Surprised at the casual wisdom of her words, Gabriel was quiet.
His words are wisdom to those legislators who contemplate no essential reform in the existing government; but for thinkers, and those who legislate for all time, he never once glances at the subject.
It is wisdom that King Solomon asked God for, not intelligence.
The highest wisdom is one.
Sure. My mind isn't donating any words of wisdom that make a lick of sense.
The seriousness of Mr. Cooms' concerns convinced me of the wisdom in securing what he suggested.
However, no words of century-old wisdom leapt from the pages.
But the great wisdom of Peisistratus is shown most clearly in the skill with which he blinded the people to his absolutism.
"The law of things is a law of Reason Universal (Xo yos), but most men live as though they had a wisdom of their own."
So really, wisdom is power.
As much as she distrusted Wynn, she'd seen the caution in his features, the haunted wisdom of his gaze.
It turns out that, even when doing what you love, both passion and profit matter—but that particular piece of wisdom came later with age.
His wisdom grew mainly out of his own reflections and experiments.
He is a beneficent and venerable old man of the sea, full of wisdom and skilled in prophecy, but, like Proteus, he will only reveal what he knows under compulsion.
1 may or may not be affected by Philo; it is almost or quite solitary in the N.T.) Similarly, the immortality of the soul may be maintained on Platonic or quasi-Platonic lines, as by St Athanasius (Contra Gentes, § 33) - a writer who repeatedly quotes the Alexandrian Book of Wisdom, in which Platonism and the Old Testament had already joined partnership. This.
The highest wisdom has but one science--the science of the whole--the science explaining the whole creation and man's place in it.
I discussed my proposal with Molly who with wisdom beyond her years, agreed.
To the saintliness of the cloister he added the wisdom of the man of the world; he was constant in misfortune, not elated by prosperity, never "carrying things to the sweating-point'," but preserving, in a time of universal corruption, unreality and self-indulgence, a nature sweet, pure, self-denying, unaffected.
I define wisdom as deriving a course of action from applying a value system to a situation.
But drawing from his aged wisdom what they could understand, he told them of the golden bridge, and they laughed at and slandered him, flinging themselves on, rending and exulting over the dying beast.
Normally it was Josh who showered her with wisdom, and it was somehow unseemly for this newcomer to take up where Josh had left off.
Still, she heard the wisdom of hundreds of special ops missions in Mrs. Watson's voice.
Finally, when I use the word "wisdom," I am talking about applying a value system to knowledge to suggest a course of action.
Mahogany shelves full of dust free books surrounded them with the wisdom of many years.
The reason for this, Paul sees, is the influence of the claim made by certain teachers in Colossae that the Christians, in order to attain unto and be assured of full salvation, must supplement Paul's message with their own fuller and more perfect wisdom, and must observe certain rites and practices (ii.
Vico undoubtedly considered the poetic wisdom of the Middle Ages to be different from that of the Greeks and Romans, and Christianity to be very superior to the pagan religion.
It is a proof of the wisdom of Aurelius's clemency that he had little or no trouble in pacifying the provinces which had been the scene of rebellion.
Opinions, no doubt, will always differ as to the wisdom or authority of the policy which brought Charles to the scaffold.
Nearly all the rest, more especially the transition from poetical to occult wisdom, was derived from Rome.
As if Plato were my townsman and I never saw him--my next neighbor and I never heard him speak or attended to the wisdom of his words.
"The highest wisdom and truth are like the purest liquid we may wish to imbibe," he said.
Indeed, I owe to her loving wisdom all that was bright and good in my long night.
Many Anglican bishops (amongst them the archbishop of York and most of his suffragans) felt so doubtful as to the wisdom of such an assembly that they refused to attend it, and Dean Stanley declined to allow Westminster Abbey to be used for the closing service, giving as his reasons the partial character of the assembly, uncertainty as to the effect of its measures and "the presence of prelates not belonging to our Church."
The Corniche road was improved; and public works in various parts of Piedmont, and the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics attested the foresight and wisdom of the great organizer of industry and quickener of human energies.
Maybe Byrne said some words of wisdom you can pass on to the missus.
According to Rita Angeltoni, the seat of all wisdom, this part of the flight's on time.
He recalled too little of Jame's wisdom, but the disjointed words of his mentor soothed him nonetheless.
Out of these earlier conceptions the idea of the divine wisdom (Heb.
But in a world where great wisdom is available to everyone, the end of ignorance will be within our grasp.
Carry it to Delphi and leave it there in the Temple of Apollo; for Apollo is the fountain of wisdom, the wisest of the wise.
I thought how strange it was that such precious seeds of truth and wisdom should have fallen among the tares of ignorance and corruption.
For during the year that elapsed before he left Swabia (and whilst he sojourned at Neuburg and Ulm), and amidst his geometrical studies, he would fain have gathered some knowledge of the mystical wisdom attributed to the Rosicrucians; but the Invisibles, as they called themselves, kept their secret.
For the time, however, he made a virtue of necessity, and Alexander II., recognizing the wisdom and courage which Gorchakov had exhibited, appointed him minister of foreign affairs in place of Count Nesselrode.
The "wisdom" personified by the moon-god is likewise an expression of the science of astrology in which the observation of the moon's phases is so important a factor.
Consalvi's rule, in times of singular difficulty and unrest, was characterized by wisdom and moderation.
But how can we explain the formation of this poetic wisdom, which, albeit the work of ignorant men, has so deep and intrinsic a philosophic value?
Cynthia, in her infinite wisdom, arranged a generous monetary scale of chores-for-bucks that seemed to take care of the problem.
Young, brave and handsome, he won the love and devotion of his people, and guided them through the long years of storm and stress with wisdom and ability.
A second trip to her rental car for a computer, two briefcases and a box of papers confirmed the wisdom of his choice of the larger room.
In Samos the little slave soon became known for his wisdom and courage.
They suggest not merely the purity of infancy, but a wisdom clarified by experience.
None of us has the time to do that—but in the future, with my system, wisdom will operate at processor speeds.
Keep the third piece of wisdom for your own use, and let me have the gold.
You may be thinking that choosing the right place to eat Italian food doesn't constitute wisdom in a King Solomon kind of way.
He didn't like have any final words of wisdom, if that's what you're wondering.
4, p. 470, finds that the wisdom of the priests, in one land after another, rises to the thought of divine unity.
There the foundations of the second great Persian Empire were laid, and Istakhr acquired special importance as the centre of priestly wisdom and orthodoxy.
The expression " wisdom," as it is employed in the locus classicus, Prov.
The king himself as a Roman Catholic secretly opposed and also doubted the wisdom and practicability of this "thorough" policy of repression.
In consequence the special sciences and the wisdom of common life entangle themselves easily and frequently in contradictions.
"I must also inform you," said the Rhetor, "that our Order delivers its teaching not in words only but also by other means, which may perhaps have a stronger effect on the sincere seeker after wisdom and virtue than mere words.
Here the divine will is viewed as an efflux from the divine wisdom, as the intermediate link between God, the first substance, and all things, and as the fountain out of which all forms emanate.
You have to have something more: wisdom.
All the people whom they saw spoke in praise of his wisdom.
I finished my discourse with a request for words of wisdom.
Gabriel considered the human's sad wisdom.
They protested that they would rather die than dare to transgress the wisdom of the laws; and Pilate yielded.
The wisdom of King George Tupou in refusing to alienate an acre of land, except upon lease, has resulted in Tonga having been the last native state in the Pacific to lose its independence.
It was from this source that he derived the wisdom which enabled him to give to the Cretans the excellent system of laws and governments that earned for him the reputation of being the greatest legislator of antiquity.
Lastly, in matters of finance he showed his wisdom: he attacked Necker's "caisse d'escompte," which was to have the whole control of the taxes, as absorbing the Assembly's power of the purse; and he heartily approved of the system of assignats, but with the reservation that they should not be issued to the extent of more than one-half the value of the lands to be sold.
Cosimo employed almost the last hours of his life in listening to Ficino's reading of a treatise on the highest good; while Lorenzo, in a poem on true happiness, described him as the mirror of the world, the nursling of sacred muses, the harmonizer of wisdom and beauty in complete accord.
Among his sermons preached before his ordination, which was not till the 23rd of December 1660, were the famous discourses on The Wisdom of God in the Creation, and on the Chaos, Deluge and Dissolution of the World.
That qualities of bodies (and therefore of the corporeal soul) exist they do not deny; but they assert most uncompromisingly that they are one and all (wisdom, justice, &c.) corporeal.
Now, who could claim to have attained to the sage's wisdom?
He separated wisdom as a theoretic virtue from the other three which he called practical.
