The yield of corn varies from six to ten times the amount sown.
The division of labor applied to science will yield substantial results.
asking him in the name of religion and peace to accept Italian protection instead of the temporal power, to which the pope replied that he Italian would only yield to force.
They told me that in a good day they could get out a thousand tons, which was the yield of about one acre.
They kissed, and Jackson immediately felt her yield under his embrace.
The fruits do not yield their true flavor to the purchaser of them, nor to him who raises them for the market.
Prinus, a beautiful tree of large growth, and its subspecies castanea and montana, yield good timber.
Her body ached for him, but to yield to him would be her death.
In several of the states, New South Wales and South Australia proper, the railways yield more than the interest paid by the government on the money borrowed for their construction.
Only the dead-looking evergreen firs dotted about in the forest, and this oak, refused to yield to the charm of spring or notice either the spring or the sunshine.
Even knowing so, she had been willing to yield to him.
Polyporus igniarius and other species are also used, but yield an inferior product.
Let others--the young--yield afresh to that fraud, but we know life, our life is finished!
Similarly, seed makers are judged by the crops the seeds grow into—specifically, the yield and how long it takes to get it.
The vineyards of Bugey and Revermont yield good wines.
It was impossible first because--as experience shows that a three-mile movement of columns on a battlefield never coincides with the plans--the probability of Chichagov, Kutuzov, and Wittgenstein effecting a junction on time at an appointed place was so remote as to be tantamount to impossibility, as in fact thought Kutuzov, who when he received the plan remarked that diversions planned over great distances do not yield the desired results.
They'd been praying that the last three women would yield his nishani.
deep. The mines employ over loon workers, and yield about 60,000 tons annually.
They yield as much as 12 tons per acre.
An acre used to yield on an average 300 tons of phosphatic nodules, value £750.
It is pleasant, too, to note her thoughtfulness for little children, and her readiness to yield to their whims.
Its methyl derivatives yield the corresponding carboxylic acids when oxidized by potassium permanganate.
The yield for 1901 was 5528 tons, but a large increase took place subsequently, eleven million new plants having been added in southern Italy in 1905.
of the total area, produced 151,696,571 bushels of wheat, a yield of only 12 bushels per acre.
Petroleum and coal have been worked, and there is a rich yield of chalk, while a good quality of bricks is made from the xxii.
The woods do not yield another such a gem.
Raw, unguarded, a mix of desire and surprise that caused her cheeks to flush and her body to yield beneath him.
To further enhance yield, at the same time Borlaug bred wheat strains with short, stubby stalks, which were able to better handle more weight of grain.
Martineau's two main proofs yield two sets of attributes; those known as.
The yield of tin in Victoria is very small, and until lately no fields of importance have been discovered; but towards the latter end of 1890 extensive deposits were reported to exist in the Gippsland district - at Omeo and Tarwin.
The beds made partly of old mushroom-bed dung often contain sufficient spawn to yield a crop, without the introduction of brick or cake spawn, but it is advisable to spawn them in the regular way.
While the prime principle in man is the social, "the next in order is not to yield to the persuasions of the body, when they are not conformable to the rational principle which must govern."
That the partisans of neither would yield in favour of the other was certain.
The new duke, unwilling to yield to the wishes of his people for greater political liberty, was soon compelled to take flight, and the duchy was for a time ruled by a provisional government and by Charles Albert of Sardinia; but in April 1849 Baron d'Aspre with 15,000 Austrians took possession of Parma, and the ducal government was restored under Austrian protection.
Oak was formerly largely used by wood-carvers, and is still in some demand for those artists, being harder and more durable than lime and other woods that yield more readily to the sculptor's tool.
When distilled with phosphoric anhydride they yield nitriles.
The fields of New South Wales have proved to be of immense value, the yield of silver and lead during 1905 being £2,500,000, and the total output to the end of the year named over £40,000,000.
But the assignment of these various meanings to the factor does not yield results which accord with the historic facts.
- increased, especially that from the income tax on personal estate and the Customs, the yield from which has been nearly doubled.
from the town, which yield over 500,000 gallons daily, are resorted to for the cure of rheumatism and skin diseases.
Average Yield Acreage.
Abd-ul-Hamid had always resisted the pressure of the European Powers to the last moment, in order to seem to yield only to overwhelming force, while posing as the champion of Islam against aggressive Christendom.
Hence, by inserting a break-and-make key in the circuit of the battery, coil or dynamo, the uniform noise or hum in the telephone can be cut up into periods of long and short noises, which can be made to yield the signals of the Morse alphabet.
These are instances, now well understood, that almost every organic system, even when studied by itself, may yield valuable indications as to the natural affinities of the various groups of birds.
Total Yield per Acre (Ions).
If the farm of the future plugs into the national grid, it will become part of the national food strategy and can be optimized for financial yield for the owners.
But those glances expressed something more: they said that she had played her part in life, that what they now saw was not her whole self, that we must all become like her, and that they were glad to yield to her, to restrain themselves for this once precious being formerly as full of life as themselves, but now so much to be pitied.
The amino derivatives are stable bases which readily yield substitution derivatives when acted upon by the halogen elements.
The presbytery of New Brunswick declined to yield (1739).
Iron.The iron-mines of France are more numerous than its coalmines, but they do not yield a sufficient quantity of ore for the needs of the metallurgical industries of the country; as will be seen in the table below the production of iron in France gradually increased during the 19th century; on the other hand, a decline in prices operated against a correspondingly marked increase in its annual value.
It was a year in which all agriculture was remitted, in which the fields lay unsown and the vines grew unpruned, only the spontaneous yield of the land might be gathered.
The chief wheat lands are in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales; the yield averages about 9 bushels to the acre; this low average is due to the endeavour of settlers on new lands to cultivate larger areas than their resources can effectively deal with; the introduction of scientific farming should almost double the yield.
It is in some such manner as these that the natural conditions of regions, which must be conformed to by prudence .and utilized by labour to yield shelter and food, have led to the growth of peoples differing in their ways of life, thought and speech.
Entering big rapids with your raft in the wrong position or missing an important mid-rapid move will often yield a calamitous outcome.
All yield a soft, easily-worked timber, which, though very perishable when exposed to weather, possesses sufficient durability when kept dry to give the trees a certain economic value.
It is even richer in more herbaceous plants tolerant of a hot summer; giant Umbelliferae (such as Ferula) are especially characteristic and yield gum-resins which have long been reckoned valuable.
Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.
The Internet is full of sites that offer good to humanity and yield no profit for the people working on them.
Soc. for 1903 and 1905) goes to show that during cloudy weather the summit of the mountain resembles an immense sponge, and that this condensation of moisture considerably influences the yield of the springs in the lower part of the mountain.
ge Acreage Average Production Average Yield ands of Acres).
The principal wheat and Indian corn producing districts lie in the provinces of Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, Cordoba and Entre Rios, and the average yield of wheat throughout the country is about 12 bushels to the acre.
A modern branch of mathematics having achieved the art of dealing with the infinitely small can now yield solutions in other more complex problems of motion which used to appear insoluble.
In these northern habitats it attains a large size; the wood is very soft; the buds yield a gum-like balsam, from which the common name is derived; considered valuable as an.
As neither the Sardinian nor the Austrian government seemed disposed to yield, the idea of a congress had to be abandoned.
It is said to yield well, and a quantity of the manufactured alum is sent to Sydney for local consumption.
Australia and Polynesia By 87, 000,000 392,000,000 170,000,000 1 43, 000,000 7,000,000 influence of climate, and by the development of trade even to inhabit countries which cannot yield a food-supply, the mass of mankind is still completely under the control of those conditions which in the past determined the distribution and the mode of life of the whole human race.
It was then seized by the French, who in 1799 had to yield to the Russians and Turks.
166) the same description is given of the Islands of the Blessed under the rule of Cronus, which yield three harvests yearly.
Agriculture is carried on in a more intelligent manner, and the yield is higher.
The earnest and well-expressed prayer or hymn of praise cannot fail to draw the divine power to the worshipper and make it yield to his supplication; whilst offerings, so far from being mere acts of devotion calculated to give pleasure to the god, constitute the very food and drink which render him vigorous and capable of battling with the enemies of his mortal friend.
The popular support given to the Union of Brussels forced Don John to yield.
Many localities in India yield amethyst; and it is found also in Ceylon, chiefly as pebbles.
Free sulphur may also result from the decomposition of pyrites, as in pyritic shales and lignites, or from the alteration of galena: thus crystals of sulphur occur, with anglesite, in cavities in galena at Monteponi near Iglesias in Sardinia; whilst the pyrites of Rio Tinto in Spain sometimes yield sulphur on weathering.
The yield is about 50%.
He points out that the available oxygen in the oxides may react either as SO 2 + H 2 O ?-- O = H 2 SO 4 or as 2S0 2 -IH20 + 0 = H 2 S 2 0 6; and that in the case of ferric oxide 96% of the theoretical yield of dithionate is obtained, whilst manganese oxide only gives about 75%.
The other species which yield buchu are B.
The Finland rappa-kivi, the Serdobol gneiss, and the Pargas and Rustiala marble (with the so-called Eozoon canadense) yield good building stone; while iron, copper and zinc-ore are common in Finland and in the Urals.
Broadly speaking, the forests here yield to steppes, and the soil is very fertile; but the whole region suffers periodically from drought.
Crops, chiefly barley, rye, oats, turnips and green crops, are, however, grown on clearings in the forest, though the yield is poor.
But generally in from 18 to 33 out of the 72 governments in European Russia (including Caucasia) and Poland the yield of cereals is not sufficient for the wants of the people.
The Black Sea fisheries, in which about 4000 men are engaged, yield fish valued at £300,000 per annum.
The annual yield of the Azov Sea fisheries, occupying 15,000 men, is valued at £600,000.
Taking the Lake Aral and Siberian river fisheries into account, it is estimated that altogether the fishing industries yield a revenue to the state of £330,000 annually.'
with the outside world cut off; until at last the government was forced to yield, and on the 17/30th of tionstitu- October 1 05 the tsar issued the famous manifesto tional 9 manifesto promising to Russia a constitution based on the of October main principles of modern Liberalism: national re 1 9 /5.
