DELIAN LEAGUE, or Confederacy Of Delos, the name given to a confederation of Greek states under the leadership of Athens, with its headquarters at Delos, founded in 478 B.C. shortly after the final repulse of the expedition of the Persians under Xerxes I.
Ostensibly a solemn revenge for the burning of Greek temples by Xerxes, it has been justified as a symbolical act calculated to impress usefully the imagination of the East, and condemned as a senseless and vainglorious work of destruction.
Strangely enough, it is not recorded what part Trachis played in the defence of Thermopylae against Xerxes.
His fathers took a prominent part in Athenian politics, and in 479 held high command in the Greek squadron which annihilated the remnants of Xerxes' fleet at Mycale; through his mother, the niece of Cleisthenes, he was connected with the former tyrants of Sicyon and the family of the Alcmaeonidae.
From Stolze's investigations it appears that at least one of these, the castle built by Xerxes, bears evident traces of having been destroyed by fire.
He used for the decoration of his own city the money furnished by the Athenian allies for defence against Persia: it is very fortunate that after the time of Xerxes Persia made no deliberate attempt against Greece.
Brother of Darius I., and, according to Herodotus, the trusted adviser of his nephew Xerxes.
143), and predicts to Xerxes his defeat by the Greeks (vii.
10 ff., 46 ff.); Xerxes sent him home to govern the empire during the campaign (vii.
Vizier of Xerxes (Ctesias, Pers.
1311 b, he had previously killed Xerxes' son Darius, and was afraid that the father would avenge him; according to Ctesias, Pers.
69, he killed Xerxes first and then pretended that Darius had murdered him, and instigated his brother Artaxerxes to avenge the parricide.
After the reign of Xerxes, Persis and Persepolis became utterly neglected, in spite of occasional visits, and even the palaces of Persepolis remained in part unfinished.
Here he set fire to the cedar roof of the palace of Xerxes as a symbol that the Greek war of revenge against the Persians had come to an end.
Towards the close of the reign of Darius there was a fresh revolt in Egypt; it was quelled by Xerxes (485-465), who did not imitate the religious tolerance of his predecessors.
Darius and Xerxes were repulsed in their efforts to subjugate the Greek Peninsula, and Alexander the Great conquered their successor Darius III.
When the Greeks solicited his aid against Xerxes, he refused it, since they would not give him command of the allied forces (Herodotus vii.
The Theseum or temple of Theseus, which lay to the east of the Agora near the Acropolis, was built by Cimon: here he deposited the bones of the national hero which he brought from Scyros about 470 B.C. The only building in the city which can with certainty be assigned to the administration of Pericles is the Odeum, beneath the southern declivity of the Acropolis, a structure mainly of wood, said to have been built in imitation of the tent of Xerxes: it was used for musical contests and the though not established, may be regarded as practically certain, notwithstanding the difficulty presented by the subjects of the sculptures, which bear no relation to Hephaestus.
Hermodorus and Hermippus of Smyrna place him 5000 years before the Trojan war, Xanthus 6000 years before Xerxes, Eudoxus and Aristotle 6000 years before the death of Plato.
The country was overrun several times by Darius and his generals, and the Thracian Greeks contributed 120 ships to the armament of Xerxes (Herod.
69) the Arabs under Xerxes wore a long cloak fastened by a girdle.
In the expedition of Xerxes, ten years later, he was in command of the Lydians and Mysians (Herod.
The Persian invasions of Darius and Xerxes, with the consequent importance of maritime strength and the capacity for distant enterprise, as compared with that of purely military superiority in the Greek peninsula, caused a considerable loss of prestige which Sparta was unwilling to recognize.
The league was, therefore, specifically a free confederation of autonomous Ionian cities founded as a protection against the common danger which threatened the Aegean basin, and led by Athens in virtue of her predominant naval power as exhibited in the war against Xerxes.
Working with some inscriptions from Persepolis which were found to contain references to Darius and Xerxes, Grotefend had established the phonetic values of certain of the Persian characters, and his successors were perfecting the discovery just about the time when the new Assyrian finds were made.
Similarly, the Greek names Kyros, Dareios and Xerxes were as close an imitation aspracticable of the native names of these Persian monarchs.
98) gives the translation, u yas ap7)tos, and considers the name as a compound of Xerxes, showing thereby that he knew nothing of the Persian language; the later Persian form is Ardashir, which occurs in the form Artaxias (Artaxes) as the name of some kings of Armenia.
