In 1415 it was recovered by the Turks under Mahommed I., and since that period has belonged to the Ottoman empire.
But in 1570 the island was taken by the Turks; and Antonio Davila, the father of the historian, had to leave it, despoiled of all he possessed.
Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
In 1375 the Turks captured Naissus for the first time from the Servians.
Even at the end of August Sobieski had but 3000 men at his disposal to oppose to 60,000 Turks.
He must stay the victorious advance of the Turks.
and imposed tithes for a war against the Turks.
After the Turks were driven from the city in 1878, it was in many respects modernized; but something of its former character is preserved in the ancient Turkish palace, mosque and fountain, the maze of winding alleys and picturesque houses in the older quarters, and, on market days, by the medley of peasant costumes - Bulgarian, Albanian and Rumanian, as well as Servian.
In 1443 the allied armies of the Hungarians under Hunyady and the Servians under George Brankovich, retook it from the Turks, but in 1456 it again came under Turkish dominion, and remained for more than 300 years the most important Turkish military station on the road between Hungary and Constantinople.
The Servians having, in the beginning of the 19th century, successfully cleared Servia of Turks, were emboldened to attack Nish in 1809, but were repulsed with great loss.
The Turks raised as a monument of their victory a high tower composed entirely of the heads of the Servians slain in the battle of Nish.
Having defeated the invading Turks at Villach in 1492, the king was eager to take revenge upon the king of France; but the states of the Netherlands would afford him no assistance.
It was taken by the Turks in the 16th century, and is now noted for its sponges.
The area of the ancient city is now called the Kaleh, and is inhabited by the Turks; eastward of this is the extensive Christian quarter, and beyond this again a low promontory juts northward into the sea, partly covered with the houses of a well-built suburb, which is the principal centre of commerce.
Her father's palace was pillaged by the Turks, and as a child of four years old she was sold to the comte de Ferriol, the French ambassador at Constantinople.
The principal rivals of the Aleuadae were the Scopadae of Crannon, the remains of which (called by the Turks Old Larissa) are about 14 m.
Avicenna was even raised to the office of vizier; but the turbulent soldiery, composed of Kurds and Turks, mutinied against their nominal sovereign, and demanded that the new vizier should be put to death.
A Roman Catholic tribe, occupying an inaccessible district, they have hitherto defeated every effort of the Turks to encroach on their autonomy.
In 1868 the reigning chief, Bib Doda, died, and his son and successor Prenk was detained as a hostage by the Turks.
The advance of the Turks into Albania began with the capture of Iannina in 1431.
In 1502 the Turks captured Durazzo, and in 1571 Antivari and Dulcigno, the last Venetian possessions in Albania.
Notwithstanding the abandonment of Christianity by a large section of the population after the Turkish conquest, the authority of the sultans was never effectively established, and succeeding centuries present a record of interminable conflicts between the tribesmen and the Turks, between the Christians and the converts to Islam, or between all combined and the traditional Montenegrin enemy.
In the spring of 1903 serious disturbances took place in north-western Albania, but the Turks succeeded in pacifying the revolted tribesmen, partly by force and partly by concessions.
In 1517 it was captured by the Turks.
In 1529 and 1683 it was besieged by the Turks.
The town was captured by the Seljuk sultan, Alp Arslan, 1064, and by the Mongols, 1243, before passing to the Osmanli Turks.
It was originally built in 1781 as a frontier fortress of the Turks against Russia.
The staff officers bore similar titles, relics of the time when the order existed only for amusement: Genii, Hydras, Furies, Goblins, Night Hawks, Magi, Monks and Turks.
The place still enjoys much repute among Turks, as the burialplace of Nur-ed-din Khoja.
The conquest of Cyprus by the Turks, and their aggressions on the Christian powers, frightened the states of the Mediterranean into forming a holy league for their common defence.
of Spain, who was peculiarly interested in checking the Turks 1 For Lepanto see Naupactus.
It consisted in all of 273 galleys which were of lighter build than the Christians', and less well supplied with cannon or small arms. The Turks still relied mainly on the bow and arrow.
But a reserve squadron was placed behind the centre under the marquess of Santa Cruz, and the eight lumbering galeasses were stationed at intervals in front of the line to break the formation of the Turks.
The two fleets met south of Cape Scropha, both drawn up from north to south, the land being close to the left flank of the Christians, and the right of the Turks.
To the left of the Turks and the right of the Christians, there was open sea.
The Turks charged through the intervals between the galeasses, which proved to be of no value.
The Turks were almost all sunk or driven on shore.
The loss of life in the battle was enormous, being put at 20,000 for the Turks and 8000 for the Christians.
It gave the naval power of the Turks a blow from which it never recovered, and put a stop to their aggression in the Eastern Mediterranean.
One of the last Venetian strongholds in the Levant, it was ceded by the treaty of Passarowitz (1718) to the Turks.
It was occupied by the Egyptian sultans until 1517, when the Turks under Selim I.
He wrote also Bellum scodrense (1474), on account of the siege of Scodra (Scutari) by the Turks, and Antiquitates vicecomitum, the history of the Visconti, dukes of Milan, down to the death of Matteo the Great (1322).
Bethlen also supported Bocskay's successor Gabriel Bathory (1608-1613), but the prince became jealous of Bethlen's superior abilities, and he was obliged to take refuge with the Turks.
After the second of these insurrections, Bethlen attempted a rapprochement with the court of Vienna on the basis of an alliance against the Turks and his own marriage with one of the Austrian archduchesses; but Ferdinand had no confidence in him and rejected his overtures.
These forests were formerly very thick, but they are now greatly thinned by the Turks, who cut them down and take no care to plant others in their place.
In 1309 it was conquered by the Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem at the instigation of the pope and the Genoese, and converted into a great fortress for the protection of the southern seas against the Turks.
led to the repulse of the Turks with severe losses; after a second investment, during which Sultan Suleiman I.
To his translation (1530) of a Latin Chronicle and Description of Turkey, by a Transylvanian captive, which had been prefaced by Luther, he added an appendix holding up the Turks as in many respects an example to Christians, and presenting in lieu of the restrictions of Lutheran, Zwinglian and Anabaptist sects, the vision of an invisible spiritual church, universal in its scope.
The Turks and the Venetians threatened it from the south, the emperor Frederick III.
Nor did these complications prevent him from recovering the fortress of Galamboc from the Turks, successfully invading Servia, and reasserting the suzerainty of the Hungarian crown over Bosnia.
intervened so as to leave Matthias free to engage in a projected crusade against the Turks, which subsequent political complications, however, rendered impossible.
Only now was Matthias able to turn against the Turks, who were again threatening the southern provinces.
13), and in 1480 Matthias recaptured Jajce, drove the Turks from Servia and erected two new military banates, Jajce and Srebernik, out of reconquered Bosnian territory.
Matthias, as the next-door neighbour of the Turks, claimed the custody of so valuable a hostage, and would have used him as a means of extorting concessions from Bayezid.
When Italy had reached this point, Constantinople was taken by the Turks.
The Turks were threatening western Europe, and Luther was inflaming Germany.
Yet she kept the Adriatic free of pirates, notably by suppressing the sea-robbers called Uscocchi (1601-1617), maintained herself in the Ionian Islands, and in 1684 added one more to the series of victorious episodes which render her annals so romantic. In that year Francesco Morosini, upon whose tomb we still may read the title Peloponnesiacus, wrested the whole of the Morea from the Turks.
In August 1532 Archbishop Warham died, and the king almost immediately afterwards intimated to Cranmer, who had accompanied the emperor in his campaign against the Turks, his nomination to the vacant see.
He refused, however, the title of king offered to him by the Turks.
ThOkOly materially assisted the Turks in the Vienna campaign of 1683, and shared the fate of the gigantic Turkish army.
But the campaign of 1685 was a series of disasters, and when he sought help from the Turks at Nagyvarad they seized and sent him in chains to Belgrade, possibly because of his previous negotiations with Leopold, whereupon most of his followers made their peace with the emperor.
The Turks then again grew suspicious of him and imprisoned him a second time.
In 1690, however, the Turks despatched him into Transylvania a third time with 16,000 men, and in September he routed the united forces of General Heister and Michael Teleki at Zernest.
It is regarded by the Turks as specially valuable, inasmuch as it is said to be incapable of transmitting infection as the pipe passes from mouth to mouth.
It gained prominence after 1543, when the archbishop of Esztergom and primate of Hungary made it his residence after the capture of Esztergom by the Turks.
In the wars he carried on with the Turks during nearly the whole of his reign, his successes were numerous, and he acquired, or regained, a large extent of territory.
was forced to cede Shirvan and Kurdistan in 1611; the united armies of the Turks and Tatars were completely defeated near Sultanieh in 1618, and Abbas made peace on very favourable terms; and on the Turks renewing the war, Bagdad fell into his hands after a year's siege in 1623.
of the town, laid out as a park, are the ruins of the old fortress, and a monument of Stephen Dob6, the heroic defender of the town against the assaults of the Turks in 1552.
In 1552 Eger resisted the repeated assaults of a large Turkish force; in 1596, however, it was given up to the Turks by the Austrian party in the garrison, and remained in their possession until 1687.
