester, Warwickshire, Nottinghamshire and the south of Yorkshire.
YORK, a city, municipal, county and parliamentary borough, the seat of an archbishop, and the county town of Yorkshire, England, 188 m.
The diocese includes over half the parishes in Yorkshire, and also covers very small portions of Durham, Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire.
The public institutions include the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, whose museum, in the Grecian style, was opened in 1830, and the free library in the building of the York Institute of Science and Art.
(1843); Victoria County History, Yorkshire; J.
On the south coast of the same island are coarse-grained, brownish micaceous and light-coloured calcareous sandstone and marls, containing fossils, which render it probable that they are of the same age as the coal-bearing Jurassic rocks of Brora (Scotland) and the Middle Dogger of Yorkshire.
from Manchester by the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway.
It was formerly thought to be only an autumnal or wintervisitor to Britain, but later experience has proved that, though there may very likely be an immigration in the fall of the year, it breeds in nearly all the English counties to Yorkshire, and abundantly in those nearest to London.
from Manchester, on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway.
It is served by the Lancashire & Yorkshire and London & North-Western railways, and by the Southport & Cheshire Lines Extension system.
SOWERBY BRIDGE, an urban district in the Sowerby parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 3 m.
of Halifax by the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway.
The principal English lead mines are in Derbyshire; but there are also mines at Allandale and other parts of western Northumberland, at Alston Moor and other parts of Cumberland, in the western parts of Durham, in Swaledale and Arkendale and other parts of Yorkshire, in Salop, in Cornwall, in the Mendip Hills in Somersetshire, and in the Isle of Man.
DONCASTER, a market-town and municipal borough in the Doncaster parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 156 m.
It is an important station on the Great Northern railway, whose principal locomotive and carriage works are here, and it is also served by the North Eastern, Great Eastern, Great Central, Lancashire & Yorkshire, and Midland railways.
See Victoria County History, Yorkshire; Edward Miller, The History and Antiquities of Doncaster (1828-1831); Calendar to the Records of the Borough of Doncaster, published by the Corporation.
of Liverpool, served by the Lancashire & Yorkshire, and London & North Western railways.
HOLMFIRTH, an urban district in the Holmfirth parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, on and Holme and the Ribble, 6 m.
of Huddersfield, and on the Lancashire and Yorkshire railway.
During his absence there was a general election, and he was returned (1847) for Stockport and for the West Riding of Yorkshire.
WILLIAM BERNARD ULLATHORNE (1806-1889), English Roman Catholic bishop, was born at Pocklington, Yorkshire, on the 7th of May 1806, of an old Roman Catholic family.
WILLIAM STUBBS (1825-1901), English historian and bishop of Oxford, son of William Morley Stubbs, solicitor, of Knaresborough, Yorkshire, was born on the 21st of June 1825, and was educated at the Ripon grammar school and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated in 1848, obtaining a first-class in classics and a third in mathematics.
of Liverpool by the Lancashire and Yorkshire railway.
ROBERT COLLYER (1823-), American Unitarian clergyman, was born in Keighley, Yorkshire, England, on the 8th of December 1823.
CASTLEFORD, an urban district in the Osgoldcross parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, on the river Aire near its junction with the Calder, 9 m.
of Leeds, on the North-Eastern and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways.
OTLEY, a market town in the Otley parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 13 m.
JOHN POTTER (c. 1674-1747), archbishop of Canterbury, was the son of a linen-draper at Wakefield, Yorkshire, and was born about 1674.
SIR CHARLES TILSTON BRIGHT (1832-1888), English telegraph engineer, who came of an old Yorkshire family, was born on the 8th of June 1832, at Wanstead, Essex.
RIDINGS are the three districts into which from ancient times Yorkshire has been divided for administrative purposes.
Each of the ridings of Yorkshire has its own lord lieutenant and commission of the peace, and under the Local Government Act of 1888 forms a separate administrative county.
BRIAN WALTON (1600-1661), English divine and scholar, was born at Seymour, in the district of Cleveland, Yorkshire, in 1600.
EBENEZER ELLIOTT (1781-1849), English poet, the "cornlaw rhymer," was born at Masborough, near Rotherham, Yorkshire, on the 17th of March 1781.
KEIGHLEY (locally Keithley), a municipal borough in the Keighley parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 17 m.
from London, the terminus of a joint branch of the London & North-Western and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways.
They varied in size in different counties; those of Yorkshire, for instance, being very much larger than those of Lincolnshire.
JOHN HUTCHINSON (1674-1737), English theological writer, was born at Spennithorne, Yorkshire, in 1674.
HOYLAND NETHER, an urban district in the Hallamshire parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 51 m.
BATTLE OF THE STANDARD, a name given to the battle of the 22nd of August 1138 near Northallerton, in which the Scottish army under King David was defeated by the English levies of Yorkshire and the north Midlands, who arrayed themselves round a chariot carrying the consecrated banners of St Peter of York, St John of Beverley, St Wilfrid of Ripon and St Cuthbert of Durham.
BINGLEY, a market town in the Otley parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, on the Aire, 5-1 m.
On the defeat of the royal army Leslie, intercepted in his retreat through Yorkshire, was committed to the Tower, where he remained till the Restoration in 1660.
ROBIN HOOD'S BAY, a seaside resort in the Whitby parliamentary division of the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 61 m.
Henry at once sailed for England, and landing in Yorkshire while King Richard was in Ireland, gave out that he came only to recover his inheritance.
These properties are most highly developed in the substance known as jet, which is a variety of cannel found in the lower oolitic strata of Yorkshire, and is almost entirely used for ornamental purposes, the whole quantity produced near Whitby, together with a further supply from Spain, being manufactured into articles of jewellery at that town.
upper portion of this group consists of shales and sandstones, known as the Yoredale Rocks, which are highly developed in the moorland region between Lancashire and the north side of Yorkshire.
A midland group of coalfields extends from south Lancashire to the West Riding of Yorkshire, the two greatest industrial districts Geo= in the country, southward to Warwickshire and graphical Staffordshire, and from Nottinghamshire on the east to distribu- Flintshire on the west.
8 represents a method of working practised in the South Yorkshire district, known as bords and banks.
In Yorkshire hollow square pillars, formed by piling up short blocks of wood or chocks, are often used instead of props formed of a single stem.
ELLAND, an urban district in the Elland parliamentary division of Yorkshire, England, on the Calder, 22 m.
By his marriage with Mary, daughter of Edward Wortley Montagu of Wortley, Yorkshire, who in 1761 was created Baroness Mount Stuart of Wortley, and through whom he became possessed of the enormous Wortley property, he had, besides six daughters, five sons, the eldest of whom, John, Lord Cardiff (1744-1814), succeeded him as 4th earl and was created a marquess in 1796.
An insurrection of the Yorkshire peasants, which is to be ascribed in part to the distress caused by the enclosure of the commons on which they had been wont to pasture their cattle, and in part to the destruction of popular shrines, may have caused the king to defend his orthodoxy by introducing into parliament in 1539 the six questions.
Permanency of occupation, however, dates from the voyage of the " Mayflower," which brought about a hundred men, women and children who had mostly belonged to an English sect of Separatists, originating in Yorkshire, but who had passed a period of exile for religion's sake in Holland.
1555), bishop of St David's and martyr, born about the end of the 15th century of a Yorkshire family, is said to have been educated at Cambridge, whence he proceeded to Oxford and became a canon regular of St Augustine.
The occurrence marked him out for promotion by a Liberal Government, and in the autumn he received from Lord Brougham as chancellor the living of Kirby-underDale in Yorkshire.
of Bury, on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway.
