She had teeth, fingernails and a healthy kick.
He finished brushing his teeth, rinsed his mouth and then wiped it.
He began working at his teeth with a toothpick.
Put your teeth in and let's get going.
"The squadwon can't pass," shouted Vaska Denisov, showing his white teeth fiercely and spurring his black thoroughbred Arab, which twitched its ears as the bayonets touched it, and snorted, spurting white foam from his bit, tramping the planks of the bridge with his hoofs, and apparently ready to jump over the railings had his rider let him.
I asked what was the matter, and she said, "Much (many) teeth do make Nancy sick."
Her teeth chattered and her body felt so hot she wanted to scream.
"Eh, mounseer, Russian sauce seems to be sour to a Frenchman... sets his teeth on edge!" said a wrinkled clerk who was standing behind Pierre, when the Frenchman began to cry.
She gritted her teeth, hating the fact he had open access to her thoughts and worse—he could respond to them!
One smiled coldly, revealing its sharpened teeth, while another was the first to take a step towards her.
Rhyn said through clenched teeth with a look of distaste.
We talked of rude and simple times, when men sat about large fires in cold, bracing weather, with clear heads; and when other dessert failed, we tried our teeth on many a nut which wise squirrels have long since abandoned, for those which have the thickest shells are commonly empty.
Jule hissed through his teeth and more blood bubbled up, but the lodged arrow refused to move.
He sank his teeth into someone and never let go, until they were in Hell.
The tongue is so serviceable a member (taking all sorts of shapes, just as is wanted),--the teeth, the lips, the roof of the mouth, all ready to help, and so heap up the sound of the voice into the solid bits which we call consonants, and make room for the curiously shaped breathings which we call vowels!
Suddenly a smallish dog seized my left thigh with its teeth and would not let go.
He was gray, you remember, and had white teeth, and stood and looked at us...
Helen shook her head and spelled "Baby teeth--no, baby eat--no," meaning of course, "Baby cannot eat because she has no teeth."
This is exactly the kind of problem geneticists can sink their teeth into, so to speak, to make the protein in this grain digestible.
It was like he had a check list of what parents were supposed to do, and he filled in all the little blocks—middle-class home, straight teeth, and a college education—figured that was the extent of his obligations to us.
She's thin, with long teeth, said Pierre.
Of course I do, I remember his teeth as if I had just seen them.
The devil left, and an angry Talon hauled her up, sinking his teeth into her arm again.
Sometimes he consoled himself with the thought that he was only living this life temporarily; but then he was shocked by the thought of how many, like himself, had entered that life and that club temporarily, with all their teeth and hair, and had only left it when not a single tooth or hair remained.
What mean ye by saying that the poor ye have always with you, or that the fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge?
The wolf crouched, gnashed her teeth, and again rose and bounded forward, followed at the distance of a couple of feet by all the borzois, who did not get any closer to her.
But the wolf jumped up more quickly than anyone could have expected and, gnashing her teeth, flew at the yellowish borzoi, which, with a piercing yelp, fell with its head on the ground, bleeding from a gash in its side.
He grated his teeth to see Darian's number on the screen.
A gray haired woman with long braids and no teeth jerked on Cassie's pants leg.
Nancy is sick again, new teeth do make her ill.
Puckering up his face though smiling, and showing his short strong teeth, he began with stubby fingers of both hands to ruffle up his thick tangled black hair.
"And then, old fellow, he gives him one in the teeth with the butt end of his gun..." a soldier whose greatcoat was well tucked up said gaily, with a wide swing of his arm.
His bright smile with the two missing front teeth faded as he realized they were leaving without her.
As she passed a neighbor boy, he waved at her, his two missing front teeth displayed in a sweet smile.
He was armed with a musketoon (which he carried rather as a joke), a pike and an ax, which latter he used as a wolf uses its teeth, with equal ease picking fleas out of its fur or crunching thick bones.
The Watcher clenched his teeth, green eyes flaring with light and spinning before he regained his temper.
When she returned fully dressed and armed to the teeth, he held out his hand.
They glared at each other for a long moment before Talon gritted his teeth and lowered his gaze in reluctant deference.
A few minutes later, she sat in the living room, granola bar clenched between her teeth while she tied her shoes.
Deidre watched in growing horror as his teeth turned from normal to sharpened, and two long canines half the size of her index finger lengthened from his gum.
His teeth rattled at the raw energy coursing within his body.
She gritted her teeth and turned to go, trying not to think of how jealous the idea of another woman made her.
What would it be like to run her hands over Darkyn's lean frame the way she had Gabriel's, to feel his sharp teeth nip the delicate skin of her inner thighs and breasts?
He didn't have the pointed teeth of a demon, which she hoped was indication enough she wasn't about to make a deal with the devil.
He was large and thick with glowing eyes and teeth sharpened into fangs.
Damian gritted his teeth, remembering how tempted he'd been by the same ruse a few nights before.
She found herself poking the new teeth with her tongue to confirm they really were there.
I've shaved, bwushed my teeth, and scented myself.
Old Karay had turned his head and was angrily searching for fleas, baring his yellow teeth and snapping at his hind legs.
She clicked her teeth (Karay no longer had her by the throat), leaped with a movement of her hind legs out of the gully, and having disengaged herself from the dogs, with tail tucked in again, went forward.
One of the mules bared its teeth at him.
Jilian grabbed her again, and she grated her teeth against the visions, staggering as she tried to keep upright.
"No, no, no," she whispered and pushed at the teeth with a finger.
In the bathroom she brushed her teeth and removed her clothing.
Destiny giggled, revealing top and bottom teeth in matching pairs.
I love, love... she said, convulsively pressing her hands and setting her teeth with a desperate effort...
His body responded with a surge of desire he gritted his teeth against.
No, but imagine the old Countess Zubova, with false curls and her mouth full of false teeth, as if she were trying to cheat old age....
"Oh, she nearly knocked our gentleman's hat off!" cried the red-faced humorist, showing his teeth chaffing Pierre.
On the ground, beside the trunks, sat a thin woman no longer young, with long, prominent upper teeth, and wearing a black cloak and cap.
It will fall of itself when ripe, but if picked unripe the apple is spoiled, the tree is harmed, and your teeth are set on edge.
Besides Denisov and Dolokhov (who also led a small party and moved in Denisov's vicinity), the commanders of some large divisions with staffs also knew of this convoy and, as Denisov expressed it, were sharpening their teeth for it.
"Oh, the devil!" exclaimed Denisov angrily, and showing his teeth he struck his horse three times with his whip, splashing himself and his comrades with mud.
Damian gritted his teeth, unable to unleash the blow that could destroy them all in a blink without taking out Sofia as well.
She gritted her teeth and forced her attention to the stack of books, jotting down notes on her notepad.
The tick in his jaw belied how tightly his teeth were clamped.
His teeth grazed the sensitive skin without biting.
Big brother Joseph Dawkins, the smart one of the family, gritted his teeth and said nothing.
Deidre gritted her teeth, silently cursing everyone under the sun for not keeping better track of the souls.
The blond man's smile was slow, predatory, his teeth sharpened into points and his dark gaze piercing.
His pointed teeth rested on his lower lip, his dark eyes displaying the intelligence of a being that existed from the time-before-time.
He ran his tongue over his pointed teeth and stood in the center of her living room, pensive and hungry.
Your left arm, two teeth and the trench coat?
Petya clenched his teeth and looked around, throwing back his head and flourishing his arms.
Lots of the folks on the street had poor teeth and most of their clothes were practically rags.
