He refused to use his full influence in favour of the candidacy of Charles of Valois, brother of Philip IV., lest France became too powerful; and recognized Henry of Luxemburg, whom his representatives crowned emperor at the Lateran in 1312.
Charles of Valois, was carefully educated, and was destined for the order of Malta.
A decree of the parlement (1606), obtained by Marguerite de Valois, deprived him of nearly all his possessions, including Auvergne, though he still retained the title.
The duchy afterwards changed hands several times, one of its holders being Charles of Valois, natural son of Charles IX.
For two years more the fighting continued with varying success, until Charles of Valois, who had been sent by Boniface to invade Sicily, was forced to sue for peace, his army being decimated by the plague, and in August 1302 the treaty of Caltabellotta was signed, by which Frederick was recognized king of Trinacria (the name Sicily was not to be used) for his lifetime, and was to marry Eleonora, the daughter of Charles II.; at his death the kingdom was to revert to the Angevins (this clause was inserted chiefly to save Charles's face), and his children would receive compensation elsewhere.
Catherine of Valois >>
Here in the year 1300 new factions, subdividing the old Guelphs and Ghibellines under the names of Neri and Bianchi, had acquired such force that Boniface VIII., a violently Guelph pope, called in Charles of Valois to pacify the republic and undertake the charge of Italian affairs.
Nor must it be forgotten that this exile was due to the policy which induced the pontiffs, in their detestation of Ghibellinism, to rely successively upon the houses of Anjou and o Valois.
and Marguerite of Valois in 1599 (Migne, op. cit.
In the year named the secular courts complained to the king, Philip of Valois, of the encroachments of the courts Christian.
The French court would not accept his overtures, and it was only in the summer of 1401 that a truce was patched up by the restoration of Richard's child-queen, Isabella of Valois.
Valois, La France et le grand schisme d'occident (Paris, 1896-1902); Louis Gayet, Le Grand Schisme d'occident (Paris, 1898); J.
The direct line ruled in France from 987 to 1238, when, at the death of King Charles IV., it was succeeded by the younger, or Valois, branch of the family.
Philip VI., the first of the Valois kings, was a son of Charles I., count of Valois and grandson of King Philip III.
This house merged in that of Valois in 1383, by the marriage of Margaret, daughter of Louis, count of Artois, with Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy.
In 1284 Jeanne, daughter and heiress of Henry I., king of Navarre, married Philip IV., king of France, and the two kingdoms were united until Philip of Valois became king of France as Philip VI.
The counts of Dreux, for two centuries and a half (1132-1377), and the counts of Evreux, from 1307 to 1425, also belonged to the family of the Capets, - other members of which worthy of mention are the Dunois and the Longuevilles, illegitimate branches of the house of Valois, which produced many famous warriors and courtiers.
MARGUERITE DE VALOIS.
The name Marguerite was common in the Valois dynasty, and during the 16th century there were three princesses, all of whom figure in the political as well as in the literary history of the time, and who have xvii.
By family she was entitled to the name of Marguerite de Valois; as the daughter of Charles d'Orleans, count d'Angouleme, she is more properly, and by careful writers almost invariably, called Marguerite d'Angouleme.
There may be noted Durand's Marguerite de Valois et la tour de Francois Ier (1848); La Ferriere's Marguerite d'Angouleme (1891); Lotheissen's Konigin Margareta von Navarra (1885); Miss Edith Sichel's Women and Men of the French Renaissance (1901), and P. Courtault's Marguerite de Navarre (1904).
The third Marguerite (1553-1615), called more particularly Marguerite de Valois, was great-niece of the first and niece of the second, being daughter of Henry II.
The chief recent book on her is Saint Poucy's Histoire de Marguerite de Valois (1887).
CATHERINE OF VALOIS (1401-1437), queen of Henry V.