FREDERICK WILLIAM FABER (1814-1863), British hymn writer and theologian, was born on the 28th of June 1814 at Calverley, Yorkshire, of which place his grandfather, Thomas Faber, was vicar.
HARROGATE, a municipal borough and watering-place in the Ripon parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 203 m.
Far otherwise was it with the church which was formed originally at Gainsborough (?1602), by " professors " trained under zealous Puritan clergy in the district where Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire and Lincolnshire meet, but which about 1606 reorganized itself for reasons of convenience into two distinct churches, meeting at Gainsborough and in Scrooby Manor House.
There are eight colleges in England, viz., besides Mansfield and Cheshunt, New and Hackney Colleges, London; Western College, Bristol; Yorkshire United College, Bradford; Lancashire Independent College, Manchester; the Congregational Institute, Nottingham.
In 1772 he sailed for London to visit Friends in the north of England, especially Yorkshire, and died in York of smallpox on the 7th of October.
In the administration of local affairs some of the Dutch settlements were little disturbed until ten years or more after the conquest, but the introduction of English institutions into settlements wholly or largely English was begun in 1665 by the erection of Long Island, Staten Island and Westchester into an English county under the name of Yorkshire, and by putting into operation in that county a code of laws known as the " Duke's Laws."
Released on an undertaking not to go to Yorkshire, a promise which he did not observe, the archbishop was enthroned in York Minster in June 1642.
BATLEY, a municipal borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, within the parliamentary borough of Dewsbury, 8 m.
of Leeds, on the Great Northern, London & North Western, and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways.
The town lies on the south-west Yorkshire coalfield, and there are a number of collieries in the district.
The industry was first introduced in 1730 by John Miller from Yorkshire.
of Bolton,and 6.6 m.S.E of Bury, by the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway.
HUMBER, an estuary on the east coast of England formed by the rivers Trent and Ouse, the northern shore belonging to Yorkshire and the southern to Lincolnshire.
above the mouth, but here, with a great shallow bay on the Yorkshire side, it increases to 8 m.
The seaward horn of this bay, however, is formed by a narrow protruding bank of sand and stones, thrown up by a southward current along the Yorkshire coast, and known as Spurn Head.
Except where the Humber cuts through a low chalk ridge, between north and south Ferriby, dividing it into the Wolds of Yorkshire and of Lincolnshire, the shores and adjacent lands are nearly flat.
The course is carefully buoyed and lighted, for the Humber is an important highway of commerce, having on the Yorkshire bank the great port of Hull, and on the Lincolnshire bank that of Grimsby, while Goole lies on the Ouse a little above the junction with the Trent.
Canals connect with the great manufacturing district of South Yorkshire, and the Trent opens up wide communications with the Midlands.
The action of the river upon the flat Yorkshire shore towards the mouth alters the shore-line constantly.
of Oldham on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway.
His father was rector of the parish: his grandfather and great-grandfather were merchants in the City of London, where their descendants for a long while continued to be influential people; his mother belonged to the family of Roundell, which had been settled for four centuries in the West Riding of Yorkshire.
In July 1861 he accepted from Lord Palmerston the office of solicitor-general, a knighthood, and a safe seat for the borough of Richmond in Yorkshire, secured for him through the friendly action of Lord Zetland, and thus began the second spell of Palmer's membership of the House of Commons, which continued till his elevation to the woolsack and the peerage.
When Newcastle was shut up in York, Lucas and the cavalry remained in the open country, and when Rupert's relieving army crossed the mountains into Yorkshire he was quickly joined by Newcastle's squadrons.
At Marston Moor Lucas swept Fairfax's Yorkshire horse before him, but later in the day he was taken prisoner.
DRIFFIELD (officially Great Driffield), a market town in the Buckrose parliamentary division of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, 191 m.
DEWSBURY, a market town and municipal and parliamentary borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, on the river Calder, 8 m.
of Leeds, on the Great Northern, London & North-Western, and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways.
OSSETT, a municipal borough in the Morley parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 3 m.
station) the Lancashire and Yorkshire railways.
1431), bishop of Lincoln, and founder of Lincoln College, Oxford, was born at Crofton in Yorkshire.
At Shaw, a populous village included within it, is a station on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway.
ROTHERHAM, a market-town and municipal borough in the Rotherham parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 5 m.
from Manchester, on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway and the Manchester & Bolton canal.
Farman was a priest at Harewood, or Harwood, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and to him the best part of the work is due.
it that her maiden-name was Ursula Southill, Sowthiel or Southiel, and her parents were peasants, living near the Dropping Well, Knaresborough, Yorkshire.
She is said to have died at Clifton, Yorkshire, in 1561, and was buried there or at Shipton.
BRADFORD, a city, and municipal, county and parliamentary borough, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 192 m.
It is served by the Midland and the North Eastern railways (Midland station), and by the Great Northern and the Lancashire & Yorkshire railways (Exchange station).
Bradford, which is mentioned as having belonged before 1 066, with several other manors in Yorkshire, to one Gamel, appears to have been almost destroyed during the conquest of the north of England and was still waste in r086.
Holroyd, Collectanea Bradfordiana (1873); Victoria County History - Yorkshire.
HECKMONDWIKE, an urban district in the Spen Valley parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 8 m.
of Bradford, on the Lancashire & Yorkshire, Great Northern, and London & North-Western railways.
- Kirkstall Abbey, Yorkshire (Cistercian).
- Ground-plan of Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire.
The Premonstratensian regular canons, or White canons, had as many as 35 houses in England, of which the most perfect remaining are those of Easby, Yorkshire, and Bayham, Kent.
SKELTON AND BROTTON, an urban district in the Cleveland parliamentary division of the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 17 m.
Pontefract, in Yorkshire, where he received from Wulfstan, archbishop of York, and the Northumbrian "witan" confirmation of their submission.
In 1853 he was elected for Huddersfield, and in 1857 for the West Riding of Yorkshire.
For many years Lord Ripon was president of the Yorkshire College of Science at Leeds, and chairman of the West Riding County Council.
Pigs, mostly of the Yorkshire, Berkshire and Tamworth breeds, are reared and fattened in large numbers, and there is a valuable export trade in bacon.
per ton in excess of the rate paid by a Yorkshire farmer; this, it will be admitted, does not go very far towards enabling the latter to pay rent, tithes and rates and taxes.
ILKLEY, an urban district in the Otley parliamentary division .of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 16 m.
The Lancashire & Yorkshire and the London & North-Western railways serve the town.
c. 1198), or, as he is sometimes styled, Guillelmus Parvus, English ecclesiastic and chronicler, was a canon of the Augustinian priory of Newburgh in the North Riding of Yorkshire.
JAMES THEODORE BENT (1852-1897), English traveller, was the son of James Bent of Baildon House, near Leeds, Yorkshire, where he was born on the 30th of March 1852.
of Manchester, with stations on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway.
ALDBOROUGH, a village in the Ripon parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 16 m.
HULL (officially Kingston-upon-Hull), a city and county of a city, municipal, county and parliamentary borough, and seaport in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, at the junction of the river Hull with the Humber, 22 m.
Hull is one of the principal shipping ports for the manufactures of Yorkshire and Lancashire, and has direct communication with the coal-fields of the West Riding.
FLAMBOROUGH HEAD, a promontory on the Yorkshire coast of England, between the Filey and Bridlington bays of the North Sea.
SMITHSON TENNANT (1761-1815), English chemist, was born at Selby, Yorkshire, on the 30th of November 1761.
1599) of Overthorpe, Yorkshire, was educated at Oldham and at University College, Oxford.
NORTHALLERTON, a market town in the Richmond parliamentary division of the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 30 m.
See Victoria County History, Yorkshire; C. J.