This is in line with the provisions in the Constitution of the United States regarding the protection of property, but the difficulty in applying the principle to the railway situation lies in the fact that costs have to be met by averaging the returns on the total amount cf business done, and it is often impossible, in specific instances, to secure a rate which can be considered to yield a fair return on the specific service rendered.
In 1909 in the amount of barley per acre (38 bushels) Nevada ranked third, and in the average farm price per bushel ($0.75) ranked first among the barley-producing states of the country, but in the total amount produced (304,000 bushels) held only the twenty-second place; and in the same year the average yield of potatoes per acre in Nevada was 180 bushels, exceeded in two states - the average for the entire country was 106.8 bushels per acre - but the total crop in Nevada (540,000 bushels) was smaller than in any state or Territory of the Union, except New Mexico.
4 This is the yield reported by the United States Department of Agriculture.
Mackay and his partners, Flood, Fair and O'Brien) in the Comstock Lode of the Great Bonanza mine, the average annual yield was over $26,000,000.
The yield reached its lowest point in 1899, but subsequently increased through the application of improved machinery, while the tailings of the old diggings were treated by the cyanide process with profitable results.
Only one external source can be named: the falling of meteors into the sun must yield some heat just as a shooting star yields some heat to our atmosphere, but the question is whether the quantity of heat obtainable from the shooting stars is at all adequate for the purpose.
Suarez endeavoured to reconcile this view with the more orthodox doctrines of the efficacy of grace and special election, maintaining that, though all share in an absolutely sufficient grace, there is granted to the elect a grace which is so adapted to their peculiar dispositions and circumstances that they infallibly, though at the same time quite freely, yield themselves to its influence.
The Pacification of Birks had been wrung from the king; and the Scots, seeing that he was preparing for the "Second Bishops' War," took the initiative, and pressed into England so vigorously that Charles had again to yield everything.
The acreage of cotton increased from 2,106,215 acres in 1879 to 3,220,000 in 1907; the yield increased from 936,111 bales in 1879 to 1,468,177 bales in 1907.
Orchard trees and grape-vines are widely distributed throughout the state, but with the exception of peaches their yield is greater in the northern portion.
The yield of cotton increased from 62,901,790 lb in 1869 to 307,500,000 lb in 1909.
In 1870 North Carolina's mica mines were reopened, and they produce the best grade of sheet mica for glazing and a large percentage of the country's yield of this mineral.
The state has two small areas in which bituminous coal occurs; one in the basin of the Dan and one in the basin of the Deep. Very little coal was produced in the state until the Civil War, when, in 1862 and again in 1863, 30,000 short tons were obtained for the relief of the Confederate government, an amount which up to 1905, when the yield was only 1557 short tons (falling off from 7000 short tons in 1904), had not since been equalled; in 1906, in 1907 and in 1908 no coal was mined in the state.
But where irrigation is employed the yield of crops is excellent.
It is estimated that nearly 54,0 00 acres are under vineyards in northern Caucasia and some 278,000 acres in Transcaucasia, the aggregate yield of wine being.
They yield valuable coals, clays, marls and ganister.
Most of the southern part of the county is occupied by Keuper marls and sandstones, the latter yield good building stone; and at Chellaston the gypsum beds in the former are excavated on a large scale.
Being once sown, it will last five years; the land, when ploughed, will yield, three or four years together, rich crops of wheat, and after that a crop of oats, with which clover seed is to be sown again.
Whereas formerly the farmer was to some extent compensated by a higher price for a smaller yield, in recent years he had had to compete with an unusually large supply at greatly reduced prices.
Wheat in particular was a poor crop in 1892, and the low yield was associated with falling prices due to large imports.
The hot drought of 1893 extended over the spring and summer months, but there was an abundant rainfall in the autumn; correspondingly there was an unprecedentedly bad yield of corn and hay crops, but a moderately fair yield of the main root crops (turnips and swedes).
It is quite possible for a hot dry season to be associated with a large yield of corn, provided the drought is confined to a suitable period, as was the case in 1896 and still more so in 1898; the English wheat crops in those years were probably the biggest in yield per acre that had been harvested since 1868, which is always looked back upon as a remarkable year for wheat.
The drought of 1898 was interrupted by copious rains in June, and these falling on a warm soil led to a rapid growth of grass and, as measured by yield per acre, an exceedingly heavy crop of hay.
By dividing the total production, say of wheat, in each county by the number of acres of wheat as returned by the occupiers on June 4, the estimated average yield per acre is obtained.
It is important to notice that the figures relating to total production and yield per acre are only estimates, and it is not claimed for them that they are anything more.
The total produce of any crop in a given year must depend mainly upon the acreage grown, whilst the average yield per acre will be determined chiefly by the character of the season.
No very great reliance can be placed upon the figures relating to turnips (which include swedes), as these are mostly fed to sheep on the ground, so that the estimates as to yield are necessarily vague.
The effects of a prolonged [[Table Ix]].-Estimated Annual Average Yield per Acre of Crops in spring and summer drought, like that of 1893, are exemplified in the circumstance that four corn crops and the two hay crops all registered very low average yields that year, viz.
The effects of a prolonged autumn drought, as distinguished from spring and summer drought, are shown in the very low yield of turnips in 1899.
The hay made from clover, sainfoin and grasses under rotation generally gives a bigger average yield than that from permanent grass land.
are sometimes grown, amounting occasionally to loo tons per acre, the general average yield of 184 tons is about 5 tons more than that of turnips and swedes.
Again, although from the richest old permanent meadow-lands very heavy crops of hay are taken season after season, the general average yield of permanent grass is about 3 cwt.
The figure denoting the general average yield per acre of any class of crop needs readjustment after every successive harvest.
It thus appears that the average yield of wheat in Great Britain, as calculated upon the crops harvested during the ten years (1896-1905), exceeded 31 bushels to the acre, whereas, for the ten years ended 1895, it fell below 29 bushels.
A large expansion in the acreage of the wheat crop would probably be attended by a decline in the average yield per acre, for when a United Kingdom, 1895-1904.
Even without manure the average produce over forty-six years, 1852-1897, was nearly thirteen bushels per acre, or about the average yield per acre of 1 The higher yield of wheat in the later years of the 19th century appears to be largely attributable to better grain-growing seasons.
The following figures show the average yields per acre of the selected plots at Rothamsted over six 8-yearly periods from 1852 to 1899, and afford evidence that the higher yield of later years is due to the seasons: Bushels (of 60 lb) Average of - per acre.
In one case, indeed, the average produce by mixed minerals and nitrogenous manure was more than that by the annual application of farmyard manure; and in seven out of the ten cases in which such mixtures were used the average yield per acre was from over two to over eight bushels more than the average yield of the United Kingdom (assuming this to be about twenty-eight bushels of 60 lb per bushel) under ordinary rotation.
Thus the cereal crops, when grown in rotation, yield more produce for sale in the season of growth than when grown continuously.
It is the leguminous fodder crops-especially clover, which has a much more extended period of growth, and much wider range of collection within the soil and subsoil, than any of the other crops of the rotation-that yield in their produce the largest amount of nitrogen per acre.
It is of comparatively small size, but is of some importance in the wilds of the Canadian dominion, where it is found to the northern limit of tree-vegetation growing up to at least 69°; the slender trunks yield the only useful timber of some of the more desolate northern regions.
These do not take a direct part in the formation of the new tissue, but it is believed merely yield their surplus acquisitions, becoming ordinary blood-cells or disappearing altogether.
All the foregoing publications yield in importance to two, that remain to be mentioned, a notice of which will fitly conclude this part of our subject.
Barytes is of common occurrence in metalliferous veins, especially those which yield ores of lead and silver; some of the largest and most perfect crystals of colourless barytes were obtained from the lead mines near Dufton in Westmorland.
It is a most important synthetic reagent; with sodium or sodium ethylate it forms sodio-malonic ester, which reacts readily with alkyl halides, forming alkyl malonic esters, which are again capable of forming sodium derivatives, that by further treatment with alkyl halides yield the di-alkyl malonic esters.
These esters are readily hydrolysed and yield the monoand di-alkylimalonic acids which, on heating, are readily decomposed, with evolution of carbon dioxide and the formation of monoand di-alkyl acetic acids.
Towards the city the red soil is intersected by creeks and morasses, whose margins yield crops of rice, mustard and til seed; while to the east of the town, a broad, alluvial, well-cultivated plain reaches as far as the junction of the Dhaleswari and Lakshmia rivers.
These early schools, which consist chiefly of one-year and two-year-old fishes, yield sometimes enormous catches, whilst in other years they escape the drift-nets altogether, passing them, for some hitherto Unexplained reason, at a greater depth than that to which the nets reach, 1 The term "Spanish mackerel" is applied in America to Cybium maculatum.
In the absence of an etat des lieux, the lessee is presumed to have received the thing hired in a good state of tenantable repair, and must so yield it up, saving proof to the contrary (Art.
The average yield of lint per " saw " in the United States, when working under perfect conditions, is about 6 lb per hour.
The delta soil is typically a heavy, black, alluvial clay, very fertile, but difficult to work; admixture of sand is beneficial, and the localities where this occurs yield the best cotton.
In the cotton belt of the United States it would be possible to put a still greater acreage under this crop, but the tendency is rather towards what is known as " diversified " or mixed farming than to making cotton the sole important crop. Cotton, however, is in increasing demand, and the problem for the American cotton planter is to obtain a better yield of cotton from the same area, - by " better yield " meaning an increase not only in quantity but also in quality of lint.
A simple method of increasing the yield is that practised with success by some growers in the States.
The table indicates the chief cottonproducing islands, the acreage in each, yield, average value per pound and total value of the crop in 1905-1906.
The low yield per acre in this island, and also the low value of the lint per lb compared with the Sea Island cotton, is clearly apparent.
The points just noted apply also to the average fluctuation and the standard deviation, but it is probable in these cases that daily or even weekly quotations would be sufficient to yield the information sought for with sufficient exactness for purposes of comparison.
About 20 gallons of lemon juice should yield about 1 0 lb of crystallized citric acid.