Counts and dukes of Valois >>
In March 1784 he entered into relations with a certain Jeanne de St Remy de Valois, a descendant of a bastard of Henry II., who after many adventures had married a soi-disant comte de Lamotte, and lived on a small pension which the king granted her.
of England had mediated to make peace, and Charles was liberated on the understanding that he was to retain Naples alone, Sicily being left to the Aragonese; Charles was also to induce his cousin Charles of Valois to renounce for twenty thousand pounds of silver the kingdom of Aragon which had been given to him by Pope Martin IV.
to punish Peter for having invaded Sicily, but which the Valois had never effectively occupied.
immediately absolved him from all the conditions he had sworn to observe, crowned him king of the Two Sicilies (1289), and excommunicated Alphonso, while Charles of Valois, in alliance with Castile, prepared to take possession of Aragon.
The war was fought with great fury on land and sea, but Charles, although aided by the pope, by Charles of Valois, and by James II.
to make war upon Philip of Valois.
At the age of twelve she was married to Charles of Valois, count of Angouléme, great-grandson of King Charles V.
(1494-1547), king of France, son of Charles of Valois, count of Angouleme, and Louise of Savoy, was born at Cognac on the 12th of September 1494.
Louis invested him with the duchy of Valois, and gave him as tutor Marshal de Gie, and, after Gie's disgrace in 1503, the sieur de Boisy, Artus Gouffier.
By the secretary he was recommended to Marguerite de Valois, and through her influence was made professor of Greek and Latin at Bourges.
His marriage with Elizabeth of Valois on the 22nd of June 1559, and the approach of the wars of religion, gave him a temporary security from France.
She died on the 5th of January 1589, a short time before the assassination of Henry, and the consequent extinction of the House of Valois.
1592), seigneur de Luynes, was in the service of the three last Valois kings and of Henry IV., and became colonel of the French bands, commissary of artillery in Languedoc and governor of Beaucaire.
On the 16th of August 1290, the latter married his daughter Margaret to Charles of Valois, son of Philip III.
Charles of Valois at once entered into possession of the countship of Anjou, to which Philip IV.
On the 16th of December 1325, Charles died, leaving Anjou to his eldest son Philip of Valois, on whose recognition as king of France (Philip VI.) on the ist of April 1328, the countship of Anjou was again united to the crown.
to his son Henry of Valois, who, on becoming king in 1574, with the title of Henry III., conceded it to his brother Francis, duke of Alengon, at the treaty of Beaulieu near Loches (6th of May 1576).
Finally, early in April 1573, the election diet assembled at Warsaw, and on the 11th of May, in the midst of intrigue, corruption, violence and confusion, Henry of Valois was elected king of Poland.
The election had, however, been preceded by a correctura jurum, or reform of the constitution, which resulted in the Henry of famous "Henrican Articles" which converted Valois, king, Poland from a limited monarchy into a republic 1573-1574.
The reign of Henry of Valois lasted thirteen months.
The Polish crown first became an object of universal competition in 1573, when Henry of Valois was elected.
had declared forfeited by Peter, was accepted for Charles of Valois, Philip's third son.
By her he had four children: Louis, who died in 1276; Philip, born in 1268; Charles of Valois, born on the 12th of March 1270; and Robert, who died young.
CHARLES (1270-1325), count of Valois, of Maine, and of Anjou, third son of Philip III., king of France, surnamed the Bold, and of Isabella of Aragon, was born on the 12th of March 1270.
By his father's will he inherited the four lordships of Crepy, La Ferte - Milon, Pierrefonds and Bethisy, which together formed the coantship of Valois.
Philip, his eldest son, ascended the French throne in 1328, and from him sprang the royal house of Valois.
See Joseph Petit, Charles de Valois (Paris, 1900).
His mother, Marthe Marguerite le Valois de Vilette de Murray, comtesse de Caylus (1673-1729), was a cousin of Mme de Maintenon, who brought her up like her own daughter.
Olive has been supposed to be an anagram for the name of a Mlle Viole, but there is little evidence of real passion in the poems, and they may perhaps be regarded as a Petrarcan exercise, especially as, in the second edition, the dedication to his lady is exchanged for one to Marguerite de Valois, sister of Henry II.
His chief patron, Marguerite de Valois, to whom he was sincerely attached, had gone to Savoy.
Subsequently he joined Henry of Navarre, whom he succeeded in withdrawing from the corrupting influence of the house of Valois (1576), and to whom he rendered valuable service, both as a soldier and as a counsellor, in the wars that issued in his elevation to the throne as Henry IV.
and Catherine of Valois, was born at Windsor on the 6th of December 1421.