She withdrew her teeth from his neck, not at all certain what to think of what she'd done.
The teeth are strong but irregular; the ears, with tolerably large lobes, stand out from the head, but to a less degree than with the Mongols.
"So, what is your solution?" he ground out between clenched teeth.
With sixteen teeth the pitch was well defined; with nine teeth it was fairly determinate; and even with two teeth it could be assigned with no great error.
Herrings are readily recognized and distinguished from the other species of Clupea by having an ovate patch of very small teeth on the vomer (that is, the centre of the palate).
The sprat cannot be confounded with the herring, as it has no teeth on the vomer and only 47 or 48 scales in the lateral line.
The lips are usually deep red and the teeth stained black from the habit of betel-chewing.
The eyes are on the right side, and the teeth in the jaws compressed and truncate.
With the single exception of the Indian sloth-bear, all the species have forty-two teeth, of which the incisors and canines closely resemble those of purely carnivorous mammals; while the molars, and especially the one known as the " sectorial " or " carnassial," have their surfaces tuberculated so as to adapt.
Davy; but in the teeth of this statement we have Mayer's own words, "We might much rather assume the contrary - that in order to become heat motion must cease to be motion."
FLUORINE (symbol F, atomic weight iv), a chemical element of the halogen group. It is never found in the uncombined condition, but in combination with calcium as fluor-spar CaF2 it is widely distributed; it is also found in cryolite Na3A1F6, in fluor-apatite, CaF 2.3Ca 3 P 2 O 8, and in minute traces in seawater, in some mineral springs, and as a constituent of the enamel of the teeth.
Chaetomys, distinguished by the shape of its skull and the greater complexity of its teeth, contains C. subspinosus, a native of the hottest parts of Brazil.
The " postabdomen," marked off by the two postabdominal setae, usually has teeth or spines, and ends in two denticulate or ciliate claws, or it may be rudimentary, as in Polyphemus.
The former, with the feet for the most part concealed by the carapace, is subdivided into two tribes, the Ctenopoda, or " comb-feet," in which the six pairs of similar feet, all branchial and nonprehensile, are furnished with setae arranged like the teeth of a comb, and the Anomopoda, or " variety-feet," in which the front feet differ from the rest by being more or less prehensile, without branchial laminae.
2), or membranaceous and polished, hairy or smooth, oval or round or bean-shaped, or of some less simple pattern; the valves may fit neatly, or one overlap the other, their hinge may have teeth or be edentulous, and their front part may be excavated for the protrusion of the antennae or have no such " rostral sinus."
The furca is, as a rule, a powerful motor organ, and has its laminae edged with strong teeth (ungues) or setae or both.
The ligament is external, and the hinge carries cardinal teeth in each valve.
Over a large part of the central Pacific, far removed from any possible land-influences or deposits of ooze, the red-clay region is characterized by the occurrence of manganese, which gives the clay a chocolate colour, and manganese nodules are found in vast numbers, along with sharks' teeth and the ear-bones and other bones of whales.
Accordingly, the teeth and the whole digestive tract are modified.
Generally the teeth are conical or pointed, more rarely blunt, grooved or serrated.
xix., 1871, p. 236, &c.) therefore relied upon more fundamental characters, notably the presence or absence of osteoderms, the formation of the skull, the teeth and the tongue.
The teeth are usually differentiated into incisors, canines and molars.
- Pleurodont; solid teeth; anterior part of tongue slightly emarginate and retractile, and covered with flat papillae; no osteoderms. Mexico.
- Pleurodont; teeth solid, sometimes (Ophiosaurus) grooved; anterior part of tongue emarginate and retractile into the posterior portion; osteoderms on the body, and especially on the head where they are roofing over the temporal fossa; entirely zoophagous and ovo-viviparous.
- The teeth of Heloderma are recurved, with slightly swollen bases, loosely attached to the inner edge of the jaws; each tooth is grooved, and those of the lower jaw are in close vicinity of the series of labial glands which secrete a poison; the only instance among lizards.'
Lanthanotus corneensis, of which only a few specimens are known, is apparently closely allied to Heloderma, although the teeth are not grooved, osteoderms are absent and probably also the poison glands.
The few teeth are recurved, with swollen bases.
- Teeth solid, almost acrodont; tongue long and narrow, deeply bifid, beset with papillae; no osteoderms; scales of the back very small or quite granular; limbs sometimes reduced.
In the genus Tejus the teeth of the adult become molar-like; and in Dracaena they are transformed into large, oval crushers, indicating strictly herbivorous habits, while most members of the family live upon animal food.
Tiliqua of Australia, Tasmania and Malay Islands, has stout lateral teeth with rounded-off crowns; C. gigas of the Moluccas and of New Guinea is the largest member of the family, reaching a length of nearly 2 ft.; the limbs are well developed, as in Trachysaurus rugosus of Australia, which is easily recognized by the large and rough scales and the short, broad, stump-like tail.
The mastication causes a copious flow of saliva of a brick-red colour, which dyes the mouth, lips and gums. The habit blackens the teeth, but it is asserted by those addicted to it that it strengthens the gums, sweetens the breath and stimulates the digestive organs.
powerful claws and teeth.
Fossil bones and teeth, indistinguishable from those of existing leopards, have been found in cave-deposits of Pleistocene age in Spain, France, Germany and England.
It was observed that ten of the caudal vertebrae of the latter skeleton bore tooth marks and grooves corresponding exactly with the sharp pointed teeth in the jaw of the carnivorous dinosaur.
Teeth of the carnivorous dinosaur scattered among the bones of the herbivorous dinosaur completed the line of circumstantial evidence.
As early as the middle of the 15th century Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) recognized in seashells as well as in the teeth of marine fishes proofs of ancient sea-levels on what are now the summits of the Apennines.
He personally sought to demonstrate such origin, first, in the existence of a specific internal growth force, which he termed bathmic force, and second in the direct inheritance of acquired mechanical modifications of, the teeth and feet.
Especially noteworthy was the discovery of birds with teeth both in Europe (Archaeopteryx) and in North America (Hesperornis), of Eocene stages in the history of the horse, and of the giant dinosauria of the Jurassic and Cretaceous in North America.
The mutations of Waagen may possibly, in fact, prove to be identical with the " definite variations " or " rectigradations " observed by Osborn in the teeth of mammals.
For example, among the land vertebrates the feet (associated with the structure of the limbs and trunk) may take one of many lines of adaptation to different media or habitat, either aquatic, terrestrial, arboreal or aerial; while the teeth (associated with the structure of the skull and jaws) also may take one of many lines of adaptation to different kinds of food, whether herbivorous, insectivorous or carnivorous.
As instances of such combinations, some of the (probably herbivorous) Eocene monkeys with arboreal limbs have teeth so difficult to distinguish from those of the herbivorous ground-living Eocene horses with cursorial limbs that at first in France and also in America they were both classed with the hoofed animals.
- Diagram demonstrating that there are an indefinite number of combinations of various adaptive types of limbs and feet with various adaptive types of teeth, and that there is no fixed law of correlation between the two series of adaptations.
The wood is also employed to make teeth for rakes; and, like that of L.
The classic, white-linen dining room is elegant, service is impeccable, and the steaks--hand-selected, aged and grilled to perfection--are the best you'll ever sink your teeth into.
But his brilliantly white, strong teeth which showed in two unbroken semicircles when he laughed--as he often did--were all sound and good, there was not a gray hair in his beard or on his head, and his whole body gave an impression of suppleness and especially of firmness and endurance.
Sink your teeth into a king-size, piping hot cinnamon roll with a cup of home roasted java.