In some districts, especially in Yorkshire, the count is based on the number of yards per ounce, and in others the older method of drams avoirdupois per woo yard skein.
Against this we must set off a decided increase in the manufacture of mixed goods, carried on principally in Scotland, Yorkshire and Lancashire.
Silk spinning has chiefly developed in the Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire and Staffordshire textiles centres.
RIPON, a cathedral city and municipal borough in the Ripon parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 214 m.
The diocese includes rather less than one-third of the parishes of Yorkshire, and also a small part of Lancashire.
See Victoria County History, Yorkshire; and W.
The site of Ripon was purchased in 1838 by John Scott Horner (1802-1883), of Virginia, secretary and acting-governor of Michigan Territory in 1835, and the first secretary of Wisconsin Territory in 1836-37, who named the village when it was established in 1849 from the seat of his ancestors in Yorkshire.
He obtained a considerable addition to his resources (Carlyle puts the amount at £10,000) on his marriage in 1767 to Betty Anne, sole child and heiress of John Dawson of Marly in Yorkshire.
The wild hills and wilder tribes of Wales and Yorkshire offered far fiercer resistance.
Adiutrix, and achieved the final subjugation of Wales and the first conquest of Yorkshire, where a legionary fortress at York was substituted for that at Lincoln.
In addition, two or three cross roads, not yet sufficiently explored, maintained communication between the troops in Yorkshire and those in Cheshire and Lancashire.
Again, the destruction of Chester about 615 was soon followed by the overthrow of the British kingdom of Elmet in south-west Yorkshire, and the occupation of Shropshire and the Lothians took place perhaps about the same period, that of Herefordshire probably somewhat later.
His parents had migrated from Yorkshire to London, where his father worked as a blacksmith.
COTTON GOODS AND YARN The two great sections of the cotton industry are yarn and cloth, and in Great Britain the production of both of these is mainly in South Lancashire, though the area extends to parts of Cheshire, Yorkshire and Derbyshire, and there is a Scottish branch, besides certain isolated ventures in other parts of the country.
Spinning mills are established, however, in most of the large Lancashire towns as well as in some parts of Cheshire and in Yorkshire, where there is a considerable industry in doubling yarns.
SADDLEWORTH, an urban district in the Colne Valley parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 14 m.
The Yorkshire Charter-house of Mount Grace, founded by Thomas Holland, the young duke of Surrey, nephew of Richard II.
WILLIAM MORLEY PUNSHON (1824-1881), English Nonconformist divine, was born at Doncaster, Yorkshire, on the 29th of May 1824.
of the city of Ripon in Yorkshire.
See Victoria County History, Yorkshire; Dugdale, Monasticon; Surtees Society, Memorials of the Abbey of St Mary of Fountains, collected and edited by J.
He was the son of the rector of Hauxwell, Yorkshire, and was privately educated by his father.
After other attempts to obtain a fellowship, he was elected in 1839 to a Yorkshire fellowship at Lincoln, an anti-Puseyite College.
Mark Pattison's tenth and youngest sister was Dorothy Wyndlow Pattison (1832-1878), better known as Sister Dora, the name she took in 1864 on becoming a member of the Anglican sisterhood of the Good Samaritan at Coatham, Yorkshire.
His father died when he was still young, and he as educated at the court of his uncle Richard I., king of Engl nd, under whose leadership he gained valuable experience in ar, being appointed duke of Aquitaine, count of Poitou and earl of Yorkshire.
SALTBURN BY THE SEA, a seaside resort in the Cleveland parliamentary division of the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 21 m.
In 1537 he condemned to death as traitors the Lincolnshire and the Yorkshire rebels.
On the i 5th of July, after various delays interposed by her reluctance to leave the neighbourhood of the border, where on her arrival she had received the welcome and the homage of the leading Catholic houses of Northumberland and Cumberland, she was removed to Bolton Castle in North Yorkshire.
BARNSLEY (BLACK, or properly Bleak Barnsley), a market town and municipal borough in the Barnsley parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 15 m.
It is served by the Midland, Great Central, Lancashire & Yorkshire, Great Northern, and Hull & Barnsley railways.
A monument was erected in 1905 to prominent members of the Yorkshire Miners' Association.
See Rowland Jackson, The History of the Town and Township of Barnsley (1858); Victoria County History - Yorkshire.
from Manchester, on the Lancashire & Yorkshire and London & North-Western railways and the Leeds & Liverpool Canal.
The thick, main or scaur limestone (mountain limestone) of the centre and south of England, Wales and Carboniferous Ireland, which splits up in the Yorkshire dales C Limestone (Yoredale group) into a succession of stout limestone Li Series.
Thus western Europe in early Carboniferous time was occupied by a series of constricted, gulf-like seas; and on account of the steady progress of intermittent warping movements of the crust, we find that the areas of clearer water, in which the limestone-building organisms could exist, were repeatedly able to spread, thus forming those thin limestones found interbedded with shale and sandstone which occur typically in the Yoredale district of Yorkshire and in the region to the north, and also in the culm deposits of central Europe.
THORNE, a market town in the Doncaster parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Io m.
In 1905 the Cleveland district in North Yorkshire supplied 41% of the total British product of iron ores; Lincolnshire, 14.8%; Northamptonshire, 13.9%; Leicestershire, 4.7%; Cumberland, 8.6%; North Lancashire, 2.7%; Staffordshire, 6.1%; and Scotland, 5.7%.
Most of the British iron works lie in and near the important coal-fields in Scotland between the mouth of the Clyde and the Forth, in Cleveland and Durham, in Cumberland and Lancashire, in south Yorkshire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire, in Staffordshire and Northamptonshire, and in south Wales in spite of its lack of ore.
The force, placed under Colonel Sir Francis Scott, consisted of the 2nd West Yorkshire regiment, a "special service corps," made up of detachments from various regiments in the United Kingdom, under specially selected officers, the 2nd West India regiment, and the Gold Coast and Lagos Hausa.
ESTON, an urban district in the Cleveland parliamentary division of the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 4 m.
c. 1307), English chronicler, took his name from the village of Langtoft in Yorkshire, and was a canon of the Augustinian priory in Bridlington.
FEATHERSTONE, an urban district in the Osgoldcross parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 6 m.
of Wakefield on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway.
JOHN TILLOTSON (1630-1694), English archbishop, was the son of a Puritan clothier in Sowerby, Yorkshire, where he was born in October 1630.
of Wigan, on the Lancashire and Yorkshire railway.
Warping is practised only in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, on the estuary of the Humber, and in the neighbourhood of the rivers which flow into it - the Trent, the Ouse and the Don.
In 1860 he founded at Hunslet, Leeds, the firm of Fowler & Co., manufacturers of agricultural machinery, traction engines, &c. He died at Ackworth, Yorkshire, on the 4th of December 1864.
The above three breeds were designated Yorkshire Whites, and are still so named at times.
1349), English hermit and author, was born near the end of the 13th century, at Thornton (now Thornton Dale), near Pickering, Yorkshire.
The best collection is by C. Horstmann, Yorkshire Writers: Richard Rolle of Hampole; An English Father of the Church and his Followers ' Gesner in 1 555 said that the bird was thus called, and for this reason, near Strassburg, but the name seems not to be generally used in Germany, where the bird is commonly called Rake, apparently from its harsh note.
TODMORDEN, a market town and municipal borough in the Sowerby parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, extending into the Middleton parliamentary division of Lancashire; 19 m.
of Manchester, on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway.
While cremation is rare in the long barrows of the south of England, it is the rule in those of Yorkshire and the north of Scotland.
In the Iron Age there was less uniformity in the burial customs. In some of the barrows in central France, and in the wolds of Yorkshire, the interments include the arms and accoutrements of a charioteer, with his chariot, harness and horses.