The hopes of the Curia were frustrated by the resistance of the Aragonese and Sicilians, and Charles of Valois, to whom the Curia eventually destined the crown of Aragon, had to resign it for that of Constantinople, which he also failed to secure.
After Martin's death the last popes of the 13th century, and notably Boniface VIII., in vain thought to find in another Capetian, Charles of Valois, the man who was to re-establish the Latin dominion at Byzantium.
This method had helped the House of Valois to consolidate its power; but what was tonic for a dynasty was death to a state whose headship was elective.
Valois, La France et le grand schisme, 4 t.
(1897); Mentz, Les Arts (1878-1879); Valois, Pragmatique sanction (1907).
Valois in the Carmen panegyricum in laudem Berengarii (Paris, 1663), and in modern times by J.
1342), and of Marguerite of Valois, sister of Philip VI.
The god-parents of the duke of Valois, as he was entitled till 1785, were Louis XVI.
HENRI DE VALOIS [VALESIUS] (1603-1676), French scholar, was born at Paris on the 10th of September 1603.
His brother, Adrien De Valois (1607-1692), was also a wellknown scholar.
Adrien's son, CHARLES DE VALOIS (1671-1747), was a distinguished numismatist, and formed a fine collection of medals, chiefly Roman.
During the interregnum in Poland after the death of Henry of Valois, Zolkiewski was an ardent partisan of the chancellor Zamoyski, and supported the candidature of Stephen Bathory, under whose banner he learned the art of war in the Muscovite campaigns.
Other members of the family who attained distinction in the same branch of learning were the two sons of Denis GodefroiDenis (1653-1719), also an historian, and Jean, sieur d'Aumont (1656-1732), who edited the letters of Louis XII., the memoirs of Marguerite de Valois, of Castelnau and Pierre de l'Estoire, and left some useful material for the history of the Low Countries; Jean Baptiste Achille Godefroy, sieur de Maillart (1697-1759), and Denis Joseph Godefroy, sieur de Maillart (1740-1819), son and grandson of Jean Godefroy, who were both officials at Lille, and left valuable historical documents which have remained in MS.
The war went on with varying success, until Charles of Valois, summoned by the pope to conduct the campaign, landed in Sicily and, his army being decimated by disease, made peace with Frederick at Caltabellotta (1302).
The Angevins renounced Sicily in favour of Frederick, who was recognized as king of Trinacria (a name adopted so as not to mention that of Sicily), and he was to marry Leonora, daughter of Charles of Valois; at his death the island would revert to the Angevins, but his children would receive compensation elsewhere.
In his youth, as duke of Anjou, he was warmly attached to the Huguenot opinions, as we learn from his sister Marguerite de Valois; but his unstable character soon gave way before his mother's will, and both Henry and Marguerite remained choice ornaments of the Catholic Church.
Hurault de Cheverny, Brantome, Marguerite de Valois, la Huguerye, du Plessis-Mornay, &c.; Archives curieuses of Cimber and Danjou, vols.
Artois, the Amienois, Valois, Vermandois, the greater part of the Beauvaisis, Normandy, Maine, Anjou, Touraine, and an important part of Poitou and Saintonge, were added to the domain during his reign.
The Renaissance may be said to have begun in France with Charles VIII.'s expedition to Naples, and to have continued until the extinction of the house of Valois.
TRINITARIANS, a religious order founded in 1198 by St John of Matha and St Felix of Valois, for the liberation of Christian prisoners and slaves from captivity under the Moors and Saracens.
Barante's Histoire des ducs de Bourgogne de la maison de Valois, which appeared in a series of volumes between 1824 and 1828, procured him immediate admission to the French Academy.
Valois, La France et le grand schisme d'Occident (Paris, 1896-1902); M.
Valois, La France et le grand, schisme d'occident (Paris, 1896-1902); Louis Gayet, Le Grand Schisme d'occident (Paris, 1898); J.
1595) a marshal of France and knight of the order of the Holy Ghost since its institution in 1578, fought against the Huguenots under the last of the Valois kings; but he was among the first to recognize Henry IV., and was appointed governor of Champagne and of Brittany, where he had to fight against the League.
trans., 4 vols., 1809); Chronique des quatre premiers Valois, by an unknown author, ed.