"Welcome to your new home, love," the Dark One said a moment before his teeth sank into her neck.
She ground her teeth, on the verge of throwing her cup at the wall before her.
You haven't many teeth left, Jim, but the few you have are sharp enough to make me shudder.
Go brush your teeth - and whatever else you need to do.
She hugged her arms and hunched down into her jacket, her teeth chattering.
During the hour Pierre watched them they all came flowing from the different streets with one and the same desire to get on quickly; they all jostled one another, began to grow angry and to fight, white teeth gleamed, brows frowned, ever the same words of abuse flew from side to side, and all the faces bore the same swaggeringly resolute and coldly cruel expression that had struck Pierre that morning on the corporal's face when the drums were beating.
The Ully-demon launched towards him. The tree snatched Toby and lifted him to safety, and Toby dangled far enough over Ully's head that the demon couldn't reach him. As he watched, the Ully-demon transformed into its natural form, a creature of wings, talons, and teeth longer than Toby's fingers.
There I got ready for bed by brushing my teeth and washing my face.
Finally you've got something interesting—a case we can really sink our teeth into.
Dean gritted his teeth to retain his good mood.
"I ain't paid for my beer," he whispered through clenched teeth.
His teeth were white in the reflection of the flashlight.
If she hadn't noticed the blow soon enough, she'd have no teeth.
Jenn placed the blade of a knife between her teeth and pried the window of her bathroom open.
She saw his upper lip swell as his teeth grew, stimulated by lust.
Jenn splashed water on her face and brushed her teeth quickly.
Sofi ground her teeth.
Jenn grated her teeth.
Jenn gritted her teeth.
Jenn gritted her teeth against it as her body mended itself.
Jenn grated her teeth and climbed to her feet, wishing Bianca was there for another of her healing charges.
He pumped his arms hard, ignoring the cries of three men as they fell into pits or were snapped up by traps with iron teeth.
Gritting her teeth, she ran the dagger down the scar already present at the inside of her forearm, grunting at the hot pain.
She grated her teeth, sensing the truth in his words.
He gritted his teeth, not wanting to think of how long she'd cut herself to gather so much.
She had an oversized lollipop in her hand and her two front teeth had been colored out.
He whistled between his teeth.
He leaned down to kiss her lips and she bared clenched teeth.
She spoke through clenched teeth and her tone must have been convincing because he looked scared.
It yellows their teeth, makes their breath smell like a trash can, and ruins their health.
When Denton sunk his teeth into something, he held on.
She ground her teeth.
He whistled softly through his teeth.
Her teeth were already chattering.
She shivered until her teeth chattered.
His teeth sparkled a smile in the candlelight.
Her face warmed again as she realized she had been pulling her upper lip down over her teeth.
She glared at him, speaking through clenched teeth.
He couldn't control the surge of adrenaline he experienced whenever he thought of sinking his teeth into his father's neck and draining his life from him, the way his father drained his mother's life.
His teeth grew in response.
Jessi gritted her teeth and forced a smile.
He said no more but bared his teeth.
The second: when he sank his teeth into the meaty part of her palm.
His teeth shortened and turned normal as she watched.
The words were spoken with effort through his clenched teeth, as if the admittance was a personal insult.
"Best day of my life," she said through clenched teeth.
They were the same shade of white as the rest of his teeth and seemed a natural extension from his gums.
They were even with the teeth around them, as if his incisors had just …grown.
Jessi felt his teeth sink into her neck, confused when there was no pain beyond the initial puncture.
His teeth behind the full lips were normal today, which made her think she'd been wrong about the fangs she saw yesterday.
She grated her teeth at the reminder.
Charles bared his teeth in a look of extreme displeasure.
Xander lowered his head, burying his teeth into Charles' throat.
cypriotes; but since their molar teeth are essentially miniatures of those of the African elephant, it has been suggested by later observers that these animals are nothing more than dwarf races of the latter.
The molar teeth are six in number on each side, increasing in size from before backwards, and, as in the elephants, with a horizontal succession, the anterior teeth being lost before the full development of the posterior ones, which gradually move forward, taking the place of those that are destroyed by wear.
This process is, however, less fully developed than in elephants, and as many as three teeth may be in place in each jaw at one time.
The mode of succession of the teeth in the mastodons exhibits so many stages of the process by which the dentition of elephants has been derived from that of more ordinary mammals.
Mastodons have fewer ridges on their molar teeth than elephants; the ridges are also less elevated, wider apart, with a thicker enamel covering, and scarcely any cement filling the space between them.
These teeth are distinguished as "intermediate" molars.
Remains of the wild cat occur in English caverns; while from those of Ireland (where the wild species has apparently been unknown during the historic period) have been obtained jaws and teeth which it has been suggested are referable to the Egyptian rather than to the European wild cat.
In all cases a more or less full series of teeth is developed, these being differentiated into incisors, canines, premolars and molars, when all are present; but only a single pair of teeth in each jaw has deciduous predecessors.
In others, as the thylacine, it is rudimentary, being shed or absorbed before any of the other teeth have cut the gum, and therefore functionless.
- Teeth of Upper Jaw of Opossum (Didelphys marsupialis), all of which are unchanged, except the third premolar, the place of which is occupied in the young animal by a molariform tooth, represented in the figure below the line of the other teeth.
In addition to this replacement of a single pair of functional teeth in each jaw, it has been discovered that marsupials possess rudimentary tooth-germs which never cut the gum.
The short period of this evolution is at least one factor in the primitive grade of even the most specialized members of the group. In the advance of their molar teeth from a tritubercular to a grinding type, the author traces a curious parallelism between marsupials and placentals.
total 46 - and in having the teeth generally developed upon an insectivorous rather than a carnivorous pattern, the upper middle incisors being larger and inclined forward, the canines relatively smaller, and the molars with broad crowns, armed with prickly tubercles.
From the number of its cheek-teeth, the banded ant-eater has been regarded as related to some of the primitive Jurassic mammals; but this view is disputed by Mr Bensley, who regards this multiplicity of teeth as a degenerate feature.
Myrmecobius has a total of 52 or 54 teeth, which may be classed as i., c.
followed by several small teeth representing the canine and earlier premolars.
The three pairs of molars in each jaw are, like the last premolar, quadritubercular oblong teeth.
As a sub-order, the Paucituberculata are characterized by the presence of four pairs of upper and three of lower incisor teeth; the enlargement and forward inclination of the first pair of lower incisors, and the presence of four or five sharp cusps on the cheek-teeth, coupled with the absence of "syndactylism" in the hind limbs.
The cheek-teeth strongly curved, forming from the base to the summit about a quarter of a circle, the concavity being directed outwards in the upper and inwards in the lower teeth.
The molar-like teeth slightly diminishing in size from the first to the fourth, with square crowns, each bearing four pyramidal cusps.
The functional teeth are reduced to one From Flower, Quart.
12), a west Australian creature of the size of a mouse, which may be regarded as representing by itself a sub-family (Tarsipediinae), characterized by the rudimentary teeth, the long and extensile tongue, and absence of a caecum.
All the other teeth are simple, conical, minute and placed at considerable and irregular intervals apart in the jaws, the number appearing to vary in different individuals and even on different sides of the jaw of the same indi viduals.
There seems to have been a replacement of some of these teeth; and it has been suggested that this was of the marsupial type.
- Lower Jaw and Teeth of Phascolotherium bucklandi (nat.
It may be added that the division of these teeth into premolars and molars in figs.
- Lower Jaw and Teeth of Amphilestes broderipi (twice nat.
teeth is more of less conjectural.