Pop. about 92,000, nearly all Turks.
The northern or western and shorter arm, called by the Turks Kara Su, " black water," or Frat Su (Armenian, Ephrat or Yephrat; Arab.
The southern or eastern and longer arm, called by the Turks Murad Su (Arsanias Fl.; Armenian, Aradzani; Arab.
It was then seized by the French, who in 1799 had to yield to the Russians and Turks.
Others had done a kindred work in a more distant field as helpers of the Eastern emperors against the Turks of Asia.
In 1828-1829 he fought under Wittgenstein against the Turks, won an action at Aidos, and signed the treaty of peace at Adrianople.
of Kolomea, near the Dniester, lies the village of Czernelica, with ruins of a strongly fortified castle, which served as the residence of John Sobieski during his campaigns against the Turks.
His Ode on the Taking of Khotin from the Turks was composed in 1739, and attracted a great deal of attention at St Petersburg.
The church, which was converted into a mosque by the Turks, was partly destroyed by earthquakes in 1818 and 1858.
In 1382 Sofia was captured by the Turks; in 1443 it was for a brief time occupied by the Hungarians under John Hunyady.
married a niece of the emperor Constantine Palaeologus, who had fallen fighting when his capital was taken by the Turks (1453).
As a precaution against Tatar invasions he founded fortified towns on his southern frontiers - Tambov, Kozlov, Penza and Simbirsk; but when the Don Cossacks offered him Azov, which they had captured from the Turks, and a National Assembly, convoked for the purpose of considering the question, were in favour of accepting it as a means of increasing Russian influence on the Black Sea, he decided that the town should be restored to the sultan, much to the disappointment of its captors.
Already the desire to make his country a great naval power was becoming his ruling passion, and when he found by experience that the White Sea, Russia's sole maritime outlet, had great practical inconveniences as a naval base, he revived the project of getting a firm footing on the shores of the Black Sea or the Baltic. At first he gave the preference to the former, and with the aid of a flotilla of small craft, constructed on a tributary of the Don, he succeeded in capturing Azov from the Turks.
It was intended that Russia should take what remained of the northern coast of the Black Sea, Austria should annex the Turkish provinces contiguous to her territory, the Danubian principalities and Bessarabia should be formed into an independent kingdom called Dacia, the Turks should be expelled from Europe, the Byzantine empire should be resuscitated, and the grand-duke Constantine, second son of the Russian heir-apparent, should be placed on the throne of the Palaeologi.
By the peace of Jassy, signed in January 1792, she retained Ochakov and the coast between the Bug and the Dniester, and she secured certain privileges for the Danubian principalities, but the Turks remained in Constantinople, and the realization of the famous Greek project, as it was termed, had to be indefinitely postponed.
England and France protested energetically and the treaty remained a dead letter, but the question came up again in 1840, after Mahmud's renewed attempt to crush Mehemet Ali had ended in the utter defeat of the Turks by Ibrahim at Nezib (June 24, 1839).
18 77-7 8, which ended in disappointment Though the campaign enabled him to recover Bessarabia at the expense of his Rumanian ally, it did not increase Russian prestige in the East, because the Russian army was repeatedly repulsed by the Turks, and when at last it reached Constantinople, it was prevented from entering the city by the threatening attitude of England and Austria.
Here he helped to arrange the alliance between the Papacy, Venice and Spain against the Turks, an alliance which was responsible for the victory of Lepanto.
Ockley's book on the Saracens " first opened his eyes " to the striking career of Mahomet and his hordes; and with his characteristic ardour of literary research, after exhausting all that could be learned in English of the Arabs and Persians, the Tatars and Turks, he forthwith plunged into the French of D'Herbelot, and the Latin of Pocock's version of Abulfaragius, sometimes understanding them, but oftener only guessing their meaning.
He aided the emperor in the Thirty Years' War, and the king of Poland against the Turks.
extremity, Suda, at the entrance to Suda harbour, and Spinalonga, in Mirabello Bay - remained for some time in the possession of Venice after the conquest of Crete by the Turks.
Their Venetian masters at least secured to the islanders external tranquillity, and it is singular that the Turks were content to leave them in undisturbed possession of this opulent and important island for nearly two centuries after the fall of Constantinople.
The Cretans themselves, however, were eager for a change, and, disappointed in the hope of a Genoese occupation, were ready, as is stated in the report of a Venetian commissioner, to exchange the rule of the Venetians for that of the Turks, whom they fondly expected to find more lenient, or at any rate less energetic, masters.
It was not till 1645 that the Turks made any serious attempt to effect the conquest of the island; but in that year they landed with an army of 50,000 men, and speedily reduced the important city of Canea.
This was the longest siege on record, having been protracted for more than twenty years; but in 1667 it was pressed with renewed vigour by the Turks under the grand vizier Ahmed Kuprili, and the city was at length compelled to surrender (September 1669).
Venice was allowed to retain possession of Grabusa, Suda and Spinalonga on the north, but in 1718 these three strongholds reverted to the Turks, and the island was finally lost to Venice.
They carried on hostilities with such success that they soon made themselves masters of the whole of the open country, and drove the Turks and Mussulman population to take refuge in the fortified cities.
In 1840 Crete was again taken from Mehemet Ali, and replaced under the dominion of the Turks, but fortunately Mustafa still retained his governorship until he left for Constantinople to become grand vizier in 1852.
This step paralysed the movements of Colonel Vassos, who after a few slight engagements with the Turks remained practically inactive in the interior.
The efforts of diplomacy were directed to allaying the resentment of the " Young Turks " on the one hand and the ardour of the Greek unionists on the other; and meanwhile the Cretan administration was carried on peaceably in the name of King George.
It was many times besieged by Poles, Hungarians, Tatars and Turks.
In 1675 it was besieged by Sobieski, and in 1679 it was plundered by the Turks.
which the Uzbeg Turks are dominant, and for the most part is inhabited by nomadic tribes, who are marauders, enjoying the reputation of being the worst among a race of professed robbers.
Farther south the best-known tribes are the Manchus, the Mongols proper, the Moguls and the Turks, all known under the name of Tatars, and to the ancients as Scythians, occupying from east to west the zone of Asia comprised between the 40th and 50th circles of N.
The Turks are Mahommedans; their tribes extend up the Oxus to the borders of Afghanistan and Persia, and to the Caspian, and under the name of Kirghiz into Russia, and their language is spoken over a large part of western Asia.
Turks and Mongols alike were doubtless included under the term Scyth by the ancients, and as Tatars by more modern writers, insomuch that the Turkish dynasty at Delhi, founded by Baber, is usually termed the Mogul dynasty, although there can be no distinction traced between the terms Mogul and Mongol.
The words " Asiatic " and " Oriental " are often used as if they denoted a definite and homogeneous type, but Russians resemble Asiatics in many ways, and Turks, Hindus, Chinese, &c., differ in so many important points that the common substratum is small.
We do not know if the Mongols, Turks, &c., had any earlier home than central Asia, but their extensive movements from that region are historical.
Linguistically they can be divided into several groups such as Turks, Mongols and Huns, but they were from time to time united into states representing more than one group, and their armies were recruited, like the Janissaries, from all the military races in the neighbourhood.
(iv.) The conquest of Asia Minor and eastern Europe by the Turks.
If this ancient civilized race was really allied to the ancestors of the Turks and Huns, it is a remarkable instance of how civilization thrives best by being transplanted at a certain period of growth.
It had not, however, a sufficiently coherent organization for permanence; parts of it became independent, others were first protected and then absorbed by the Turks.
The Roman empire kept back the Persians and Parthians, but could not prevent a series of incursions by Avars, Huns, Bulgarians, and later by Mongols and Turks.
Islam has twice obtained a footing in Europe, under the Arabs in Spain and under the Turks at Constantinople.
The Turks, and to some extent the Arabs in Spain, were successful because they first conquered the parts of Asia and Africa adjoining Europe, so that the final invaders were in touch with Asiatic settlements.
Though the Turks have profoundly affected the whole of eastern Europe, the result of their conquests has been not so much to plant Asiatic culture in Europe as to arrest development entirely, the countries under their rule remaining in much the same condition as under the moribund Byzantine empire.
In the r3th century Pisan merchants founded there a colony, Portus Pisanus, which, however, soon disappeared during the migrations of the Mongols and Turks.
In 1768 he quitted the Guards and was attached to the court as a Kammerherr, but in 1769 he volunteered for the Turkish War and distinguished himself at Khotin, Focshani and Larga, besides routing the Turks at Olta.
The Caucasian races (except the Gregorians), together with the Turks and Tatars, are Mussulmans of the Sunnite sect (2,021,300), and the Iranian races mostly Mussulmans of the Shiite sect (884, too).
At that period the Georgians were divided into various petty principalities, the chief of which were Imeretia and Georgia (Kharthlia), owing at times a more or less shadowy allegiance to the sultan of the Ottoman Turks at Constantinople.
In 1770, during the course of a war between Russia and Turkey, the Russians crossed over the Caucasus and assisted the Imeretians to resist the Turks, and from the time of the ensuing peace of Kuchuk-kainarji the Georgian principalities looked to their powerful northern neighbour as their protector against the southern aggressors the Turks.