Valois, La France et le grand schisme d'occident, iv.
Valois, La France et le grand schisme d'occident (Paris, 18 9 6).
Santa Chiara (14th century) is interesting for a fresco ascribed to Giotto (at one time there were many more), and monuments to Robert the Wise, his queen Mary of Valois and his daughter Mary, empress of Constantinople.
His wife was Jeanne of Valois, niece of the French king; in 1323 the emperor Louis the Bavarian wedded his daughter Margaret; and in 1328 his third daughter, Philippa of Hainaut, was married to Edward III.
The new duchy passed to Diane de Poitiers (1553), to Catherine of Lorraine, duchess of Montpensier (1578), to Marguerite of Valois (1582) and to Gabrielle d'Estrees (1598).
In 1077 the last male of the first house of Vermandois, Herbert IV., received the countship of Valois in right of his wife.
d'Aubigne, Brantome, Castelnau, Haton, la Place, Montluc, la Noue, l'Estoile, Ste Foy, de Thou, Tavannes, &c.; the published correspondence of Catherine de' Medici, Marguerite de Valois, and the Venetian ambassadors; and Calendars of State Papers, &c. See also Abel Desjardins, Charles IX, deux annees de regne (Paris, 1873); de la Ferriere, Le XVI' siecle et les Valois (Paris, 1879); H.
PHILIPPA OF HAINAUT (c. 1314-1369), queen of the English king Edward III., was the daughter of William the Good, count of Holland and Hainaut, and his wife Jeanne de Valois, granddaughter of Philip III.
Her mother Jeanne de Valois, visited her in 1331 and further cemented the community of interests between England and Flanders.
On the 9th of June 1572, Jeanne d'Albret died and Henry became king of Navarre, marrying Margaret of Valois, sister of Charles IX.
While lacking the artistic tastes of the Valois, Henry beautified Paris, building the great gallery of the Louvre, finishing the Tuileries, building the Pont Neuf, the Hotel-de-Ville and the Place Royale.
had no children by his first wife, Margaret of Valois.
and than was Charless cousin Philip of Valois.
A far more fatal bar to Edwards claim than the existence of Charles of Navarre was the fact that the peers of France, when summoned to decide the succession question nine years before, had decided that Philip of Valois had the sole valid claim to the crown, and that Edward had then done homage to him for Guienne.
When Philip of Valois refused battle in the open, and confined his operations to defending fortified towns, or stockading himself in entranched camps, the allies drifted off, leaving the king with his English troops in force too small to accomplish anything.
He allied himself with Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain and with Maximilian of Austria, who was ruling the Netherlands in behalf of his young son, Philip, the heir of the Burgundian inheritance, for the purpose of preventing France from annexing Brittany, the last great fief of the crown which had not yet been absorbed into the Valois royal domain.
The enmity of the house of Valois and the house of Habsburg, which had first appeared in the wars of Charles Viii.
He was professor of philosophy in the university of Paris, was rector in 1327, and in 1345 was deputed to defend its interests before Philip of Valois and at Rome.
In the I tth century the kings of that line possessed meagre domains scattered about in the Ile de France among the seigniorial possessions of Brie, Beauce, Beauvaisis and Valois.
king of England, Richard Cc~ur de Lion, as powerful, AnguStuS besides being younger and more energetic. Philips and ambition could not rest satisfied with the petty Richard principalities of Amiens, Vermandois and Valois, ~~ur do which he had added to the royal demesne.
On the extinction of the direct line of the Capets the crown passed to a younger branch, that of the Valois.
During this century and a half France passed through two very severe crises; under the first five Valois the Hundred Years War imperilled the kingdoms independence; and under Louis XI.
of Valois, nephew of Philip the Fair.
Now, however, in order to obtain substantial help from taxes instead of mere driblets, the Valois needed a stronger lever than cunning or force.
But the chance of annexing them without great trouble was lost; by the fatal custom of appanages the Valois had set up again those feudal institutions which the Capets had found such difficulty in destroying, and Louis XI.