The opossums of America are marsupials, though not showing anomalies as great as kangaroos and bandicoots (in their feet), and Myrmecobius (in the number of teeth).
The teeth are large, white and strong.
Girls, too, were scarred at puberty and had teeth knocked out, &c. The ceremonies - known to the Whites under the native generic term for initiatory rites, Bora - were much the same throughout Australia.
The ovary, three-celled at first, but becoming one-celled and one-seeded by abortion, is surmounted by an inconspicuous perianth with six small teeth.
The worm inhabits the lung of the frog and toad, and is hermaphrodite (Schneider) or parthenogenetic (Leuckart); the embryos hatched from the eggs find their way through the lungs into the alimentary canal and thence to the exterior; in a few days they develop into a sexual larva, called a Rhabditiform larva, in which the sexes are distinct; the eggs remain within the uterus, and the young when hatched break through its walls and live free in the perivisceral cavity of the mother, devouring the organs of the body until only the outer cuticle is left; this eventually breaks and sets free the young, which are without teeth, and have therefore lost the typical Rhabditis form.
Sometimes, especially in the case of overhead travelling cranes for very heavy loads, the chain is a special pitch chain, formed of flat links pinned together, and the barrel is reduced to a wheel provided with teeth, or " sprockets," which engage in the links.
The toothed wheels give a slightly better efficiency, but the worm gear is somewhat smoother in its action and entirely silent; the noise of gearing can, however, be considerably reduced by careful machining of the teeth, as is now always done, and also by the use of pinions made of rawhide leather or other non-resonant material.
Worm wheel gearing is of very high efficiency if made very quick in pitch, with properly formed teeth perfectly lubricated, and with the end thrust of the worm taken on ball bearings.
It also forms amalgams with mercury, and on this account has been employed in dentistry for the purpose of stopping (or filling) teeth.
ridges, which are usually prolonged as teeth beyond the infolded margin.
The food of the camel consists chiefly of the leaves of trees, shrubs and dry hard vegetables, which it is enabled to tear down and masticate by means of its powerful front teeth.
His constructive theory comes at the end, and seems to argue thus: Since (i) there is no discoverable reason why we 3 Mansel's theism (or natural theology), and the revelation he believes in, seem both of them pure matters of assertion on his part, without evidence, or even in the teeth of the evidence as he conceives it.
In the more typical Lemuridae there are two pairs of upper incisor teeth, separated by a gap in the middle line; the premolars may be either two or three, but the molars, as in the lower jaw, are always three on each side.
In the lower jaw the incisors and canines are directed straight forwards, and are of small size and nearly similar form; the function of the canine being discharged by the first premolar, which is larger than the other teeth of the same series.
The maximum number of teeth is 36, there being typically two pairs of incisors and three of premolars in each jaw.
In many cases the cells bordering the leaf are produced into teeth, and very frequently they are thick-walled so as to form a supporting rim.
Often the bones, teeth and scales of fishes are to FIG.
The bone-bed of Axmouth in Devonshire and Westbury and Aust in Gloucestershire, in the Penarth or Rhaetic series of strata, contains the scales, teeth and bones of saurians and fishes, together with abundance of coprolites; but neither there nor at Lyme Regis is there a sufficient quantity of phosphatic material to render the working of it for agricultural purposes remunerative.
thick, containing rolled fossil bones, cetacean and fish teeth, and shells of the Crag period, with nodules or pebbles of phosphatic matter derived from the London Clay, and often investing fossils from that formation.
The most important result is the proof that, until the end of the Cretaceous epoch, most, if not all, birds were still possessed of teeth.
Probably all birds of Cretaceous age were still possessed of teeth.
Much difference of opinion obtains as to the affinities of these birds, which were far larger than an ostrich; they were undoubtedly incapable of flight and there are indications of teeth in the upper jaw.
Both jaws with alveolar teeth.
Upper and lower jaws with teeth in furrows.
With alveolar teeth.
Roger Stafford, the impoverished heir male of the ancient Staffords, had been forced to surrender his barony to the king by a deed dated in the preceding year, a piece of injustice which is in the teeth of all modern conceptions of peerage law.
Blenkinsop placed the teeth on the outer side of one of the running rails, and his reason for adopting a rack was the belief that an engine with smooth wheels running on smooth rails would not have sufficient adhesion to draw the load required.
In this case the rack had pin teeth carried in a pair of angle bars.
That of the latter is multiple, several rack-plates being placed parallel to each other, and the teeth break joint at 1, a or 4 of their pitch, according to the number of rack-plates.
On such lines the beginning of a rack section is provided with a piece of rack mounted on springs, so that the pinions of the engine engage smoothly with the teeth.
The Locher rack, employed on the Mount Pilatus railway, where the steepest gradient is nearly I in 2, is double, with vertical teeth on each side, while in the Strub rack, used on the Jungfrau line, the teeth are cut in the head of a rail of the ordinary Vignoles type.
The fossil remains which have been discovered in Britain are not larger than, nor in any way to be distinguished from, the corresponding bones and teeth of European wolves of the present day.
the use of blind arches as an external decoration, and of brick cornices with the points of the bricks projecting like the teeth of a saw, the use of pulvini (cushions) above the capitals of columns and under the spring of an arch, &c. &c., the use of round arches springing direct from these cushions, spherical pendentives, &c.
Tremors of the muscles more or less violent accompany the cold sensations, beginning with the muscles of the lower jaw (chattering of the teeth), and extending to the extremities and trunk.
It is almost made up of fragments of spines, teeth and scales of ganoid fish.
The radular teeth are of several different kinds in each transverse row.
The radula has 160 rows of teeth with twelve teeth in each row.
Teeth of radula beam-like, and at most three marginal teeth on each side.
Radula with very numerous marginal teeth arranged like the rays of a fan.
The order is now divided into two sub-orders: the Taenioglossa, in which there are three teeth on each side of the median tooth of the radula, and the Stenoglossa, in which there is only one tooth on each side of the median tooth.
The odontophore also is remarkably developed, its lateral teeth being mobile, and it serves as an efficient organ for attacking the other pelagic forms on which the Heteropoda prey.
Radula with a median tooth and three teeth on each side of it.
Shell solid, piriform, with thick folded columella; lateral teeth of radula bicuspidate.
Shell elongated, with long siphon; lateral teeth of radula multicuspidate.
A single row of teeth of the Radula.
(Formula, x.l.x.) radula has a number of uniform teeth on each side of the median tooth in each transverse row.
The Pulmonata have a straight visceral nerve-loop, usually no operculum even in the embryo, and a multidenticulate radula, the teeth being equi-formal; and they are hermaphrodite.
Radula with elongated and pointed teeth, like those of the Agnatha; a jaw present.
Shell external, smooth, heliciform or flattened; radula with pointed marginal teeth.
No shell; mantle covers the whole surface of the body; radula with squarish teeth.
Shell internal, or absent; mantle restricted to the anterior and middle part of the body; radula with squarish teeth.
Shell bulimoid, dextral or sinistral; radular teeth, expanded at their extremities and multicuspidate.
No jaws; teeth narrow and pointed; carnivorous.
The dentition normally comprises the typical series of 44 teeth, although in some instances the first premolar is wanting.
Further examination of the enormous collections gathered by the author, and preserved in the Museum of Yale University at New Haven, Connecticut, showed him that this last bird, and another to which he gave the name of Apatornis, had possessed welldeveloped teeth implanted in sockets in both jaws, and induced him to establish (v.
Two years more and the originally found Hesperornis was discovered also to have teeth, but these were inserted in a groove.