The belief in them probably arose out of the doctrine of the older school, which did not deny the existence of the various creations of previous mythology and speculation, but allowed of their actual existence as spiritual beings, and only deprived them of all power over the lives of men, and declared them to be temporary beings liable, like men, to sin and ignorance, and requiring, like men, the salvation of Arahatship. Among them the later Buddhists seem to have placed their numerous Bodhisats; and to have paid especial reverence to Manju-sri as the personification of wisdom, and to Avalokiteswara as the personification of overruling love.
The crusade, in which he distinguished himself equally by wisdom and prowess, taught his practical spirit several lessons.
Man is born with a corrupt bias which was not his at creation; the first man, when created, possessed Immortality, Perfect Wisdom, And A Will Regulated By Reason.
After 1854 he spent the greater part of his time at Pest, and his little room at the " Queen of England " inn became the meeting-place for those patriots who in those dark days looked to the wisdom of Deak for guidance.
The Wisdom, the Shekinah or Glory, and the Spirit of God are intermediate beings of this kind, and even the Law came to be regarded as an independent spiritual entity.
To this must be added the doctrine of Wisdom, given in the books of Job and Proverbs.
He speaks of Wisdom in a way reminding us of the book of Proverbs.
The pseudo-Solomonic Book of Wisdom (generally supposed to be the work of an Alexandrian flourishing somewhere between Aristobulus and Philo) deals both with the Wisdom and with the Logos.
In the Targums, on the other hand, the three doctrines of the word, the angel, and the wisdom of God converge in a very definite conception.
The completest type of Gnosticism, the Valentinian, regarded Wisdom as the last of the series of aeons that emanated from the original Being or Father, and the Logos as an emanation from the first two principles that issued from God, Reason (vas) and Truth.
Failing to attain his object by learning the wisdom of others, and living the simple life of a student, he had devoted himself to that intense meditation and penance which all philosophers then said would raise men above the gods.
Soon after, if not on the very day when his followers had left him, he wandered out towards the banks of the Neranjara, receiving his morning meal from the hands of Sujata, the daughter of a neighbouring villager, and set himself down to eat it under the shade of a large tree (a Ficus religiosa), to be known from that time as the sacred Bo tree or tree of wisdom.
There are two gifts which will be blest above all others, namely, Sujata's gift before I attained wisdom under the Bo tree, and this gift of Chunda's before I pass away."
To true wisdom there is only one way, the path that is laid down in my system.
Since I was twenty-nine years old till now I have striven after pure and perfect wisdom, and following the good path, have found Nirvana."
The very earnestness with which Spener had insisted on the necessity of a new birth, and on a separation of Christians from the world, led to exaggeration and fanaticism among followers less distinguished than himself for wisdom and moderation.
But the duke came to an arrangement with his father-in-law, by which he regained Piacenza and his other fiefs The rest of his life was spent quietly at home, where the moderation and wisdom of his rule won for him the affection of his people.
He maintains further, in opposition to most of the Cyrenaic school, that wisdom or prudence alone is an insufficient guarantee against error.
The wise man is he who has acquired a habit of wise action; human wisdom is liable to lapses at any moment.
to Catholicism in July 1593 - an act of political wisdom, since it brought about the collapse of all opposition.
Borne in a whirling chariot, and attended by the daughters of the sun, he reaches a temple sacred to an unnamed goddess (variously identified by the commentators with Nature, Wisdom or Themis), by whom the rest of the poem is spoken.
His wisdom was shown by the fact that he concentrated his attention on the one device which must evidently prove effective for defence, if only he were given time to perfect itthe building of a national navy.
He was a man of a cold and hard disposition, but full of practical wisdom, and conscious that his precarious claim to the crown must be secured by winning the confidence of his subjects.
He was a good fighter, a liberal giver, and a faithful friend, but he lacked wisdom, caution and the power to organize.
The constitutional quarrels of his reign were conducted with decency and order, because the king knew his own limitations, and because his subjects trusted to his wisdom and moderation in times of crisis.
the Scots maintainedin that of a neighbor of acknowledged wisdom and repute, invited to settle a domestic problem.
The higher order of minds dwelt with preference upon the beneficent wisdom of the Creator.
All that could be said was, that it was expedient in a widespread empire that the power of final decision should be lodged somewhere, and that it was also expedient not to use that power in such a way as to irritate those whom it was the truest wisdom to conciliate.
If he had not ~ the wisdom of the country on his side, he had its niinlstry.
To say this is not to say that the attitude of the Tory government towards the great issues of home politics was wholly, or even mainly, inspired by a far-sighted wisdom.
But opinion on the whole has vindicated its wisdom, and it has survived all the attacks which have been made upon it.
Most Englishmen now appreciate the wisdom of a concession which has gained for them the friendship of the United States.
In 1874 he published his last great romance, the tragic and historic poem in prose called Quatrevingt-treize; a work as rich in thought, in tenderness, in wisdom and in humour and in pathos, as ever was cast into the mould of poetry or of fiction.
George Grenville, whom the Rockinghams had displaced, and who was bitterly incensed at their formal reversal of his policy, printed a pamphlet to demonstrate his own wisdom and statesmanship. Burke replied in his Observations on a late Publication on the Present State of the Nation (1769), in which he showed for the first time that he had not only as much knowledge of commerce and finance, and as firm a hand, in dealing with figures as Grenville himself, but also a broad, general and luminous way of conceiving and treating politics, in which neither then nor since has he had any rival among English publicists.
Burke will always be read with delight and edification, because in the midst of discussions on the local and the accidental, he scatters apophthegms that take us into the regions of lasting wisdom.
Napoleon, who had begun life as a disciple of Rousseau, confirmed the wisdom of the philosophy of Burke when he came to make the Concordat.
His experience of the sentiment of the populace in the two greatest concerns of his life, - American affairs and Indian affairs, - had not been likely to prepossess him in favour of the popular voice as the voice of superior political wisdom.
They were men who made the laws, and much depended upon their wisdom.
The messengers found him in his house talking to his friends and teaching them wisdom.
But I contend that only matters of degree separate it from the weightier matters we conventionally associate with wisdom.
but I am grateful to him especially for his wisdom in choosing so valuable a work."
19), that in speech he is Adam's equal and in wisdom his superior?
Crowther died of paralysis on the 31st of December 1891, having displayed as a missionary for many years untiring industry, great practical wisdom, and deep piety.
The theological calmness of the West, amid the violent theological disputes which troubled the Eastern patriarchates, and the statesmanlike wisdom of Rome's greater bishops, combined to give a unique position to the pope, which councils in vain strove to shake, and which in time of difficulty the Eastern patriarchs were fain to acknowledge and make use of, however they might protest against it and the conclusions deduced from it.
Though he was one of those generals who had served under Moreau, and who therefore, as a rule, disliked and despised Napoleon, Soult had the wisdom to show his devotion to the ruling power; in consequence he was in August 1803 appointed to the 'command-in-chief of the camp of Boulogne, and in May 1804 he was made one of the first marshals of France.
The fate of nations is in God's hands; history is the revelation of His wisdom and power.
The pseudo-Tertullian in the short treatise Against all Heresies lets us know that the being whom the Most High God came down to seek was Wisdom.
For the narrative goes on to say that Simon took Helen about with him, saying that she had come down into the world from the highest heavens, and was mistress, inasmuch as she was the allmother being and wisdom.
of the Hebrew wisdom literature.
Outward trials are for our development through aid of divinely given "wisdom" (2-II).
The term "wisdom" in particular is used in the special and technical sense of the "wise men" of Hebrew literature (Matt.
34), the sense of "the wisdom of the just" of Luke i.
While the gospel is pre-eminently the divine gift of "wisdom," "wisdom" is not personified, but conceived primarily as a system of humanitarian ethics, i.
And yet for James as well as for Paul Christ is "the wisdom of 1 On the contacts in general see Moffat, Hist.
The difference in conception of the term is similar to that between Ecclesiasticus and the Wisdom of Solomon.
The strong sense of social wrongs, the impatience with tongue-religion, the utter ignoring of ceremonialism, the reflection on the value and significance of "life," are distinctive simply of the "wisdom" writers.
GANESA, or Ganesh, in Hindu mythology, the god of wisdom and prudence, always represented with an elephant's head possibly to indicate his sagacity.
He typifies not the wisdom of knowledge but that worldly wisdom which results in financial success, and thus he is particularly the god of the Hindu shopkeeper.
Even God Himself, Edwards here maintains, has no other liberty than this, to carry out without constraint His will, wisdom and inclination.
Not in his actual conclusions, though many of these point with surprising accuracy in the direction of truths established by later generations, but in the soundness, the wisdom, the tenacity of his methods lies his great title to glory.