During the RussoTurkish War of 1877-78 the self-exiled Circassians and other Caucasian mountaineers, supported by a force of 14,000 Turks, made a determined attempt to wrest their native glens from the power of Russia; but, after suffering a severe defeat at the hands of General Alkhazov, the Turks withdrew, and were accompanied by some 30,000 Abkhasians, who settled in Asia Minor.
It was both in ancient and medieval times closely connected with Rhodes; it was held by noble families under Venetian suzerainty, notably the Cornari from 1306 to 1540, when it finally passed into the possession of the Turks.
The chief direct result in the life of the Egyptian people was the virtual destruction of the governing caste of the Mamelukes, the Turks finding it easy to rid themselves of their surviving chiefs and to re-establish the authority of the Sultan.
Napoleon also promised to mediate between Russia and Turkey in the interests of the former, and (in case the Porte refused to accept the proffered terms) to help Russia to drive the Turks from Europe, "the city of Constantinople and the province of Rumelia alone excepted."
Our earliest information about the Ephthalites comes from the Chinese chronicles, in which it is stated that they were originally a tribe of the great Yue-Chi, living to the north of the Great Wall, and in subjection to the Jwen-Jwen, as were also the Turks at one time.
The Persians were not quit of the Ephthalites until 557 when Chosroes Anushirwan destroyed their power with the assistance of the Turks, who now make their first appearance in western Asia.
About a year after this he died (c. 540), and shortly afterwards the Ephthalites collapsed under the attacks of the Turks.
The Chinese writers say that their customs were like those of the Turks; that they had no cities, lived in felt tents, were ignorant of writing and practised polyandry.
The Chinese statement that the Hoa or Ye-tha were a section of the great Yue-Chi, and that their customs resembled those of the Turks (Tu-Kiue), is probably correct, but does not amount to much, for the relationship did not prevent them from fighting with the Yue-Chi and Turks, and means little more than that they belonged to the warlike and energetic section of central Asian nomads, which is in any case certain.
This may, however, be due to the fact that their contact with civilization was so short; the Yue-Chi and Turks had had some commerce with more advanced races before they played any part in political history, but the Ephthalites appear as raw barbarians, and were annihilated as a nation in little more than a hundred years.
The carvings round the north, south and west doors have been partially defaced by the Turks.
Ramnicu Sarat was the scene of battles between the Moldavians and the Walachians in 1434 and 1573, and between the Walachians and Turks in 1634.
Here also, in 1789, an Austro-Russian army defeated the Turks.
(On the largest of these lions is cut a runic inscription recording an attack on the Piraeus in the 11th century by Norse warriors of the Varangian guard, under Harold Hardrada, afterwards - s047 - king of Norway.) The arsenal suffered frequently and severely from fires, the worst being those of 1509 and 1569; yet such was the wealth of Venice that in the following year she put upon the seas the fleet that crushed the Turks at Lepanto in 1571.
Contemporaneously other events were menacing the ascendancy and exhausting the treasury of the republic. In 1453 Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks, and although Venice entered at once into treaty with the new power and desired to trade with it, not to fight with it, yet it was impossible that her possessions in the Levant and the archipelago should not eventually bring her into collision with the expanding energy of the Mussulman.
and his son James III., Caterina Cornaro, James II.'s widow, ceding the kingdom of Cyprus to Venice, since she could not hope to maintain it unaided against the Turks.
Dread of the Turks and dread of Spain were the two terrors which haunted Venice till the republic fell.
Between 1499 and 1716 she went to war four times with the Turks, emerging from each campaign with some further loss of maritime territory.
In three arduous campaigns, the two first of which were conducted by the emperor himself while the third was directed by Manuel Comnenus, the Turks were defeated in detail and finally (1070) driven across the Euphrates.
At the capture of Constantinople by the Turks (1453) he fell into their hands, but managed to escape to Peloponnesus, where he obtained protection at the court of Thomas Palaeologus, despot of Achaea.
They protected Europe from the new revival of Mahommedanism under the Turks; they gave it a time of rest in which the Western civilization of the middle ages developed.
But still worse for the Latins was the capture of Jerusalem by the Seljukian Turks in 1071.
Without being intolerant, the Turks were a rougher and ruder race than the Arabs of Egypt whom they displaced; while the wars between the Fatimites of Egypt and the Abbasids of Bagdad, whose cause was represented by the Seljuks, made Syria (one of the natural battle-grounds of history) into a troubled and unquiet region.
In much the same way, at a later date and in a lesser sphere, the closing of the traderoutes by the advance of the Ottoman Turks led traders to endeavour to find new channels, and issued in the rounding of the Cape of Good Hope and the discovery of America.
The Seljukian Turks, first the mercenaries and then the masters of the caliph, had given new life to the decadent caliphate of Bagdad.
The result of the defeat was the loss of almost the whole of Asia Minor; the dominions of the Turks extended to the sea of Marmora.
It is very probable that the versions of this letter which we possess, and which are to be found only in later writings like Guibert de Nogent, are apocryphal; Alexius can hardly have held out the bait of the beauty of Greek women, or have written that he preferred to fall under the yoke of the Latins rather than that of the Turks.
The crusading princes were well enough aware of the gulf which divided the caliph of Cairo from the Sunnite princes of Syria; and they sought by envoys to put themselves into connexion with him, hoping by his aid to gain Jerusalem (which was then ruled for the Turks by Sokman, the son of the amir Ortok).
In any case, he is the founder of the Latin kingdom of Cyprus (for he afterwards sold his new acquisition to Guy de Lusignan, who established a dynasty in the island); and thereby he made possible the survival of the institutions and assizes of Jerusalem, which were continued in Cyprus until it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
In the second place, as the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem fell, its institutions and assizes were transplanted bodily to Cyprus, where they survived until the island was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
The Mamelukes, who are analogous to the janissaries of the Ottoman Turks, were made of sterner and more fanatical stuff; and Bibars, the greatest of these Mamelukes, who had commanded at Gaza in 1244, had been one of the leaders in 1250, and was destined to become sultan in 1260, was the sternest and most fanatical of them all.
From 1350 onwards the Crusade assumes a new aspect; it becomes defensive, and it is directed against the Ottoman Turks, a tribe of Turcomans who had established themselves in the sultanate of Iconium at the end of the 13th century, during the confusion and displacement of peoples which attended the Mongol invasions.
As early as 1308 the Ottoman Turks had begun to settle in Europe; by 1350 they had organized their terrible army of janissaries.
It was natural that the popes should endeavour to form a coalition between the various Christian powers which were threatened by the Turks; and Venice, anxious to preserve her possessions in the Aegean, zealously seconded their efforts.
The Turks continued their progress; in 1363 they captured Philippopolis, and in 1365 they entered Adrianople; the whole Balkan peninsula was threatened, and even Hungary itself seemed doomed.
sought to unite the king of Hungary and the king of Cyprus in a common Crusade against the Turks; but it was not till 1396 that an attempt was at last made to supplement by a land Crusade the naval Crusades of 1344 and 1345.
Ottoman Turks, scattered gipsy communities, German settlers in north Palestine, and all sorts of Europeans make up a heterogeneous and incompatible population.
Nagykanizsa once ranked as the second fortress of Hungary, and consequently played an important part during the wars with the Turks, who, having gained possession of it in 1600, held it until, in 1690, after a siege of two years, it was recovered by the Austrian and Hungarian forces.
The Turks were defeated here in 1492 by Maximilian I., and an engagement between the Austrians and the French took place here on the 21st of August 1813.
In 1141 he was taken captive by the Turks (Seljuks) and remained in their hands for a year.
The Acciajuoli dynasty lasted till June 1458, when the Acropolis after a stubborn resistance was taken by the Turks under Omar, the general of the sultan Mahommed II., who had occupied the lower city in 1456.
They withdrew in the following year, when the Turks set fire to the city.
Several ancient monuments were sacrificed to provide material for a new wall with which the Turks surrounded the city in 1778.
Athens again fell into the hands of the Turks in 1826, who bombarded and took the Acropolis in the following year; the Erechtheum suffered greatly, and the monument of Thrasyllus was destroyed.
The Turks remained in possession of the Acropolis till 1833, when Athens was chosen as the capital of the newly established kingdom of Greece; since that date the history of the city forms part of that of modern Greece.
Not only had the friars great difficulty in supporting themselves, but they dreaded an outbreak from the fanatical Turks who resented some imprudent manifestations of Loyola's zeal.
He now formed the design of joining the Austrian army, for the purpose of campaigning against the Turks, and so crossed over from Dover to Calais with Gibbon, who, writing to his friend Lord Sheffield, calls his fellow-passenger "Mr SecretaryColonel-Admiral-Philosopher Thompson."
of these, according to the calendar, is the " Lesser Festival," called by the Turks Kiitshiik Bairdm (" Lesser Bairam "), or Sheker Bairam (" Sugar Bairam "), and by Arabic-speaking Moslems id al-Fitr (" Festival of Fast-breaking "), or Al-'id as saghir (" Lesser Festival ").
It is, therefore, also called by Turks Ramadan Bairam, and exhibits more outward signs of rejoicing than the technically " Greater Festival."