In the author's concluding summary he remarks on the fact that, while the Odontolcae, as exhibited in Hesperornis, had teeth inserted in a continuous groove - a low and generalized character as shown by reptiles, they had, however, the strongly differentiated saddle-shaped vertebrae such as all modern birds possess.
On the other hand the Odontotormae, as exemplified in Ichthyornis, having the primitive biconcave vertebrae, yet possessed the highly specialized feature of teeth in distinct sockets.
The mouth is wide, armed above and below with a row of very small fixed teeth.
It consists essentially of a series of circular notched disks, the so-called saws, revolving between the interstices of an iron bed upon which the cotton is placed: the teeth of the " saws " catch the lint and pull it off from the seeds, then a revolving brush removes the detached lint from the saws, and creates sufficient draught to carry the lint out of the machine to some distance.
process of gulleting, into a series of sharp teeth, which are set in and out alternately.
The outward set of teeth drill the hole large enough to permit the drilling apparatus to descend freely, and the teeth set inwardly pare down the core to such a diameter as will admit of the body of the cutter passing over it without seizing.
In the 13th century it became necessary for the legists to codify, as it were, the unwritten law, because the upheavals of the times necessitated the fixing of some rules in writing, and especially because it was necessary to oppose a definite custom of the kingdom to Frederick II., who sought, as king of Jerusalem, to take advantage of the want of a written law, to substitute his own conceptions of law in the teeth of the high court.
Theobald was followed (1240-1241) by Richard of Cornwall, the brother of Henry III., who, like his predecessor, had to sail in the teeth of papal prohibitions; but neither of the two achieved any permanent result, except the fortification of Ascalon.
Trusting in Hildebrand's support, and in the justice of his own cause, he presented himself at the synod of Rome in 1059, but found himself surrounded by zealots, who forced him by the fear of death to signify his acceptance of the doctrine " that the bread and wine, after consecration, are not merely a sacrament, but the true body and the true blood of Christ, and that this body is touched and broken by the hands of the priests, and ground by the teeth of the faithful, not merely in a sacramental but in a real manner."
3, 4a): the keepers of the house (the arms and hands) tremble, the strong men (the legs and perhaps the backbone) are bent, the grinding women (the teeth) cease to work, those that look out of the windows (the eyes) are darkened, the street-doors are shut, the sound of the mill being low (apparently a summary statement of the preceding details: communication with the outer world through the senses is cut off, the performance of bodily functions being feeble); the rest of v.
The full series of forty-four teeth was developed; and the upper molars were short-crowned, or brachyodont, with six low cones, two internal, two intermediate.
Teeth and jaws probably referable to the Condylarthra have been obtained in European early Tertiary formations.
In the adult of both sexes there are only two teeth, both in the upper jaw, which lie horizontally side by side, and in the female remain throughout life concealed in cavities of the bone.
In young animals several small additional teeth are present, but these usually disappear soon after birth.
Dogs were first classified into three groups: - (i) Those having the head more or less elongated, and the parietal bones of the skull widest at the base and gradually approaching towards each other as they ascend, the condyles of the lower jaw being on the same line with the upper molar teeth.
The upper teeth projecting beyond the under.
The lower teeth projecting in front of the upper ones.
There are but three pairs of incisor teeth in each jaw, and the upper molars are tricuspid.
It is represented by a nearly complete skeleton, and has doublycurved horns and sheep-like teeth.
In the Hippoidea there is generally the full series of 44 teeth, but the first premolar, which is always small, is often deciduous or even absent in the lower or in both jaws.
In the earlier short-crowned forms these teeth are unlike the molars, and the first of the series is separated by a gap from the second.
6 a Oligocene of both hemispheres appears Protapirus, which ranges well into the Miocene, and is essentially a tapir, having lost the third lobe of the last lower molar, and being in process of acquiring molar-like upper premolars, although none of these teeth have two complete inner columns.
In both jaws there is a long space between the canines and the commencement of the teeth of the cheek-series, which are all in contact.
In the Amynodontidae, represented by the North American Middle Eocene Amynodon and Metamynodon, the premolars may be either 4 or g, making the total number of teeth either 44 or 40.
The middle valley is often intersected by vertical "crista" and "crochet" plates projecting into it from the anterior surface of the posterior transverse ridge or from the wall, the development of which is a useful guide in discriminating species, especially those known only by teeth and bones.
Next we have the living African species, representing the subgenus Diceros, in which there are two horns but no front teeth.
palaeindicus, represent Rhinoceros proper, in which front teeth are present, but there is only one horn.
sibircum of the Siberian Pleistocene, in which the premolars were reduced to while front-teeth were probably wanting, and the cheek teeth developed tall crowns, without roots, but with cement in the valleys, and the enamel of the central parts curiously crimped.
- Teeth of Porpoise.
Nearly allied is Neophocaena phocaenoides, a small species from the Indian Ocean and Japan, with teeth of the same form as those of the porpoise, but fewer in number (eighteen to twenty on each side), of larger size, and more distinctly notched or lobed on the free edge.
The struggle of the working man helping himself with his empty pockets against the capitalists he compared to a battle with teeth and nails against modern artillery.
That done, the field was to be sown with the dragons' teeth brought by Phrixus, from which armed men were to spring.
A kind of vulcanite which contains a large proportion of vermilion or other mineral pigment is used, under the name of dental rubber, for making artificial gums and supports for artificial teeth.
f, foramen; d, deltidium; t, teeth; a, adductor impressions (= occlusors, Hancock); c, divaricator (=cardinal muscles, King, = muscles diducteurs principaux, Gratiolet); c', accessory divaricators (muscles diducteurs accessoires, Gratiolet); b, ventral adjustor (=ventral peduncular muscles, or muscles du pedoncule paire superieure, Gratiolet); b', peduncular muscle.
The ventral valve in many of the genera is provided with two curved hinge-teeth, which fit into corresponding sockets in the opposite valve, so that the valves cannot be separated without breaking one of the teeth.
Owing to the strong and tight interlocking of the valves by the means of curved teeth FIGS.
In the Testicardines, where no such sliding action of the valves was necessary or possible, no muscles for such an object were required, consequently none took rise from the lateral portions of the valves as in Lingula; but in an extinct group, the Trimerellidae, which seems to be somewhat intermediate in character between the Ecardines and Testicardines, have been found certain scars, which appear to have been produced by rudimentary lateral muscles, but it is doubtful (considering the shells are furnished with teeth, though but rudely developed) whether such muscles enabled the valves, as in Lingula, to move forward and backward upon each other.
These pits are not isolated, but are connected by an ectodermal ridge, which grows in at the margin of the mantle and forms a continuous band somewhat resembling the ectodermal primordium of vertebrate teeth.
As for most penitents, all they cared for was to scrape through by the skin of their teeth.
The skull is conical, stout and heavy, and the teeth, although sharper and less rounded than those of badgers, are less suited to a carnivorous diet than those of stoats, weasels and martens.
The two ratels may be distinguished by the fact that the African species has a distinct white line round the body at the junction of the grey of the upper side with the black of the lower, while in the Indian this line is absent; the teeth also of the former are larger, rounder and, heavier than those of the latter.
They differ from the other American monkeys in having one pair less of molar teeth in each jaw.
Their eastern boundary, in the teeth of the spirit of the conventions, and with but scant observance of the letter, was by this means considerably extended.
Brand had arranged, in the teeth of the strongest protests from Kruger, that the Cape railway should extend to Bloemfontein and subsequently to the Vaal river.