4 LXos, fond of, and a001a, wisdom), a general term whose meaning and scope have varied very considerably according to the usage of different authors and different ages.
It is true that, as a matter of fact, the earliest uses of the word (the verb /xXoa04Eiv occurs in Herodotus and Thucydides) imply the idea of the pursuit of knowledge; but the distinction between the aogios, or wise man, and the 4nXoaoa50s, or lover of wisdom, appears first in the Platonic writings, and lends itself naturally to the so-called Socratic irony.
His earliest work, entitled Reloj de principes, published at Valladolid in 1529, and, according to its author, the fruit of eleven years' labour, is a didactic novel, designed, after the manner of Xenophon's Cyropaedia, to delineate, in a somewhat ideal way for the benefit of modern sovereigns, the life and character of an ancient prince, Marcus Aurelius, distinguished for wisdom and virtue.
Speculative wisdom and practical wisdom are to be distinguished.
It was written after 30 B.C., for it makes use of Sirach, the (Ethiopic) Book of Enoch and the Book of Wisdom.
There everybody was talking about King Cleobulus and his wonderful wisdom.
Strangers admired him for his wisdom.
In earlier life he had been a zealous student of Kant and Hegel, and to the end he never ceased to cultivate the philosophic spirit; but he had little confidence in metaphysical systems, and sought rather to translate philosophy into the wisdom of life.
That suggests pantheism, the usual form of such esoteric wisdom.
The mention of Christian theology may remind us that, for the majority of theists in medieval and modern times, theism proper has ranked only as a secondary wisdom.
This condition of mind can be obtained only by "living conformably to nature," that is to say, one's whole nature, and as a means to that man must cultivate the four chief virtues, each of which has its distinct sphere - wisdom, or the knowledge of good and evil; justice, or the giving to every man his due; fortitude, or the enduring of labour and pain; and temperance, or moderation in all things.
First among these may be mentioned Wisdom.
This conception of wisdom became still further hypostatized.
His moderation, good sense, wisdom, temper, firmness and erudition made him as successful in this position as he had been when professor of theology, and he speedily surrounded himself with a band of scholarly young men.
Paul's want of political wisdom, and his ignorance of human nature aroused antagonisms fatal.
David, the conqueror, was followed by his son Solomon, famous for his wealth, wisdom and piety, above all for the magnificent Temple which he built at Jerusalem.
In the south of the Sinaitic peninsula, remains have been found of an elaborate half-Egyptian, half-Semitic cultus (Petrie, Researches in Sinai, xiii.), and not only does Edom possess some reputation for " wisdom," but, where this district is concerned, the old Arabian religion (whose historical connexion with Palestine is still imperfectly known) claims some attention.
When Edom is renowned for wisdom and a small Judaean family boasts of sages whose names have south Palestinian affinity (1 Chron.
And the individuals, who acquired power or wisdom among those outside Palestine shed a reflected glory upon the nation and its Temple.
And as we were staying in Asia at the time, the man cast up at the same place and interviewed us and other scholars, making trial of their wisdom.
The wisdom of Jesus ben Sira (Sirach) is contained in the book commonly called Ecclesiasticus.
At a time when men were attracted by the wisdom and science of the Greeks, he taught that all wisdom came from Yahweh who had chosen Israel to receive it in trust.
This double identification enabled Cassiodorus to bring the favoured race into line with the peoples of classical antiquity, to interweave with their history stories about Hercules and the Amazons, to make them invade Egypt, to claim for them a share in the wisdom of the semi-mythical Scythian philosopher Zamolxis.
In December he held a parliament at Scone, where he displayed the same wisdom as a legislator which he had shown as a general.
In this condition man enters into likeness to God and blessedness; and it is reached through contemplative isolation and selfknowledge, which is divine wisdom.
All true wisdom is contained in the Scriptures, at least implicitly; and the true end of philosophy is to rise from the imperfect knowledge of created things to a knowledge of the Creator.
Thus in the Persian Wars, it deprived Athens of the wisdom of Xanthippus and Aristides, while at the battle of Tanagra and perhaps at the time of the Egyptian expedition the assistance of Cimon was lacking.
Many planters question the wisdom of deepbreaking and subsoiling.
Sandy soils are made thereby too dry and leachy, and it is a questionable proceeding to turn the heavy clays upon the top. Planters are, as a result, divided in opinion as to the wisdom of subsoiling.
The divine wisdom and goodness are revealed in the course of nature, but also obscured by it.
Much of the wisdom of Maecenas probably lives in the Satires and Epistles of Horace.
The form may have been suggested by that of the Hebrew word for" wisdom."Koheleth, however, is employed in the book not as a title of wisdom (for" wisdom "is never the speaker), but as the independent name of the sage.
success does not attend wisdom, knowledge and skill; men are like fish taken in a net or birds caught in a snare.
Obviously the purpose of the paragraph is to point out the wisdom of enjoying life in the time of youth while the physical powers are fresh and strong, and the impotency of old age has not yet crept in.
Wisdom is praised in a number of passages (iv.
It may be said that the author, while denying that wisdom (practical sagacity and level-headedness) can give permanent satisfaction, yet admits its practical value in the conduct of life.
This may be so; but it would be strange if a writer who could say," in much wisdom is much grief,"should deliberately laud wisdom.
Other of the Biblical Wisdom books (Job, Proverbs) are compilations - why not this ?
The Solomonic authorship has long since been given up: the historical setting of the work and its atmosphere - the silent assumption of monotheism and monogamy, the nonnational tone, the attitude towards kings and people, the picture of a complicated social life, the strain of philosophic reflection - are wholly at variance with what is known of the 10th century B.C. and with the Hebrew literature down to the 5th or 4th century B.C. The introduction of Solomon, the ideal of wisdom, is a literary device of the later time, and probably deceived nobody.
Possibly the Wisdom of Solomon (c. 50 B.C.) was written partly as a reply to it.
William of Newburgh appears to express the verdict of the most impartial contemporaries when he says that the bishop was zelo justitiae fervidus, utrum autem please secundum scientism novit Deus: " burning with zeal for justice, but whether altogether according to wisdom God knows."
Gibeon was the seat of an old Canaanitish sanctuary afterwards used by the Israelites; it was here that Solomon, immediately after his coronation, went to consult the oracles and had the dream in which he chose the gift of wisdom (1 Kings iii.).
After Christ has appeared from heaven in the guise of a warrior, and vanquished the antichristian world-power, the wisdom of the world and the devil, those who have remained steadfast in the time of the last catastrophe, and have given up their lives for their faith, shall be raised up, and shall reign with Christ on this earth as a royal priesthood for one thousand years.
The offices known to the Quaker body are: (1) that of minister (the term " office " is not strictly applicable, see above as to " recording "); (2) of elder, whose duty it is " to encourage and help young ministers, and advise others as they, in the wisdom of God, see occasion "; (3) of overseer, to whom is especially entrusted that duty of Christian care for and interest in one another which Quakers recognize as obligatory in all the members of a church.
The Stoic regarded the condition of freedom or slavery as an external accident, indifferent in the eye of wisdom; to him it was irrational to see in liberty a ground of pride or in slavery a subject of complaint; from intolerable indignity suicide was an ever-open means of escape.
In London society, and in Paris during his occasional visits, he was a recognized favourite for his genial wisdom and his great conversational power.
He held that philosophy consists in the study of truth and wisdom, and that God alone is truth and wisdom, - so that philosophy is but religion, and true religion is genuine philosophy.
The age of the Son is the period of study and wisdom, the period of striving towards mystic knowledge.
Zoroaster was already famous in classical antiquity as the founder of the widely renowned wisdom of the Magi.
Dio Chrysostom, Plutarch's contemporary, declares that neither Homer nor Hesiod sang of the chariot and horses of Zeus so worthily as Zoroaster, of whom the Persians tell that, out of love to wisdom and righteousness, he withdrew himself from men, and lived in solitude upon a mountain.
wisdom and justice), and those which have no such basis (e.g.
The ten Sephiroth, which form among themselves and with the 'En Soph a strict unity, and which simply represent different aspects of one and the same being, are respectively denominated (i) the Crown, (2) Wisdom, (3) Intelligence, (4) Love, (5) Justice, (6) Beauty, (7)iFirmness, (8) Splendour, (9) Foundation, and (io) Kingdom.
Hence Wisdom, the second Sephirah, and the beginning of development, when it proceeded from the Holy Aged (another name of the first Sephirah) emanated in male and female, for Wisdom expanded, and Intelligence, the third Sephirah, proceeded from it, and thus were obtained male and female, viz.
Wisdom the father and Intelligence the mother, from whose union the other 1 C. Taylor, Sayings of the Jewish Fathers (1897), pp. 106 sqq., 175 seq.; W.
the masculine Wisdom or Sephirah No.