The second, or " Greater Festival," is called by the Turks Qurban Bairain, Sacrifice Bairam," and by Arabic speakers Al-'id al-kabir, " Greater Festival," or I d al-a4ci, "Festival of Sacrifice."
Charles of France now advanced formal claims on the kingdom, and Alexander drew him to his side and authorized him to pass through Rome ostensibly on a crusade against the Turks, without mentioning Naples.
But a reaction against Charles soon set in, for all the powers were alarmed at his success, and on the 31st of March a league between the pope, the emperor, Venice, Lodovico it Moro and Ferdinand of Spain was formed, ostensibly against the Turks, but in reality to expel the French from Italy.
in 1459 to resist the inroads of the Turks.
The emperor John Palaeologus, pressed hard by the Turks, showed a great desire to unite himself with the Catholics; he consented to come with the principal representatives of the Greek church to some place in the west where the union could be concluded in the presence of the pope and of the Latin council.
The Turks and Caicos islands continue the outer line, and belong geographically to the archipelago, but not politically.
The Bahamas began again to make a little progress, until the separation of Turks.
The construction of carriage-roads, wholly neglected by the Turks, was carried, out on a large scale by the Austrians.
Thus the Roman Catholics prefer the name of Croats, Hrvats or Latins; the Orthodox, of Serbs; the Moslems, of Turks.
Polygamy is almost unknown, possibly because many of the "Turks" are descended from the austere Bogomils, who were, in most cases, converted to Islam, but more probably because the "Turks" are as a rule too poor to provide for more than one wife on the scale required by Islamic law.
In a few cases, such as the Begova Dzamia at Serajevo, the Foea mosques and the Mostar bridge, the buildings raised by the Turks are of high architectural merit.
The death of Stephen Dushan, in 1356, had left his empire defenceless against the Hungarians, Turks and other enemies; and to win help from Bosnia the Servian tsar Lazar ceded to Tvrtko a large tract of territory, including the principality of Tribunia.
Ostojic died in 1461, and his successor Tomasevic (Stephen VII., 1461-1463) surrendered to the Turks and was beheaded.
From 1463 the greater part of the country submitted to the Turks; but the districts of Jajce and Srebrenica were occupied by Hungarian garrisons, and organized as a separate "banate" or "kingdom of Bosnia," until 1526, when the Hungarian power was broken at Mohacs.
Ostoja (Stephen III., 1398-1418), an illegitimate son of Tvrtko, proved a puppet in the hands of Hrvoje Vukcic, duke of Spalato, Sandalj Hranic, 3 and other leaders of the aristocracy, who fought indifferently against the Turks, the Hungarians, the king or one another.
During the reigns of Ostojic (Stephen IV., 1418-14 21) and Tvrtkovic (Stephen V., 1421-1444) Bosnia was thus left an easy prey to the Turks, who exacted a yearly tribute, after again ravaging the country, and carrying off many thousands of slaves, with a vast store of plunder.
The losses inflicted on the Turks by Hunyadi Janos, and the attempt to organize a defensive league among the neighbouring Christian lands, temporarily averted the ruin of all the neighbouring lands were governed by Moslems or Roman Catholics; and at home the peasants were permitted to retain their creed and communal organization.
These conditions lasted until the 19th century, and meanwhile the country was involved in the series of wars waged by the Turks against Austria, Hungary and Venice.
The treaties of Carlowitz (1699) and Passarowitz (1718) deprived the Turks of all the Primorje, or littoral of Herzegovina, except the narrow enclaves of Klek and Suttorina, left to sunder the Ragusan dominions from those of Venice.
(1808-1839) was bitterly resented in Bosnia, where Turkish prestige had already been weakened range east of Mostar, rose against the Turks.
But the Turkish reform movement of 1908 seemed to promise a revival of Ottoman power, which might in time have enabled the Turks to demand the promised evacuation, and thus to reap all the ultimate benefits of the Austrian administration.
The Turks proved everywhere successful.
The Osmanlis or Turks are.
In July of that year the sultan Abd-ul-Hamid capitulated to the Young Turks and restored by Irade (July 24) the constitution which he had granted in December 1876 and suspended on the 14th of February 1878.
A reactionary movement started in April 1909 was promptly suppressed by the Young Turks through the military occupation of Constantinople by Shevket Pasha and the dethronement of Abd-ul-Hamid, who was succeeded by his younger brother Reshad Effendi under the title of Mahommed V.
The revenues produced by the customs duties for the five years1905-1906to1909-1910are as follows: Finance Preliminary Sketch.-From the outset of their history the Osmanli Turks adapted to their own needs most of the political, economic and administrative institutions which existed before them.
Fraser, The Short Cut to India (London, 1909); with the books cited under Turks and in articles on the separate divisions of the empire and on Mahommedan law, institutions and religion.
C. *) History Legend assigns to Oghuz, son of Kara Khan, the honour of being the father of the Ottoman Turks.
At this period the state of the Byzantine Empire was such as to render its powers of resistance insignificant; indeed the length of time during which it held out against the Turks is to be attributed rather to the lack of efficacious means at the disposal of its assailants than to any qualities possessed by its defenders.
Thus the Turks learnt the country of the Greeks and their weakness.
The states beyond the Balkan now began to dread the advance of the Turks; at the instigation of the pope an allied army of 60,000 Serbs, Hungarians, Walachians and Moldavians attacked Lala Shahin.
The king of Servia was killed and his army cut to pieces, though the Turks numbered but 40,000 and had all the disadvantage of the position.
The exiled princes took refuge with the Kizil Ahmedli, ruler of Kastamuni, who persuaded the Walachians to rebel against the Turks.
After devastating Georgia in 1401 he marched against the Turks.
and there laid hands on the treasure of Bayezid; one after another the cities of the Turks were seized and plundered by the 'Tatars.
In 1442 Hunyadi drove the Turks from Hermannstadt and, at the head of an army of Hungarians, Poles, Servians, Walachians and German crusaders, succeeded in the ensuing year in expelling them from Semendria, penetrating as far as the Balkans, where he inflicted heavy losses on the Turkish general.
The pope urged the king of Hungary to take advantage of this favourable opportunity by breaking the truce solemnly agreed upon, and nineteen days after it had been concluded a coalition was formed against the Turks; a large army headed by Ladislaus I., king of Hungary, Hunyadi, voivode of Walachia, and Cardinal Cesarini crossed the Danube and reached Varna, where they hoped to be joined by the Greek emperor.
In 1448 Hunyadi, now governor of Hungary, collected the largest army yet mustered by the Hungarians against the Turks, but he was defeated on the famous field of Kossovo and with difficulty escaped, while most of the chivalry of Hungary fell.
Two years later internal dissensions in Servia brought about the conquest of the whole country by the Turks, only Belgrade remaining in the hands of the Hungarians.
The conquest of Bosnia, rendered necessary by the war with Venice, was next completed, in spite of the reverses inflicted on the Turks by the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus, the son of Janos Hunyadi.
The Turks continued to press the Venetians by land and sea; Albania, which under Scanderberg had for twenty-five years resisted the Ottoman arms, was overrun; and Venice was forced to agree to a treaty by which she ceded to Turkey Scutari and KroIa, and consented to pay an indemnity of ioo,000 ducats (Jan.
But a land attack on southern Italy at the same time was successful, Otranto being captured and held for a time by the Turks.
Thus, in 1492 the Turks made incursions into Carinthia as far as Laibach, and into Styria as far as Cilli, committing unspeakable atrocities; in 1493 they overran both Styria and Croatia.
In 1494 a crushing victory of the emperor Maximilian drove the Turks out of Styria, which they did not venture again to invade during his reign.
In 1496 the temporary armistice between the Poles and Turks, renewed in 1493, came to an end, and John Albert, king of Poland, seized the occasion to invade Moldavia.
The efforts of Ladislaus of Hungary to mediate were vain, and the years 1497 and 1498 were marked by a terrible devastation of Poland by the Ottomans; only the bitter winter, which is said to have killed 40,000 Turks, prevented the devastation from being more complete.
Meanwhile, in June 1499, war had again broken out with Venice, mainly owing to the intervention of the pope and emperor, who, with Milan, Florence and Naples, urged the sultan to crush the republic. On the 28th of July the Turks gained over the Venetians at Sapienza their first great victory at sea; and this was followed by the capture of Lepanto, at which Bayezid was present, and by the conquest of the Morea and most of the islands of the archipelago.
Budapest hereupon fell to the Turks, who appointed John.
Zapolya joined the Turks at Mohacs, and a joint attack was made on Budapest.
The Turks then marched on Vienna, which was bombarded and closely invested, but so valiant was the resistance offered that after three weeks the siege was abandoned (Oct.
In 1542 a formal alliance was concluded between Suleiman and Francis I.; the Ottoman fleet was placed at the disposal of the king of France, and in August 1543, the Turks under Barbarossa, and the French under the duke of Enghien, laid siege to Nice.
This was raised of ter two months, and Martinuzzi took advantage of the retirement of the Turks to raise an army and recapture Lippa.
The campaign of 1552 was disastrous for the Austrians; the Turks, under the command of Ahmed Pasha, defeated them at Szegedin and captured in turn Veszprem, Temesvar, Szolnok and other places.