France itself, with that political stupidity characteristic of the first Valois.
on the one handnow master of Portugal and delivered from William of Orange, involved in strife with the English Protestants, and desirous of avenging the injuries inflicted upon him by the Valois in the Netherlandsand the Guises on the other hand, whose cousin Mary Stuart was a prisoner of Queen Elizabeth, there was a common interest in supporting one another and pressing things forward.
The pretensions of the Guises were, in fact, soon manifested in the declaration of Pronne (March 30, 1585) against the foul court of the Valois; they were again manifested in a The cornfurious agitation, fomented by the secret council mittee of of the League at Paris, which favored the Guises, Sixteen a~ and which now worked on the people through their Paris.
He had retained all the habits of a country gentleman of his native Beam, careless, familiar, boastful, thrifty, cunning, combined since his sojourn at the court of the Valois with a taint of corruption.
Unlike the Valois, Richelieu only desired to free Italy from Spain in order to restore her independence.
But he maintained the legislation of the Valois, who placed industry in a state of strict dependency on finance, and he instituted a servitude of labor harder even than that of individuals; his great factories of soap, glass, lace, carpets and cloth had the same artificial life as that of contemporary Russian industry, created and nourished by the state.
(a man of considerable mark, who, after doing great service by sea and land to Philip of Valois in his English wars, was severely wounded at Crecy) purchased Mentone and Roccabruna, and bought up the claims of the Spinola to Monaco.
He was mainly instrumental, after the death of Sigismund II., in remodelling the Polish constitution and procuring the election of Henry of Valois.
War with William began again in 1081 over the county of Vexin, which Philip had seized on the retirement of its count, Simon of Valois, to a monastery in 1076.
[[Angouleme, Charles De Valois, Duke Of]] (1573-1650), the natural son of Charles IX.
Valois, La France et le grand schisme d'Occident (Paris, 4 vols., 1896-1902); and Bibliotheque de l'ecole des chartes, vol.
Marguerite exhibited during the rest of her life, which was not a short one, the strange Valois mixture of licentiousness, pious exercises, and the cultivation of art and letters, and died in Paris on the 27th of March 1615.
Valois, La France et le grand schisme d'Occident, vol.
Lot, "Projets de crusade sous Charles le Bel et sous Philippe de Valois" (Bibl.
The pope's attempt to unite the grandi having failed, he summoned Charles of Valois to come to his assistance, promising him the imperial crown; in 1301 Charles entered Italy, and was created by the pope paciaro or peacemaker of Tuscany, with instructions to crush the Bianchi and the popolo and exalt the Neri.
At the age of twelve she was married to Charles of Valois, count of AngoulÃ©me, great-grandson of King Charles V.
Valois, La France et le grand schisme d'occident (4 vols., Paris, 1896-1902); Fr.
He had an extraordinary memory and a thorough knowledge of the classics, and to him we owe editions of several of the Greek historians, with excellent Latin translations, the only fault found with which is that they are too elegant: Polybii, Diodori Siculi, Nicolai Damasceni, Dionysii Halicarnassii, Appiani et Joannis Antiocheni excerpta (1634; Henri de Valois used for this edition a manuscript coming from Cyprus, which had been acquired by Peiresc); Ammiani Marcellini rerum gestarum libri 18 (1636); Eusebii ecclesiastica historia, et vita imperatoris Constantini, graece et latine (1659); Socratis, Sozomeni, Theodoreti et Evagrii Historia ecclesiastica (1668-1673).
Valois, La Crise religieuse du xv e siecle; le pape et le concile (1909), vol.
This fact, together with the strong Italian bias of the Valois, serves to explain in some degree the reason why the Counter-Reformation entailed those fierce entangled civil wars, massacres of St Bartholomew, murders of the Guises, regicides, treasons and empoisonments that terminated with the compromise of Henry IV.
(c. 1120-1152), who married Alix of Guyenne, sister of the queen, Eleanor, and had by her three children: Raoul (Rudolph) II., the Leper (count from 1152-67); Isabelle, who possessed from 1167 to 1183 the countships of Vermandois, Valois and Amiens conjointly with her husband, Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders; and Eleanor.
That was the origin of the expeditions into Italy on which the house of Valois was two centuries later to squander the resources of France unavailingly, compromising beyond the Alps its interests in the Low Countries and upon the Rhine.
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