Particulars of the shales which yield oil on destructive distillation are given in the article on paraffin.
The conditions of formation and accumulation of petroleum point to the fact that the principal oil fields of the world are merely reservoirs, which will become exhausted in the course of years, as in the case of the decreasing yield of certain of the American fields.
The yield of petroleum wells varies within very wide limits, and the relative importance of the different producing districts is also Yield of constantly changing.
Taking these figures as a basis, the total yield of oil from an acre of petroliferous territory would be a little over 5000 barrels of 42 U.S. gallons.
They used an iron still, set in brickwork, and from a working charge of forty " buckets " of crude petroleum obtained a yield of sixteen buckets of " white naphtha."
Hildebrand, now pope as Gregory VII., next summoned him to Rome, and, in a synod held there in 1078, tried once more to obtain a declaration of his orthodoxy by means of a confession of faith drawn up in general terms; but even this strong-minded and strong-willed pontiff was at length forced to yield to the demands of the multitude and its leaders; and in another synod at Rome (1079), finding that he was only endangering his own position and reputation, he turned unexpectedly upon Berengar and commanded him to confess that he had erred in not teaching a change as to substantial reality of the sacramental bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ.
Although the economic value of the phosphate deposits was first realized about 1889, between 1894 and 1907 Florida produced, each year, more than half of all the phosphate rock produced in the whole United States, the yield of Florida (1,357,365 long tons) in 1907 being valued at $ 6, 577,757; that of the whole country at $10,653,558.
In 1903, according to the statistics of the United States Department of Agriculture, Indian corn ranked next to fruits .(as given in the state reports), but its product as compared with that of various other states is unimportant - in 1907 it amounted to 7,017,000 bushels only; rice is the only other cereal whose yield in 1899 was greater than that of 1889, but the Florida product was surpassed (in 1899) by that of the Carolinas, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas; in 1907 the product of rice in Florida (69,000 bushels) was less than that of Texas, Louisiana, South Carolina, Arkansas and Georgia severally.
The principal crop is Bermuda onions; in 1909 it was estimated that 150o acres in the vicinity were devoted to this crop, the average yield per acre being about 20,000 lb.
The coffee plantations were greatly injured by a severe hurricane which visited the island on the 8th of August 1899, but the yield for export increased from 12,157,240 lb in 1901 to 38,756,750 lh, valued at $4,693,004, in 1907.
but in the end Ponce was forced to yield the political control to the representatives of Columbus.
Turning to the study of radioactivity, he noticed its association with the minerals which yield helium, and in support of the hypothesis that that gas is a disintegration-product of radium he proved in 1903 that it is continuously formed by the latter substance in quantities sufficiently great to be directly recognizable in the spectroscope.
In 1903-1904 there was a total yield of 160,000 tons, valued at about £45,000.
Secondary amines yield nitrosamines, R 2 N NO, with nitrous acid.
The carbonyl oxygen may also be replaced by the oxime group,: N OH; thus the acids yield the hydroxamic acids, R C(OH): NOH, and the acid-amides the amidoximes, R C(NH 2): NOH.
Here we meet with a great diversity of types: oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and other elements may, in addition to carbon, combine together in a great number of arrangements to form cyclic nuclei, which exhibit characters closely resembling open-chain compounds in so far as they yield substitution derivatives, and behave as compound radicals.
These three acids yield on heating phenol, identical with the substance started with, and since in the three oxybenzoic acids the hydroxyl groups must occupy positions other than I, it follows that four hydrogen atoms are equal in value.
Thus potassium ortho-oxybenzoate is converted into the salt of para-oxybenzoic acid at 220 0; the three bromphenols, and also the brombenzenesulphonic acids, yield m-dioxybenzene or resorcin when fused with potash.
Experience has shown that such mono-derivatives as nitro compounds, sulphonic acids, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and ketones yield as a general rule chiefly the meta-compounds, and this is independent of the nature of the second group introduced; on the other hand, benzene haloids, amino-, homologous-, and hydroxy-benzenes yield principally a mixture of the orthoand para-compounds.
By further substitution of orthoand para-diderivatives, in general the same tri-derivative [1.2.4] is formed (Ann., 1878, 192, p. 219); meta - compounds yield [1.3.41 and [1.2.
methane, tetrachlormethane, &c., to yield aromatic compounds when subjected to a high temperature, the so-called pyrogenetic reactions (from Greek 7rup, fire, and - yon, fco, I produce); the predominance of benzenoid, and related compounds-naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, &c.-in coal-tar is probably to be associated with similar pyrocondensations.
The homologues of acetylene condense more readily; thus allylene, CH: C CH 3, and crotonylene, CH 3.0: C CH 3, yield trimethyland hexamethyl-benzene under the influence of sulphuric acid.
Hantzsch (Ber., 1889, 22, p. 1238) succeeded in ob R taining derivatives of o-diketo-R-hexene, which yield R-pentene and aliphatic compounds on decomposition.
Thus salicylic acid yields n-pimelic acid, [[Hooc (Ch 2) 5 Cooh]], while o-, m-, and p-cresotinic acids, C 6 H 3 (CH 3)(OH)(000H), yield isomeric methylpimelic acids.
Ladenburg's prism formula would give two enantiomorphic ortho-di-substitution derivatives; while forms in which the hydrogen atoms are placed at the corners of a regular octahedron would yield enantiomorphic tri-substitution derivatives.
Hantzsch explains the transformation of the colourless acid into red salts, which on standing yield more stable, colourless salts, by the following scheme: N R.0N O H R CA O R'CC NO 2Na 2 O?
He has also shown that the nitrophenols yield, in addition to the colourless true nitrophenol ethers, an isomeric series of coloured unstable quinonoid aci-ethers, which have practically the same colour and yield the same absorption spectra as the coloured metallic salts.
It is romantically situated in the part of the Haardt called the Pfalzer Schweiz (Palatinate Switzerland), and is surrounded by high hills which yield a famous red sandstone.
36-43 Seleucia was in rebellion against the Parthians till at last it was forced by King Vardanes to yield.
Measurements made on a topographical map yield the most satisfactory results.
In Africa nearly all the international boundaries have been carefully surveyed and marked on the ground, since 1880, and yield a good basis as a guide for the map compiler.
borage and Pulmonaria, were formerly used in medicine, and the roots yield purple or brown dyes, as in Alkanna tinctoria (alkanet).
Agriculture is better conducted than in most of the departments of France, and the average yield per acre is greater.
The prevalent bush plants are khansa (umbrella mimosa), acacias, aloes, and, especially, Boswellia and Commiphora, which yield highly fragrant resins and balsams, such as myrrh, frankincense (olibanum) and " balm of Gilead."
In later years he did not shrink from uttering a word of warning and advice, when he thought that the master of the Florentine republic was too much inclined to yield to pleasure.
The native cattle, also diminutive in size, with small horns and short legs, furnish beef of remarkable tenderness and flavour; while the cows, when well fed, yield a plentiful supply of rich milk.
i; they yield the first triad of the Sephiric decade, and constitute the divine head of the archetypal man.
It is said to yield wheat eighty-fold and barley a hundred.
The average yield per acre varies from about.
In good seasons and exceptional localities the yield may approach a bale per acre, as in Assumption parish, and in the Mississippi valley at the junction of Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas.
In1907-1908all the sugar produced from cane grown in the United States came from Louisiana (335,000 long tons) and Texas (12,000 tons); in the same year cane sugar from Hawaii amounted to 420,000 tons, from Porto Rico to 217,000 tons and from the Philippines to 135,000 tons; and the total yield of beet sugar from the United States was 413,954 tons.
In the decade1881-1890Louisiana produced about half of the total yield of the country, and from 1891 to 1900 about five-sevenths.
In 1904 and 1906 the Louisiana crop, about one-half of the total yield of the country, was larger than that of any other state; but in 1905 and in 1907 (6, 1 9 2, 955 ib and 7,378,000 lb respectively) the Louisiana crop was second in size to that of Texas.
Lemons yield continuously through the year, but like oranges, not much has yet been done with them commercially.
Plantations have increased greatly in size (and also diminished in number), greater capital is involved, bagasse furnaces have been introduced, double grinding mills have increased by more than a half the yield of juice from a given weight of cane, and extractive operations instead of being carried on on all plantations have been (since 1880) concentrated in comparatively few " centrals " (168 in Feb.
On reduction by sodium amalgam in glacial acetic acid solution they yield primary amines.
The syn-aldoximes or treatment with acetyl chloride readily lose water and yield nitriles; the anti-aldoximes as a rule are acetylated and do not yield nitriles.
Benzophenone oxime, CeHSC (:NOH)C 6 H 5, exists only in one modification which melts at 140° C.; whereas the unsymmetrical benzophenones each yield two oximes.
Wallach (Ann., 1900, 312, p. 171) has shown that the saturated cyclic ketones yield oximes which by an application of the Beckmann reaction are converted into isoximes, and these latter on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids are transformed into acyclic amino-acids; thus from cyclohexanone, e-amidocaproic acid (e-leucine) may be obtained: CH2" C NOH C CH 2 CH 2 7: ?12?CH2 CH2 NH /CH2 CH2 C02H CH2', An ingenious application of the fact that oximes easily lose the elements of water and form nitriles was used by A.
From the wool which their sheep yield they manufacture every article of native dress and good blankets.
But an indefinite number of definitions of the product of two complex numbers yield interesting results.
The streams of both territories yield excellent trout and crayfish; salmon, sturgeon and sterlet, from the Danube, are netted in the Save.
The tax on realty (verghi) is estimated to yield £T2,599,420.
But many Roman Catholic writers, though they yield a practical obedience to the papal decision, have adduced good reason why it should be reversed (Cognat, p. 451).
Potatoes and mangels yield good crops.
If these be too luxuriant, they yield nothing but leaves; and if too weak, they are incapable of developing flower buds.
It was difficult to be sure as to the variations in the actual number of fish caught, but it was easy to show that there was a real variability in the yield of cod-liver oil (an important product of the fishery).
By further decomposition peptones yield peptides, a certain number of which have been synthesized by Emil Fischer and his collaborators.