A disastrous attack on Astrakhan, with the object of carrying out Sokolli's plan for uniting the' Don and the Volga, first brought the Turks into collision with the Russians.
On the 7th of October was fought the naval battle of Lepanto, which broke for ever the tradition of the invincibility of the Turks at sea.
With Spain the war continued, and on the 24th of August 1574 Tunis - which had been taken by Don John of Austria in 1572 - was recaptured by the Turks, who from this new base proceeded, under Sinan Pasha and Kilij Ali, to ravage Sicily.'
In June 1593, with an army of 30,000 men, he laid siege to Sissek; the Austrian and Hungarian levies hurried to its relief; and on the 22nd the Turks were routed with immense slaughter on the banks of the Kulpa, Hassan himself, with many other beys and two of the imperial princes, being among the slain.
But the Turks did not profit much by their victory.
The campaign of 1598 began with the loss of Raab, and continued unfavourable to the Turks, who lost Totis, Veszprem and Papa, and were hard pressed in Budapest.
In 1599 the first peace overtures were made, but came to nothing; and the confused fighting of this and the following year culminated in the capture of Kanizsa by the Turks (September 1600).
In August 1602 Szekesfehervar again fell into the hands of the Turks; in November the siege of Buda by the archduke Matthias, who had taken Pest by storm, was raised by the grand vizier Hassan.
The result was that the Turks in retaliation deprived the Catholics, always under the protection of France, of some of their privileges in connexion with the holy places, which were now granted to the Orthodox Church.
Meanwhile the Cretan campaign continued, and here also France lent her aid to the Venetians; this assistance could not, however, prevent the capture of Candia in 1669; on the 5th of September of that year Morosini, the Venetian commander, signed a treaty of peace with the Turks by which, after twenty-five years' warfare, they were placed in possession of the fortress of Candia, and with it of the effective rule over the whole island, Venice retaining only the fortresses of Suda, Grabusa and Spinalonga, and the islets along the coast.
The Turks captured Kamenets, Lemberg and Lublin.
In 1678 the Turks succeeded in taking Cehrin, but their losses were very heavy, and on the 8th of January 1681 a treaty was signed at Radzyn whereby the territory in dispute was ceded to Russia.
The successes of the Turks were not maintained, the Austrians inflicting on them a crushing defeat at Slankamen, where Mustafa Kuprili was killed, and driving them from Hungary.
The tide of success now turned again in favour of the Turks, who recaptured Karansebes and Lippa, and at Lugos exterminated by the weight of overwhelming numbers an Austrian force under Field-marshal Count Friedrich von Veterani (1630-1695), the hero of many victories over the Turks, who was killed in the battle.
Elsewhere, too, the Ottoman arms were victorious; in February the Venetians suffered a double defeat in the roadstead of Chios, and the island fell into the hands of the Turks.
But Prince Eugene's genius restored the Austrian fortunes, and the Turks were utterly routed at Zenta on Mustafa I>:, the Theiss, losing more than 15,000 men (1697).
Russia, driven from Azov in 1695, succeeded in capturing it in the following year; Venice continued to press the Turks; in this condition of affairs Hussein Kuprili (q.v.) was called to office; England and Holland urged Turkey to Ibrahim, Ahmed II., 1691-1695.
The Turks succeeded in surrounding Peter the Great near the Pruth, and his army was menaced with total destruction, when the Turkish commander, the grand vizier Baltaji Mahommed Pasha, was induced by the presents and entreaties of the empress Catherine to sign the preliminary treaty of the Pruth (July 21, 1711), granting terms of peace far more favourable than were justified by the situation of the Russians.
Near Peterwardein a great battle was fought, in which the Austrians completely routed the Turks; pursuing their advantage they took Temesvar and overran the Banat; in 1717 they captured Belgrade, the Turks retreating to Adrianople.
But Nadir Kuli Khan came forward as the champion of Shah Tahmasp II., the rightful ruler, and drove the Turks from these provinces, capturing Tabriz.
But the Ottomans, though the negotiations continued throughout 1738, were in no hurry to come to terms; for the tide of war had turned against both Austrians and Russians; Ochakov and Kinburn were recaptured; and the victorious Turks crossed the Danube and penetrated far into the Banat.
When, in the spring of 1769, the first serious campaign was opened by a simultaneous attack by three Russian armies on the principalities, the Crimea and the buffer state of Kabardia, the Turks, in spite of ample warning, were unprepared.
The campaign of 1771, which opened with a gleam of success in the capture of Giurgevo, proved yet more disastrous to the Turks, the Russians passing the Danube and completing the conquest of the Crimea.
Russia, however, retained the fortresses of Kerch, Yenikale and Kinburn, with the desert country between the Bug and the Dnieper, while Ochakov was left to the Turks.
The Turks drove back the Austrians from Mehadia and overran the Banat (1789); but in Moldavia Romanzov was successful and captured Jassy and Khotin.
The new pasha of Belgrade appointed one Milosh Obrenovich headman of his own district, but a few years later Milosh raised a successful revolt, drove out the Turks, and re-established Servian semi-independence.
The first hope of emancipation from the Turkish yoke had been founded by the Greeks on Peter the Great, who had planned the expulsion of the Turks from Europe and had caused the inscription " Petrus I., Russo-Graecorum Monarcha " to be placed beneath his portrait engraved at Amsterdam.
During the war of 1770 the Greeks had risen in an abortive rebellion, promptly crushed by the Turks.
The Morea was quickly overrun; in April 1826 Missolonghi fell, after a heroic defence; in June 1827 Athens was once more in the hands of the Turks.
The war that followed proved once more the wonderful resisting power of the Turks.
Lord Aberdeen made no secret of his dislike for the Turks, and openly expressed his disbelief in the reality of their reforms; and in January 1853 the tsar, in conversation with Sir Hamilton Seymour, the British ambassador at St Petersburg, spoke of the Ottoman Empire as " the Sick Man," and renewed the proposals for a partition made in 1844.
Rumania joined the Russians, and in Europe no effective opposition was encountered by the invaders until the assaults on Plevna and the Shipka Pass, where the valiant resistance of the Turks won for them the admiration of Europe.
By November the defence of the Turks in Asia Minor had entirely collapsed.
It was strengthened by the fact that the Young Turks had deliberately abstained from violent action.
In these circumstances the headquarters of the Young Turks were transferred from Paris to Salonica, where a central body, known as the committee of union and progress, was established (1908) to organize the revolution.
This affair however was of little more than local importance, and the Young Turks were not directly concerned in it.
The success of the Young Turks created a serious situation for the statesmen of Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.
Meanwhile the Young Turks were confronted with many difficulties within the empire.
In Asia Minor the Kurdish troops under Ibrahim Pasha revolted, and, although they were defeated with the loss of their commander, the Kurds continued to attack indiscriminately the Turks, Nestorians and Armenians; disturbances also broke out among the other reactionary Moslems of this region, culminating in a massacre of the Armenians at Adana.
In all literary matters the Ottoman Turks have shown themselves a singularly uninventive people, the two great schools, the old and the new, into which we may divide their literature, being closely modelled, the one after the classics of Persia, the other after those of modern Europe, and more especially of France.
Why Persian rather than Arabian or any other literature became the model of Ottoman writers is explained by the early history of the race (see Turks).
Some two centuries before the arrival of the Turks in Asia Minor the Seljuks, then a mere horde of savages, had overrun Persia, where they settled and adopted the civilization of the people they had subdued.
His language, which is very peculiar, seems to be a sort of mixture of the Ottoman and Azerbaijan dialects of Turkish, and was most probably that of the Persian Turks of those days.
(For the Turkish language see Turks.) (E.
It reached Marmorice Bay, in Asia Minor, on the 31st of January, to arrange a co-operation with the Turks, and after some delay the army was transported and landed in Egypt, on the 7th and 8th of March.
This was abandoned about 1880 when the Turks established a similar service.
From that time it continued for a long period an object of contention between the Turks and the Persians.
Since the reconquest of Yemen by the Turks, they have made repeated attempts to subjugate Asir, but beyond occupying Kanfuda, and holding one or two isolated points in the interior, of which Ibha and Manadir are the principal, they have effected nothing.
by the same (Leiden, 1900); two other smaller works, the Excellences of the Turks and the Superiority in Glory of the Blacks over the Whites, also prepared by the same.
In 1824, after the conquest of Psara by the Turks, he commanded the Greek forces which prevented the further progress of the Sultan's fleet, though at the cost of the loss of many fire ships and men to themselves.
The inhabitants are Greeks, Armenians and Turks.
In the course of the middle ages the northern parts of Thrace and some other districts of that country were occupied by a Bulgarian population; and in 1361 the Turks made themselves masters of Adrianople, which for a time became the Turkish capital.
When Constantinople fell in 1453 the whole country passed into the hands of the Turks, and in their possession it remained until 1878, when, in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Berlin, the northern portion of it was placed under a separate administration, with the title of Eastern Rumelia; this province has now become, to all intents and purposes, a part of the principality of Bulgaria.
The population is composed of Turks, Greeks and Bulgarians.