He was the younger son of Xerxes, and was raised to the throne in 465 by the vizier Artabanus, the murderer of his father.
Xerxes) and Artaxerxes (the son and grandson of Darius respectively) breaks the account of the temple under Cyrus and Darius, and is concerned with the city walls (iv.
After the defeat of Xerxes the Thasians joined the Delian confederacy; but afterwards, on account of a difference about the mines and marts on the mainland, they revolted.
He accompanied Xerxes on his expedition to Greece, but the stories told of the warning and advice which on several occasions he addressed to the king are scarcely historical.
It refused tribute to Xerxes, and sent one ship to fight on the Greek side at Salamis.
At this period Sidon occupied the position of leading state; in the fleet her king ranked next to Xerxes and before the king of Tyre (Herod.
To the great powers Phoenician ships and sailors were indispensable; Sennacherib, Psammetichus and Necho, Xerxes, Alexander, all in turn employed them for their transports and sea-fights.
On the Eclipses of Agathocles, Thales, and Xerxes," Phil.
The name Achaemenes is borne by a son of Darius I., brother of Xerxes.
In the sphere of material power the repulse of Xerxes and the extension of Athenian or Spartan supremacy in the eastern Mediterranean were large facts patent to the most obtuse.
the warships of Xerxes fleet.
Xerxes, 486467 B.C., who put down the revolt with severity, and his successor Artaxerxes, 466425 B.C., like Cambyses, were hateful to the Egyptians.
The reigns of Xerxes II.
Paros also sided with Xerxes against Greece, but after the battle of Artemisium the Parian contingent remained in Cythnos watching the progress of events (Herod.
Partly in consequence of its defeat, partly out of jealousy against Sparta, Argos took no part in the war against Xerxes.
They are mentioned by Herodotus among the races conquered by Croesus, and they sent an important contingent to the army of Xerxes in 480 B.C. Xenophon speaks of them as being governed by a prince of their own, without any reference to the neighbouring satraps, a freedom due, perhaps, to the nature of the country, with its lofty mountain ranges and difficult passes.
On the citadel rock are several inscriptions, the principal being a trilingual one of Xerxes on the southern face.
The name Khshayarsha, however, has been found in Persian inscriptions, and has been thought to be equivalent to the Xerxes (485-465 B.C.) of the Greeks.
Modern scholars, therefore, identify the Ahasuerus of Ezra with Xerxes.
Longimanus, the son and successor of Xerxes, though countenanced by Josephus, deserves little consideration.
Most students are agreed that he must be a monarch of the Achaemenian dynasty, earlier than Artaxerxes I.; and opinion is divided between Darius Hystaspes and Xerxes.
In support of the identification with Xerxes it is alleged (1) that the Hebrew 'Ahashverosh is the natural equivalent of the old Persian Khshayarsha, the true name of Xerxes; (2) that.
there is a striking similarity of character between the Xerxes of Herodotus and the Ahasuerus of Esther; (3) that certain coincidences in dates and events 'See Trumbull, Threshold Covenant, pp. 46 sqq.; Haddon, Study of Man, pp. 347 sqq.; P. Sartori, Zeitschr.
8), the return of Xerxes to Susa in the seventh year of his reign and the marriage of Ahasuerus at Shushan in the same year of his.
8 The Greek cities, faring ill under Persia, and organized by Onesilaus of Salamis, joined the Ionic revolt in 500 B.C.; 9 but the Phoenician states, Citium and Amathus, remained loyal to Persia; the rising was soon put down; in 480 Cyprus furnished no less than 150 ships to the fleet of Xerxes; 1° and in spite of the repeated attempts of the Delian League to " liberate " the island, it remained subject to Persia during the 5th century."
The winter months the kings chiefly spent in Babylon: the hot summer, in the cooler situation of Ecbatana, where Darius and Xerxes built a residence on Mt Elvend, south of the city.
In 486 B.C. Egypt revolted and was only reduced by Xerxes in 484.
Even the circumnavigation of Africa was attempted under Xerxes (Herod.
The position of the Persian monarchy as a world-empire is characteristically emphasized in the buildings of Darius and Xerxes in Persepolis and Susa.
The most, ancient work preserved is that of Herodotus (q.v.), who supplies rich and valuable materials for the period ending in 479 B.C. These materials are drawn partly from sound tradition, partly from original knowledgeas in the account of the satrapies and their distribution, the royal highway, the nations in Xerxes army and their equipment.
