Thus we pass from Egoistic to Universalistic hedonism, Utilitarianism, Social Ethics, more especially in relation to the still broader theories of evolution.
Theological and political utilitarianism alike had been individualistic. But Darwin shows how the moral sense or conscience may be regarded as derived from the social instincts, which are common to men and animals.
In unity, consistency and thoroughness of method, Bentham's utilitarianism has a decided superiority over Paley's.
The Comtist system is utilitarianism crowned by a fantastic decoration.
In the utilitarianism of Paley and Bentham the proper rules of conduct, moral and legal, are determined by comparing the imaginary consequences of different modes of regulation on men and women, conceived as specimens of a substantially uniform and unchanging type.
His Utilitarianism (published in Fraser's in 1861) was a closely-reasoned systematic attempt to answer objections to his ethical theory and remove misconceptions of it.
An important step further in political utilitarianism was taken by Hume in his Treatise on Human Nature (1739).
1865); Utilitarianism (1863); Examination of Sir W.
The further development of theological utilitarianism was conditioned by opposition to the Moral Sense doctrine of Shaftesbury and Hutcheson.
in 1785), in which theological utilitarianism is summarized and comes to a close.
This substitution of hypothetical history for direct analysis of the moral sense is really older than the utilitarianism of Paley and Bentham, which it has so profoundly modified.
Such a view is almost diametrically opposed to Bentham's conception of normal human existence; the newer utilitarianism of Mill represents an endeavour to find the right middle path between the two extremes.
His doctrine is a kind of utilitarianism, with a strong leaning on the speculative side to the modified literary scepticism of Cicero, for whom he had unbounded admiration.
The history of utilitarianism (if we may use the term for the earlier history of a philosophic tendency which appeared long before the invention of the term) falls into three divisions, which may be termed theological, political and evolutional respectively.
The most famous of the systematic exponents of evolutional utilitarianism is, of course, Herbert Spencer, in whose Data of Ethics (1819) the facts of morality are viewed in relation with his vast conception of the total process of cosmic evolution.
Among such theories utilitarianism especially is the natural result of the application to the phenomenon of conduct of the Baconian experimental method.
His essay Utilitarianism (pub.
His theory is a sort of reconciliation of utilitarianism with intuitionism, a position which he reached by studying Mill in combination with Kant and Butler.
He began by disclaiming any affinity to Utilitarianism on the part of his own philosophy.
12 a tant points he anticipates the utilitarianism afterwards systematized by Paley, who expresses in the amplest terms his obligations to his predecessor.
(On these points see Mary Taylor, Mrs Mill's grand-daughter, in Elliott's edition of the Letters.) closely reasoned and characteristic works, the Liberty, the Utilitarianism, the Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform, and the Subjection of Women, besides his posthumously published essays on Nature and on the Utility of Religion, were thought out and partly written in collaboration with his wife.
This relation to a "good" must not, however, be construed as a doctrine of ethics in the narrower sense; nor is its "utilitarianism" to be confused with the hedonism of the British associationists.
It is commonly said that in making this distinction Mill has practically given up utilitarianism, because he has applied to pleasure (alleged to be the supreme criterion) a further criterion which is not pleasure.
Even before the appearance of Sidgwick's book utilitarianism had entered upon its third or evolutional phase, in which principles borrowed from biological science make their entrance into moral philosophy.
Finally, side by side with a theory of the nature of moral obligation thus fundamentally empirical and a posteriori in its outlook, he maintains in his account of justice the existence of the idea of justice as distinct from a mere sentiment, carrying with it an a priori belief in its existence and identical in its a priori and intuitive character with the ultimate criterion of Utilitarianism itself.
The self-love theory of Hobbes, with its subtle perversions of the motives of ordinary humanity, led to a reaction which culminated in the utilitarianism of Bentham and the two Mills; but their theory, though superior to the extravagant egoism of Hobbes, had this main defect, according to Herbert Spencer, that it conceived the world as an aggregate of units, and was so far individualistic. Sir Leslie Stephen in his Science of Ethics insisted that the unit is the social organism, and therefore that the aim of moralists is not the "greatest happiness of the greatest number," but rather the "health of the organism."
Utilitarianism (1902); Sir Leslie Stephen, The English Utilitarians (1900); J.
And if the controversy which this school has conducted with utilitarianism had turned principally on the determination of the matter of duty, there can be little doubt that it would have been forced into more serious and systematic effort to define precisely and completely the principles and method on which we are to reason deductively to particular rules of conduct.'
The rise of political utilitarianism illustrates most strikingly the way in which the value and dignity of philosophical principles depends on the purpose to which they are applied.
von Gizycki (a thorough exposition of Hume's utilitarianism), Die Ethik D.
From the side of literature the way was prepared for it by the genius of Coleridge, Wordsworth and Carlyle; from the side of morals and politics by the profound discontent of the constructive spirit of the century with the disintegrating conceptions inherited from utilitarianism.
(4) In the theory of morals, Bailey is an advocate of utilitarianism (though he objects to the term "utility" as being narrow and, to the unthinking, of sordid content), and works out with great skill the steps in the formation of the "complex" mental facts involved in the recognition of duty, obligation, right.
It neither affirms nor denies the theistic premises of religion, and is thus a particular variety of utilitarianism.
He may be said to have cleared the ground for the coming utilitarianism.
in 1672), that we find the beginnings of utilitarianism.
While in prison he translated Bentham's Utilitarianism.
So far he may be fairly called the precursor of later utilitarianism.