Hence the Crown, the first Sephirah, which unites Wisdom and Intelligence to constitute the first triad, is by itself denominated the Intellectual World.
The Pythagorean theory of numbers, Neoplatonic ideas of emanation, the Logos, the personified Wisdom, Gnosticism - these and many other features combine to show the antiquity of tendencies which, clad in other shapes, are already found in the old pre-Christian Oriental religions.
BOOK OF WISDOM, or Wisdom Of Solomon (Sept.
Liber sapientiae), an apocryphal book of the "Wisdom Literature" (q.v.), the most brilliant production of pre-Christian Hebrew philosophical thought, remarkable both for the elevation of its ideas and for the splendour of its diction.
It divides itself naturally, by its contents, into two parts, in one of which the theme is righteousness and wisdom, in the other the early fortunes of the Israelite people considered as a righteous nation beloved by God.
Solomon reminds kings and rulers that they will be held to strict account by God, and, urging them to learn wisdom from his words, proceeds to give his own experience: devoting himself from his youth to the pursuit of wisdom he had found her to be a treasure that never failed, the source and embodiment of all that is most excellent and beautiful in the world - through her he looks to obtain influence over men and immortality, and he concludes with a prayer that God would send her out of his holy heavens to be his companion and guide.
The second part of the book (x.-xix.) connects itself formally with the first by a summary description of the role of wisdom in the early times: she directed and preserved the fathers from Adam to Moses (x.
From this point, however, nothing is said of wisdom - the rest of the book is a philosophical and imaginative narrative of Israelite affairs from the Egyptian oppression to the.
On the other hand, it must be admitted that the points of view in the two parts are very different: the philosophical conception of wisdom and the general Greek colouring, so prominent in the first part, are quite lacking in the second (x.
4 the writer, in his polemic against the prosperous ungodly men of his time, denies that death, short life and lack of children are to be considered misfortunes for the righteous - over against these things the possession of wisdom is declared to be the supreme good.
As to the date, the decided Greek colouring (the conception of wisdom, the list of Stoic virtues, viii.
Wisdom Literature >>
WISDOM LITERATURE, the name applied to the body of Old Testament and Apocryphal writings that contain the philosophical thought of the later pre-Christian Judaism.
For the Greeks "love of wisdom" involved inquiry into the basis and origin of things; the Hebrew "wisdom" was the capacity so to order life as to get out of it the greatest possible good.
The external law given, as was believed, by the God of Israel, was held to be the sufficient guide of life, and everything that looked like reliance on human wisdom was regarded as disloyalty to the Divine Lawgiver.
The class of sages to whom we owe the Wisdom Books did not arise till a change had come over the national fortunes and life.
Scholars were held in honour in those days by princes and people, and Ben-Sira frankly adduces this fact as one of the great advantages of the pursuit of wisdom.
and it is chiefly with city life that Jewish wisdom deals.
The extant writings of the Jewish sages are contained in the books of Job, Proverbs, Psalms, Ben-Sira, Tobit, Ecclesiastes, Wisdom of Solomon, 4th Maccabees, to which may be added the first chapter of Pirke Aboth (a Talmudic tract giving, probably, pre-Christian material).
6-8 (5-7), Eccles., Wisdom, are discussions of the moral government of the world; Prov., Pss.
Their monotheism remains Semitic - even in their conception of the cosmogonic and illuminating function of Wisdom they regard God as standing outside the world of physical nature and man, and do not grasp or accept the idea of the identity of the human and the divine; there is thus a sharp distinction between their general theistic position and that of Greek philosophy.
They differ from the older writers in practically ignoring the physical supernatural - that is, though they regard the miracles of the ancient times (referred to particularly in Wisdom xvi.-xix.) as historical facts, they say nothing of a miraculous element in the life of their own time.
Except in Wisdom ii.
I); as the earliest of the Wisdom books, it is the friendliest to supernatural machinery.
Like the prophetical writings before Ezekiel, the Wisdom books, while they recognize the sacrificial ritual as an existing custom, attach little importance to it as an element of religious life (the fullest mention of it is in Ecclus.
10-15), and a final judgment only in Wisdom of Solomon, where it is not of nations but of individuals.
There was nothing in their general position to make them in- 'hospitable to ethical conceptions of the future life, as is shown by the fact that so soon as the Egyptian-Greek idea of immortality made itself felt in Jewish circles it was adopted by the author of the Wisdom of Solomon; but prior to the 1st century B.C. it does not appear in the Wisdom literature, and the nationalistic dogma of resurrection is not mentioned in it at all.
Wisdom is represented as the result of human reflection, and thus as the guide in all the affairs of life.
The personification of wisdom reaches almost the verge of hypostasis: in Job xxviii.
the nationalistic conception is set forth: wisdom, created in the beginning, compasses heaven and earth seeking rest and finds at last its dwelling-place in Jerusalem (and so substantially 4th Maccabees); the height of 'sublimity is reached in Wisd.
vii., where wisdom, the brightness of the everlasting light, is the source of all that is noblest in human life.
In all the Wisdom books virtue is conceived of as conterminous with knowledge.
Salvation is attained not by believing but by the perception of what is right; wisdom is resident in the soul and identical with the thought of man.
He believed them to contain the revelation of God's wisdom to men.
He quotes all the books of the Old Testament except Ruth and the Song of Solomon, and amongst the sacred writings of the Old Testament he evidently included the book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus.
Clement varies in his statement how Plato got his wisdom or his fragments of the Reason.
Sometimes he thinks that they came direct from God, like all good things, but he is also fond of maintaining that many of Plato's best thoughts were borrowed from the Hebrew prophets; and he makes the same statement in regard to the wisdom of the other philosophers.
He believed in a personal Son of God who was the Reason and Wisdom of God; and he believed that this Son of God really became incarnate though he speaks of him almost invariably as the Word, and attaches little value to his human nature.
The object of his incarnation and death was to free man from his sins, to lead him into the path of wisdom, and thus in the end elevate him to the position of a god.
But many hold that his letters and essays are finer contributions to pure literature, and that on these exquisite mixtures of wisdom, pathos, melody and humour his fame is likely to be ultimately based.
By the 12th century, mitre and gloves were worn by all bishops, and in many cases they had assumed a new ornament, the rationale, a merely honorific decoration (supposed to symbolize doctrine and wisdom), sometimes of the nature of a highly ornamental broad shoulder collar with dependent lappets; sometimes closely resembling the pallium; rarely a "breast-plate" on the model of that of the Jewish high priest.'
His part in the later phases of the Russo-Turkish struggle has never been fully explained, for with equal wisdom and generosity he declined to gratify public curiosity at the cost of some of his colleagues.
In forty days they wrote ninety-four books: and it came to pass when the forty days were fulfilled that the Highest spake, saying: the first that thou hast written publish openly that the worthy and unworthy may read it; but keep the seventy last that thou mayst deliver them only to such as be wise among the people; for in them is the spring of understanding, the fountain of wisdom and the stream of knowledge."
3 on Wisdom vii.
21 on Wisdom xv.
I, 4 on Wisdom ix.
The Apocrypha Proper, or the apocrypha of the Old Testament as used by English-speaking Protestants, consists of the following books: 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Epistle of Jeremy, Additions to Daniel (Song of the Three Holy Children, History of Susannah, and Bel and the Dragon), Prayer of Manasses, i Maccabees, 2 Maccabees.
The ceremony was probably commemorative of the banquet of Mithras and Helios before the former's ascension, and its effect strength of body, wisdom, prosperity, power to resist evil, and participation in the immortality enjoyed by the god himself.
The impressiveness and the stimulating power of the mystic ceremonies, the consciousness of being the privileged possessor of the secret wisdom of the ancients, the sense of purification from sin, and the expectation of a better life where there was to be compensation for the sufferings of this world - were all strong appeals to human nature.
But now bolder spirits arose who did not shrink from applying the distinctions of their human wisdom to the mysteries of theology.
It argued no ordinary foresight thus to recognize that Hungary's strategy in her contest with the Turks must be strictly defensive, and the wisdom of Sigismund was justified by the disasters which almost invariably overcame the later Magyar kings whenever they ventured upon aggressive warfare with the sultans.
found the country on the verge of revolution; but the wisdom of the new monarch saved the situation and won back the Magyars.
cordially disliked him, and would gladly have got rid of him if he had not been able to convince the king of the wisdom of everything he did.
The decisions of a Gregory or a Leo the Great, of a Gelasius or an Innocent, prelates of holy life and unequalled wisdom, are accepted by the universal church; for, coming from such men, they cannot but be good.
The wisdom of the step taken by Shep- British stone has been called in question.