In general they resemble coagulated albumin, and also the gelatin-yielding tissues, but they themselves do not yield gelatin.
This supersedes artificial irrigation, and the plains so watered yield abundantly in rice, jute and mustard.
All parts of the date palm yield valuable economic products.
Its trunk furnishes timber for house-building and furniture; the leaves supply thatch; their footstalks are used as fuel, and also yield a fibre from which cordage is spun.
A current will flow for a while in the reverse direction; the system of plates and acidulated water through which a current has been passed, acts as an accumulator, and will itself yield a current in return.
On reduction glucose appears to yield the hexahydric alcohol d-sorbite, and on oxidation d-gluconic and d-saccharic acids.
Baryta and lime yield saccharates, e.g.
The trees are not generally tapped until they are ten to fifteen years old, as young trees yield inferior rubber.
The yield of rubber varies, but it is stated on an average to be Io lb of rubber per tree, and if carefully tapped one tree will yield this amount for many years in succession.
The yield of latex is at first small, but increases with successive tappings, which appear to stimulate the local production of latex, and finally reaches a maximum.
As a rule, an annual yield of more than 1-2 lb of rubber per tree must not be looked for from recent plantations, although much higher yields up to 10-15 lb and over per tree are recorded from S.
An average of 150 trees to the acre (20X15 ft.) and a yield of 12 lb of rubber per annum per tree at 2s.
The annual yield of rubber is rather more than 1 lb per tree.
in diameter, is expected to yield annually 20 gallons of milk, each gallon giving about 2 lb of rubber.
The tree is ready for tapping at about the same age as Hevea and the average yield of rubber is about the same.
The yield of rubber is stated as a rule to be less than that of Para.
It has been found that although the tree grows well in many different countries and different localities, it only furnishes a satisfactory yield of rubber in mountainous districts, such as those of Assam and certain parts of Ceylon and Java.
Among other shrubs and vines which yield rubber of fair quality may be mentioned Willughbeia edulis and Urceola elastica and Parameria glandulifera, which occur in Burma and Malaya.
On the other hand gravel-washing gives a declining yield in West Siberia, for while in 1900 the output from this source was approximately 172,000 oz., in 1904 it was only 81,000 oz.
The total yield annually amounts to some 700,000 oz., the largest quantity coming from the Olekminsk, district in the province of Yakutsk, and this district is followed by the Amur region, the Maritime province, and Nerchinsk and Transbaikalia.
A large number of lakes, especially in Transbaikalia and in Tomsk, yield salt.
The yield from the principal crops fluctuates greatly; indeed in a very good year it is almost three times that in a very bad one.
In the same address he called attention to the conditions of the world's food supply, urging that with the low yield at present realized per acre the supply of wheat would within a comparatively short time cease to be equal to the demand caused by increasing population, and that since nitrogenous manures are essential for an increase in the yield, the hope of averting starvation, as regards those races for whom wheat is a staple food, depended on the ability of the chemist to find an artificial method for fixing the nitrogen of the air.
v., established the important result that in the case of a form in n variables, the concomitants of the form, or of a system of such forms, involve in the aggregate n-1 classes of aa =5135 4 +4B8 3 p) =0, =5(135 4 - 4A 2 p 4) =0, P yield by elimination of S and p the discriminant D =64B-A2.
The United States, which ranked third with a production of 20,000 tons in 1850, maintained this annual yield, until 1870, when it began to increase; the United States now ranks as the chief producer; in 1900 the output was 253,000 tons, and in 1905, 3 1 9,744 tons.
The Australian production of 18,000 tons in 1888 was increased to 58,000 tons in 1891, a value maintained until 1893, when a depression set in, only 21,000 tons being produced in 1897; prosperity then returned, and in 1898 the yield was 68,000 tons, and in 1905, 120,000 tons.
Canada became important in 1895 with a production of io,000 tons; this increased to 28,654 tons in 190o; and in 1905 the yield was 25,391 tons.
While by the English and Carinthian processes as much lead as possible is extracted in the furnace, with the Silesian method a very low temperature is used, thus taking out about one-half of the lead and leaving very rich slags (50% lead) to be smelted in the blast-furnace, the ultimate result being a very much higher yield than by either of the other processes.
The yield in lead is over 90%, in silver over 97% and in gold 100%.
In the process the yield in metal, based upon the charge in the kettle, is lead 99%, silver loo-}- %, gold 98-100%.
When mixed with sodium carbonate and heated on charcoal in the reducing flame lead salts yield malleable globules of metal and a yellow oxide-ring.
They yield chitin in place of chondrin or gelatin - as does also the cartilage of the Cephalopod's endoskeleton.
The leaves of species of Sansevieria yield a valuable fibre.
These esters on hydrolysis yield the free acids, which readily decompose, with loss of carbon dioxide and formation of an aldehyde, R /Crri /Crri Oc< +ï¿½Cl ï¿½ CH ï¿½ [[Cooc H - O I ?Ch Cooc H 0c Chï¿½Cooh - Co +Chrr I Cho]].
There are coal-mines at and near Eregli (anc. Heracleia) which yield steam coal nearly as good in quality as the English, but they are badly worked.
But this treaty, in spite of its apparent stability, led in a few years to a fiercer struggle; for in 1258 the Florentines complained that Siena had infringed its terms by giving refuge to the Ghibellines they had expelled, and on the refusal of the Sienese to yield to these just remonstrances both states made extensive preparations for war.
Meyer, Ber., 1891, 24, p. 3530), whilst the primary nitro cornpdunds on heating with hydrochloric acid yield hydroxylamine and an acid: CH 3 CH 2 NO 2 +H 2 0 = CH3 C02H+NH20H (V.
The primary compounds form nitrolic acids of the type R C (: NOH) NO, the secondary yield pseudo-nitrols of the type RR': C(NO)(NO 2), whilst the tertiary nitro compounds are not acted upon by nitrous acid.
On oxidation with chromic acid they yield dinitrohydrocarbons, and on reduction with hydroxylamine (in alkaline solution) or with potassium sulphydrate give ketoximes, RR': C: NOH (R.
The rivers and lakes yield enormous quantities of fish, and leeches also are plentiful.
The average yearly yield of gold is about £100,000, and that of silver about the same amount.
The king refusing to yield an inch of his rights under clause ii.
Besides wine, fruit, grain and timber, the surrounding uplands yield petroleum and salt.
'Abdul Hamid professed to yield and Enver entered Constantinople as a feted hero.
Busch, Ber., 1899, 32, p. 2960): N C(SH):N C 6 H 5 /N C:NC6H5 C. 2 S 7Hs " H s d-H N NH C,H 7 C7 "N N C,H7 C. Harries (Ber., 1895, 28, p. 1223) has also shown that as-phenylhydrazino-acetic esters, when heated with formamide and substituted formamides under pressure, yield dihydrotriazines: CO 2 R CO-NR'-CH H2 N(C6H5)NH2 +R'NH CHO --> CH 2 N(C 6 H 5) IV The phen-a-triazines are yellow-coloured crystalline compounds of a somewhat basic character.
Besides the rock-salt, which is excavated by blasting, the saline deposits of Stassfurt yield a considerable quantity of deliquescent salts and other saline products, which have encouraged the foundation of numerous chemical factories in the town and in the neighbouring village of Leopoldshall, which lies in Anhalt territory.
The overlying sandstones afford good building stones, and frequently, as at Vereeniging, yield many fossil plants.
deep. The yield of the Rand mines, in 1887 but 23,000 oz., rose in 1888 to 208,000 oz.
In 1892 the yield was 1,210,000 oz.: in 1896 it exceeded 2,280,000 oz.
The total yield to the end of 1908 of the Zoutpansberg, Low Country and other minor fields was 160,535 oz.
The grain produce, consisting mainly of wheat, oats, rye and Indian corn, exceeds the consumption, and the vineyards yield an abundant supply of both white and red wines, those of Limoux and the Narbonnais being most highly esteemed.
The English supply increased, with some oscillations, to between six and seven thousand tons annually in the period 1840-1860, when it suddenly rose to about io,000 tons, and this figure was fairly well sustained until about 1890, when a period of depression set in; the yield for 1900 was 4336 tons, and for 1905 about 4200 tons.
The world's supply in 1900 was 72,911 long tons; this increased in 1904 to 97,790 tons, but in 1905, principally owing to a shortage in the supplies from the Straits and Banka, the yield fell to 94,089 tons.
Tin compounds when heated on charcoal with sodium carbonate or potassium cyanide in the reducing blowpipe flame yield the metal and a scanty ring of white Sn02.
Stannous salt solutions yield a brown precipitate of SnS with sulphuretted hydrogen, which is insoluble in cold dilute acids and in real sulphide of ammonium, (NH 4) 2 S; but the yellow, or the colourless reagent on addition of sulphur, dissolves the precipitate as SnS 2 salt.
The thickness of the salt is unknown; the mines yield about 11,000 tons annually.
The country on the east side and on the slopes of the Hardt yield a number of the most varied products, such as wine, fruit, corn, vegetables, flax and tobacco.
The mines yield iron, coal, quicksilver and salt.
It is grown at elevations of 1600 to 3000 ft., and the yield is reported to be a to 2 lb per tree, which is much less than the yield in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
The tree has an average height of 12-13 ft., begins bearing five years after planting, requires little attention beyond occasional irrigation, bears two crops a year (June and December), and produces well until it is forty years of age - the yield being from 490 to 600 lb per acre of 100 trees.
Crispi was prepared to cultivate good relations with France, but refused to yield to pressure or to submit to dicta - tion; and in this attitude he was firmly supported by the bulk of his fellow-countrymen.
The iminobiazoles are formed by conversion of diacylhydrazines into iminochlorides which with ammonia or bases yield the required triazoles (R.
The nitrate of this base (known as nitron) is so insoluble that nitrates may be gravimetrically estimated with its help. These bases combine with the alkyl iodides to yield quaternary ammonium salts.
The higher the strength of the acids the higher the yield of nitroglycerin and the smaller the loss by solution in the waste acids.
Zaire, among those where love is admitted as a principal motive, and Merope, among those where this motive is excluded and kept in subordination, yield to no plays of their classe in such interest as is possible on the model, in stage effect and in uniform literary merit.