Mortimer, Forty Years' Researches in Burial Mounds of East Yorkshire (London, 1905); J.
and founded an abbey dedicated to the Virgin, a little higher up the Tweed, the first Cistercian settlement in Scotland, with monks from Rievaulx in Yorkshire.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Yorkshire.
Much salt is obtained from north Lancashire, as also from the brine pits of Staffordshire, Worcestershire, Yorkshire, Durham and the Isle of Man (Point of Ayre).
Yorkshire and S.
The chief centres of manufacture in England are at Northwich, Middlewich, Winsford and Sandbach in Cheshire, Weston-on-Trent in Staffordshire, Stoke Prior and Droitwich in Worcestershire and Middlesbrough in Yorkshire.) The Cheshire and Worcestershire salt deposits are by far the most important.
MEXBOROUGH, an urban district in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, on the Don, II m.
GOOLE, a market town and port in the Osgoldcross parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, at the confluence of the Don and the Ouse, 24 m.
from Hull, served by the North Eastern, Lancashire & Yorkshire, Great Central and Asholme joint railways.
Passenger steamship services are worked in connexion with the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway to Amsterdam, Antwerp, Bruges, Copenhagen, Rotterdam and other north European ports.
HERBERT HENRY ASQUITH (1852-), English statesman, son of Joseph Dixon Asquith, was born at Morley, Yorkshire, on the 12th of September 1852.
He came of a middle-class Yorkshire family of pronounced Liberal and Nonconformist views, and was educated under Dr Edwin Abbott at the City of London school, from which he went as a scholar to Balliol, Oxford; there he had a distinguished career, taking a first-class in classics, winning the Craven scholarship and being elected a fellow of his college.
of Preston by a joint line of the London & North Western and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways.
The English domain comprised, roughly speaking, the modern counties of Selkirkshire, Peeblesshire, Berwickshire, Roxburghshire and most of the Lothians, while south of Tweed it contained Northumberland, Durham and Yorkshire to the Humber.
He took and held Berwick, and (14th of October 1322) defeated Edward with heavy loss near Byland Abbey in Yorkshire, where the highlanders scaled a cliff and drove the English from a formidable position.
from Manchester, served by the Lancashire & Yorkshire and the London & North Western railways, with several lines from all parts of the county.
BOROUGHBRIDGE, a market town in the Ripon parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England; 22 m.
It lies in the central plain of Yorkshire, on the river Ure near its confluence with the Swale.
OBADIAH WALKER (1616-1699), master of University College, Oxford, was born at Dal-field near Barnsley, Yorkshire, and was educated at University College, Oxford, becoming a fellow and tutor of this society and a prominent figure in university circles.
of Manchester, and is served by the London & North-Western, Great Central, and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways.
CLECKHEATON, an urban district in the Spen Valley parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 51 m.
of Bradford, on the Lancashire & Yorkshire, Great Northern and London & North-Western railways.
ADAM LOFTUS (c. 1533-1605), archbishop of Armagh and Dublin, and lord chancellor of Ireland, the son of a Yorkshire gentleman, was educated at Cambridge.
bestowed it on the abbey of Mountgrace in Yorkshire.
of Manchester on the London & North-Western and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways.
Nicolls erected the region composed of Long Island, Staten Island and Westchester into a county under the name of Yorkshire, and divided it into three ridings, of which Staten Island, the present county of Kings, and the town of Newtown in Queens, formed one.
After ten years of wandering, he was fixed for eight or nine years at a school at Halifax in Yorkshire.
He kept up an intimacy which had begun at Cambridge with John Hall-Stevenson (1718-1785), a witty and accomplished epicurean, owner of Skelton Hall ("Crazy Castle") in the Cleveland district of Yorkshire.
He was in high favour with that sovereign, but renounced the prospect of a bishopric to enter the Cistercian house of Rievaulx in Yorkshire, which was founded in 1131 by Walter Espec. Here Ã†lred remained for some time as master of the novices, but between the years 1142 and 1146 was elected abbot of Revesby in Lincolnshire and migrated thither.
HEDON, a municipal borough in the Holderness parliamentary division of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, 8 m.
See Victoria County History, Yorkshire; J.
Another site in Holderness, Yorkshire, examined by Mr Boynton in 1881, yielded evidence of fascine construction, with suggestions of occupation in the latter part of the Bronze Age.
Dalby (London, 1906), where the inertia stresses brought upon the several links of a Joy valve gear, belonging to an express passenger engine of the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway, are investigated for an engine-speed of 68 m.
WHITBY, a seaport, watering-place and market town in the Whitby parliamentary division of the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 245 m.
C. Atkinson, Memorials of Old Whitby (London, 18 94); Lionel Charlton, History of Whitby (York, 1779); George Young, History of Whitby (Whitby, 1817); Victoria County History, Yorkshire, North Riding.
a new vicarapostolic - John Leyburne, bishop of Adrumetum in partibus- was at once appointed (1685); three years later England was divided into four districts - the London, Midland, Northern and Western - each under a vicar-apostolic. This arrangement lasted till 1840, when the number of vicariates was doubled by the addition of the Welsh, Eastern, Lancashire and Yorkshire districts.
Joseph Berington, himself a distinguished Catholic priest, considers that this number was above the mark; he reports that his co-religionists were most numerous in Lancashire and London; next came Yorkshire, Northumberland and Staffordshire.
HENRY ALLON (1818-1892), English Nonconformist divine, was born on the 13th of October 1818 at Welton near Hull in Yorkshire.
WAKEFIELD, a city and municipal and parliamentary borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 1 752 m.
It is served by the Great Northern, Midland and Great Central railways (Westgate station), and the Lancashire and Yorkshire and North-Eastern railways (Kirkgate station), the Great Northern Company using both stations.
The diocese includes about one-seventh of the parishes of Yorkshire, and also covers a very small portion of Lancashire.
Formerly Wakefield was the great emporium of the cloth manufacture in Yorkshire, but in the 19th century it was superseded in this respect by Leeds.
Although its manufacturing importance is now small in comparison with that of several other Yorkshire towns, it possesses mills for spinning worsted and carpet yarns, coco-nut fibre and China grass.
See Victoria County History, Yorkshire; W.
from London by the London & North-Western railway, served also by the Lancashire & Yorkshire and the Great Central railways.
In the north of England a similar education society was formed in 1804 at Bradford, Yorkshire, which has since been removed to Rawdon, near Leeds.
Thus it appears that of the coal raised in England the county of Durham contributes about 22%, Yorkshire 17%, Lancashire 16%, Stafford and Derbyshire each about 9%, and Northumberland 7%; while of the coal raised in Wales 85% is contributed by the county of Glamorgan; and that the coal production of England and Wales together constitutes, in quantity and value, 85% of the whole production of the United Kingdom.
Their territory thus included most of Yorkshire, the whole of Lancashire, Durham, Westmorland, Cumberland and part of Northumberland.
Her mother, Elizabeth, co-heiress of Aske in Yorkshire, was the earliest of that little band of women-friends whose correspondence with Knox on religious matters throws an unexpected light on his discriminating tenderness of heart.
He was a fellow of his college, and was appointed Woodwardian professor of geology in 1762, and in 1767 rector of Thornhill in Yorkshire, where he died on the 29th of April 1793.
WENSLEYDALE, the name given to the upper part of the valley of the river Ure in the North Riding, Yorkshire, England.
The Ure rises near the border of Yorkshire and Westmorland, in the uplands of the Pennine Chain.
Its course is generally easterly as long as it is confined by these uplands, but on debauching upon the central plain of Yorkshire it takes a southeasterly turn and flows past Ripon and Boroughbridge to form, by its union with the Swale, the river Ouse, which drains to the Humber.