I, 1-2), to the Septuagint version of the book (produced between 260 and 130 B.C.), in which the disputed prophecies are already found, and to the Greek translation of the Wisdom of Jesus, the son of Sirach, which distinctly refers to Isaiah as the comforter of those that mourned in Zion (Eccles.
His death was an overwhelming grief to Chesterfield, and the discovery that he had long been married to a lady of humble origin must have been galling in the extreme to his father after his careful instruction in worldly wisdom.
The Letters are brilliantly written - full of elegant wisdom, of keen wit, of admirable portrait-painting, of exquisite observation and deduction.
As a ruler of the Church he showed wisdom and courage, and disregarded any effort to influence his policy by clamour.
They declare that moral righteousness, the gaining of wisdom, divine contemplation, charity and the cultivation of devotional feelings are their rites and ceremonies.
In his anatomical studies Galen had a twofold object - a philosophical, to show the wisdom of the Creator in making everything fit to serve its purpose; and a practical, to aid the diagnosis, or recognition, of disease.
Stephen became by the shifting fortune of war a prisoner, and the empress Matilda might, if she had had the wisdom to favour the citizens, have held the throne, which was hers by right of birth.
ii., 1839-1840): - "We find in his method the wisdom and circumspection of the Scottish school, with something more masculine and decisive in the results.
Eridu, on the other hand, was the home of the culture-god Ea, the god of light and beneficence, who employed his divine wisdom in healing the sick and restoring the dead to life.
The moon-god Sin is written by a sign which has the force of " thirty," and is a distinct reference to the monthly course of the planet; or the name is written by two signs to be pronounced EN-ZU, which describe the god as the " lord of wisdom."
It concludes with an imaginary vision of a beautiful world of spirits who have stripped off the fetters of earthly cares and sorrows and revel in the pure light of divine wisdom and love.
A similar series of excellent teachings on practical wisdom and the blessings of a virtuous life, only of a severer and more uncompromising character, is contained in the Sa`adatnama; and, judging from the extreme bitterness of tone manifested in the "reproaches of kings and emirs," we should be inclined to consider it a protest against the vile aspersions poured out upon Nasir's moral and religious attitude during those persecutions which drove him at last to Yumgan.
He may have captivated his hearers by teaching "wisdom," as P. W.
Wisdom Tree, under which the Buddha had attained wisdom) to Ceylon in the 3rd century s.c. The Bodhi Vamsa quotes verses from the Mahavamsa, but draws a great deal of its material from other sources; and it has occasionally preserved details of the older tradition not found in any other sources known to us.
11); and that not only by theoretic insight, but also by practical wisdom of life.
And, although Pisa had hitherto been able to oppose a glorious resistance to Genoa and Lucca, it was not so easy to continue the struggle when its enemies were backed by the arms and political wisdom of the Florentines, who were skilled in obtaining powerful allies.
Wisdom, 2 and 3 Maccabees), as in the New Testament, Kupcos takes the place of the name of God.
The fourth book, De Vera Sapientia et Religione, insists upon the inseparable union of true wisdom and true religion, and maintains that this union is made real in the person of Christ.
The event showed that while their defeat in 1868 had taught them despondency, it had not taught them wisdom; it was still in their power to make a gallant fight by nominating a person for whom Republican reformers could vote.
Without holding any official post in the commonwealth he had created, the prior of St Mark's was the real head of the state, the dictator of Florence, and guarded the public weal "Dictator with extraordinary political wisdom.
From those early days when a fond mother wrote of him as having been " truly converted to God," down to the verge of ninety years, he lived in the habitual contemplation of the unseen world, and regulated his private and public action by reference to a code higher than that of mere prudence or worldly wisdom.
The immediate source of this version is the poem of Wolfram von Eschenbach, though the Grail, of course, is represented in the form of the Christian relic, not as the jewel talisman of the Parzival; but the psychological reading of the hero's character, the distinctive note of von Eschenbach's version, has been adapted by Wagner with marvellous skill, and his picture of the hero's mental and spiritual development, from extreme simplicity to the wisdom born of perfect charity, is most striking and impressive.
Ito and Okuma, then influential members of the government, at once recognized the wisdom of his advice.
The wisdom of Johnston's plan was soon abundantly clear, and the Confederate cause was already lost when Lee reinstated him on the 23rd of February 1865.
His theological writings roughly fall into four groups: (1) books of spiritual philosophy, including The Divine Love and Wisdom, The Divine Providence, The Intercourse between the Soul and the Body, Conjugial Love; (2) Expository, including Arcana Celestia (giving the spiritual sense of Genesis and Exodus), The Apocalypse Revealed, The Apocalypse Explained; (3) Doctrinal, including The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrines, The Four Chief Doctrines, The Doctrine of Charity, The True Christian Religion, Canons of the New Church; (4) Eschatological, including Heaven and Hell, and The Last Judgment.
Swedenborg's theosophic system is most briefly and comprehensively presented in his Divine Love and Wisdom.
His esse is infinite love; His manifestation, form or body is infinite wisdom.
They are love, wisdom, use; or end, cause and effect.
In man are two receptacles for God - the will for divine love and the understanding for divine wisdom - that love and wisdom flowing into both so that they become human.
Besides the condemnation of divine justice, they must expect the heavy penalties which our authority, guided by heavenly wisdom, shall think proper to inflict" (Schaff's Nicene and Post-Nicene Christianity, i.
Its three roots go down into the three great realms - (I) of death, where, in the well Hvergelmer, the dragon Nidhug (Niandggr) and his brood are ever gnawing it; (2) of the giants, where, in the fountain of Mimer, is the source of wisdom; (3) of the gods, Asgard, where, at the sacred fountain of Urd, is the divine tribunal, and the dwelling of the Fates.
His wisdom is shown by the prudent measures which he took by enacting the Nizam-ijedid, or new regulations for the improvement of the condition of the Christian rayas, and for affording them security for life and property; a conciliatory attitude which at once bore fruit in Greece, where the people abandoned the Venetian cause and returned to their allegiance to the Porte.
distinguished for his wisdom and justice, and in 1430 he promulgated a general statute of laws for the whole duchy, in spite of the opposition of the nobles and cities whose privileges were thereby curtailed.
32, 7 seq.) looks back to it as the safe guardian of the deposit " of the faith " against all the depredations of heresy which " when the sacred college of apostles had suffered death in various forms, and the generation of those that had been deemed worthy to hear the inspired wisdom with their own ears had passed away ...
30) and by the Muratorianum (c. 200), which excepts Jude and 2 and 3 John from its condemnation of apocryphal literature, placing it on a par with the Wisdom of Solomon " which was written by friends of his in his honour."
While forming and promoting his scheme, he was actuated by principles of political wisdom and by the purest patriotism.
The trend of his letters was to impress on the boy a profound sense of the high destinies to which he was born, the necessity for keeping his nobles apart from all share in the conduct of the internal government of his kingdom, and the wisdom of distrusting counsellors, who would be sure to wish to influence him for their own ends.
As for John of Gaunt himself, it can hardly be said that this sort of politic wisdom is very conspicuous in him.
OANNES, in Babylonian mythology, the name given by Berossus to a mythical being who taught mankind wisdom.
Among the moral virtues which take the place of the beasts are Truth, Prudence, Wisdom, Law and Universal Judgment, and in the explanation of what these mean Bruno unfolds the inner essence of his system.
" And conceiving God to be the fountain of wisdom," he " thought it right and necessary to solicit His assistance for obtaining it," and drew up the following prayer for daily use: " O powerful Goodness!
merciful Guide Increase in me that wisdom which discovers my truest interest.
Strengthen my resolution to perform what that wisdom dictates.
Instructed in the Greek language by his mother, he prevailed upon the king to entrust him with an embassy to Athens about 589 B.C. He became acquainted with Solon, from whom he rapidly acquired a knowledge of the wisdom and learning of Greece, and by whose influence he was introduced to the principal persons in Athens.
The great monument of his episcopate is the eleven famous charges in which he from time to time reviewed the position of the English Church with reference to whatever might be the most pressing question of the day - addresses at once judicial and statesmanlike, full of charitable wisdom and massive sense.
Events proved the wisdom of his choice.
This was the work of the remainder of Trench's life; it exposed him at times to considerable misconstruction and obloquy, but he came to be appreciated, and, when in November 1884 he resigned his archbishopric from infirmity, clergy and laity unanimously recorded their sense of his "wisdom, learning, diligence, and munificence."
The most remarkable chapters, in which St Benedict's wisdom stands out most conspicuously, are those on the abbot (2, 3, 2 7, 64) The abbot is to govern the monastery with full and unquestioned patriarchal authority; on important matters he must consult the whole community and hear what each one, even the youngest, thinks; on matters of less weight he should consult a few of the elder monks; but in either case the decision rests entirely with him, and all are to acquiesce.