Under Venetian protection, freely accepted in 1401, the inhabitants maintained their municipal independence and commercial prosperity down to the destruction of the Venetian republic in 1797, though on two occasions, in 1500 and 1560, their city was burned by the Turks.
The Turks: used to call it Darol-i-Jehad, " the home of wars for faith."
From 1 739 to 1789 the Turks were again its masters, when, in that last year, the Austrians under General Laudon carried it by assault, only to lose it again in 1792.
In 1807 the Servians, having risen for their independence, forced the Turkish garrison to capitulate, and became masters of Belgrade, which they kept until the end of September 1813, when they abandoned it to the Turks.
Up to the year 1862 not only was the fortress of Belgrade garrisoned by Turkish troops, but the Danubian slope of the town was inhabited by Turks, living under a special Turkish administration, while the modern part of the town (the plateau of the ridge and the western slope) was inhabited by Servians living under their own authorities.
This dual government was a constant cause of friction between the Servians and the Turks, and on the occasion of one conflict between the two parties the Turkish commander of the fortress bombarded the Servian part of the town (June 1862).
The Egyptians and Turks had only three line of battleships and fifteen large frigates, together with a swarm of small craft which raised their total number to eighty and upwards.
The Turks fired, killing Lieutenant G.
The loss of the Turks and Egyptians was never accurately reported, but it was certainly very great.
It not only made the efforts of the Turks to suppress the Greek revolt hopeless, but it made a breach difficult to heal in the traditional friendship between Great Britain and Turkey, which had its effect during the critical period of the struggle between Mehemet Ali and the Porte (1831-1841).
Within eighty years the Russians had reached the Amur and the Pacific. This rapid conquest is accounted for by the circumstance that neither Tatars nor Turks were able to offer any serious resistance.
In 1040 the Seljuk Turks crossed the Oxus from the north, and having defeated Masud, sultan of Ghazni, raised Toghrul Beg, grandson of Seljuk, to the throne of Persia, founding the Seljukian dynasty, with its capital at Nishapur.
Pop. 8000 and upward, about one-tenth Christians; except in the official classes, there are no Turks.
In 1678 it was recaptured by the Venetians, but was again restored in 1699, by the treaty of Karlowitz to the Turks; in the war of independence it finally became Greek once more (March 1829).
He wrote a history, in ten books, of the period from 1298-1463, describing the fall of the Greek empire and the rise of the Ottoman Turks, which forms the centre of the narrative, down to the conquest of the Venetians and Mathias, king of Hungary, by Mahommed II.
The town has a special historical interest for the heroic and successful defence of the fortress by Nicolas Jurisics against a large army of Sultan Soliman, in July - August 1532, which frustrated the advance of the Turks to Vienna for that year.
It was taken by the Danishmand Amirs of Sivas early in the 12th century, and passed to the Turks in 1 393.
Throughout the middle ages it was the scene of vigorous struggles between Sla y s, Byzantines, Franks, Turks and Venetians, the chief memorials of which are the ruined strongholds of Mistra near Sparta, Gerald (anc. Geronthrae) and Monemvasia, "the Gibraltar of Greece," on the east coast, and Passava near Gythium.
They had all along maintained a virtual independence of the Turks and until quite recently retained their medieval customs, living in fortified towers and practising the vendetta or blood-feud.
Bocskay, to save the independence of Transylvania, assisted the Turks; and in 1605, as a reward for his part in driving Basta out of Transylvania, the Hungarian diet, assembled at Modgyes, elected him prince (1605), on which occasion the Ottoman sultan sent a special embassy to congratulate him and a splendid jewelled crown made in Persia.
Simultaneously, at Zsitvatorok, a peace, confirmatory of the peace of Vienna, was concluded with the Turks.
Conquered by the Seljuks of Konia, and made the capital of the province of Tekke, it passed after their fall through many hands, including those of the Venetians and Genoese, before its final occupation by the Ottoman Turks under Murad II.
The Turks regard it as one of the strongholds of their dominion and faith, and a future capital of their empire should they be forced into Asia.
The knights of south Germany especially prized the swords and armour of this town, and many of the weapons used in campaigns against the Turks and in the Seven Years' War are said to have been manufactured at Suhl.
The disastrous invasion of the Turks, incessant civil wars and devastation by foreign armies and pestilence, caused a very heavy loss both of population and of prosperity.
During the long reign of Sigismund (1387-1437) Hungary was brought face to face with the Turkish peril in its most threatening shape, and all the efforts of the king were directed Turkish Turks crossed the Hellespont from Asia Minor and p began that career of conquest which made them the terror of Europe for the next three centuries.
Hungary herself was now directly menaced, and the very circumstances which had facilitated the advance of the Turks, enfeebled the potential resistance of the Magyars.
3 From the first he recognized that his chief duty was to drive the Turks from Europe, or, at least, keep them out of Hungary, and this noble ambition was the pivot of his whole policy.
It argued no ordinary foresight thus to recognize that Hungary's strategy in her contest with the Turks must be strictly defensive, and the wisdom of Sigismund was justified by the disasters which almost invariably overcame the later Magyar kings whenever they ventured upon aggressive warfare with the sultans.
The estates loyally supported him against the attempted exactions of the popes, and do not seem to have objected to any of his reforms, chief among which was the army-reform project of 1435, to provide for the better defence of the land against the Turks.
On returning to Buda in 1439, he at once plunged into a war with the Turks, who had, in the meantime, captured the important Servian fortress of Semendria and subjugated the greater part of Bosnia.
All this time the pressure of the Turks upon the southern provinces of Hungary had been continuous, but fortunately all their efforts had so far been frustrated by the valour and generalship of the ban of Szoreny, John Hunyadi, the fame of whose victories, notably in 1442 and 1443, encouraged the Holy See to place Hungary for the third time at the head of a general crusade against the infidel.
Throughout his reign the Czechs and the Germans were every whit as dangerous to Hungary as the Turks, and the political necessity which finally compelled Matthias to partition Austria and Bohemia, in order to secure Hungary, committed him to a policy of extreme circumspection.
died on the r3th of March 1516, two years after the " Savage Diet," the ferocity of whose decrees he had feebly endeavoured to mitigate, leaving his two Subjection kingdoms to his son Louis, a child of ten, who was by the pronounced of age in order that his foreignguardians, Turks.
The Turks had no sooner quitted the land than John Zapolya, voivode of Transylvania, assembled a diet at Tokaj (Oct.
The determination of Ferdinand to partition Hungary rather than drive the Turks out, which he might easily have done after Suleiman's unsuccessful attempts on Vienna in 1529-1530, led to a prolongation of the struggle till the 24th of February 1538, when, by the secret peace of Nagyvarad, 3 Hungary was divided between the two competitors.
Why do they not defend the realm against the Turks?
It was a confused four-cornered struggle between the emperor and the Turks, the Turks and Transylvania, Michael of Moldavia and Y ?
Transylvania, and Transylvania and the emperor, desultory and languishing as regards the Turks (the one notable battle being Sigismund Bathory's brilliant victory over the 2 At first the Habsburgs held their court at Prague instead of at Vienna.
The fortress of Ersekujvar and surrounding territory were now ceded to the Turks, with the result that royal Hungary was not only still further diminished, but its northern practically separated from its southern portion.
This was partly owing to the fact that national aspirations of any sort were contrary to the imperial system, which claimed to rule by right divine, and partly to an inveterate distrust of the Magyars, who were regarded at court as rebels by nature, and therefore as enemies far more troublesome than the Turks.
For the next six years the war languished owing to the timidity of the emperor, the incompetence of his generals and the exhaustion of the Porte; but on the 11th of September 1697 Prince Eugene of Savoy routed the Turks at Zenta and on the 13th of November 1698 a peace-congress was opened at Karlowitz which resulted in the peace of that name (Jan.
But the liberation of Hungary from the Turks brought no relief to the Hungarians.
whole of Hungary except Syrmia and the territory g Y p Y Y the peace of Passarowitz (July 21, 1718), by which the Temeskaz was also freed from the Turks, and Servia, Northern Bosnia and Little Walachia, all of them ancient conquests of Hungary, were Once more incorporated with the territories of the crown of St Stephen.
Badakshan proper is peopled by Tajiks, Turks and Arabs, who speak the Persian and Turki languages, and profess the orthodox doctrines of the Mahommedan law adopted by the Sunnite sect; while the mountainous districts are inhabited by Tajiks, professing the Shiite creed and speaking distinct dialects in different districts.
- It was peculiarly unfortunate for AustriaHungary that the Cuvaj regime should have been at its very height when the Balkan League achieved its dramatic victory over the Turks.
In 1648 and 1655 it was besieged by the Cossacks, and in 1672 by the Turks.
"ENVER PASHA (188r -), leader of the Young Turks, was of very humble origin.
The new Vizier, Mohamed Shevket, was assassinated in June 1913, and this further enraged the Committee against the Old Turks and the Union Liberale.
She did not live very happily with her new husband, who was warlike and self-willed, and when he was taken prisoner by the Turks (1071) she was compelled to vacate the throne in favour of her son Michael and retire to a convent, where she died.
The theory that it is possible for a thing to be theologically true and philosophically false, and the doctrine of the mortality of the human soul, were both repudiated; while a three years' tithe on all church property was set apart to provide funds for a war against the Turks.