His suggestions were developed by Hutcheson into one of the most elaborate systems of moral philosophy which we possess; through Hutcheson, if not directly, they influenced Hume's speculations, and are thus connected with later utilitarianism.
On the pivot of this distinction Hutcheson turns round from the point of view of Shaftesbury to that of later utilitarianism.
school; the latter method, with considerably more divergence of view and treatment, was employed independently and almost simultaneously by Paley and Bentham in both ethics and politics, and is at the present time widely maintained under the name of Utilitarianism.
And although Dr Hastings Rashdall (The Theory of Good and Evil, Oxford, 1907) is not in agreement with Sidgwick's own particular type of hedonistic theory in his own philosophical position, he occupies a point of view somewhat similar to that of Sidgwick's main attitude of Rational Utilitarianism.
The denial of a fixed human nature also corrodes an ethics based on human pleasure or happiness, like hedonism and utilitarianism.
egalitarian liberals agree with libertarians that utilitarianism fails to take seriously the inviolability of the person.
An agent can be told by utilitarianism to do something terrible in order to avoid something even worse, as Jim and George are.
This shift of emphasis was originally the work of economists looking for a way of making utilitarianism operational.
Spencer as much as Mill, then, advocates indirect utilitarianism by featuring robust moral rights.
Utilitarians will claim that an ideal public should at least consider utilitarianism a plausible doctrine.
Beginning particularly with John Stuart Mill, bourgeois science differentiated itself into an Ethics called utilitarianism and a science called Economics.
Whether Spencer actually envisioned his liberal utilitarianism this way is unclear.
Benthamite utilitarianism does involve a commitment to individual welfare, but not to personal freedom.
Such reasoning supports, I then argue, conclusions about value that support an account of the concept broadly consistent with classical utilitarianism.
Those who perceived a narrow utilitarianism as dominant took the opposite view.
Why bother with substitute sources of stand-in obligation when, thanks to having become moral saints, act utilitarianism will fortunately always do?
Act and rule utilitarianism Bentham tended to deal with the consequences of acts.
Apparently it even has a name: preference utilitarianism.
His ethics have sometimes been regarded as pure utilitarianism (so e.g.
In philosophy his chief work was to systematize and expound the utilitarianism of his father and Bentham (see Utilitarianism).
It is only possible to allude briefly here to the different conclusions that he has attained in treating the various problems, as for example in Aesthetic, the unity of art and language, of intuition and expression, the negation of particular arts, the refutation of literary and artistic classes, the criticism of rhetoric, of grammar and so forth; and in the Philosophy of the Practical or of Practice, the conciliation of the antitheses of utilitarianism and moralism, the critique of precepts, of laws and of casuistry, the new conception of judgments of value, the constitution of a philosophic economy side by side with the science of Economy, the resolution of the Philosophy of rights in the Philosophy of economic, and so forth.
Albee's History of English Utilitarianism (1902), a complete and painstaking survey.
One section of the school even maintained it to be a cardinal doctrine of utilitarianism that a man always gains his own greatest happiness by promoting that of others; another section, represented by John Austin, apparently returned to Paley's position, and treated utilitarian morality 3 as a code of divine legislation; others, with Grote, are content to abate the severity of the claims made by "general happiness " on the individual, and to consider utilitarian duty as practically limited by reciprocity; while on the opposite side an unqualified subordination of private to general happiness was advocated by J.
Mill, who did more than any other member of the school to spread and popularize utilitarianism in ethics and politics.
Beginning particularly with John Stuart Mill, bourgeois science differentiated itself into an Ethics called Utilitarianism and a science called Economics.
Christian belief must pass over not into a complacent scientific utilitarianism, but into the ecstasies of uninhibited wastage.
In 1711 Berkeley delivered his Discourse on Passive Obedience, in which he deduces moral rules from the intention of God to promote the general happiness, thus working out a theological utilitarianism, which may be compared with the later expositions of Austin and J.
His published works include (besides several volumes of verse) Homer and the Iliad (1866), maintaining the unity of the poems; Four Phases of Morals: Socrates, Aristotle, Christianity, Utilitarianism (1871); Essay on Self-Culture (1874); Horae Hellenicae (1874); The Language and Literature of the Scottish Highlands (1876); The Natural History of Atheism (1877); The Wise Men of Greece (1877); Lay Sermons (1881); Altavona (1882); The Wisdom of Goethe (1883); The Scottish Highlanders and the Land Laws (1885); Life of Burns (1888); Scottish Song (1889); Essays on Subjects of Moral and Social Interest (1890); Christianity and the Ideal of Humanity (1893).
In 1814 he wrote a number of articles, containing an exposition of utilitarianism, for the supplement to the fifth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the most important being those on "Jurisprudence," "Prisons" and "Government."
His two most famous definitions are that of virtue as " the doing good to mankind, in obedience to the will of God and for the sake of everlasting happiness," and that of obligation as being urged by a violent motive resulting from the command of another ": both of which bring home to us acutely the limitations of 18th-century philosophizing in general and of theological utilitarianism in particular.
From Bentham the leadership in utilitarianism passed to James Mill, who made no characteristic addition to its doctrine, and from him to John Stuart Mill.
But in fact the outline of Paley's utilitarianism is to be found a generation earlier - in Gay's dissertation prefixed to Law's edition of King's Origin of Evil - as the following extracts will show: - " The idea of virtue is the conformity to a rule of life, directing the actions of all rational creatures with respect to each other's happiness; to which every one is always obliged..
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