But not only the expeditions of Mardonius (492) and Datis (490), but even the carefully prepared campaign of Xerxes, in conjunction with Carthage completely failed (48o479).
The wreck of Xerxes expedition is the turning-point in the history of the Persian Empire.
As early as 465 B.C., Xerxes was assassinated by his powerful vizier (chiliarch) Artabanus, who attempted to seize the reins of empire in fact, if not in name.
Kings like Xerxes and more especially Artaxerxes I.
Ninety years after Salamis and Plataea, the goal for which Xerxes had striven was actually attained, and the kings will was law in Greece.
At his death in 338, imfnediately before the final catastrophe, the empire to all appearances was more powerful and more firmly established than it had been since the days of Xerxes.
With the capture of the capitals, the Persian war was at an end, and the atonement for the expedition of Xerxes was completea truth symbolically expressed in the burning of the palace at Persepolis.
He first removed (211) the Armenian king Xerxes by treachery (Polyb.
When Xerxes returned from the march against Greece, he honoured the temple of Artemis, although he sacked other Ionian shrines, and even left his children behind at Ephesus for safety's sake.
His park and pleasure grounds near Rome, and the costly and laborious works in his parks and villas at Tusculum, near Naples, earned for him from Pompey (it is said) the title of the "Roman Xerxes."
a i, "battle"), the "Battle of Frogs and Mice," a comic epic or parody on the Iliad, definitely attributed to Homer by the Romans, but according to Plutarch (De 529 Herodoti Malignitate, 43) the work of Pigres of Halicarnassus, the brother (or son) of Artemisia, queen of Caria and ally of Xerxes.
It is important to note in this connexion that Darius the Mede is represented as the son of Xerxes (Ahasuerus) and it is stated that he established 120 satrapies.
Darius Hystapis was the father of Xerxes, and according to Herodotus (iii.
ARTEMISIA, daughter of Lygdamis, was queen of Halicarnassus and Cos about 480 B.C. Being a dependent of Persia, she took part in person in the expedition of Xerxes against the Greeks, and fitted out five ships, with which she distinguished herself in the sea-fight near Salamis (480).
After the battle Xerxes declared that the men had fought like women, and the women like men.
In 480 it supplied ships to Xerxes and was subsequently harried by the Greek fleet.
This hypothesis, however, requires us to suppose that Xerxes had returned from Sardis to Susa by the tenth month of the seventh year of his reign, which is barely credible.
Mordecai is represented as a fellow-captive of Jeconiah (597 B.C.), and grandvizier in Xerxes's twelfth year (474 B.C.) I This is parallel to the strange statement in Tobit xiv.
The remaining inhabitants, after seeing their city burnt down by Xerxes, furnished a force of 1800 men to the confederate Greek army at Plataea.
(521 485 B.C.) and his son Xerxes I.
On the north side of Thessaly there was an important pass from Petra in Pieria by the western side of Olympus, debouching on the plain northward of Larissa; it was by this that Xerxes entered, and we learn from Herodotus (vii.
Here Xerxes crossed the strait on his bridge of boats when he invaded Greece.
It surrendered without a struggle to Cyrus, but two sieges in the reign of Darius Hystaspis, and one in the reign of Xerxes, brought about the destruction of the defences, while the monotheistic rule of Persia allowed the temples to fall into decay.
Indeed part of the temple of E-Saggila, which like other ancient temples served as a fortress, was intentionally pulled down by Xerxes after his capture of the city.
The Persian soldier in Herodotus, following Xerxes to foreseen ruin, confides to his fellow-guest at the banquet that the bitterest pain which man can know is 7roXXa Opo 40v-ra, unSEvOs Kpariaav, - complete, but helpless, prescience.
Scythian envoys sought her aid to stem the invasion of Darius; to her the Greeks of Asia Minor appealed to withstand the Persian advance and to aid the Ionian revolt; Plataea asked for her protection; Megara acknowledged her supremacy; and at the time of the Persian invasion under Xerxes no state questioned her right to lead the Greek forces on land and sea.
In the second campaign, conducted ten years later by Xerxes in person, Sparta took a more active share and assumed the command of the combined Greek forces by sea and land.
West of the acropolis were the palace of Xerxes and the Agora, in or near which is the cavern whence the Marsyas, one of the sources of the Maeander, issues.
And it is just possible that it is worth notice that, though the name of Ahasuerus corresponds to Xerxes, Josephus identifies him with Artaxerxes I.