LIVERSEDGE, an urban district in the Spen Valley parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 7 m.
of Bradford, on the Lancashire & Yorkshire, Great Nothern, and London & North Western railways.
During the next few years he as well as his brothers fell into disfavour with Edward IV.; and in 1469, after a successful rising in Yorkshire secretly fermented by Warwick, the king fell into the hands of the archbishop, by whom, after a short imprisonment, he was permitted to escape.
WOMBWELL, an urban district in the Barnsley parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 4 m.
"SILVANUS PHILLIPS THOMPSON (1851-1916), English physicist, was born at York June 19 1851, and educated at a school in Yorkshire belonging to the Society of Friends, of which body he was a lifelong member.
GUISBOROUGH, or Guisbrough, a market town in the Cleveland parliamentary division of the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, Io m.
WILLIAM NEWMARCH (1820-1882), English economist and statistician, was born at Thirsk, Yorkshire, on the 28th of January 1820.
of Manchester on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway.
In August 1677 the ship " Kent " arrived in the Delaware, with 230 Quakers from London and Yorkshire.
East of the Pennines, isolated on three sides by lowlands and on the fourthsideby the North Sea, lie the high moors of the North Riding of Yorkshire, with the Cleveland Hills, and, to the south, the Yorkshire Wolds of the East Riding.
From Yorkshire to the flat indented sea-coast north of the Thames estuary, east of the Pennines and the slight hills indicated as the Northampton uplands, and in part demarcated southward by the East Anglian ridge in Huntingdonshire, Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, the land, although divided between a succession of river-systems, varies so little in level as to be capable of consideration as a single plain.
On the Yorkshire coast the Cleveland Hills and the high moors are cut off on the seaward side in magnificent cliffs, which reach the greatest elevation of sea-cliffs on the English coast (666 ft.).
The Yorkshire Wolds similarly terminate seaward in the noble promontory of Flamborough Head.
Ravenspur, once an important town of Yorkshire, where Bolingbroke, afterwards Henry IV., landed in 1399, is now submerged; and Dunwich and other ancient ports in East Anglia have met with the same fate.
2 The principal members of the Humber-system are the Ouse of Yorkshire (121 m.
The Pennine Region, the centre of which forms the so-called Pennine Chain, occupies the country from the Eden valley to the North Sea in the north, and from the lower Tees, Yorkshire Ouse and Trent, nearly to the Irish Sea, in the south.
It includes the whole of Northumberland and Durham, the West Riding of Yorkshire, most of Lancashire and Derbyshire, the north of Staffordshire and the west of Nottinghamshire.
There are remarkable features underground as well as on the surface, the caverns and subterranean streams of Yorkshire and Derbyshire being amongst the deepest that have yet been explored.
The Trent runs north in the southern half of this plain, the Ouse runs south through the northern half, which is known as the Vale of York, lying low between the Pennine heights on the west and the Yorkshire moors on the east.
The Jurassic belt is occupied by the counties of Gloucester, Oxford, Buckingham, Bedford, Northampton, Huntingdon, Rutland, Lincoln and the North Riding of Yorkshire.
The escarpment runs north from Portland Island on the English Channel, curves north-eastward as the Cotteswold Hills, rising abruptly from the Severn plain to heights of over Iwo ft.; it sinks to insignificance in the Midland counties, is again clearly marked in Lincolnshire, and rises in the North Yorkshire moors to its maximum height of over 1500 ft.
Throughout its whole extent it yields valuable building-stone, and in the Yorkshire moors the great abundance of iron ore has created the prosperity of Middlesbrough, on the plain below.
Successive portions of this line of heights are known as the Western Downs, the White Horse Hills, the Chiltern Hills, the East Anglian Ridge, the Lincolnshire Wolds and the Yorkshire Wolds.
The Chalk country extends over part of Dorset, most of Wiltshire, a considerable portion of Hampshire and Oxfordshire, most of Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire, the west of Norfolk and Suffolk, the east of Lincolnshire, and the East Riding of Yorkshire.
The thickest covering of drift is found in the Holderness district of Yorkshire, where, from the chalk cliffs of Flamborough Head to the sandspit of Spurn Point, the whole coast is formed of boulderclay resting on chalk.
Essex and Suffolk, Suffolk and Norfolk, Cornwall and Devon, Durham and Yorkshire, Lancashire and Cheshire, are all separated by rivers, while rivers form some part of the boundaries of almost every county.
Watersheds are rarely used as boundaries for any distance; but, although slightly overlapping the watershed on all sides, Yorkshire is very nearly coincident with the basin of the Ouse.
(2) The second striking feature is the regular succession of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks which crop out in almost unbroken lines from the coast of Dorsetshire, whither they appear to converge, to the Cleveland Hills and the Yorkshire coast.
The Triassic rocks, red sandstones, marls and conglomerates cover a broad area in the Midlands in Worcestershire, Warwickshire and Leicestershire, whence they may be followed south-westward through Somerset to the coast at Sidmouth, and northward, round either flank of the Pennine Hills, through Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire to Middlesbrough on the one hand, and upon the other through Staffordshire, Cheshire and Lancashire to Carlisle.
The outcrop of the Lias, mainly clay with thin limestones and ironstones, runs in an almost continuous band across the country from Lyme Regis, through Bath, Cheltenham, near Leicester, and Lincoln to Redcar in Yorkshire.
The Chalk occupies all the remaining portion of the south-east of England, save the Wealden area, and extends northward as far as Flamborough in Yorkshire, forming the Yorkshire Wolds, the Lincolnshire Wolds, the Chiltern Hills, the N.
The north-east, including the Pennine Region and the whole of Yorkshire, has less than 1300 hours of sunshine, and a portion of North Wales is equally cloudy.
The great populous area which covers south Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire, and extends beyond them into Cheshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire and Nottinghamshire, is not in reality a unit.
Serving also the West Riding of Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Nottingham and other towns of the midlands, and Manchester (by running powers over the Great Central metals).
Maintains docks at Garston on the Mersey, a steamship traffic with Dublin and Greenore from Holyhead, and, jointly with the Lancashire & Yorkshire Company, a service to Belfast, &c., from Fleetwood.
The two most important railway companies not possessing lines to London are the North-Eastern and the Lancashire & Yorkshire.
Lancashire & Yorkshire (1847, an amalgamation of a number of local systems).
(1) Through connexions with the continental services from Harwich, and with Yarmouth and other towns of the East coast, are provided from Yorkshire, Lancashire, &c., by way of the Great Northern and Great Eastern Joint line from Doncaster and Lincoln to March.
- The English system of inland navigation is confined principally to the following districts: South Lancashire, the West Riding of Yorkshire, the Midlands, especially about Birmingham, the Fen district and the Thames i basin (especially the lower part).
The manufacturing districts of South Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire are traversed and connected by several canals following transverse valleys of the Pennine Chain.
Other canals are numerous, among which may be mentioned the Sheffield and South Yorkshire, connecting Sheffield with the Trent.
Most of the eastern part of England is " arable," while the western and northern part is " grass," the boundary between the sections being the western limit of Hampshire, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Warwickshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire, and of the East Riding of Yorkshire.
Yorkshire, East Riding.
The counties having the greatest area under cultivation (ranging up to about nine-tenths of the whole) may be taken to be - Leicestershire, the East Riding of Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Huntingdonshire, Rutland, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire.
Those with the smallest proportional cultivated area are Westmorland, Middlesex, Northumberland, Surrey, Cumberland, the North and West Ridings of Yorkshire, Lancashire, Durham and Cornwall.
The presence of a widespread urban population must also be remembered in the case of Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire.