His nose is not only the flattest, but also the smallest among the IndoChinese; his eyes are rarely oblique; his mouth is large and his lips thick; his teeth are blackened and his gums destroyed by the constant use of the betel-nut, the areca-nut and lime.
Should one of these teeth be destroyed the opposed one loses its natural means of attrition and becomes a remarkable, curved tusk-like elongation.
From atrophy of their roots, caused by the pressure of the growing permanent teeth, the " milk teeth " in children become loose and are cast off.
As in the other typical South American edentates, there are no teeth in the front of the jaws, while those of the cheek-series usually comprise five pairs in the upper and four in the lower.
In nearly all the other Pleistocene forms these teeth were subcylindrical in shape, with the summit of the crown (except sometimes in the first pair) forming a cup-like depression; enamel being in all cases absent.
From all these Megatherium differs in the form and structure of the teeth.
2, the teeth are quadrangular prisms, each of which is surmounted by a pair of transverse ridges.
- Lower Jaw and Teeth of Megatherium.
- Section of Upper Molar Teeth of Megatherium.
Although similar teeth occur in the phosphorite beds of South Carolina, which may have been transported from elsewhere, no undoubted remains of Megatherium are known from North America.
For certain small ground-sloths from Patagonia with Megatherium- like teeth, see MYLODON.
These attachments, first invented by Jeremiah Howard, and described in the United States Patent Journal in 1858, are simply hydraulic rams fitted into the side or top caps of the mill, and pressing against the side or top brasses in such a manner as to allow the side or top roll to move away from the other rolls, while an accumulator, weighted to any desired extent, keeps a constant pressure on each of the rams. An objection to the top cap arrangement is, that if the volume or feed is large enough to lift the top roll from the cane roll, it will simultaneously lift it from the megass roll, so that the megass will not be as well pressed as it ought to be;' and an objection to the side cap arrangement on the megass roll as well as to the top cap arrangement is, that in case more canes are fed in at one end of the rolls than at the other, the roll will be pushed out farther at one end than at the other; and though it may thus avoid a breakdown of the rolls, it is apt, in so doing, to break the ends off the teeth of the crown wheels by putting them out of line with one another.
Unlike the Bovinae, there are frequently glands in the feet; and the upper molar teeth differ from those of that group in their narrower crowns, which lack a distinct inner column.
Zinc chloride solution readily dissolves the oxide with the formation of oxychlorides, some of which are used as pigments, cements and for making artificial teeth.
V is therefore a voiced labio-dental spirant, the breath escaping through a very narrow slit between the lower lip and the upper teeth.
a, Flowering branch reduced); b, calyx showing form of teeth (enlarged).
The tip of the proboscis is armed with a complicated series of chitinous teeth and rasps, by means of which the fly is enabled to pierce the skin of its victim; as usual in Diptera the organ is closed on the upper side by the labrum, or upper lip, and contains the hypopharynx or common outlet of the paired salivary glands, which are situated in the abdomen.
Cotton yarn and cloth, petroleum, timber and furs are among the chief imports; copper, tin, hides and tea are important exports; medicines in the shape not only of herbs and roots, but also of fossils, shells, bones, teeth and various products of the animal kingdom; and precious stones, principally jade and rubies, are among the other exports.
Its characteristics are exceptional tallness combined with slenderness and elegance of figure; a face somewhat long, without any special prominence of the cheekbones but having more or less oblique eyes; an aquiline nose; a slightly receding chin; largish upper teeth; a long neck; a narrow chest; a long trunk, and delicately shaped, small hands with long, slender fingers.
The sound was that of the unvoiced dental stop. The English t, however, is not dental but alveolar, being pronounced, as d also, not by putting the tongue against the teeth but against their sockets.
The Indian t, however, is probably produced still farther from the teeth than is the English sound.
Though represented in English by two symbols this is a single sound, which may be either interdental or, as frequently in English, produced "by keeping the tongue loosely behind the upper front teeth, so that the breath escapes partly between the tongue and the teeth, and partly, if the teeth are not very closely set, through the interstices between them" (Jespersen).
He was a descendant of Udaeus, one of the men who had sprung up from the serpent's teeth sown by Cadmus.
They may be characterized as very elongated reptiles without limbs (unless with tiny vestiges of posterior limbs), without eyelids and external ear openings, with the teeth anchylosed to the supporting bones, a bifid slender tongue which is telescoped into its basal half, and with a transverse vent.
More detail concerning skull, scales and teeth will be found in the diagnostic descriptions of the various families (vide infra); for further anatomical information the reader is referred to the article Reptiles (Anatomy).
They have a cylindrical rigid body, covered with generally smooth and polished scales; a short strong tail; a short rounded or pointed head with narrow mouth; teeth few in number; small or rudimentary eyes; no abdominal scutes or only narrow ones.
Snakes possess teeth in the maxillaries, mandibles, palatine and pterygoid bones, sometimes also in the intermaxillary; they may be absent in one or the ether of the bones mentioned.
In the innocuous snakes the teeth are simple and uniform in structure, thin, sharp like needles, and bent backwards; their function consists merely in seizing and holding the prey.
In some all the teeth are nearly of the same size; others possess in front of the jaws (Lycodonts) or behind in the maxillaries (Diacrasterians) a tooth more or less con spicuously larger than the rest; whilst others again are distinguished by this larger posterior tooth being grooved along its outer face.
One or more small ordinary teeth may be placed at some distance behind this poison-fang.
One or more reserve teeth, in various stages of development, lie between the folds of the gum and are ready to take the place of the one in function whenever it is lost by accident, or shed.
It is absorbed by the conjunctiva, but, excepting cobra poison, not by the mouth or alimentary canal, provided there be no hollow teeth and no abrasions.
Cope (Proc. Ac. Philad., 1864, p. 230) resorted to the modifications of the squamosal, ectoand endopterygoid bones, the condition of the vestigial limbs, and the teeth:- Scolecophidia (Typhlopidae), Catodonta (Glauconiidae), Tortricina (Ilysiidae and' Uropeltidae), Asinea, Proteroglypha and Solenoglypha.
Eyes vestigial; teeth restricted to the lower jaw; without en- larged ventral scales: Glauconiidae.
Eyes very small; head not distinct; teeth in the upper and lower jaws; ventral scales scarcely enlarged; tail extremely short, ending obtusely and covered with peculiar scales: Uropettidae.
the maxillaries are typically horizontal, not separately movable, with a series of teeth.
- Burrowing snakes, mostly small, which have the body covered with smooth, shiny, uniform cycloid scales The teeth are restricted to the small maxillary bones.
- Burrowing like the Typhlopidae, which they much resemble externally, but the maxillaries retain their normal position and are toothless, teeth being restricted to the lower jaw, which is short, stout, and not distensible.
Teeth are carried in both jaws.
Sharp, recurved teeth are carried by the mandibles, the pterygoids, palatines, maxillaries, and in the Pythoninae by the premaxillaries also.
The premaxilla generally carries a few small teeth.
- All the teeth are solid, and not grooved.
One or more of the posterior maxillary teeth are grooved.
The anterior maxillary teeth are grooved or "perforated."
The maxillary and dentary bones carry teeth on their whole length.
Characterized by possessing only a few teeth, on the posterior part of the maxillaries, on the palatines and Coronelline Nymphophidium, the same effect is reached by two prominences at the base of the skull.
- One, or a few, of the posterior maxillary teeth have a groove or furrow in front, which conducts the secretion of the enlarged upper labial glands.
- The anterior maxillary teeth are deeply grooved, or so folded as to appear hollow or perforated.