Punt is identified with the Somali country, now known to be the native country of the trees that yield the bulk of the frankincense of commerce.
Under such conditions the pillar begins to yield, and fragments of mineral fly off with explosive violence, exactly as a specimen of rock will splinter under pressure in a testing machine.
These simple business principles do not seem to be generally recognized by the investing public, and mines, whose earning capacity is accurately known, are frequently quoted on the stock markets at prices which cannot possibly yield enough to the purchaser to repay his investment during the probable life of the mine.
But in the end he was forced to yield to the importunity of his family (February 17th); and Decazes, raised to the rank of duke, passed into honourable exile as ambassador to Great Britain.
Work was begun in 1895, and the yield of gold in that year was 274 oz., which increased to 893 oz.
That monarch, Ba-ggi-daw, however, was obliged in 1837 to yield the throne to a usurper who appeared in the person of his brother, Tharrawaddi (Tharawadi).
m., are estimated to yield about io,000,000 tons annually, and give employment to nearly 50,000 men.
The reason for this high cost is to be found partly in the fact that the yield of optically perfect glass even in large and successful meltings rarely exceeds 20% of the total weight of glass melted.
This process is repeated, with slight modifications, until the gathering is of the proper size and weight to yield the sheet which is to be blown.
oxides which yield acids with water.
Every solid substance is found to be plastic more or less, as exemplified by punching, shearing and cutting; but the plastic solid is distinguished from the viscous fluid in that a plastic solid requires a certain magnitude of stress to be exceeded to make it flow, whereas the viscous liquid will yield to the slightest stress, but requires a certain length of time for the effect to be appreciable.
It had been drained of both wealth and fighting population; the devastated provinces of Elam and Babylonia could yield nothing with which to supply the needs of the imperial exchequer, and it was difficult to find sufficient troops even to garrison the conquered populations.
The yield is satisfactory, and the wine made, the variety known as Gamay noir, is described as being like still champagne.
In addition trisaccharoses are known of the formula C13H32016; these on hydrolysis yield one molecule of a monosaccharose and one of a disaccharose, or three of a monosaccharose.
They are neutral to litmus and do not combine with dilute acids or bases; strong bases, such as lime and baryta, yield saccharates, whilst, under certain conditions, acids and acid anhydrides may yield esters.
- The cyanhydrins on hydrolysis give monocarboxylic acids, which yield lactones; these compounds when reduced by sodium amalgam in sulphuric acid solution yield a sugar containing one more carbon atom.
It is seen that aldoses and ketoses which differ stereochemically in only the two final carbon atoms must yield the same osazone; and since d-mannose, d-glucose, and d-fructose do form the same osazone (d-glucosazone) differences either structural or stereochemical must be placed in the two final carbon atoms.3 It may here be noticed that in the sugars there are asymmetric carbon atoms, and consequently optical isomers are to be expected.
Glycerin appears to yield, on mild oxidation, an aldehyde, CH20H CH(OH) CHO, and a ketone, CH 2 OH CO CH 2 OH, and these condense as shown in the equation: CH 2 OH CH (OH) CHO + CH 2 OH [[Coch 2 Oh = Ch20h Ch(Oh) Ch(Oh) Ch(Oh) Co.Ch20h+H20]].
The ketone is also obtained when Bertrand's sorbose bacterium acts on glycerol; this medium also acts on other alcohols to yield ketoses; for example: erythrite gives erythrulose, arabite arabinulose, mannitol fructose, &c.
The plane projection of molecular structures which differ stereochemically is discussed under Stereoisomerism; in this place it suffices to say that, since the terminal groups of the hexaldose molecule are different and four asymmetric carbon atoms are present, sixteen hexaldoses are possible; and for the hexahydric alcohols which they yield on reduction, and the tetrahydric dicarboxylic acids which they give on oxidation, only ten forms are possible.
Since both d-glucose and d-gulose yield the same active (d) saccharic acid on oxidation, the configuration of this and the corresponding /-acid must be sought from among those numbered 5-10 in the above table.
A tree may yield 3 gallons of juice a day and continue flowing for six weeks; but on an average only about 4 lb of sugar are obtained from each tree, 4 to 6 gallons of sap giving 1 lb of sugar.
The trees are ready to yield sap when five years old; at eight years they are mature, and continue to give an annual supply till they reach thirty years.
the annual cost of running the factory) of £3 per ton, or f30,000 per annum, will not be able to make as much sugar per day with canes giving juice of 8° B., and will make still less if they yield juice of only 6° B.
In Barbadoes there are still many estates making good Mascabado sugar; but as the juice is extracted from the canes by windmills, and then concentrated in open kettles heated by direct fire, the financial results are disastrous, since nearly half the yield obtainable from the canes is lost.
In the best organized modern cane sugar estates as much as 122% of the weight of the canes treated is obtained in crystal sugar of high polarizing power, although in Louisiana, where cultivation and manufacture are alike most carefully and admirably carried out, the yield in sugar is only about 7% of the weight of the canes, and sometimes, but seldom, as much as 9%.
With an inexhaustible supply of irrigation water obtainable, there is no reason why the lands in Upper Egypt, if scientifically cultivated and managed, should not yield as abundantly as those in the Sandwich Islands.
Whatever pressure be brought to bear upon it, the vegetable or woody fibre of crushed sugar-canes will hold and retain for the from moment a quantity of moisture equal to its own weight, Yield .
Hence in the latest designs for large factories it has been proposed that as much normal juice as can be extracted by double crushing only shall be treated by itself, and that the megass shall then be soused with twice as much water as there is juice remaining in it; after which, on being subjected to a third crushing, it will yield a degraded juice, which would also be treated by itself.
It is unquestionably better and easier to evaporate in vacuo than in an open pan, and with a better system of firing, a more liberal provision of steam generators, and multiple-effect evaporators of improved construction, a far larger yield of sugar is obtained from the juice than was possible of attainment in those days, and the megass often suffices as fuel for the crop.
For this reason alone, and without taking into consideration any increase in the yield of sugar brought about by " crystallization in movement," the system is worthy of adoption in all sugar factories making crystal sugar.
The increase in the output for a given time obtained by the use of the Krajewski crusher has been estimated at 20 to 25% and varies with the quality of the canes; while the yield of juice or extraction is increased by I or 2%.
Apart from increased yield in sugar of good quality, we may sum up the advantages procurable from the use of Hatton defecators as follows: cold liming; heating gently to the temperature required to coagulate the albumen and not beyond it, whereby disturbance would ensue; the continuous separation of the scums; the gradual drying of the scums so as to make them ready for the fields, without carrying away juice or requiring treatment in filter presses; and the continuous supply of hot defecated juice to the evaporators, without the use of subsiding tanks or eliminators; and, finally, the saving in expenditure on plant, such as filter presses, &c., and wages.
The manufacturers who have adopted this system assert that, as compared with other methods, not only do they obtain an increased yield of sugar of better quality, but that they do so at a less cost for running their machines and with a reduced expenditure in sugar and " clairce."
Styrolene is oxidized by nitric or chromic acids to benzoic acid; reduction gives ethylbenzene; hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids yield a-haloid ethylbenzenes, e.g.
The a-halogen compounds are obtained by heating styrolene chloride (or bromide) with lime or alcoholic potash; they are liquids which have a penetrating odour, and yield acetophenone when heated with water to 180°.
In addition, the temperature of the soil largely controls the yield of crops which can be obtained from the land.
9,200 „ From the figures given previously of the amount of nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid removed by a wheat or mangel crop it would appear that this soil has enough of these ingredients in it to yield many such crops; yet experience has shown that these crops cannot be grown on such a poor sandy soil unless manures containing phosphates, potash and nitrogen are added.
025 or 03%, respond freely to applications of phosphates; probably in such cases even the weak acid is capable of dissolving out phosphates from the humus or other compounds which yield little or none to the roots of grasses and clovers.
Without a sufficient supply plants remain stunted and the crop yield is seriously reduced, as we see in dry seasons when the rainfall is much below the average.
So far as the water-supply is concerned - and this is what ultimately determines the yield of crops - the rain which falls upon the soil should be made to enter it and percolate rapidly through its interstices.
Allowing for those which fail to germinate (perhaps 25%), loss in transplanting, weak and backward plants, &c., one ounce of seed should yield about 40,000 plants.
The yield of leaf is often much increased, the plants are protected from the weather, and the enhanced value of the crop much more than repays the very considerable expense involved in artificially shading whole fields.
No crop, it is pointed out, responds so readily to breeding as tobacco, or deteriorates more rapidly, as regards both yield and quality, if neglected.
Thus for wrapper tobaccos, amongst other points a broad, rounded leaf, which will yield perhaps eight wrappers, is much more valuable than a narrow pointed leaf which yields perhaps only four.
The average yield per acre in the States as a whole in 1906 was 857.2 lb.
In 1900 there were 69 acres under this crop, the yield being 44 80 lb of the value of £113.
In 1907 the acreage had increased to 2330, the yield to 413,316 Ib, and the value to £6889.
They yield yearly an average of 80,000 lb of silver and 1900 tons of lead.
At the same time the facts that the inscriptions are undated until a late period, that few are historical in their contents, and for the most part yield only names of gods and rulers and domestic and religious details, and that our collection is still very incomplete, have led to much serious disagreement among scholars as to the reconstruction of the history of Arabia in the pre-Christian centuries.
When prolonged heating is required at very high temperatures it is found necessary to line the furnace-cavity with alternate layers of magnesia and carbon, taking care that the lamina next to the lime is of magnesia; if this were not done the lime in contact with the carbon crucible would form calcium carbide and would slag down, but magnesia does not yield a carbide in this way.
He had to yield to the more moderate majority, but on this account was driven still further towards the Left.
Titanic oxides when fused on charcoal, even with potassium cyanide, yield no metal.
Primary amines when heated with alcoholic potash and chloroform yield isonitriles, which are readily detected by their offensive smell.
With nitrous acid, the primary amines yield alcohols, the secondary amines yield nitrosamines and the tertiary amines do not react: Rï¿½NH 2 +0NOH= Rï¿½OH+N2+H20; R2NH+ [[Onoh= R 2 Nï¿½No H]] 2 0.