Riding of Yorkshire are especially productive in all crops these; the North and West Ridings of Yorkshire pro duce a notable quantity of barley and oats; and the oat-crops in the following counties deserve mention - Devonshire, Hampshire, Lancashire, Cumberland, Cornwall, Cheshire and Sussex.
In proportion to their area, the counties specially productive of wheat are Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire and Essex; and of barley, Norfolk, Suffolk and the East Riding of Yorkshire.
But with lands thus classified heath, moor and hill pastures are not included; and the greatest area of these are naturally found in the counties of the Pennines and the Lake District, especially in Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland and the North and West Ridings of Yorkshire.
Other counties in which the numbers are especially large are Devonshire, Kent, Cumberland and the North and West Ridings of Yorkshire.
Cattle are reared in great numbers in Lincolnshire, Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire, Devonshire, Somersetshire and Cornwall; but the numbers of both cattle and sheep are in no English county (save Middlesex) to be regarded as insignificant.
Yorkshire, North and West Ridings.
These have, in some cases, a record from a fairly early date; thus, an indication of the Northumberland coal-supply occurs in a charter of 1234, and the Yorkshire coal-field is first mentioned early in the following century.
The coal-fields on the eastern flank of the Pennines, therefore, namely, the Northern and the Yorkshire, are seen to be by far the most important in England.
The principal ports for the shipping of coal for export, set down in order of the amount shipped, also fall very nearly into topographical groups, thus: - Newcastle, South Shields and Blyth in the Northern District; Newport in Monmouthshire; Sunderland in the Northern District, Hull, Grimsby and Goole on the Humber, which forms the eastern outlet of the Yorkshire coal-fields; Hartlepool, in the Northern District, and Liverpool.
The railways having the heaviest coal traffic are the North-Eastern, which monopolizes the traffic of Northumberland and Durham; the Midland, commanding the Derbyshire, Yorkshire and East Midland traffic, and some of the Welsh; the London & North Western, whose principal sources are the Lancashire, Staffordshire 1 The figure 17.76 is the percentage for the whole of Yorkshire.
a general industry, [Manufacturing Industries] and South Welsh districts; the Great Western and the Taff Vale (South Welsh), with the Great Central, Lancashire & Yorkshire and Great Northern systems.
In the face of railway competition, several of the canals maintain a fair traffic in coal, for which they are eminently suitable - the system of the Birmingham navigation, the Aire and Calder navigation of Yorkshire, and the Leeds and Liverpool navigation have the largest.
The richest iron-mining district in England and in the United Kingdom is the Cleveland district of the North Riding of Yorkshire.
For limestone the principal localities are in Durham, Derbyshire and Yorkshire, while for chalk-quarrying Kent is pre-eminent among a group of southeastern counties, including Hampshire, Sussex and Surrey, with Essex.
In Worcestershire, Durham and Yorkshire salt is also produced from brine.
The industry has extended into the adjacent parts of Cheshire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.
Similarly, this industry was of early importance along the line of the Cotteswold Hills, from Chipping Camden to Stroud and beyond, as also in some towns of Devonshire and Cornwall, but though it survives in the neighbourhood of Stroud, the importance of this district is far surpassed by that of the West Riding of Yorkshire, where the woollen industry stands pre-eminent among the many which, as already indicated, have concentrated there.
Apart from this district, large quantities of iron and steel are produced in the manufacturing areas of Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire, Territorial Divisions) and here, as in the Black Country, are found certain centres especially noted for the production of an individual class of goods, such as Sheffield for its cutlery.
Derby has a similar fame, while the manufacture of glass, important in Leeds and elsewhere in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and in the London district, centres peculiarly upon a single town in South Lancashire - St Helens.
Suffolk Sussex Yorkshire boroughs.
Born at Temple Newsam in Yorkshire on the 7th of December 1545, he was educated in England, and his lack of intellectual ability was compensated for by exceptional skill in military exercises.
THIRSK, a market-town in the Thirsk and Malton parliamentary division of the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 22 m.
See Victoria County History: Yorkshire; William Grainge, The Vale of Mowbray: a historical and topographical account of Thirsk and its neighbourhood (1859).
The settlement was first, known as New Beverly, but was soon renamed after Bridlington (Burlington), the Yorkshire home of many of the settlers.
BARGHEST, BARGUEST or Bargest, the name given in the north of England, especially in Yorkshire, to a monstrous goblindog with huge teeth and claws.
A belief in the spectre-hound still lingers in the wild parts of the north country of England, and in Nidderdale, Yorkshire, nurses frighten children with its name.
Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog, soft grass) is a common meadow and wayside grass with woolly or downy leaves.
His father, who belonged to an old Yorkshire family, held a moiety of the living of Malpas.
Grieved at the ignorance and superstition which the remissness of the clergy permitted to flourish in the neighbouring parishes, he used every year to visit the most neglected parts of Northumberland, Yorkshire, Cheshire, Westmorland and Cumberland; and that his own flock might not suffer, he was at the expense of a constant assistant.
LEEDS, a city and municipal county and parliamentary borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 185 m.
It is served by the Great Northern railway (Central station), the Midland (Wellington station), North-Eastern and London & North-Western (New station), and Great Central and Lancashire & Yorkshire railways (Central station).
The University, incorporated in 1904, grew out of Yorkshire College, established in 1875 for the purpose of supplying instruction in the arts and sciences which are applicable to the manufactures, engineering, mining and agriculture of the county.
The Yorkshire Ladies' Council of Education has as its object the promotion of female education, and the instruction of girls and women of the artisan class in domestic economy, &c. The general infirmary in Great George Street is a Gothic building of brick with stone dressings with a highly ornamental exterior by Sir Gilbert Scott, of whose work this is by no means the only good example in Leeds.
His ancestor, William Longfellow, had immigrated to Newbury, Massachusetts, in 1676, from Yorkshire, England.
On the other side the cavalry of the Eastern Association under Lieut.-General Cromwell and that of the Scots under Major-General Leslie (Lord Newark) formed the left, the infantry of the Eastern Association under Major-General Crawford, of the Scots under Lord Leven, and of the Yorkshire Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax was in the centre and the Yorkshire cavalry under Sir Thomas Fairfax was on the right wing.
On the Parliamentary right, Goring had swept away the Yorkshire horse, and although most of his troopers had followed in disorderly pursuit, Sir Charles Lucas with some squadrons was attacking the exposed right of Leven's infantry.
But the Scots on the right of the foot held firm against Lucas's attacks, and Cromwell and Leslie with their cavalry passed along the rear of the Royal army, guided by Sir Thomas Fairfax (who though wounded in the rout of his Yorkshire horse.
In the vicinity of the town are Egglestone Abbey, beautifully situated on the Yorkshire bank of the river, Rokeby Park on the same bank, at the confluence of the Greta, and the massive 14th century castle of Raby to the north-east.
To the men of the town which grew up outside the castle walls he gave, about the middle of the 12th century, a charter making them burgesses and granting them the same privileges as the town of Richmond in Yorkshire.
ROBERT SANDERSON (1587-1663), English divine, was born probably at Sheffield, Yorkshire, in September 1587.
GUY FAWKES (1570-1606), English "gunpowder plot" conspirator, son of Edward Fawkes of York, a member of a good Yorkshire family and advocate of the archbishop of York's consistory court, was baptized at St Michael le Belfrey at York on the, 6th of April 1570.
Soon afterwards his mother married, as her second husband, Dionis Baynbrigge of Scotton in Yorkshire, to which place the family removed.
REDCAR, a watering-place in the Cleveland parliamentary division of the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 8 m.
MIDDLESBROUGH, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough and seaport in the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 2382 m.
BOLTON ABBEY, a village in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 22 m.