Jesus was born in adultery The and nurtured on the wisdom of Egypt.
Hatred of God is the beginning of wisdom.
The event proved his wisdom.
The limitations of the compiler's interest in past times appear in the omission, among other particulars, of David's reign in Hebron, of the disorders in family and the revolt of Absalom, of the circumstances of Solomon's accession, and of many details as to the wisdom and splendour of that sovereign, as well as of his fall into idolatry.
For as yet he had not snatched the perilous boon of wisdom.
8 The words "life" and "knowledge" (= "wisdom") are practically equivalent; perfect knowledge 1 The English Bible gives "the Lord God."
25) and "drew wisdom to himself" by "hearkening in the council of Elohim."
Adamu or Adapa, we are told, received from his divine father the gift of wisdom,' but not that of everlasting life.
The wisdom was probably to qualify him as a ruler.
Elsewhere eating the fruit of the "tree of wisdom" is given as the cause of the expulsion of the human pair.
In the Wisdom of Solomon (x.
Here, as in Ezekiel, the first man is pre-eminently wise and strong; though he transgressed, wisdom rescued him, i.e.
The magnificehce and wisdom of Solomon (cf.
Every emphasis is laid on the wisdom of Solomon and his wealth.
Confessing his inexperience, the king prayed for a discerning heart, and was rewarded with the gift of wisdom together with riches and military glory.
His wisdom excelled that of Egypt and of the children of the East; by the latter may be meant Babylonia, or more probably the Arabs, renowned through all ages for their shrewdness.
As his fame spread abroad, people came to hear his wisdom, and costly presents were showered upon him.
2 His wealth was in proportion to his wisdom.
In the Book of Wisdom, again, the composition of an Egyptian Hellenist, who from internal evidence is judged to have lived somewhat earlier than Philo, Solomon is introduced uttering words of admonition, imbued with the spirit of Greek philosophers, to heathen sovereigns.
It was regarded by the followers of Quesnay as entitled to a place amongst the foremost products of human wisdom, and is named by the elder Mirabeau, in a passage quoted by Adam Smith, as one of the three great inventions which have contributed most to the stability of political societies, the other two being those of writing and of money.
The special god of this city was Ea, god of the sea and of wisdom, and the prominence given to this god in the incantation literature of Babylonia and Assyria suggests not only that many of our magical texts are to be traced ultimately to the temple of Ea at Eridu, but that this side of the Babylonian religion had its origin in that place.
In all these stories his character is distinguished rather by wisdom and cunning than by martial prowess, and reference is very frequently made to his skill in poetry and magic. In Ynglinga Saga he is represented as reigning in Sweden, where he established laws for his people.
The like holds of Polycarp, who, in explaining that he writes to exhort the Philippians only at their own request, adds, "for neither am I, nor is any other like me, able to follow the wisdom of the blessed and glorious Paul" (iii.
He was distinguished for his strength and his handsome person, for the wisdom of his sayings, the acuteness of his riddles and the beauty of his lyric poetry.
For further details as to the development of the priestly caste and wisdom in India the reader must refer to Brahminism; here it is enough to observe that among a religious people a priesthood which forms a close and still more an hereditary corporation, and the assistance of which is indispensable in all religious acts, must rise to practical supremacy in society except under the strongest form of despotism, where the sovereign is head of the Church as well as of the state.
If such a one says ` I am an Athravan ' he lies, call him not Athravan, noble Zarathustra, said Ahura Mazda, but thou shouldst call him priest, noble Zarathustra, who sits awake the whole night through and yearns for holy wisdom that enables man to stand on death's bridge fearless and with happy heart, the wisdom whereby he attains the holy and glorious world of paradise."
The wisdom of this arrangement was made manifest in 1410, when Jagiello and Witowt combined their forces for the purpose of delivering Samogitia from the intolerable tyranny of the Knights.
Dante places him with his pupil Aquinas among the great lovers of wisdom (Spiriti Sapienti) in the Heaven of the Sun.
His writings are marked by vigour and vitality of style, as well as by the highest qualities of the historian who recreates the past from the original sources; he had no sympathy with either legal or historical pedantry; and his death at Grand Canary on the, 9th of December 1906 deprived English law and letters of one of their most scholarly and most inspiring representatives, notable alike for sweetness of character, acuteness in criticism, and wisdom in counsel.
The introduction, or " Praise of Wisdom," as it has been called (chs.
- ix), commending the maxims of Wisdom as a guide to the young, will have been added after most of the rest of the book was already complete.
Proverbs, and the Wisdom of Solomon), in the treatment of the stories of Esther and Daniel (the history of Susanna), and also in the twofold recensions Ezra and i Esdras.
Note also the allusion to the wisdom of Moses in Acts vii.
4 (" the spiritual rock that followed them ") a familiar Jewish Haggada which, however, he reinterprets, even as, when he identifies the " rock " with Christ, he diverges from the Alexandrian Philo who had identified it with Wisdom or the Word of God.
But he was eminently a safe man, not an original thinker, but a counsellor of unrivalled wisdom.
In this as in all other matters of transcendental truth "wisdom is justified of her children"; the conclusive vindication of the prophets as true messengers of God is that their work forms an integral part in the progress of spiritual religion, and there are many things in their teaching the profundity and importance of which are much clearer to us than they could possibly have been to their contemporaries, because they are mere flashes of spiritual insight lighting up for a moment some corner of a region on which the steady sun of the gospel had not yet risen.
A new world was discovered, for the sake of which everything else was abandoned; to make sure of that world insight and intelligence were freely sacrificed; and, in the light that streamed from beyond, the absurdities of the present became wisdom, and its wisdom became foolishness.
He pushes the claim even further, requiring, besides entire outward submission to command, also the complete identification of the place of God, without reference to his personal wisdom, piety or discretion; that any obedience which falls short of making the superior's will one's own, in inward affection as well as in outward effect, is lax aect; that going beyond the letter of command, even in things abstractly good and praiseworthy, is disobedience, and that the "sacrifice of the intellect" is the third and highest grade of obedience, well pleasing to God, when the inferior not only wills what the superior wills, but thinks what he thinks, submitting his judgment, so far as it is possible for the will to influence and lead the judgment.
All alike boast a mystic revelation and a deeply-veiled wisdom.
But we must not allow such a theory to blind us to the true wisdom with which the writer defers his censure.
By monarchians of the former class Christ was held to be a mere man, miraculously conceived indeed, but constituted the Son of God simply by the infinitely high degree in which he had been filled with Divine wisdom and power.
Light presents itself to us as the good primal spirit (God, radiant with the ten [twelve] virtues of love, faith, fidelity, high-mindedness, wisdom, meekness, knowledge, understanding, mystery and insight), and then further as the heavens of light and the earth of light, with their guardians the glorious aeons.
He regarded Homer as the source of all wisdom and knowledge indeed, his description of Greece is largely drawn from Apollodorus's commentary on the Homeric " Catalogue of Ships " - and treated Herodotus with undeserved contempt.
In 1887, upon the resignation of Blake on the ground of illhealth, Laurier became leader of the Liberal party, although he and many of the more influential men in the party doubted the wisdom of the proceeding.
Like Plato, he believed in real Universals, real essences, real causes; he believed in the unity of the universal, and in the immateriality of essences; he believed in the good, and that there is a good of the universe; he believed that God is a living being, eternal and best, who is a supernatural cause of the motions and changes of the natural world, and that essences and matter are also necessary causes; he believed in the divine intelligence and in the immortality of our intelligent souls; he believed in knowledge going from sense to reason, that science requires ascent to principles and is descent from principles, and that dialectic is useful to science; he believed in happiness involving virtue, and in moral virtue being a control of passions by reason, while the highest happiness is speculative wisdom.
Primary Philosophy Or Theology Or Wisdom ra /aT(b Ta ?vrtKO: Metaphysica: On being as being and its properties, its causes and principles, and on God as the motive motor of the world.
As the rational is either deliberative or scientific, either practical or speculative intellect, there are two virtues of the intellect - prudence of the deliberative or practical, and wisdom of the scientific or speculative, intellect.
The right reason by which moral virtue is determined is prudence, which is determined in its turn by wisdom.
6-fin.) to the famous theory that the highest happiness is the speculative life of intellect or wisdom as divine, but that happiness as human also includes the practical life of combining prudence and moral virtue; and that, while both lives need external goods as necessaries, the practical life also requires them as instruments of moral action.
After this, it can never be said that the earlier books of the Eudemian Ethics are so good a preparation as those of the Nicomachean Ethics for the distinction between prudence (Opov j ats) and wisdom (a001a), which is the main point of the common books, and one of Aristotle's main points against Plato's philosophy.