With benzene sulphochloride in the presence of alkali, the primary amines yield compounds of the type C 6 H 5 S0 2 NHR, soluble in alkalies, whilst the secondary amines yield compounds of the type C 6 H 5 S0 2 NR 2, insoluble in alkalies (0.
The ortho-compounds condense to azimido benzenes, the metacompounds yield azo-dyestuffs, and the para-compounds yield bis-diazo compounds of the type XN2ï¿½C6H4ï¿½N2X.
In 1276 the Pisans were compelled to agree to very grievous terms - to exempt Florentine merchandise from all harbour dues, to yield certain strongholds to Lucca, and to permit the return of Count Ugolino, whose houses they had burnt, and whose lands they had confiscated.
Most of these main streams flow through profound gorges in a tropical climate, while the upper slopes yield products of the temperate zone, and the plateaus above are cold and bleak, affording only pasture and the hardiest cereals.
The temperate valleys of the sierra yield fruits of many kinds.
Vineyards and sugar-cane yield crops in the warmer ravines; the sub-tropical valleys are famous for splendid crops of maize; wheat and barley thrive on the mountain slopes; arid at heights from 7000 to 13,000 ft.
The species between Caravaya and the headwaters of the Huallaga yield very little of the febrifuge alkaloid.
and the Oxyrhynchus Saying, " except ye fast from the world "); and next, as a counsel of perfection, a fast to yield somewhat for the relief of the widow and orphan, that this extra " service " may be to God for a " sacrifice."
Scala, lord of Verona, to whom they had to yield in 1311.
Of game, deer, wild boars, hares, snipe and partridges are fairly abundant, while the mountain streams yield trout of excellent quality.
The grand-duke had from the first been opposed to the war with Prussia, but had been forced to yield owing to popular resentment at the policy of Prussia in the Schleswig-Holstein question.
Its extensive iron mines, mostly at Erzberg, which were worked during the Roman period, yield nearly half of the total production of iron in Austria.
It is obvious that, with suitable methods and apparatus, the electrolysis of alkaline chlorides may be made to yield chlorine, hypochlorites (bleaching liquors), chlorates or caustic alkali, but that great care must be exercised if any of these products is to be obtained pure and with economy.
Oettel, using a 20% solution of potassium chloride, obtained the best yield of hypochlorite with a high current-density, but as soon as II% of bleaching chlorine (as hypochlorite) was present, the formation of chlorate commenced.
The yield was at best very low as compared with that theoretically possible.
The best yield of chlorate was obtained when from I to 4% of caustic potash was present.
Thus primary alcohols and aldehydes, both of the aliphatic and aromatic series, readily yield on oxidation acids containing the same number of carbon atoms. These reactions may be shown thus: - ï¿½ Rï¿½CH 2 OH -> R.
An important oxidation synthesis of aromatic acids is from hydrocarbons with aliphatic side chains; thus toluene, or methylbenzene, yields benzoic acid, the xylenes, or dimethyl-benzene, yield methyl-benzoic acids and phthalic acids.
Ketones, secondary alcohols and tertiary alcohols yield a mixture of acids on oxidation.
In the same way, by electrolysing a mixture of a metallic salt and an ester, other nuclei may be condensed; thus potassium acetate and potassium ethyl succinate yield CH 3 * CH2 ï¿½ CH2 ï¿½ C02 C2H5.
COï¿½NH2, which by further dehydration yield nitriles, Rï¿½CN.
The calcium salts distilled with calcium formate yield aldehydes r distilled with soda-lime, ketones result.
Sometimes he had to yield; as when he had sent the standards, by night, into the Holy City, and was besieged for five days by suppliants who had rushed to Caesarea (Jos.
offered to yield every point for which the allies professed to be fighting, showed that the war was not being continued for English national interests, and the ministry were supported by the queen, the parliament and the people in their design to terminate hostilities.
Though all yield fur of serviceable quality, the commercial value varies immensely, not only according to the species from which it is obtained, but according to individual variation, depending upon age, sex, season, and other circumstances.
It is, however, probable that the North-Western Territory will continue to yield gold in important quantities for some time to come.
On the other hand, the output of California, which was producing over £3,000,000 per annum in 1876, has fallen off, the average annual output from 1876 to 1900 being £2,800,000; in 1905 the yield was £3,839,000.
This decrease was largely caused by the practical suspension for many years of the hydraulic mining operations, in preparation for which millions of dollars had been expended in deep tunnels, flumes, &c., and the active continuance of which might have been expected to yield some £2,000,000 of gold annually.
In 1905 the yield was valued at £20,802,074, and in 1909 at £30,925,788.
Eleven parts of gold and i of nickel yield an alloy resembling brass.
Bhutias do not care to extend their cultivation, as an increased revenue is exacted in proportion to the land cultivated, but devote their whole energies to make the land yield twice what it is estimated to produce.
After the juice has been obtained, the leaves are sometimes boiled, so as to yield an inferior kind of aloes.
Shenstone, two classes are to be recognized: (I) Nataloins, which yield picric and oxalic acids with nitric acid, and do not give a red coloration with nitric acid; and (2) Barbaloins, which yield aloetic acid, C7H2N205, chrysammic acid, C 7 H 2 N 2 0 6, picric and oxalic acids with nitric acid, being reddened by this reagent.
Sanitation, however, is improving and much good has resulted from the boring of numerous artesian wells which yield good water.
They are inhabited by a few families of Arabs, who however speak a dialect differing considerably from the ordinary Arabic. The islands yield some guano.
The fisheries, chiefly oyster, sturgeon and shad, yield an annual product valued at about $250,000.
In 1906 the acreage of Indian corn was 196,472 acres with a yield of 5,894,160 bushels valued at $2,475,547, and the acreage of wheat was 121,745 acres with a yield of 1,947,920 bushels valued at $1,383,023.
it will gladly accept all that research and discovery can yield for the better understanding of the conditions under which the book was written."
The former class undergo an incipient fusion or softening when heated, so that the fragments coalesce and yield a compact coke, while the latter (also called free-burning) preserve their form, producing a coke which is only serviceable when made from large pieces of coal, the smaller pieces being incoherent and of no value.
An indication of the character of the ash of a coal is afforded by its colour, white ash coals being generally freer from sulphur than those containing iron pyrites, which yield a red ash.
Pillar working, in the whole coal, is generally reputed to give a more advantageous proportion of round coal to slack, the latter being more abundantly produced on the removal of the pillars, but as these form only a small portion of the whole seam, the general yield is more advantageous than in the former method.
Some characteristic figures of the yield for British collieries in 1898 are given below: Albion Colliery, South t 551,000 tons in a year for one Wales s shaft and one engine.
The yield per man on the working faces was 4.5 tons, and for the whole of the working force underground, o 846 tons, which is not less than that realized in shallower mines.
In contact with nascent hydrogen it builds up ethylene; ethylene acted upon by sulphuric acid yields ethyl sulphuric acid; this can again be decomposed in the presence of water, to yield alcohol, and it has also been proposed to manufacture sugar from this body.
The volume of gas obtained, however, depends very largely upon the form of apparatus used, and while some will give the full volume, other apparatus will only yield, with the same carbide, 34 feet.
It is found that the ingot of calcium carbide formed in the furnace, although itself consisting of pure crystalline calcium carbide, is nearly always surrounded by a crust which contains a certain proportion of imperfectly converted constituents, and therefore gives a lower yield of acetylene than the carbide itself.
As, however, the temperature developed is a function of the time needed to complete the action, the degree of heat attained varies with every form of generator, and while the water in one form may never reach the boiling-point, the carbide in another may become red-hot and give a temperature of over 800° C. Heating in a generator is not only a source of danger, but also lessens the yield of gas and deteriorates its quality.
The situation proved unsuitable; the lady, as Kuno Fischer says, "required greater submission and better French" than Fichte could yield, and after a fortnight's stay Fichte set out for Konigsberg to see Kant.
A popular demonstration, in which the papal bulls had been paraded through the streets with circumstances of peculiar ignominy and finally burnt, led to intervention by Wenceslaus on behalf of public order; three young men, for having openly asserted the unlawfulness of the papal indulgence after silence had been enjoined, were sentenced to death (June 1412); the excommunication against Huss was renewed, and the interdict again laid on all places which should give him shelter - a measure which now began to be more strictly regarded by the clergy, so that in the following December Huss had no alternative but to yield to the express wish of the king by temporarily withdrawing from Prague.
Iowa about equals Illinois in the production of both Indian corn and oats, nearly 10,000,000 acres or about onethird of its improved area usually being planted with Indian corn, with a yield varying from 227,908,850 bushels in 1901 (according to state reports) to 373,275,000 (the largest in the United States, with a crop value second only to that of Illinois) in 1906.
According to the Department of Agriculture in 1907 the acreage was 9,160,000 and the yield 270,220,000 bushels (considerably less than the Illinois crop); the yield of oats was 168,364,170 bushels (Twelfth U.S. Census) in 18 99, 12 4,73 8, 337 bushels (U.S. Department of Agriculture) in 1902, and in 1907 the acreage and crop (greater than those of any other state) were 4,500,000 acres and 108,900,000 bushels, valued at $41,382,000 - a valuation second only to that of Illinois.
A large part of the area is covered with forests, which yield teak and other timber.
The rebellion extended rapidly, and the king was compelled to yield.
After Luther's death (1546) and the battle of Miihlberg (1547) he had to yield to his rival, Julius von Pflug, and retire to the protection of the young duke of Weimar.
The hut and poll taxes yield about £62,000 a year.
Nearly all the rivers in New Guinea yield " colours " of gold, but only in the Louisiade Archipelago has enough been discovered to constitute the district a goldfield.
In the swamps and bogs of the south-east coast cranberry culture is practised, this district producing in 1900 three-fifths of the entire yield of the United States.
The principal granite quarries are in Milford, ' The yield of cereals and of such other crops in 1907 as are recorded in the Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture was as follows: Indian corn, 1,584,000 bushels; oats, 245,000 bushels; barley, 64,000 bushels; buckwheat, 42,000 bushels; potatoes, 3,600,000 bushels; hay, 760,000 tons; tobacco, 7,167,500 lb.