He had some connexion with the Channel Islands, and resided for some time in Jersey; and he held livings in Yorkshire and in Leicestershire before he became archdeacon of Winchester in 1387.
Becoming in due time a woollen manufacturer in a large way at Bradford, Yorkshire (from which after his marriage he moved to Burley-inWharf edale), he soon made himself known as a practical philanthropist.
In the manufacturing districts of Lancashire and Yorkshire it generally amounts to one-third of the whole so-called " available supply."
The grouping of shires round a county town as distinct from the old national shires is probably of Scandinavian origin, and so certainly is the division of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire into "ridings."
In Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, part of Northamptonshire, Nottinghamshire, Rutlandshire (of later formation) and Yorkshire we have the counties divided into "wapentakes" instead of "hundreds," again a mark of Danish influence.
The whole of the place nomenclature of Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire and Northern Northamptonshire is Scandinavian rather than native English, and in the remaining districts of the Danelagh a goodly proportion of Danish place-names may be found.
HUDDERSFIELD, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 190 m.
It is served by the Lancashire & Yorkshire and London & North Western 1 Skeat, Etym.
railways, and has connexion with all the important railway systems of the West Riding, and with the extensive canal system of Lancashire and Yorkshire.
The Blue faced Wensleydales take their name from the Yorkshire dale of which Thirsk is the centre.
Riding of Yorkshire, and it is the largest of the mountain breeds of the N.
(being somewhat larger than Yorkshire) and a population (1904), of 85,484, of whom 898 were whites.
Of the rest of the invaders one section established I petty kingdom in Yorkshire, but those in the Midlands were fubject to no common sovereign but lived in a loose confederacy inder the jarls of the Five Boroughs already named above.
Only in Lincolnshire, East Yorkshire and parts of Nottinghamshire and Leicestershire do they seem to have settled thickly and formed a preponderating element in the countryside.
the Humber subdued, but the Yorkshire Danes, the Welsh, and evenit is saidthe remote Scots of the North, did homage to Edward and became his men.
~Ethelstans greatest and best-remembered achievement was his, decisive victory in 937 at Brunanburhan unknown spot, probably by the Solway Firth or the Ribbleover a great confederacy of rebel Danes of Yorkshire, Irish Danes from Dublin, the Scottish king, Constantine, and Eugenius, king of Strathclyde.
Yet even after such a triumph ~thelstan had to set up a Danish under-king in Yorkshire, apparently despairing of holding it down as a shire governed by a mere ealdorman.
The population was absolutely exterminated, and the great Domesday survey, made nearly twenty years later, shows the greater part of Yorkshire as waste.
His most formidable raid was checked by the Yorkshire shire levies, at the battle of the Standard (Aug.
Edward was allowed to raise an army for the siege of Berwick, and was lying before its walls, when the Scots, turning his flank, made a fierce foray into Yorkshire, and routed the shire-levy under Archbishop Melton at the battle of Myton.
The old earl northand set himself to subdue Yorkshire; his son Hotspur west, and the earl of Douglas marched south and opened communication with the Welsh.
In districts as far apart as Kent and Yorkshire, his word counted for a good deal more than that of his sovereign.
His first experiment in treason was Rising of the so-called rising of Robin of Redesdale, which Robin of was ostensibly an armed protest by the gentry and Redes- commons of Yorkshire against the maladministration dale, of the realm by the kings favoriteshis wifes relatives, and the courtiers whom he had lately promoted to high rank and office.
The Yorkshire rebels beat the royalist army at Battie of the battle of Edgecott (July 6, 1469).
He then set himself to stir up the Yorkshire adherents of the house of Neville to distract the attention of Edward IV.
The woollen manufactures which had begun in the eastern counties in the 14th century were now spreading all over the land, taking root especially in Somersetshire, Yorkshire and some districts of the Manufac- Midlands.
Phenomena like the Cornish revolt (which recalls Cades insurrection) and the Yorkshire rising of 1489, which began with the lflsuhac.
The first of the kings troubles was an abortive rising in the north riding of Yorkshire, the only district where Richard III.
1536 in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire were provoked partly by the dissolution of the monasteries, partly by the collection of a subsidy and fears of fresh taxation on births, marriages and burials, and partly by the protestantizing Ten Articles of 1536 and Cromwells Injunctions.
The Lincolnshire rising was over before the middle of October~ the more serious revolt in Yorkshire under Aske lasted through the winter.
The increasing weight of taxation gave rise in 1780 to a great meeting of the freeholders of Yorkshire, which in turn gave the signal for a general agitation for the reduction of unnecessary expense in the government.
Coals of this character are obtained in England from the Newcastle and Durham field, South Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Barnsley districts, and an idea of their ultimate composition may be derived from the following table: Our knowledge of the composition of coal is limited to the total amount of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and foreign materials which it contains; and at present we know practically but little of the way in which these bodies are combined.
BENJAMIN WAUGH (1839-1908), English social reformer, was born at Settle, Yorkshire, on the 10th of February 1839.
In December 1624 he was made a prebendary of Durham, and in the following year archdeacon of the East Riding of Yorkshire.
His father and grandfather were Yorkshire agriculturists, and throughout his life he took a strong interest in the welfare of the agricultural labourer, publishing three volumes on the subject, Village Politics (1878), Christ and Democracy (1883) and The Land and the Labourers (1890).
The Servian pig is pure white or black, but other breeds, notably the Berkshire and Yorkshire, are kept.
WILLIAM WILBERFORCE (1759-1833), English philanthropist whose name is chiefly associated with the abolition of the slave trade, was descended from a Yorkshire family which possessed the manor of Wilberfoss in the East Riding from the time of Henry II.
In 1784 Wilberforce was elected for both Hull and Yorkshire.
In 1812, on account of failing health, he exchanged the representation of Yorkshire for that of a constituency which would make less demands on his time, and was returned for Bramber, Sussex.
In Westminster Abbey a statue was erected to his memory, and in Yorkshire a county asylum for the blind was founded in his honour.
HENRY SIDGWICK (1838-1900), English philosopher, was born at Skipton in Yorkshire, where his father, the Rev. W.
In Waterford and Wexford are placed the Brigantes, who also occur in Yorkshire.
COVERDALE, MILES (1488 ?-1569), English translator of the Bible and bishop of Exeter, was born of Yorkshire parents about 1488, studied philosophy and theology at Cambridge, was ordained priest at Norwich in 1514, and then entered the convent of Austin friars at Cambridge.
BEVERLEY, a market town and municipal borough in the Holderness parliamentary division of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, 8 m.
In it he granted them the same privileges as the citizens of York, among these being a gild merchant and freedom from toll throughout the whole of Yorkshire, with right to take it at all the markets and fairs in their town except at the three principal fairs, the toll of which belonged to the archbishop. In 1200 King John granted the town a new charter, for which the burgesses had to pay 500 marks.
See Victoria County History - Yorkshire; G.
SCARBOROUGH, a municipal and parliamentary borough and fashionable seaside resort in the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, 231 m.
m., the county being second to Yorkshire of the English counties in size.
The Humber separates Lincolnshire from Yorkshire.
These belts are in part exposed in pits near Newark, and extend north by Gainsborough to where the Trent flows into the Humber, passing thence into Yorkshire.
The sheep are chiefly of the Lincolnshire and large Leicestershire breeds, and go to the markets of Yorkshire and London.
of Blackburn, on the Lancashire and Yorkshire railway.
In 1751 he became lord-lieutenant of the North and East Ridings of Yorkshire and a lord of the bedchamber, and in 1760 was made a knight of the Garter.
The second of the three horses above alluded to was the Darley Arabian, who was a genuine Arab, and was imported from Aleppo by a brother of Mr Darley of Aldby Park, Yorkshire, about the end of the reign of William III.
