As a result the topography is characterized by low, rounded hills, but is nowhere mountainous.
Finally, the surface topography will often throw much light on the underground structure.
The glacial era has left abundant evidences in the topography of the state.
Ptolemy used the word geography to signify the description of the whole oekumene on mathematical principles, while chorography signified the fuller description of a particular region, and topography the very detailed description of a smaller locality.
"Before his time," says Digby Wyatt, "popular topography was unknown."
It was also in the reign of Justinian that Cosmas Indicopleustes, an Egyptian merchant, made several voyages, and afterwards composed his XpUTTcavuxr} Toaoypa(Pia (Christian Topography), containing, in addition to his absurd cosmogony, a tolerable description of India.
Moreover, he wrote an article in the Edinburgh Review of July 1805 criticizing Sir William Gill's Topography of Troy, and these circumstances led Lord Byron to refer to him in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers as "the travell'd thane, Athenian Aberdeen."
Smith, Antient Topography of London (1815); David Hughson [E.
For topography, &c. and archaeology, see Sudan § Anglo-Egyptian and Egypt.
It contains many valuable articles on history, topography, botany, mining, commerce and statistics.
The topography, inhabitants, art, products, &c., of the kingdom are described in a volume of the series Espana entitled Aragon, by J.
There would, indeed, be an exception to the general correctness of the topography if we were compelled to suppose that "country of the Gerasenes" (which is the best reading according to existing MS. evidence at Mark v.
As his official duties made no great demands on his time, he had abundant leisure to devote to his favourite studies, - the antiquities and topography of Scotland having thenceforth special attractions for his busy pen.
The topography and the climate of Nevada have led to the formation of two kinds of lakes, the ephemeral and the perennial.
His published works deal chiefly with topography and ancient mythology.
There are no mountains, forests or large bodies of water to moderate the extremes of summer and winter, and the uniformity of topography makes the ranges of temperature for different parts of the state very nearly the same.
The " bluffs " (remnants of an eroded plain formed of alluvion deposits over an old, mature and drowned topography) run through the second tier of parishes W.
Monographs: Much information on modern Turkish history and politics will be found in the works dealing primarily with topography, finance, law and defence, which have been cited above.
A marked feature of the topography of the south shore is what is known as the Lake ridge, or, as it approaches the Niagara river, the Mountain ridge.
The etymology of the name, which to a Greek ear meant "swarthy-faced," is unknown, nor can we say why in official inscriptions of the Axumite dynasty the word is used as the equivalent of Habashat (whence the 1 For the topography and later history see Sudan and Abyssinia.
He first visited Taif at the invitation of the pasha, thence he proceeded to Mecca, where he spent three months studying every detail of the topography of the holy places, and going through all the ceremonies incumbent on a Moslem pilgrim.
Until after the War of Independence the primitive topography remained unchanged, but it was afterwards subjected to changes greater than those effected on the site of any other American city.
Perhaps the most important work on Peru of modern times is that of the Italian savant Antonio Raimondi (1825-1890), who spent the greater part of his life in studying the topography and natural resources of the country.
The Berkshire district affords an excellent example of the interrelations of topography, soil and population.
Grenfell and Hunt conclude therefore - " So great indeed are the divergences between this account and the extant and no doubt well-informed authorities with regard to the topography and ritual of the Temple that it is hardly possible to avoid the conclusion that much of the local colour is due to the imagination of the author who was aiming chiefly at dramatic effect and was not really well acquainted with the Temple.
Several minor ranges, the topography of which is little known, extend from Cambridge Gulf, behind a very much broken coast-line, to Limmen Bight on the Gulf of Carpentaria.
Of his works) and Hoeck (Kreta, 3 vols., GÃ¶ttingen, 1823-1829), but the latter work was published before the researches which have thrown so much light on the topography and antiquities of the island.
Flinders Petrie began the systematic exploration of the ruins of Bedreshen, and in three seasons cleared up much of the topography of the ancient city, identifying the mound of the citadel and palace, a foreign quarter, &c. Among his finds not the least interesting is a large series of terra-cotta heads representing the characteristic features of the foreigners who thronged the bazaars of Memphis.
Since the foundation of the German Institute in 1874, Athenian topography has to a large extent become a speciality of German scholars, among whom Wilhelm DOrpfeld occupies a pre-eminent position owing to his great architectural attainments and unrivalled local knowledge.
Acquainted with the topography, Buller sent a Lord Roberts force to turn Botha's left, in conjunction with a sent out.