The merchants combined to prevent the importation of goods which by law would yield the crown a revenue; and the patriots - as the anti-prerogative party called themselves - under the lead of Samuel Adams, instituted regular communication between the different towns, and afterwards, following the initiative of Virginia, with the other colonies, through " committees of correspondence "; a method of the utmost advantage thereafter in forcing on the revolution by intensifying and unifying the resistance of the colony, and by inducing the co-operation of other colonies.
An attempt of the democratic party to regain power was temporarily successful (January 10, 16ro); but the estates appealed to the States General and Maurice of Nassau, who had been appointed stadtholder on the death of Nuenar, put down the movement with a strong hand, and the Utrechters found themselves compelled to yield.
All these sources are estimated to yield about 220 to 230 litres per head.
The orchards and gardens in which many villages are embosomed yield delicious fruits of almost every description, and great quantities, dried, are exported, principally to Russia.
The best soils when abundantly irrigated yield from 50to 60-fold, and the water for this purpose is supplied by the innumerable streams which intersect the province.
It is to his credit that he did not yield to this temptation.
East of the town is an immense plain, which, if irrigated, would yield abundant crops.
The three series also differ when heated: the trimetallic salts, containing fixed bases are unaltered, whilst the monoand dimetallic salts yield metaand pyrophosphates respectively.
On boiling their solutions they yield orthophosphates, whilst those of the heavy metals on boiling with water give a trimetallic orthophosphate and orthophosphoric acid: 3AgP0 3 +3H 2 O=Ag 3 PO 4 +2H 3 PO 4.
On heating with an oxide or carbonate they yield a trimetallic orthophosphate, carbon dioxide being evolved in the latter case.
The Swedish, Norwegian, Ontario and Michigan mines yield ores of this kind; and though none of them can be profitably worked as a source of phosphate, yet on reducing the ore it may be retained in the slags, and thus rendered available for agriculture.
In the West Indies from Venezuela to the Bahamas and in the Caribbean Sea many islands yield supplies of leached guanos; the following are important in this respect: Sombrero, Navassa, A y es, Aruba, Curacoa.
Important deposits of mineral phosphates are now worked on a large scale in the United States, the annual yield far surpassing that of any other part of the world.
On rich soils the crop is liable to grow too rapidly and yield a"coarse, uneven sample, consequently the best barley is grown on light, open and preferably calcareous soils, while if the condition of the soil is too high it is often reduced by growing wheat before the barley.
The yield of straw is from 15 to 20 cwt.
Broken as is the surface, poor as is the soil of certain tracts, there is but little of the island which will not ultimately be cultivated with profit as pumice and clay-marl yield to labour.
The second type of Cretaceous is a terrestrial formation, and is important as it contains the rich coal seams of Greymouth, Westport and Seddonville, which yield a high quality of steam coal.
Thus, if a common glass-jar be struck so as to yield an audible sound, the existence of a motion of this kind may be felt by the finger lightly applied to the edge of the glass; and, on increasing the pressure so as to destroy this motion the sound forthwith ceases.
Customs and indirect taxes yield more than three-fifths of the total revenue, and direct taxes less than one-fourth.
of Kimberley, yield occasional diamonds of great purity.
He did not yield at once; a second letter from the viceroy, the news of Nanshan, and above all a signed order from the tsar himself, " Inform General Kuropatkin that I impose upon him all the responsibility for the fate of Port Arthur," were needed to bring him definitely to execute a scheme which in his heart he knew to be perilous.
The cultivation of the vine in Saxony is respectable for its antiquity, though the yield is insignificant.
Unlike the terremare and the lake dwellings they do not seem to belong to the prehistoric ages, but yield indications of occupation in post-Roman and medieval times.
The total acreage of spring wheat, the state's leading crop, in 1909 was 3,375,000 with a yield of 47,5 88, 000 bush.
Marat despised the ruling party because they had suffered nothing for the republic, because they talked too much of their feelings and their antique virtue, because they had for their own virtues plunged the country into war; while the Girondins hated Marat as representative of that rough red republicanism which would not yield itself to a Roman republic, with themselves for tribunes, orators and generals.
In the acreage of this cereal in 1909 (according to the Year-book of the U.S. Department of Agriculture), North Dakota ranked first, and in the crop second among the states of the Union, its total yield being 90,762,000 bushels, valued at $83,501,000.
The Siamese refused to yield, and early in 1893 encounters took place in the disputed area, in which a French officer was captured and French soldiers were killed.
The average annual yield of sugar in 1900-1905 was 852,400 tons, but it increased steadily during that period.
The average annual yield of coffee during the same period was 101,971,132 lb; it fluctuates greatly.
The total annual yield of the tin mines is about 15,000 tons, and of the coal mines 240,000 tons.
It forms monosymmetric crystals which by boiling with water yield amidosulphonic acid.
The Keuper clays yield material for bricks.
The yield of iron ore is almost one million tons annually, while gold, silver, tin, graphite and salt are also mined.
The revival of the Czechs after a hundred years of torpor, due to the loss of their independence in 1620 and subsequent oppression at the hands of the Habsburgs and the dominant Germans, gave birth, from 1780 onwards, to a literary activity which still continues to yield rich fruit.
A very few articles (spirits, beer, wine, tobacco, tea, coffee, cocoa) yield practically all of the customs revenue, and, so far as these articles are produced within the country, they are subject to an excise duty, an internal tax precisely equal to the import duty.
Having at first rejected the demand of the Bohemians for greater religious liberty, the emperor was soon obliged to yield to superior force, and in 1609 he acceded to the popular wishes by issuing the Letter of Majesty (Majestdtsbrief), and then made similar concessions to his subjects in Silesia and elsewhere.
Acids yield a sodium salt and free oxygen or hydrogen peroxide; with carbon dioxide it gives sodium carbonate and free oxygen; carbon monoxide gives the carbonate; whilst nitrous and nitric oxides give the nitrate.
They are strong oxidizing agents and yield alkaline solutions which readily evolve oxygen on heating.
Experiment showed that legitimate unions yield a larger quantity of seed than illegitimate.
Until after the middle of the 18th century tobacco was the staple crop of Maryland, and the total yield did not reach its maximum until 1860 when the crop amounted to 51,000 hhds.; from this it decreased to 14,000 hhds., or 12,356,838 lb in 1889; in 1899 it rose again to 24,589,480 lb, in 1907 the crop was only 56,962,000 lb, less than that of nine other states.
In the yield both of strawberries and of tomatoes it ranked first; the yield of raspberries and blackberries is also large.
The number of peach-trees, especially in the west part of the state, where the quality is of the best, is rapidly increasing, and in the yield of peaches and nectarines the state ranked thirteenth in 1899; in the yield of pears it ranked fifth; in apples seventeenth.
Sand, Ber., 1900, 33, pp. 1 34 0 et seq.), and those with a tertiary carbon atom yield double salts with zinc chloride.
soc. chim., 18 94 (3) 11, p. 1129) obtained anilino-derivatives of the paraquinones by the action of an aqueous solution of potassium chromate on an acetic acid solution of para-aminodimethylaniline and phenol: C 6 H 5 OH+H 2 N C 6 H 4 N (CH 3) 2 - *O:C 6 H 4 :N C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2; these compounds yield the quinone when heated with mineral acids.
OH, which can further yield quinone dioximes, HON:C 6 H 4 :NOH.
Since that date the yield has been very great.
It forms colourless cubes which are readily soluble in water, melt at 685°, and yield a vapour of normal density.
A parcel of dried mud, coming for example from Palestine or Queensland, and after an indefinite interval of time put into water in England or elsewhere, may yield him living forms, both new and old, in the most agreeable variety.
In view of all this, the first requisite for a critical treatment of the text of the Old Testament is to consider the consonants by themselves, to treat every vowel-consonant as possibly not original, and the existing divisions of the text into words as original only in those cases where they yield a sense better than any other possible division (or, at least, as good).
The goldfields are exploited with American capital, and yield a fair return.
The culture of tobacco, which is the second most valuable crop in the state, was begun in the north part about 1780 and in the west and south early in the 19th century, but it was late in that century before it was introduced to any considerable extent in the Blue Grass Region, where it was then in a measure substituted for the culture of hemp. By 1849 Kentucky ranked second only to Virginia in the production of tobacco, and in 1899 it was far ahead of any other state in both acreage and yield, there being in that year 384,805 acres, which was 34'9% of the total acreage in the continental United States, yielding 314,288,050 lb.
These authors are of great value for connecting the monumental information, but must yield more and more to the increasing evidence of actual weights and measures.
Buildings will generally yield up their builder's foot or cubit when examined (Inductive Metrology, p. 9).
A man's whole stock consists of two portions - that which is reserved for his immediate consumption, and that which is employed so as to yield a revenue to its owner.
Ignatius says: "When it seems to me that I am commanded by my superior to do a thing against wconscience]] revolts as sinful and my superior judges otherwise, it is my duty to yield my doubts to him unless I am otherwise constrained by evident reasons.
Coffee has become an important article of export, but cotton does not yield enough for the domestic factories.
Mines of some description are to be found in 26 of the 31 states and territories, and of these the great majority yield silver.
In 1909 a well was opened in the southern oilfields whose yield was equal to the best American product.
In brief, under President Diaz's rule the history of Mexico is mainly economic. In the six financial years1893-1894to1899-1900inclusive the yield of the import duties increased by upwards of 80%; the revenue from ogressic stamps over 60%, though the duties were reduced; the postal revenue from1895-1896to1899-1900rose 60%; the telegraph revenue over 75%.
Hay is the principal crop; in 1909 the acreage was 640,000 acres and the yield was 621,000 tons.
The French government would not yield, and Walsingham came back, to be followed by Anjou who sought in personal interviews to overcome Elizabeth's objections to matrimony.
After 12 to 15 years the heads become "tired," and should be grubbed up. The first year's crop, known as the "maiden" crop, is of small value but should be cut and the ensuing years of maturity will yield crops of about 130 bolts, green, per acre, worth £9, 15s.