Hence the kings buried at Nakshi Rustam are probably, besides Darius, Xerxes I., Artaxerxes I.
Oppert, that the words and Pdrsd, " in this Persia," which occur in an inscription on the gateway built by Xerxes (D.
The vast ruins, however, of Takhti Jamshid, and the terrace constructed with so much labour, can hardly be anything else than the ruins of palaces; as for temples, the Persians had no such thing, at least in the time of Darius and Xerxes.
farther south on the left bank of the Pulwar, near its confluence with the Kur, with a large terrace, on which his magnificent palace and that of his son Xerxes were built.
Xerxes of Armenia was brought to acknowledge his supremacy in 212.
Aelian's story that Cleisthenes himself was the first to be ostracized is attractive in view of his overtures to Persia (see Cleisthenes), but it has little historical value and conflicts with the chapter in Aristotle's Constitution - which, however, may conceivably be simply the list of those recalled from ostracism at the time of Xerxes' Invasion, all of whom must have been ostracized less than ten years before 481 (i.e.
In the southern were the Orchestra, where the Dionysiac dances took place, and the famous statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton by Antenor which were carried away by Xerxes; also the Metroum, or temple of the Mother of the Gods,the Bouleuterium, or council-chamber of the Five Hundred, the Prytaneum, the hearth of the combined communities, where the guests of the state dined, the temple of the Dioscuri, and the Tholus, or Skias, a circular stone-domed building in which the Prytaneis were maintained at the public expense; in the northern were the Leocorium, where Hipparchus was slain, the QToa /3avtXtK?7, the famous aTOet 7roLKLAn, where Zeno taught, and other structures.
61 sqq.) of the costumes of the mercenaries of Xerxes is classical (see Rawlinson's edition, iv.
The Pisidians are not mentioned by Herodotus, either among the nations that were subdued by Croesus, or among those that furnished contingents to the army of Xerxes, and the first mention of them in history occurs in the Anabasis of Xenophon, when they furnished a pretext to the younger Cyrus for levying the army with which he designed to subvert his brother's throne, while he pretended only to put down the Pisidians who were continually harassing the neighbouring nations by their lawless forays (Ahab.
The only occasion on which the island is mentioned in history is during the expedition of Xerxes (B.C. 480), when the Samothracians sent a contingent to the Persian fleet, one ship of which bore a conspicuous part in the battle of Salamis (Herod.
Mr Tarn builds much upon the fact that the descendants of the Greek Branchidae settled by Xerxes in central Asia had become bilingual in six generations (Curt.
The Phrygian troops in the army of Xerxes were armed like the Armenians and led by the same commander.
8 The Greek cities, faring ill under Persia, and organized by Onesilaus of Salamis, joined the Ionic revolt in 500 B.C.; 9 but the Phoenician states, Citium and Amathus, remained loyal to Persia; the rising was soon put down; in 480 Cyprus furnished no less than 150 ships to the fleet of Xerxes; 1Ã‚° and in spite of the repeated attempts of the Delian League to " liberate " the island, it remained subject to Persia during the 5th century."
In 476 Phrynichus was successful with the Phoenissae, so called from the Phoenician women who formed the chorus, which celebrated the defeat of Xerxes at Salamis (480).
The Book of Esther, in the Bible, relates how a Jewish maiden, Esther, cousin and foster-daughter of Mordecai, was made his queen by the Persian king Ahasuerus (Xerxes) after he had divorced Vashti; next, how Esther and Mordecai frustrated Haman's endeavour to extirpate the Jews; how Haman, the grand-vizier, fell, and Mordecai succeeded him; how Esther obtained the king's permission for the Jews to destroy all who might attack them on the day which Haman had appointed by lot for their destruction; and lastly, how the feast of Purim (Lots ?) was instituted to commemorate their deliverance.
Even the capricious Xerxes would never have permitted the entire destruction of one of the races of the empire, nor would a vizier have proposed it.
In the repulse of Xerxes it is possible that the Aeginetans played a larger part than is conceded to them by Herodotus.
Xerxes II., who reigned for a very short time, could scarcely have obtained so splendid a monument, and still less could the usurper Sogdianus (Secydianus).
On the isthmus are distinct traces of the canal cut by Xerxes before his invasion of Greece in 480 B.C. The peninsula is remarkable for the beauty of its scenery, and derives a peculiar interest from its unique group of monastic communities with their medieval customs and institutions, their treasures of Byzantine art and rich collections of documents.
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