Inconsistencies, its errors of chronology and topography, its poetical colour, and its living descriptions of battles.
The Thesean synoecism led to the introduction of new cults and the foundation of new shrines partly on the Acropolis, partly in the inhabited district at its base both within and without the wall of the Pelasgicum, Some of the shrines in this region are mentioned by Thucydides in a passage which is of capital importance for the topography of the city at this period (ii.
We are principally concerned, however, with the results which add to our knowledge of the topography and architecture of the Acropolis.
Topography, eec. - Physically the protectorate may be described as almost mountainous in contrast with the somewhat monotonous plains of the interior.
Valuable for details of local history, antiquities and topography: A.
Topography, Travels, &c.: The works of J.
Pallas, with several Russian students, laid the first foundation of a thorough exploration of the topography, fauna, flora and inhabitants of the country.
By the end of the 19th century the topography of the lake region was known with fair accuracy.
The administration and acreage of parks and open spaces, and their provisions for the public recreation, fall for consideration later, but some of them are notable features in the topography of London.
The ship captain ordered the red pennant to be raised on the ship to show that the weather was changing and rough seas were expected.
Owing to topography, and also to the manner in which Massachusetts ' At least seventy hills in the state, mainly in this quarter, have an elevation of 1500 ft.
During his residence in Rome Niebuhr discovered and published fragments of Cicero and Livy, aided Cardinal Mai in his edition of Cicero De Republica, and shared in framing the plan of the great work on the topography of ancient Rome by Christian C. J.
For the ancient topography cf.
Topography And Antiquities The Attic plain, -ro ircSlov, slopes gently towards the coast of the Saronic Gulf on the south-west; on the east it is overlooked by Mount Hymettus (3369 ft.); on the north-east by Pentelicus or Brilessus (3635 ft.) from which, in ancient and modern times, an immense quantity of the finest marble has been quarried; on the north-west by Parnes (4636 ft.), a continuation of the Boeotian Cithaeron, and on the west by Aegaleus (1532 ft.), which descends abruptly to the bay of Salamis.
Gough, British Topography (London 1768).
- For Topography: W.
In Bohn's Illustrated Library), and Ancient Athens, its History, Topography and Remains (1873).
Underground railways are of three general types: the one of extreme depth, built by tunnelling methods, usually with the shield and without regard to the surface topography, where the stations are put at such depth as to require lifts to carry the passengers from the station platform to the street level.
Following Prjevalsky the Russian explorers, Pevtsov and Roborovski, in 1889-1890 (and again in 1894), added greatly to our knowledge of the topography of western Chinese Turkestan and the northern borders of Tibet; all these Russian expeditions being conducted on scientific principles and yielding results of the highest value.
The surface is the typical glacial topography, with a few low, rocky hills, less than loo ft.
Flavin Biondo, the first Renaissance writer on the topography of ancient Rome (1388-1463), was a native of Forli.
For the purposes of scientific topography observation of the natural features and outlines is followed by exact investigation of the architectural structures or remnants, a process demanding high technical competence, acute judgment and practical experience, as well as wide and accurate scholarship. The building material and the manner of its employment furnish evidence no less important than the character of the masonry, the design and the modes of ornamentation.
The Athenian siege (415-13) is of the deepest importance for the topography of Syracuse, and it throws some light on the internal politics.
For the controversies respecting the Agora, the Enneacrunus and the topography of the town in general, see W.
The monumental work of James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, who spent three years at Athens (1751-1754), marked an epoch in the progress of Athenian topography and is still indispensable to its study, owing to the demolition of ancient buildings which began about the middle of the 18th century.
Leake (Topography of Athens and the Demi, 2nd ed., 1841) brought the descriptive literature to an end and inaugurated the period of modern scientific research, in which German archaeologists have played a distinguished part.
Recent investigation has thrown a new and unexpected light on the art, the monuments and the topography of the ancient city.
While modern research has added considerably to our knowledge of prehistoric Athens, a still greater light has been thrown on the architecture and topography of the city in the earlier historic or " archaic " era, the subsequent age of Athenian greatness, and the period of decadence which set in with the Macedonian conquest; the first extends from the dawn of history to 480-479 B.C., when the city was destroyed by the Persians; the second, or classical, age closes in 322 B.C., when Athens lost its political independence after the Lamian War; the third, or Hellenistic, in 146 B.C., when the state fell under Roman protection.
The systematic study of Athenian topography was begun in the 17th century by French residents at Athens, the consuls Giraud and Chataignier and the Capuchin monks.