But gentlemanliness is no longer called perfect virtue, as in the Eudemian Ethics: its place has been taken by justice, which is perfect virtue to one's neighbour, by prudence which unites all the moral virtues, and by wisdom which is the highest virtue.
But it falls into the confusion of first saying that praise is for moral virtues, and not for virtues of the reason, whether prudence or wisdom (M.M.
3, 1184 b 5-6); but does not make so much of it as the distinction between prudence and wisdom blurred in the Eudemian but defined in the Nicomachean Ethics.
In the Nicomachean as in the Eudemian Ethics the limit above moral virtue is right reason, or prudence, which is right reason on such matters; and above prudence wisdom, for which prudence gives its orders; while wisdom is the intelligence and science of the most venerable objects, of the most divine, and of God.
While the Eudemian Ethics in a more theological vein emphasizes God, the object of wisdom as the end for which prudence gives its orders, the Nicomachean Ethics in a more humanizing spirit emphasizes wisdom itself, the speculative activity, as that end, and afterwards as the highest happiness, because activity of the divine power of intellect, because an imitation of the activity of God, because most dear to God.
This is too fine a distinction to found a difference of authorship. Beneath it, and behind the curious hesitation which in dealing with mysteries Aristotle shows between the divine and the human, his three moral treatises agree that wisdom is a science of things divine, which the Nicomachean Ethics (vi.
Aristotle then wrote three moral treatises, which agree in the fundamental doctrines that happiness requires external fortune, but is activity of soul according to virtue, rising from morality through prudence to wisdom, or that science of the divine which constitutes the theology of his Metaphysics.
Primary Philosophy, Theology, also called Wisdom, about things as things.
He means that a sophist like Protagoras will teach superficially anything as wisdom for money; and that even a dialectician like Plato will write a dialogue, such as the Republic, nominally about justice, but really about all things from the generality of the form of good, instead of from appropriate moral principles; but that a primary philosopher selects as a definite subject all things as such without interfering with the special sciences of different things each in its kind (Met.
But in Ethics a man's individual good is his own happiness; and his happiness is no mere state, but an activity of soul according to virtue in a mature life, requiring as conditions moderate bodily and external goods of fortune; his virtue is (I) moral virtue, which is acquired by habituation, and is a purposive habit of performing actions in the mean determined by right reason or prudence; requiring him, not to exclude, but to moderate his desires; and (2) intellectual virtue, which is either prudence of practical, or wisdom of speculative intellect; and his happiness is a kind of ascending scale of virtuous activities, in which moral virtue is limited by prudence, and prudence by wisdom; so that the speculative life of wisdom is the happiest and most divine, and the practical life of prudence and moral virtue secondary and human.
Cardwell in his edition of the Nicomachean Ethics (1828) had the wisdom to found his text on the Laurentian Manuscript (Kb); E.
He shall divide them by tribes in the land, and no stranger and foreigner shall dwell with them; he shall judge the nations in wisdom and righteousness.
He settled the affair in his usual downright manner, telling the commissioners bluntly that they must take back their legitimate king, and refusing - perhaps with more questionable wisdom - to allow the retention of the tricolour flag,which to him was a "symbol of rebellion."
- Until quite recently it had been a distinctive mark of practical wisdom to treat private efforts for the improvement of international relations for the preservation of peace, with the patronizing tolerance courteous people of the world extend to half-crazy idealists.
Some years previously he had expressed his conviction that "one of the chief needs of the age was to make inroad after the alien, to bring in the votaries of fashion, of literature, of sentiment, of policy and of rank, who are content in their several idolatries to do without piety to God and love to Him whom He hath sent"; and, with an abruptness which must have produced on him at first an effect almost astounding, he now had the satisfaction of beholding these various votaries thronging to hear from his lips the words of wisdom which would deliver them from their several idolatries and remodel their lives according to the fashion of apostolic times.
Bridgett (Wisdom and Wit of Blessed Thomas More, London, 1891).
There was much jealousy of Dr Bunting, the master mind of Methodism, to whose foresight and wisdom large part of its success was due.
that, although all feared his strictness, all venerated his learning and wisdom.
The goal to be aimed at is the bringing about of a second age of wisdom, in which mankind shall have recovered all its early knowledge.
The government at home, though they demurred somewhat to the course that had been pursued, saw the wisdom of cultivating intercourse with this powerful African kingdom.
There are also preserved the bronze statues which stood over the portal of the palace before the fire - figures of Strength, Wisdom, Health and Justice, designed by Thorvaldsen.
His measures were marked by much wisdom and vigour, and for a short time succeeded in securing order, even in the face of the jealousy and opposition of the nobles.
The little we know of his statesmanship during the short period he was in power gives proof of political wisdom.
His discussion of the Trinity has some points of speculative interest, but it is not sufficiently worked out; he regards the Son as the Reason or Wisdom of the Father, and the Spirit as a divine effluence.
The archons at the end of their year of office (some say on entering upon office) became members of the Areopagus, which was, therefore, a body composed of ex-archons of tried probity and wisdom.
The extreme democratic and socialistic party made with French aid some spasmodic efforts to stir up a revolutionary movement, but they met with no popular sympathy; the throne of Leopold stood firmly based upon the trust and respect of the Belgian nation for the wisdom and moderation of their king.
for the wisdom and prudence shown by him during his long rein.
This is one rule of wisdom with regard to religion; and another equally important is to avoid superstition, which he boldly defines as the belief that God is like a hard judge who, eager to find fault, narrowly examines our slightest act, that He is revengeful and hard to appease, and that therefore He must be flattered and importuned, and won over by pain and sacrifice.
The specialized use of the word as implying not only age, but consequently wisdom and authority, is analogous to that of "senate" (from senior), of "gerousia" (from yEpcov), and of "elder."
In 1663 he published a characteristic sermon on "The Wisdom of being Religious," and in 1666 replied to John Sergeant's Sure Footing in Christianity by a pamphlet on the "Rule of Faith."
ECCLESIASTICUS (abbreviated to Ecclus.), the alternative title given in the English Bible to the apocryphal book otherwise called "The Wisdom of Jesus the son of Sirach."
The Latin word ecclesiasticus is, properly speaking, not a name, but an epithet meaning "churchly," so that it would serve as a designation of any book which was read in church or received ecclesiastical sanction, but in practice Ecclesiasticus has become a by-name for the Wisdom of Sirach.
text), the Book (Talmud), the Proverbs (Jerome), or the Wisdom of the son of Sira (or Sirach).
390-400) writes :"Let the Church read these two volumes (Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus) for the instruction of the people, not for establishing the authority of the dogmas of the Church" (Praefatio in libros Salomonis).
B, Ecclesiasticus comes between Wisdom and Esther, no distinction being drawn between canonical and uncanonical.
1-22 (the song of wisdom); xlii.
He does not believe in home-spun wisdom; "How shall he become wise that holdeth the plough ?"
He further tells us that in the ninth year of his reign he formally joined the Buddhist community as a layman, in the eleventh year he became a member of the order, and in the thirteenth he "set out for the Great Wisdom" (the Sambodhi), which is the Buddhist technical term for entering upon the well-known, eightfold path to Nirvana.
But while the wisdom of one age thus succeeded in restricting within bounds the tidal water of the river, it was left to the greater wisdom of a succeeding age to improve upon' this arrangement by admitting these muddy waters to lay a fresh coat of rich silt on the exhausted soils.
He had recently governed Ireland, at a momentous conjuncture, with eminent firmness, wisdom and humanity; and he had since become secretary of state.
Bismarck confesses that his doubts as to the wisdom of this legislation were raised by the picture of heavy but honest gens darmes pursuing light-footed priests from house to house.
He gave a code of municipal law to Vienna, and rights to other towns, welcomed the Minnesingers to his brilliant court, and left to his subjects an enduring memory of valour and wisdom.
It was left for his brother Ferdinand, a ruler of consummate wisdom (1556-1564) " to establish the modern Habsburg-Austrian empire with its exclusive territorial interests, its administrative experiments, its intricacies of religion and of race."
But Ray's influence and reputation have depended largely upon his two books entitled The Wisdom of God manifested in the Works of the Creation (1691), and Miscellaneous Discourses concerning the Dissolution and Changes of the World (1692).
In The Wisdom of God, &c., Ray recites innumerable examples of the perfection of organic mechanism, the multitude and variety of living creatures, the minuteness and usefulness of their parts, and many, if not most, of the familiar examples of purposive adaptation and design in nature were suggested by him, such as the structure of the eye, the hollowness of the bones, the camel's stomach and the hedgehog's armour.