The Banat was conquered by the Turks in 1552, and remained a Turkish sanjak (province) till 1716, when Prince Eugene of Savoy liberated it from the Turkish yoke.
From that date it was remarkable for its adherence to their side, especially in 1553 when it repulsed two attacks of the united forces of the French and Turks.
Here the Russians defeated the Turks in 1853.
At the beginning of his reign he ordered a recast of the coinage, with serious results to commerce; civil officials were deprived of offices, which had been conferred free, but were now put up to auction; duties were imposed on exported merchandise and on goods brought into Paris; the practice of exacting heavy fines was encouraged by making the salaries of the magistrates dependent on them; and on the pretext of a crusade to free Armenia from the Turks, Charles obtained from the pope a tithe levied on the clergy, the proceeds of which he kept for his own use; he also confiscated the property of the Lombard bankers who had been invited to France by his father at a time of financial crisis.
Unsuccessfully besieged by the Turks in 1552, it was captured by them in the following year after a heroic resistance.
The question of the mastering of this all-important lower waterway in the event of a contest with the Turks had indeed engaged the close attention of British naval and military experts some years earlier.
A considerable armada was got together, although its assembling took several weeks and although the Russians had as a matter of fact heavily defeated the Turks in Armenia (battle of Sarikamish) even before orders for the assembling were issued.
Reconnaissance had brought to light the extent to which the Turks were making preparations to repel attempted landings, both on the Gallipoli Peninsula, and on the Asiatic coast adjacent to the mouth of the Straits; and everything pointed to the expeditionary force having to start work by fighting its way ashore.
The resistance offered by the Turks had been most determined, and these could reckon upon receiving welcome reinforcements within a few hours; for as soon as the situation declared itself Liman von Sanders had hurried off one of the two divisions (the 7th) at Bulair by water with orders to repair to Helles.
The Turks were in strong force in that quarter, and, as the hours passed and the defenders (3rd and r ith Divs.) massed, the situation became such as to render any French advance out of the question; indeed, but for the fire of the warships the troops who had landed could barely have maintained themselves.
On the 27th a general move forward took place, the Turks (9th Div.) offering little opposition, and by nightfall the Allies held a line stretching approximately from the north end of Morto Bay to " Gully " beach.
On this occasion the Turks made a determined resistance; but the Allies' line was advanced by a few hundred yards at most points, and a three days' lull then ensued in the Helles area.
Reinforced by parts of the two Bulair divisions the Turks delivered vigorous counter-attacks on the 26th; but these were beaten off, and on that day and on the morrow the Australasian troops dug themselves in so thoroughly that by the night of the 27th-28th the position which they had taken Up, such as it was, was reasonably secure.
On the other hand, the Turks, who were commanded by Essad, had likewise dug themselves in, and they could bring an effective artillery fire to bear on the Anzac trenches from three sides, the prospect of the landing force making any effective progress under the awkward conditions of ground in which it found itself was remote, and Birdwood's contingents had in reality been even less successful than had those detailed for Helles as regards securing an adequate area on the enemy's shores before the defence gathered strength.
The marshal's Turks had fought gallantly in the strenuous encounters which had taken place, and large reinforcements (2nd, 4th, r3th, r5th, r6th Divisions) were on the move or preparing to move to his aid.
It is true that Hamilton was expecting the arrival of the 42nd Division and of the 2nd French Division within a few days; but his losses had been extremely heavy, there were no depots at hand from which these losses could promptly be made good, and he was inferior to ` the Turks in artillery both as regards calibre of guns and as regards ammunition.
The Turks still occupied all the high ground.
There the rival forces were in close contact, the Turks everywhere enjoying the advantage of command; some sections of the Australasian line were, indeed, completely overlooked by ground in Ottoman occupation.
Numerically, the contending armies would at this very critical juncture of the campaign be almost equal, the invaders rather the stronger; but the Turks were much dispersed, so that the result almost hinged upon the speed with which the attacking side should gain ground before the defenders had time to concentrate.
An onset was made upon some of the Turkish trenches in the Helles area, which led to sharp fighting; the object was to prevent the Turks transferring troops northwards, and it probably served its purpose; apart from that, little was accomplished although the affray went on intermittently for a week.
So dexterously had the assembling of the reinforcements within Birdwood's position been effected, that the Turks had entirely failed to detect how the numbers of their, opponents in this area had during the last few nights been nearly doubled.
The Turks holding the ridge were, moreover, constantly receiving reinforcements now that Sir I.
The Turks remained in possession of the high ground, and that night reinforcements began to join them from the N.E., the troops as they came up being rushed into position in view of impending attack.
A footing had no doubt been gained at Suvla, giving the Allies control of a fairly well-sheltered inlet on the outer coast of the peninsula; but as the high ground within easy artillery range of the landing-places, and which overlooked the whole occupied area, remained in the hands of the Turks, much of the benefit hoped for from the acquisition was in reality neutralized.
effort, which had been made when they were enjoying the advantages derived from concentration as opposed to dispersion, and when they were in the position to take the Turks unawares, had miscarried.
Like their adversaries, the Turks had suffered much from disease during the summer.
The responsible authorities on the spot perceived that the process of gradually removing the huge accumulations of impedimenta that were massed about the landing-places and of reembarking the troops must take place during the dark hours and step by step, every effort being made to keep the Turks unaware of what was in progress.
At a given moment the trenches, which at many points were but a few yards from those occupied by the Turks, would be vacated by detachments, which by that hour would have shrunk to mere handfuls of men.
Finally the parties still in the trenches slipped away, and when dawn broke the Turks, who had first ascertained that something unusual was afoot from the explosion of a vast mine in the Anzac area, and from conflagrations on the beaches where the few stores to be abandoned were being destroyed, discovered that the invaders were gone.
The Turks, therefore, now possessed a huge numerical preponderance in the theatre of war.
Two possible eventualities had especially to be feared - the sea might get up, or a heavy bombardment of the beaches might be instituted by the Turks while the final evacuation was in progress.
A large number of guns had been retained ashore in view of the danger of a determined attack by the Turks on the 8th, when the lines were thinly held; it had been decided to abandon several of these, worn-out ordnance being earmarked for the purpose.
Just before the last boats sheered off the masses of stores which it had been necessary to abandon were set on fire, and only from the glare set up by this conflagration were the Turks made aware that their opponents had evaded them yet again.
Had the Turks kept befitting guard on the night of the 8th-9th, aware as they were that their antagonists contemplated departure, they must have detected that the British trenches had been vacated.
By embarking on that venture the fleet gave the Turks sufficient warning of what was in store to ensure that, on the date on which Sir I.
The original Studio Fiorentino was founded in the 14th century, and acquired considerable fame as a centre of learning under the Medici, enhanced by the presence in Florence of many learned Greeks who had fled from Constantinople after its capture by the Turks (1453).
Peter the Great captured the place in 1711, but it was returned to the Turks, and was only definitely annexed to Russia in 1812.
The disciplined Egyptian army, supported by a well organized fleet, rapidly accomplished what the Turks had failed to do; and by 1826 the Greeks were practically subdued on land, and Ibrahim was preparing to turn his attention to the islands.
In the spring of 1396 he took arms for Hungary against the Turks and on the 28th of September was taken prisoner by the Sultan Bayezid I.
Meanwhile in the east the Hephthalites had been attacked by the Turks, who now appear for the first time in history.
Chosroes united with them and conquered Bactria, while he left the country north of the Oxus to the Turks.
Bahram Chobin was beaten and fled to the Turks, among whom he was murdered.
Until the Egyptian invasion in 1814 the Sharifs of Mecca were the recognized rulers of Hejaz, and though the Turks have attempted to suppress their importance, the Sharif still executes justice according to the Mahommedan law in the holy cities, though, nominally, as a Turkish official.
From the beginning the `Abbasids depended for help on Persians and Turks, and the chief offices of state were frequently filled with foreigners.
The Turks did not support their client by advancing into Nejd itself, and he and his rivals were left to fight out their battles among themselves.
In 1516 their fleets appeared in the Red Sea and an unsuccessful attempt was made against Jidda; but the effective occupation of Yemen by the Turks in the next few years frustrated any designs the Portuguese may have had in S.W.
Peter the Great obtained possession of it after a protracted siege in 1696, but in 1711 restored it to the Turks; in 1739 it was finally united to the Russian empire.
For several centuries Vienna filled an important role as the most advanced bulwark of Western civilization and Christianity against the Turks, for during the whole of the middle ages Hungary practically retained its Asiatic character.
Of more importance were the two sieges by the Turks (1529 and 168 3), when the city was saved on the first occasion by the gallant defence of Count Niclas von Salm (1459-1530), and on the second by RÃ¼diger von Starhemberg (1638-1701), who held out until the arrival of the Poles and Germans under John Sobieski of Poland.
The origin of the Khazars has been much disputed, and they have been variously regarded as akin to the Georgians, Finno-Ugrians and Turks.
The official titles recorded by Ibn Fadlan are those in use amongst the Tatar nations of that age, whether Huns, Bulgarians, Turks or Mongols.