In another, probably also egg-eating snake, the Indian teeth, hence the term "proteroglypha," which is intended to mean that the anterior teeth are grooved.
Viperidae.-The maxillaries are very short, movably pivoting upon the prefrontals and also attached to the ectopterygoids, so that they can be erected together with the large poison fangs, which, besides reserve teeth, are the only maxillary teeth.
There are also teeth on the palatines, anterior portion of the pterygoids, and on the short dentaries.
The supply of reserve teeth is indefinite; frequently one or two are lying ready and of equal size to the functional fangs.
Their mouth is of moderate width, oblique, and armed with small but firmly set teeth.
Probably no extinct animal has left such abundant evidence of its former existence; immense numbers of bones, teeth, and more or less entire carcases, or " mummies," as they may be called, having been discovered, with the flesh, skin and hair in situ, in the frozen soil of the tundra of northern Siberia.
The tusks, or upper incisor teeth, which were probably smaller in the female, in the adult males attained the length of from 9 to io ft.
It is chiefly by the characters of the molar teeth that the various extinct modifications of the elephant type are distinguished.
There is scarcely a county in England in which its remains have not been found in alluvial gravel or in caverns, and numbers of its teeth are dredged in the North Sea.
The cheek teeth are short crowned (brachyodont), with the tubercles more or less completely fused into transverse ridges, or cross-crests (lophodont type); and the total number of teeth is in one case the typical 44, but in another is reduced below this.
The most generalized type is Coryphodon, representing the family Goryphodontidae, from the lower Eocene of Europe and North America, in which there were 44 teeth, and no horn-like excrescences on the long skull, while the femur had a third trochanter.
The full typical series of 44 teeth was developed in each, but whereas in the Periptychidae the upper molars were bunodont and tritubercular, in the Pantolambdidae they have assumed a selenodont structure.
UNGULATA, the name of an order of placental mammals in which the terminal joints of the toes are usually encased in solid hoofs or covered with broad hoof-like nails, while the molar (and not unfrequently some or all of the premolar) teeth have broad tuberculated crowns adapted for crushing vegetable substances.
The teeth (when all are present) are differentiated into the usual four series; and milk-teeth, not completely discarded till the full stature is attained, are invariably developed.
Males of the little water-bugs of the genus Corixa make a shrill chirping note by drawing a row of teeth on the flattened fore-foot across a group of spines on the haunch of the opposite leg.
- a, Nymph (4th stage) of Cicad, magnified 5 times; c, d, inner and outer faces of front leg, magnified 72 times; b, teeth on thigh, more highly magnified.
The hinder abdominal segments in the male show a curious asymmetrical arrangement, the sixth segment bearing on its upper side a small stalked plate (strigil) of unknown function, furnished with rows of teeth.
As the commander of a corps he served in the Peninsular War, but his cavalry genius did not shine in the Teeth of the lower and upper jaws of the Sea-wolf.
Rotation is communi cated by a pinion, turned by the handle c (concealed in the figure), which works in teeth cut on the edge of the flange h.
This ring runs between friction wheels and is provided with teeth on its inner periphery, and these teeth transmit motion to a pinion on a spindle having at its other end another pinion which, through an intermediate wheel, rotates the heliometer tube.
The dredge often brings up large numbers of nodules formed upon sharks' teeth, the ear-bones of whales or turtles or small fragments of pumice or other volcanic ejecta, and all more or less incrusted with manganese oxide until the nodules vary in size from that of a potato to that of a man's head.
The manganese nodules afford the most ample proof of the prodigious period of time which has elapsed since the formation of the red clay began; the sharks' teeth and whales' ear-bones which serve as nuclei belong in some cases to extinct species or even to forms derived from those familiar in the fossils from the seas of the Tertiary period.
The crank shaft carries a pinion which gears into a toothed wheel of a coarse pitch, carrying cutters at the ends of the teeth.
The upper premolar and molar teeth are not alike, the former being single and the latter two-lobed; and the last lower molar of both first and second dentition is almost invariably threelobed.
As regards the teeth, we have the passage of a simply tubercular, or bunodont ((30vv6s, a hillock) type of molar into one in which the four main tubercles, or columns, have assumed a crescentic form, whence this type is termed selenodont (v€X vn, the new moon).
The primitive Artiodactyla thus probably had the typical number (44) of incisor, canine and molar teeth, brachyodont molars, conical odontoid process, four distinct toes on each foot, with metacarpal, metatarsal and all the tarsal bones distinct, and no frontal appendages.
There is the full series of 44 teeth, generally without any gaps, and most of the bones of the skeleton are separate and complete; while, in many instances at any rate, the tail was much longer than in any existing ungulates, and the whole bodily form approximated to that of a carnivore.
The most interesting genera are, however, the Upper Oligocene and Lower Miocene Gelocus and Prodremotherium, which have perfectly selenodont teeth, and the third and fourth metacarpal and metatarsal bones respectively fused into an imperfect cannon-bone, with the reduction of the lateral metacarpals and metatarsals to mere remnants of their upper and lower extremities.
There is at least one pair of upper incisors, while the full series of 44 teeth may be present.
The short and broad teeth terminate in four subequal toes, protected by short rounded hoofs, and all reaching the ground.
They agree, for instance, with that family in the presence of a descending flange at the hinder end of each side of the lower jaw; but their dentition is of a more generalized type, comprising the full series of 44 teeth, among which the incisors and canines are of normal form, but specially enlarged, and developing roots in the usual manner.
When a shaft is driven by means of gearing the driving torque is measured by the product of the resultant pressure P acting between the wheel teeth and the radius of the pitch circle of the wheel fixed to the shaft.
It may be added that generic subdivisions of the squirrels are based mainly on the characters of the skull and teeth.
In 1677 he described and illustrated the spermatozoa in dogs and other animals, though in this discovery Stephen Hamm had anticipated him by a few months; and he investigated the structure of the teeth, crystalline lens, muscle, &c. In 1680 he noticed that yeast consists of minute globular particles, and he described the different structure of the stem in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.
In certain species of mylodon the front pair of teeth in each jaw is placed some distance in front of the rest and has the crown surface obliquely bevelled by From Owen.
wearing against the corresponding teeth in the opposite jaw.
The skull is shorter and lower than in Megatherium, without any vertical expansion of the middle of the lower jaw, and the teeth also extend nearly to the front of the jaws; both these features being sloth-like.
Another genus has been described from the Pleistocene of Nebraska, as Paramylodon; it has only four pairs of teeth, and an elongate skull with an inflated muzzle.
Beavers are sociable animals, living in streams, where, so as to render the water of sufficient depth, they build dams of mud and of the stems and boughs of trees felled by their powerful incisor teeth.
The beavers carry the mud and stones with their fore-paws and the timber between their teeth.
Besides chipped stone knives, the teeth of rodents, sharks, and other animals served an excellent purpose.
The addition of brilliant ornamentation in shell, teeth, feathers, wings of insects and dyed fibres completed the round of the textile art.
When unworn the teeth are spatulate and crimped or serrated round the edge, closely resembling those of the existing Central American lizard, Iguana - hence the name Iguanodon (Gr.
These fossils, which are now in the British Museum, were interpreted by Dr Mantell, who made comparisons with the skeleton of Iguana, on the erroneous supposition that the resemblance in the teeth denoted some relationship to this existing lizard.
TpoxiXos), the small bird that according to Herodotus waits or attends on the crocodile and picks insects out of his teeth.
The inner surface of their cup-shaped mouth is armed with pointed teeth, with which they perforate the integuments of the fish attacked, scraping off particles of the flesh and sucking the blood.