The cost of planting and the outlay for manuring and weeding during the years of maturity of the crop, are higher in the Midlands and the yield was estimated by Ellmore at 6 to 10 tons per acre, green, worth from £3, ios.
- The soil is very fertile, and if properly irrigated would yield abundant harvests.
Unirrigated land laid under wheat by the natives is said to yield twelve bushels an acre.
yield up their most precious things.
Swine, which are reared in great numbers in the plains, yield the famous Westphalian hams; and the rearing of cattle and goats is important.
Irish goats often yield a quantity of milk, but the quality is poor.
Various processes involving the use of atmospheric nitrogen have been devised, but in most cases they do not yield good results.
Soc., 1902, 81, p. 1 59 6) who showed that the products obtained by the action of alkyl iodides on the isonitriles in alcoholic solution at 100° C. yield amine hydroidides and formic acid when hydrolysed.
In victory he retains his steadiness, and in defeat he will die at his post rather than yield.
The sodium and potassium salts, when heated to 400° C., give oxalates and carbonates of the alkali metals, but the magnesium, calcium and barium salts yield carbonates only.
The silver and mercury salts, when heated, yield the metal, with liberation of carbon dioxide and formation of free formic acid; and the ammonium salt, when distilled, gives some formamide, Hconh 2.
The indigo and cotton plantations yield little profit, owing to foreign competition, and have in most cases been converted to other uses.
The arms from the shoulder to the elbow should hang naturally, close to the sides, and the arms from elbow to wrist should be about parallel to the ground, the wrist being kept loose, so as to yield gently with every motion of the horse.
of guano will add to the productiveness of the crop. On good soil and in favourable seasons the yield sometimes reaches to 40 bushels per acre.
It does not yield so much oil as the "winter" kind, but it will grow on soil in poorer condition.
The oil is similar to that in the true colza seeds but the plants do not yield so much per acre as the latter: they are, however, hardier and more adapted for cultivation on poor sandy soils.
The Devonian system yields much oil and gas in western Pennsylvania, south-western New York, West Virginia and Ontario; and some of the Devonian beds in Tennessee yield phosphates of commercial value.
The results of computations by the first two methods yield estimates of the contribution of foreign stock to the native element of 1900 varying among themselves by only 1.8%.
In five years from the discovery of gold at Coloma on the American river, the yield from the auriferous belt of the Sierra Nevada had risen to an amount estimated at between sixty-five and seventy millions of dollars a year, or five times as much as the total production of this metal throughout the world at the beginning of the century.
The annual yield of gold in the Appalachian belt had fallen off to about $500,000 in value, that of California had risen to $36,000,000, and was rapidly approaching the epoch of its culmination (1851I 853).
The ore of mercury had been discovered in California before the epoch of the gold excitement, and was being extensively worked, the yield in the year1850-1851being nearly 2,000,000 lb.
It held primacy, with a large margin, in the yield of coal, iron, lead and copper, the minerals most important in manufactures; in gold its output ini~usifrIcs was second only to that, of South Africa (though practically equalled by that of Australia); and in silver to that of Mexico.
So rapid has been the extension of the yielding areas, so diverse the fate of many fields, so shifting their relative rank in output, that the otitlook from year to year as regards all these elements is too uncertain to admit of definite statements respecting the relative importance of the five fields already mentioned The total output of these, it may be stated, from 1901 to 1908uniting the yield of the Illinois to the Lima-Indiana field (since their statistics were long so united, until their industrial differences became apparent), and adding a sixth division for the production of scattered areas of productionwas as follows:
hi.; the portion of their yield in 1907 that was utilized at 400,000,000,000 cub.
In the yield of gypsum, phosphate rock and salt the United States leads the world.
The share of the whole district for some years past has been practically four-fifths of the total output of the country; and together with the yield of the southern district, more than 90%.
From 1859 to 1902 the total yield of this lode was $204,653,040 in silver and $148,145,385 in gold; the average annual yield from 1862 to 1868 was above eleven millions; the maximum yield $36,301,537 in 1877; and the total product to July 1880 was variously estimated at from $304,752,171.54 to $30618125125.
Comparing the product of the United States with that of the world, the figures for the two respectively were 23,350 and I51,936 long tons in 1879, when the United States was second to both Spain (and Portugal) and Chile as a producer; 51,570 and 199,406 long tons in 1883, when the Unites States first took leading rank; 172,300 and 334,565 long tons in 1895, when the yield of the United States first exceeded that of all other parts of the world combined; and 942,570,000 and 1,667,098,000 lb in 1908.
With Utah and California their yield in 1908 was 93% of the total.
The yield of the Upper Mines culminated about 1845, and long ago became insignificant.
An annual yield of 100,000 tons was first passed in 1881; of 200,000, ill 1891; of 300,000, in 1898.
The year of greatest yield was 1877, with 79,395 flasks.
The production had steadily fallen to 16,984 flasks in 1908, but in the opinion of the United States Geological Survey this reduction is mainly attributable, in recent years at least, to market conditions, and does not truly indicate the exhaustion of the mines, although the ores now available are of low grades, those of New Almaden having shown a decrease in yield from 36.7% in1850-1851to o~74% in 1895-1896, so that only the greatest metallurgical skill and business economy can sustain the mines against a weak market.
Six condensers yield 52,000 gal.
The average yield of wheat for the Crops.
In 1900 the wheat acreage in Ontario was 1,487,633, producing 28,418,907 bushels, an average yield of 19.10 bushels per acre.
Over three-quarters of this production was of fall or winter wheat, the average yield of which in Ontario over a series of years since 1883 had been about 20 bushels per acre.
Besides potatoes, which thrive well and yield large quantities of excellent quality, there are turnips, carrots, parsnips and beets.
Wheat well repays careful attention; contrast the produce of a carelessly tilled Russian or Indian field and the bountiful yield on a good Lincolnshire farm, the former with its average yield of 8 bushels, the latter with its 50 bushels per acre; or compare the quality, as regards the quantity and flavour of the flour from a fine sample of British wheat, such as is on sale at almost every agricultural show in Great Britain, with the produce of an Egyptian or Syrian field; the difference is so great as to cause one to doubt whether the berries are of the same species.
The district is poor in minerals; the yield of silver and copper has almost ceased, but there are workable coal seams near Offenburg, where the Kinzig debouches on the plain.
Wheat and other cereals are cultivated, with fruits of many kinds, olives, and vines which yield a wine of fair quality; while saffron is largely produced, and some attention is given to the keeping of bees and silkworms. Stock-farming, for which the wide plains afford excellent opportunities, employs many of the peasantry; the bulls of Albacete are in demand for bull-fighting, and the horses for mounting the Spanish cavalry.
The average yield per acre has also increased under the system of free labour.
The cause of this extensive cultivation of cotton is not a high average yield per acre, but the fact that before 1860 " Cotton was King," and that the market value of the staple when the Civil War closed was so high that farmers began to cultivate it to the exclusion of the cereals, whose production, Indian corn excepted,.
The principal cereals cultivated are Indian corn (product, 53,75 0, 000 bushels in 1908) and wheat; the cultivation of the latter, formerly remunerative, declined on account of the competition of the Western States, but revived after 1899, largely owing to the efforts of the Georgia Wheat Growers' Association (organized in 1897), and in 1908 the yield was 2,208,000 bushels.
Although the information which has been brought to bear upon Egyptian life and customs substantiates the general accuracy of the local colouring in some of the biblical narratives, the latter contain several inherent improbabilities, and whatever future research may yield, no definite trace of Egyptian influence has so far been found in Israelite institutions.
In Lower Egypt practically all the mummies have perished; but in Upper Egypt, as they were put out of reach of the inundation, the cemeteries, in spite of rifling and burning, yield immense numbers of preserved bodies and skeletons; attention has from time to time been directed to the scientific examination of these in order to ascertain race, cause of death, traces of accident or disease, and the surgical or medical processes which they had undergone during life, &c. This department of research has been greatly developed by Dr Elliott Smith in Cairo.
When heated with aniline and aniline hydrochloride they yield indulines.
Goldschmidt, Ber., 1888, 21, p. 2578), and on reduction with zinc dust (preferably in alcoholic acetic acid solution) they yield usually a hydrazine and an amine.
When reduced (in acid solution) they yield amines; distillation with reduced iron gives azo compounds, and warming with ammonium sulphide gives hydrazo compounds.
Bees are principally kept on the Luneburger Heide, and the annual yield of honey is very considerable.
The rivers yield trout, salmon (in the Weser) and crayfish.
cf seed of 30 grammes producing 30,000 to 35,000 silkworms (30,000 may be depended upon to reach the cocoon stage) will give a harvest of 130 to 140 lb fresh cocoons and an ultimate yield of about 12 lb raw silk properly reeled.
That the silkworm is subject to many serious diseases is only to be expected of a creature which for upwards of 4000 years has been propagated under purely artificial conditions, and these most frequently of a very insanitary nature, and where, not the healthy life of the insect, but the amount of silk it could be made to yield, was the object of the cultivator.
But this fact enabled the cultivator to know with assurance whether the worms on which he bestowed his labour would yield him a harvest of silk.
fortunatus) and arracanensis, the Burmese worm - all of which yield several Antheraea pernyi (male).
Its culms and leaves afford excellent fodder for cattle; and the grain, of which the yield in favourable situations is upwards of a hundredfold, is used for the same purposes as maize, rice, corn and other cereals.
In the trans-border agencies the valleys of the Swat, Kurram and Tochi rivers yield abundant rice crops.
The spectra produced under these circumstances have been studied in detail by C. de Watteville.4 Of more frequent use have been electric methods, owing to the greater intensity of the radiations which they yield.
When we now speak of the identification of spectra we like to include, wherever possible, the identification of the particular compound which is luminous and even - though we have only begun to make any progress in that direction - the differentiation between the molecular or electronic states which yield the different spectra of the same element.
These, which go down to depths of 700 to 1700 ft., yield crude naphtha, from which the petroleum or kerosene is distilled; while the heavier residue (mazut) is used as lubricating oil and for fuel, for instance in the locomotives of the Transcaspian railway.
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