448 et seq.), at another to the Turks (c. 580), which would sufficiently explain the signs of Tatar influence in their polity, and also by the testimony of all observers, Greeks, Arabs and Russians, that there was a double strain within the Khazar nation.
The pressure of the Turks in Asia precipitated the Avars upon the West.
The conquering Turks followed in their footsteps (560-580).
The empires of Turks and Avars, however, ran swiftly their barbaric course, and the Khazars arose out of the chaos to more than their ancient renown.
They issued from the land of Barsilia, and extended their rule over the Bulgarian hordes left masterless by the Turks, compelling the more stubborn to migrate to the Danube (641).
They are then described as "Turks from the East," a powerful nation which held the coasts of the Caspian and the Euxine, and took tribute of the Viatitsh, the Severians and the Polyane.
So important was this traffic held at Constantinople that, when the portage to the Don was endangered by the irruption of a fresh horde of Turks (the Petchenegs), the emperor Theophilus himself despatched the materials and the workmen to build for the Khazars a fortress impregnable to their forays (834).
A remnant of the nation took refuge in an island of the Caspian (Siahcouye); others retired to the Caucasus; part emigrated to the district of Kasakhi in Georgia, and appear for the last time joining with Georgia in her successful effort to throw off the yoke of the Seljuk Turks (1089).
It was captured during the Russian campaigns of 1828 and 1854, also in 1878, but was then recaptured by the Turks, who subjected the Russian garrison to a long siege; the place was ultimately relieved, but a massacre of Christians then took place in the streets.
The pure Turks and the Kuluglis (sons of Turkish fathers by Moorish women or slave girls) are no longer numerous.
The empire of the Fatimites (q.v.) rested on Berber support, and from that time forth till the advent of the Turks the dynasties of North Africa were really native, even when they claimed descent from some illustrious Arab stock.
The Almohade Empire soon began to decay, and in 1336 Abu Zakariya, prince of Tunis, was able to proclaim himself independent and found a dynasty, which subsisted till the advent of the Turks.
The conquest of Algiers by the Turks gave a dangerous neighbour to Tunisia, and after the death of Mohammed the Hafsite in 1525 a disputed succession supplied Khair ad-Din Barbarossa with a pretext for occupying the Turk* city in the name of the sultan of Constantinople.
In 1573 the Turks again retreated on the approach of Don Juan, who had dreams of making himself king of Tunis; but this success was not followed up, and in the next year Sultan Selim II.
The Turks first acquired possession of it in 1484.
It was taken by the Russians in 1770, 1774 and 1806, but each time returned to the Turks, and not definitely annexed to Russia until 1881.
As a young man he fought against the Turks and the pirates, and after signally distinguishing himself at the battle of Naxos in 1650 he was appointed commander-inchief of the Venetian navy.
He then conducted a series of successful campaigns against the Turks, but was recalled in consequence of the intrigues of his rival the Provveditore Antonio Barbaro (1661).
In 1688 he was elected doge, and in 1693 he took command of the Venetian forces against the Turks for the fourth time; the enemy which had been cruising in the archipelago withdrew at his approach, so great was the terror inspired by his name.
The period of its greatest splendour was after the conquest by the Seljuk Turks about 1072-1074.
As a memorial of the miraculous interference, the Byzantines erected an altar to Torch-bearing Hecate, and stamped a crescent on their coins, a device which is retained by the Turks to this day.
The Hermus valley began to suffer from the inroads of the Seljuk Turks about the end of the 11th century; but the successes of the Greek general Philocales in 1118 relieved the district for the time, and the ability of the Comneni, together with the gradual decay of the Seljuk power, retained it in the Byzantine dominions.
The country round Sardis was frequently ravaged both by Christians and by Turks during the 13th century.
Finally in 1390 Philadelphia, which had for some time been an independent Christian city, surrendered to Sultan Bayezid's mixed army of Ottoman Turks and Byzantine Christians, and the Seljuk power in the Hermus valley was merged in the Ottoman empire.
The Beni-Zeiyan, after the capture of Algiers in 1516 by the corsair Barbarossa gradually lost their territory to the Turks, while Tlemcen itself for forty years became tributary to the Spanish governor of Oran.
In 1553 the Turks under Salah Rais, pasha of Algiers, captured Tlemcen and the Sultanate of Tagrart, as it was still frequently called, came to an end.
Under the Turks the town ceased to be of any importance.
In the autumn of 1875 an insurrection broke out in Bulgaria, and the suppression of it by the Turks was marked by massacres and outrages.
Arad was a fortified place, and was captured by the Turks during the wars .of the 17th century, and kept by them till the end of that century.
The works erected by the Turks for the capture of the fortress of Arad formed the nucleus of the new town.
He was drowned by the Turks in Constantinople in 1590 through the intrigues of Mihnea, who succeeded him on the throne of Walachia.
in 1183, where General Montecucculi gained a decisive victory over the Turks in 1664.
With few exceptions all the known events of Defoe's life are connected with authorship. In the older catalogues of his works two pamphlets, Speculum Crapegownorum, a satire on the clergy, and A Treatise against the Turks, are attributed to him before the accession of James II., but there seems to be no publication of his which is certainly genuine before The Character of Dr Annesley (1697).
The founder of the family was Yakub, a Roumeliot, probably of Albanian blood, who settled in Mitylene after its conquest by the Turks.
The History of the Maritime Wars of the Turks, by Hajji Khalifa (translated by J.
The famous description of the crusades, gesta Dei per Francos, was evidently to Villehardouin a plain matter-of-fact description, and it no more occurred to him to doubt the divine favour being extended to the expeditions against Alexius or Theodore than to doubt that it was shown to expeditions against Saracens and Turks.
At first successful, Kuprili was defeated by the Poles under John Sobieski at Khotin and Lemberg; the Turks, however, continued to hold their own, and finally in October 1676 consented to honourable terms of peace by the treaty of Zurawno (October 16, 1676), retaining Kaminiec, Podolia and the greater part of the Ukraine.
He met his death at the battle of Salankamen in 1691, when the total defeat of the Turks by the Austrians under Prince Louis of Baden led to their expulsion from Hungary.
After occupying various important posts he became grand vizier in 1697, and owing to his ability and energy the Turks were able to drive the Austrians back over the Save, and Turkish fleets were sent into the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.
In 1366 he led an expedition to the East against the Turks; and he arbitrated between Milan and the house of Montferrat (1379), between the Scaligeri and the Visconti, and between Venice and Genoa after the "War of Chioggia" (1381).
Against the Church of Rome, however, there was directed the affirmation that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and not from both Father and Son; this rejection of the filioque was not unwelcome to the Turks.
In 1854 and again in 1877 it was occupied by the Turks.
In 1427 the Turks raided Malta and Gozo, they carried many of the inhabitants into captivity, but gained no foothold.
The knights of St John having been driven from Rhodes by the Turks, obtained the grant of Malta, Gozo and Tripoli in 1530 from the emperor Charles V., subject to a reversion in favour of the emperor's successor in the kingdom of Aragon should the knights leave Malta, and to the annual tribute of a falcon in acknowledgment that Malta was under the suzerainty of Spain.
The Order of St John took up its abode on the promontory guarded by the castle of St Angelo on the southern shore of the Grand Harbour, and, in expectation of attacks from the Turks, commenced to fortify the neighbouring town called the Borgo.
They accumulated wealth by war, or by privateering against the Turks and their allies.
St Elmo that the Turks lost 7000 killed and as many wounded before exterminating the 1200 defenders, who fill at their post.
The Turks have a number of mosques; there are Greek churches and a Jewish synagogue; an old Venetian structure serves as a military hospital; and the prison is of substantial construction.
During the Venetian rule it was one of the strongest cities in the island, but it fell into the hands of the Turks in 1646, several years before the capture of Candia.
The era in use among the Turks, Arabs and other Mahommedan nations is that of the Hegira or Hejra, the flight of the prophet from Mecca to Medina, 622 A.D.
In the lower fortress is the town, with a military hospital, and an arsenal containing trophies captured from the Turks.
It was captured by the Turks in 1526 and retained by them for 160 years.
In 1716 it witnessed a signal defeat inflicted on the Turks by Prince Eugene.
In that year he commanded the patriot forces in Rumelia, and though he failed to co-operate effectually with other chiefs, or with the foreign sympathizers fighting for the Greeks, he gained some successes against the Turks which were very welcome amid the disasters of the time.
In 1311 a Spanish fleet, under the command of Requesens, won a considerable victory here, and his family became princes of Pantelleria until 1553, when the town was sacked by the Turks.
It is hard to say whether the Yue-Chi should be included in any of the recognized divisions of Turanian tribes such as Turks or Huns.
This Persian title became in later times the special designation of the Kushan kings and is curiously parallel to the use of Arabic and Persian titles (padishah, sultan, &c.) by the Ottoman Turks.
Hence, as far as any physical characters can be formulated for the various tribes (and their validity is very doubtful) the Yue-Chi type is Turkish rather than Mongol or Ugro-Finnic. In such points of temperament as military ability and power of assimilating Indian and Persian civilization, the YueChi also resemble the Turks, and some authorities think that the name Turushka or Turukha sometimes applied to them by Indian writers is another evidence of the connexion.