Mackerel, cod, pollack and flat-fishes are the kinds most frequently attacked by them in the sea; of river-fish the migratory Salmonidae and the shad are sometimes found with the marks of the teeth of the lamprey, or with the fish actually attached to them.
At the base of the Red Crag in East Anglia, and occasionally at the base of the other Pliocene Crags, there is a " nodule bed," consisting of phosphatic nodules, with rolled teeth and bones, which were formerly worked as " coprolites " for the preparation of artificial manure.
The toothed wheel being set in motion, the edge of a card or of a funnel-shaped piece of common notepaper is held against the teeth, when a note will be heard arising from the rapidly succeeding displacements of the air in its vicinity.
and hence, if the number of its teeth be 80, the number of taps imparted to the card every second will amount to 44X80 or 3520.
If, for the single toothed wheel, be substituted a set of four with a common axis, in which the teeth are in the ratios 4: 5: 6: 8, and if the card be rapidly passed along their edges, we shall hear distinctly produced the fundamental chord C, E, G, C 1 and shall thus satisfy ourselves that the intervals C, E; C, G and C, C 1 are, 2 and 2 respectively.
For this purpose the axis is furnished at its upper part with a screw working into a toothed wheel, and driving it round, during each revolution of the plate, through a space equal to the interval between two teeth.
On the completion of each revolution of this toothed wheel (which, if the number of its teeth be 100, will comprise loo revolutions of the movable plate), a projecting pin fixed to it catches a tooth of another toothed wheel and turns it round, and with it a corresponding index which thus records the number of turns of the first toothed wheel.
If two such flames are placed one under the other they may be excited by different sources, and the ratio of the frequencies may be approximately determined by counting the number of teeth in each in the same space.
He allowed a limited number of teeth on the arc of a circle to strike against a card.
In the region of the mouth the basal segments were armed with teeth and subserved the purpose of mastication.
Berengar in a weak moment in 1059 was forced by the pope to recant and assert that " the true body and blood are not only a sacrament, but in truth touched and broken by the hands of the priests and pressed by the teeth of the faithful," and this position remains in every Roman catechism.
For there is a corporeal chewing, by which food is taken into the mouth by man, bruised with the teeth and swallowed down into the belly..
Teeth variable in number, owing to the suppression in some forms of an upper incisor and one or more premolars.
The teeth of the molar series gradually increase in size and complexity from first to last, and are arranged in contiguous series, except that the first lower premolar is separated by an interval from the second.
In the African wart-hogs (Phacochoerus), which take their name from the large warty lobes projecting from each side of the face, the teeth are remarkably modified.
The milk-dentition, and even the early condition of the permanent dentition, is formed on the same general type as that of Sus, except that certain teeth are absent, the formula being 13 i cl, total 34; but as age advances all the teeth have a tendency to disappear, except the canines and the posterior molars, but these, which in some cases are the only teeth left in the jaws, attain an extraordinary development.
In the European Miocene Listriodon, which also occurs in the Indian Tertiaries, the molars have a pair of transverse ridges, like those of the proboscidean Dinotherium; but the genus is believed to be related to the Oligocene Doliochoerus and Choerotherium, in which these teeth show a more normal type of structure.
At the last revision of the Book of Common Prayer an addition was made to the service by prefixing to it a solemn renewal of their baptismal vows by the candidates; and, in the teeth of history and the wording of the service, this has often been taken to be the essential feature of confirmation.
The weir is opened by releasing the iron props from their shoes, either by a sideways pull of a tripping bar with projecting teeth laid on the apron and worked from the bank, \\\\\\\\\\\\\ [[Scale Zoo.
s, Teeth of the shell.
- One row of branchial filaments is directed dorsally, the other ventrally; the mantle has a long posteroventral suture and a single posterior aperture; the labial palps of each side are fused together; shell elongate; hinge without teeth; periostracum thick.
Cardiolidae.-Shell equivalve and ventricose; hinge without teeth.
Grammysiidae.-Shell thin, equivalve, oval or elongate; hinge without teeth.
Vlastidae.-Shell very inequivalve; hinge without teeth.
Hinge pliodont, that is to say, it has numerous teeth on either side of the umbones and the teeth are perpendicular to the edge.
Parallelodontidae.-Shell as in Arca, but the posterior hinge teeth elongated and parallel to the cardinal border.
Lyrodesmidae.-Extinct; shell inequilateral, posterior side shorter; hinge short, teeth in form of a fan.
Mytilidae.-Shell inequilateral, anterior end short; hinge without teeth; ligament external.
Dimyarian, with orbicular and almost equilateral shell; adherent; hinge without teeth Sand ligament internal.
Dreissensiidae.-Shell elongated; hinge without teeth;.
Hinge without teeth.
Both sexes are devoid of antler appendage; but in this the musk-deer agrees with one genus of true deer (Hydrelaphus), and as in the latter, the upper canine teeth of the males are long and sabre-like, projecting below the chin, with the ends turned somewhat backwards.
Bottlenoses feed on cuttle-fishes and squills, and are practically toothless; the only teeth which exist in the adult being a small pair at the front of the lower jaw, concealed beneath the gum during life.
The dentition is peculiar on account of the great size and complexity of the last upper molar, which is composed of about twelve plates, and exceeds in length the three teeth in front.
The teeth are secreted by a small number of cells at the closed end of the caecum, the basal membrane by a transverse row of cells in front of these.
The teeth are disposed in transverse rows, and in each row they are arranged symmetrically on either side of a central tooth.
RODENTIA, or Glires, an order of placental mammals characterized by the peculiar form and structure of their front or incisor teeth, which are reduced to a single functional chisellike pair in each jaw, specially adapted for gnawing, and growing throughout the entire life of their owners.
Rodents may be characterized as terrestrial, or in some cases arboreal or aquatic, placental mammals of small or medium size, with a milk and a permanent series of teeth, plantigrade or partially plantigrade, and generally five-toed, clawed (rarely nailed or semi hoofed) feet, clavicles or collar-bones (occasionally imperfect or rudimentary), no canine teeth, and a single pair of lower incisors, opposed by only one similar and functional pair in the upper jaw.
The palate is narrow from before backwards, this being especially the case in the hares, where it is reduced to a mere bridge between the premolars; in others, as in the rodent-moles (Bathyerginae), it is extremely narrow transversely, its width being less than that of one of the molar teeth.
In the latter there is only one pair of incisor teeth in the upper jaw, in which the enamel is confined to the front surface.
6) remarkably heavy, the molar teeth differing from those of Spermophilus and Arctomys by having three instead of two transverse grooves on their crowns.
avellanarius, the common dormouse, distinguished by the cylindrical bushy tail, and thickened glandular walls of the cardiac extremity of the oesophagus; thirdly, Eliomys, containing several species, with tufted and doubly vaned tails, simple stomachs and smaller molar teeth, having concave crowns and faintly marked enamel-folds; and lastly, the African Graphiurus, represented by several species, with short cylindrical tails ending in a pencil of hairs, and very small molars almost without trace of enamel-folds.
- The mole-rats (Spalacidae) bring us to the mouselike section, or Myoidea, in which there are no premolars and the molars may be occasionally reduced to z; these teeth being either rooted or rootless, with either cusps or enamel-folds, and the first generally larger than the second.
The Spalacidae are burrowing types, allied apparently to the ancestral Jaculidae, and characterized by the second and third molars being equal in size, the presence of enamel-folds in all these teeth, and the superiority in size of the claws of the second, third and fourth front toes over the other two.