A small endowment was provided by the king, and the university, modelled on that of Paris and intended principally to be a school of law, soon became the most famous and popular of the Scots seats of learning, a result which was largely due to the wide experience and ripe wisdom of Elphinstone and of his friend, Hector Boece, the first rector.
"As to the governments of this world," he said, "whatever their titles or forms we shall endeavour to prove that in their essential elements, as at present administered, they are all anti-Christ; that they can never by human wisdom be brought into conformity with the will of God; that they cannot be maintained except by naval and military power to carry them into effect; that all their penal enactments, being a dead letter without any army to carry them into effect, are virtually written in human blood; and that the followers of Jesus should instinctively shun their stations of honor, power: and emolument - at the same time ` submitting to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake' and offering no physical resistance to any of their mandates, however unjust or tyrannical."
There was, at the same time, in the early Church a powerful current of feeling hostile to Greek culture, to the wisdom of the world.
Beside the other canonical books of the Old Testament, translated in many cases with modifications or additions, it included translations of other Hebrew books (Ecclesiasticus, Judith, &c.), works composed originally in Greek but imitating to some extent the Hebraic style (like Wisdom), works modelled more closely on the Greek literary tradition, either historical, like 2 Maccabees, or philosophical, like the productions of the Alexandrian school, represented for us by Aristobulus and Philo, in which style and thought are almost wholly Greek and the reference to the Old Testament a mere pretext; or Greek poems on Jewish subjects, like the epic of the elder Philo and Ezechiel's tragedy, Exagoge.
It is doubtless such explanations as these that the Greeks had in view when they praised the wisdom of the ancient Egyptians; and, in the classical period similar semi-philosophical interpretations altogether supplanted, among the learned at least, the naive literal beliefs of earlier times.
In 1743 Othman Bey, who had governed with wisdom and moderation, was forced to fly from Egypt by the intrigues of two adventurers, Ibrahim and Rilwgn Bey, who, when their scheme had succeeded, began a massacre of beys and others thought to be opposed to them; they then proceeded to govern Egypt jointly, holding the two offices mentioned above in alternate years.
They are represented as warlike nomads and with a certain reputation for wisdom (Baruch iii.
The civilians, looking on him as a patriarch of their science, have as a rule extolled his wisdom and virtues; while ecclesiastics of the Roman Church, from Cardinal Baronius downwards, have been offended by his arbitrary conduct towards the popes, and by his last lapse into heresy, and have therefore been disposed to accept the stories which ascribe to him perfidy, cruelty, rapacity and extravagance.
Thoth, the god of wisdom.
There is a Middle Path discovered by the Tathagata' - a path which opens the eyes, and bestows understanding, which leads to peace, to insight, to the higher wisdom, to Nirvana.
The story is the one of chief importance to the Buddhists - the story, namely, of how the Buddha won, under the Bo Tree, the victory over ignorance, and attained to the Sambodhi, "the higher wisdom," of Nirvana.
Piinjer states the position of Reimarus as follows: "God is the Creator of the world, and His wisdom and goodness are conspicuous in it.
In his principal work, De docta ignorantia (1440), supplemented by De conjecturis libri duo published in the same year, he maintains that all human knowledge is mere conjecture, and that man's wisdom is to recognize his ignorance.
The treaty required, with questionable wisdom, that a constitution should be established, and this was accordingly the English troops and men-of-war.
Apart from the titles (which are not authoritative) the difference of style in the various sections indicates difference of authorship. There is, indeed, a certain unity of thought in the book; throughout it inculcates cardinal social virtues, such as industry, thrift, discretion, truthfulness, honesty, chastity, and in general it assumes wisdom to be the guiding principle of life.
Examination of titles in the Prophets and the Psalms (to say nothing of Ecclesiastes and Wisdom of Solomon) makes it evident that these have been added by late editors who were governed by vague traditions or fanciful associations or caprice, and there is no reason to suppose the titles in Proverbs to be .exceptions to the general rule.
Proverbs belongs to the time when prophecy, as a helpful institution, had disappeared, and wisdom had taken its place.
He is described ideally as ruling by the might of wisdom (viii.
Finally, a late date for Proverbs is indicated by what may be called its philosophical element - a feature that it has in common with the other Wisdom books (see Wisdom Literature).
- ix., in which wisdom is personified as the power regulating the affairs of human life (iii.
30 be rendered: " I was at his side as a master-workman "; but the Hebrew word (amon) rendered " master-workman " is of doubtful meaning, and the connexion rather calls for some such sense as " nursling, ward "; Yahweh himself is represented as the architect, and wisdom, the first of his works, is his companion, sporting in his presence like a beloved child.
and Wisdom of Solomon vii.
Comparison of Proverbs with Ecclesiasticus, Ecclesiastes and Wisdom of Solomon shows that it belongs, in its main features, in the same category as these.
7-12, misplaced paragraphs) containing praise of ideal wisdom and warnings against unchastity.
26 the " wisdom " of the good wife (not " virtuous woman ") is good sense, practical sagacity in housekeeping.
Assyriologie (1892); Hindu: Monier-Williams, Indian Wisdom (1875); Arabic: Jacob, Altarab.
The strangest of his hearers was an Esthonian baron, Boris d'Yrkull, who after serving in the Russian army came to Heidelberg to hear the wisdom of Hegel.
Yet behind these unconvincing shadows of an imperial court with its financial difficulties, of the classical Walpurgisnacht, of the fantastic creation of the Homunculus, the noble Helena episode and the impressive mystery-scene of the close, where the centenarian Faust finally triumphs over the powers of evil, there lies a philosophy of life, a ripe wisdom born of experience, such as no European poet had given to the world since the Renaissance.
Goethe could fill his prose with rich wisdom, but he was only the perfect artist in verse.
Catholic Ireland calls him her "Liberator" -still; and history will say of him that, with some failings, he had many and great gifts, that he was an orator of a high order, and that, agitator as he was, he possessed the wisdom, the caution and the tact of a real statesman.
That the colony successfully weathered its early perils was due more to Winthrop's skill and wisdom than to the services of any other of its citizens.
THOTH is the Greek name of the Egyptian god of letters, invention and wisdom.
aocbcari l s, literally, man of wisdom), the name given by the Greeks about the middle of the 5th century B.C. to certain teachers of a superior grade who, distinguishing themselves from philosophers on the one hand and from artists and craftsmen on the other, claimed to prepare their pupils, not for any particular study or profession, but for civic life.
Emphasizing the function of the teacher, which with the philosophers had been subordinate, and proclaiming the right end of intellectual endeavour to be, not " truth " (a 178eta) or " wisdom " (vo(Pia), which was unattainable, but " virtue " or " excellence " (dper17), he sought to communicate, not a theory of the universe, but an aptitude for civic life.
After this he reigned for 342 years, devoting most of his energy to perfecting the administration of his vast dominions, which he did with such wisdom and liberality as to earn the commendation of Hsiian Tsang.
He displayed similar wisdom and liberality in political affairs by appointing a commission to prepare an abstract of the Roman laws and imperial decrees, which should form the authoritative code for his Roman subjects.
In 1152 came the inevitable struggle between the young king and his mother, who had ruled with wisdom and vigour during the regency and was unwilling to lay down the reins of power.
"Chaldaean wisdom" became in the classical world the synonym of this science, which in its character was so essentially religious.
The impetus to the purification of the old Semite religion to which the Hebrews for a long time clung in common with their fellows - the various branches of nomadic Arabs - was largely furnished by the remarkable civilization unfolded in the Euphrates valley and in many of the traditions, myths and legends embodied in the Old Testament; traces of direct borrowing from Babylonia may be discerned, while the indirect influences in the domain of the prophetical books, as also in the Psalms and in the so-called "Wisdom Literature," are even more noteworthy.
Of late years however a new school has arisen in Belgium which expresses strong doubts of the wisdom or efficacy of prolonged cellular confinement.
But remembering the wisdom of his father, he sent messengers with a chain made of silver coins, and bearing honourable proposals.
This feeling gave rise to the prophecy that there should appear later a Sofiani on the throne, who would reign with might and wisdom.
He showed the utmost wisdom in the selection of his lieutenants.
But in the northeast, in Khorasan, meanwhile a storm had arisen, against which his resources and his wisdom were alike of no avail.
The lower cannot comprehend the higher, and therefore we must say that the existence of God is above being, above essence; God is above goodness, above wisdom, above truth.
We recognize his being in the being of all things, his wisdom in their orderly arrangement, his life in their constant motion.
Thus God is for us a Trinity - the Father as substance or being (ouvta), the Son as wisdom (& m b us), the Spirit as life (Es4pyeca).
The first procession or emanation, as above indicated, is the realm of ideas in the Platonic sense, the word or wisdom of God.