According to the Stud-Book, " Darley's Arabian was brought over by a brother of Mr barley of Yorkshire, who, being an agent in merchandise abroad, became member of a hunting club, by which means he acquired interest to procure this horse."
The other representative line of the Darley Arabian is through Bartlett's Childers, also bred by Mr Leonard Childers, and sold to Mr Bartlett of Masham, in Yorkshire.
The breeding of hackneys is extensively pursued in the counties of Norfolk, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Lincoln and York, and in the showyard competitions a keen but friendly rivalry is usually to be noticed between the hackney-breeding farmers of Norfolk and Yorkshire.
The mineral occurs in metalliferous veins in the lead mines of Strontian in Argyllshire, Pateley Bridge in Yorkshire, Braunsdorf near Freiberg in Saxony; abundantly in veins in calcareous marl near Minster and Hamm in Westphalia; and in limestone at Schoharie in New York.
In 1656 he was M.P. for the East Riding of Yorkshire, and at the restoration was sentenced to lifelong imprisonment.
It is served by the London & NorthWestern and the Lancashire & Yorkshire railways (Charlestown station), and by the Great Central (Park Parade station).
In Yorkshire, the centre of the woollen industry, the largest amounts of woolfat are produced, all attempts to recover the hitherto wasted material in Argentine and Australia having so far not been attended with any marked success.
or more in diameter) were found lying loose on the sporophylls by Zeiller; the sporangia containing them were first observed by Kidston, in a species from the Coal Measures of Yorkshire.
rocks of Cracow, Marchantites erectus from the Inferior Oolite rocks of Yorkshire, and M.
Equisetites columnaris, a common fossil in the Jurassic plant-beds of the Yorkshire coast, represents another type with relatively stout and occasionally branched vegetative shoots, bearing leaf-sheaths very like those of Equisetum maximum and other Horsetails.
One of the bestknown European species is Lycopodites falcatus, originally described by Lindley and Hutton from the Inferior Oolite of Yorkshire.
5, A), a characteristic Yorkshire fossil of Jurassic age, which in the form of the frond, bearing broad and relatively short pinnae, exhibits a striking agreement with the sterile portions of the fronds of Aneimia rotundifolia, a member of the fern family Schizaeaceae.
Dorsetshire and in the Inferior Oolite beds of Yorkshire, as well as in Rhaetic strata in Persia and elsewhere; it is characterized by its bipinnate fronds, and may be compared with the recent Australian genus Bowenia - peculiar among living Cycads in having bipinnate fronds.
It has been suggested that one at least of the flowers, that originally described by Mr Carruthers from the Inferior Oolite of Yorkshire as Beania gracilis, may have been borne by a member of the Ginkgoales.
Seeds like those of Ginkgo biloba have also been recorded as fossils in Jurassic rocks, and it is possible that the type of flower known as Beania, from the Inferior Oolite rocks of Yorkshire, may have been borne by Ginkgo or Baiera.
Araucarites Hudlestoni, described by Mr Carruthers from the Coralline Oolite rocks of Malton in Yorkshire; Araucarites sphaerocarpa from the Inferior Oolite of Somerset; also another cone found in the Northampton Sands, which is probably specifically identical with A.
Cleethorpes is greatly favoured by visitors from the midland counties, Lancashire and Yorkshire.
Silica is used in furnace-building in the forms of sand, ganister, a finely ground sandstone from the Coal Measures of Yorkshire, and the analogous substance known as Dinas clay, which is really nearly pure silica, containing at most about 2-1% of bases.
After the World Games, John and Marion traveled to England and renewed old acquaintances with a number of BLDSA friends in Yorkshire.
I'm a mixture of Yorkshire man and Australian and I don't think we have much guile.
Their last known address (in 1928) was 18 St Andrews Crescent Harrogate Yorkshire.
Alastair Dunn found a 4,000-year-old arrowhead at a stately home called Castle Howard in Yorkshire during an archeological activity session.
The students will tour shools in West Yorkshire from December 3-14, targeting areas prone to arson attacks.
Jo's main interests are silk painting, wax batik and embroidery and she exhibits her work regularly in the Yorkshire area.
The starter of Yorkshire pudding, a great slab of gorgeous golden batter soaked in gravy would set me up on its own.
Where in Yorkshire stands a church erected in memory of someone murdered by brigands?
Aiskew, Bedale, North Yorkshire A three bedroom extended semi detatched bungalow situated on the popular Badger Hill development.
United wave bye bye to Maritimo - Matt Reeder Copy from Yorkshire Evening Post of 28/09/2001.
carboniferous series of the moorland districts of North Yorkshire.
We offer charming, en-suite ground floor rooms with every convenience, in the idyllic and spectacular North Yorkshire Moors.
Born at Foulby in Yorkshire, this English horologist invented the first practical marine chronometer.
medieval churches of West Yorkshire a survey of the county's medieval parish churches, many of which have been ignored by architectural historians.
Cistercian foundations in Yorkshire.
John Harrison, one of the most famous of English clockmakers, was born in 1693 near Pontefract in Yorkshire.
Hand blended in Yorkshire from organic white pepper, organic nutmeg, organic ginger and organic cloves.
The 19-year-old from Pontefract in Yorkshire, seeded four, overcame experienced compatriot Paul Lord in the first round of the eight-man event.
The menu will include roast beef and Yorkshire pudding with horseradish sauce and onion confit, as well as a selection of roast vegetables.
Almost all the other ranks were young conscripts from various parts of the North Riding of Yorkshire.
From delicate elderflower cordial to hearty Yorkshire puds, weÃ¢ve selected the finest of English fare.
Adrian was just 25 when he died on February 6. A former RAF corporal from South Yorkshire, he first showed symptoms last March.
Twenty-two canal holidays are planned countrywide from the Bude, Cornwall to the Dearne and Dove, Yorkshire.
crowd pullers in the Yorkshire Dales.
hire a cruiser or yacht on the Norfolk Broads, River Thames, or Yorkshire Ouse.
cupola furnaces installed here which were unusual in Yorkshire.
curd tarts are made in Lancashire as well as in Yorkshire.
dales village within the Yorkshire National Park, with its stone cottages clustered around the spacious village green.
We are working toward no accidental fire deaths occurring in West Yorkshire.
Unlike the Yorkshire style of chalices, those in Norfolk and Suffolk are invariably depicted with a wafer.
depopulated land to make room for their abbey at Jervaulx in North Yorkshire in the 12th century.
Research of today's would-be FTBs, carried out on behalf of Yorkshire Building Society, has revealed the extreme desperation of many.
Pete Brown was born in Barnsley South Yorkshire, and still occasionally gets dewy-eyed about northern bitter.
Wharfedale have always been a difficult side to beat and Saturday was no exception as the Yorkshire side sought to attain dominance up front.
fame spread and soon everyone in Yorkshire knew him.
You will find superb views over the North Pennines, the eastern fells of the Lake District and the Yorkshire Dales.
The wavy fess represents the River Calder which, at the time the arms were granted, was the boundary between Yorkshire and Lancashire.
The overall street crime figures for West Yorkshire show a small overall rise.
A teacher in West Yorkshire had his car firebombed allegedly the day after his name and address had appeared.
The campaign to recruit retained firefighters in West Yorkshire is ongoing.
He was a leading fireman in Hull, East Yorkshire.
foisting old technology unnecessarily on Cleveland and Yorkshire.
Stage 7 Cross Yorkshire Street to the Royal Bank of Scotland which has a plinth of polished black gabbro called Bon Accord.
plant geneticist Peter Meyer - recently dubbed ' a voice of reason ' by the Yorkshire Evening Post - chaired the debate.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.