He drank hot tea from a glass.
Do you want to come by for tea and cookies?
He didn't smile this time but sipped his tea, eyes on her.
Katie sipped her tea, hot from head to toe.
She followed, intent on having her tea by the window as she did every morning.
And our little tea table?
You can make tea with it, she started.
She tested the tea Cora made and was thrilled at the rich, sweetened flavor.
Could he dispense with tea and coffee?
In May, 1892, Helen gave a tea in aid of the kindergarten for the blind.
At the dinner-table she was greatly disturbed because I didn't eat, and suggested that "Cook make tea for teacher."
What would the tea taste like?
He gulped the rest of his tea and handed her the empty glass.
Those plants of whose greenness withered we make herb tea for the sick serve but a humble use, and are most employed by quacks.
He slid back away from the table, grabbing a napkin to dam the tea from the edge of the table.
Dessert includes a green tea ice cream you won't want to miss.
Brandon nearly choked on his tea, and Mrs. Marsh stared at her plate, not completely hiding a smile.
She took a drink of her tea and carefully set the glass back on the table.
"Catiche has had tea served in the small drawing room," said Prince Vasili to Anna Mikhaylovna.
He lifted his tea glass and examined the amber liquid.
I see you.re having tea with my blood monkey.
"All I wanted was a cup of tea," said Fred as they killed time.
You remember teacher and I told you Sunday that I wanted to have a little tea in aid of the kindergarten.
The officers were hurriedly drinking tea and breakfasting, the soldiers, munching biscuit and beating a tattoo with their feet to warm themselves, gathering round the fires throwing into the flames the remains of sheds, chairs, tables, wheels, tubs, and everything that they did not want or could not carry away with them.
Olga, go and see whether Uncle's beef tea is ready--it is almost time, she added, giving Pierre to understand that they were busy, and busy making his father comfortable, while evidently he, Pierre, was only busy causing him annoyance.
Deidre sipped her tea, her head aching.
Did you know you can make tea from the berries?
At six months I could pipe out "How d'ye," and one day I attracted every one's attention by saying "Tea, tea, tea" quite plainly.
Another group was at the tea table.
And a bed got ready, and tea? asked his valet.
Finally he lifted his glass of tea in a half salute to her.
Tea totaling Martha assumed the role of spokesperson.
Fred nodded, sipped at his tea and made a face.
His brother and sisters struggled for the places nearest to him and disputed with one another who should bring him his tea, handkerchief, and pipe.
The preparations for my tea are nearly completed, and I am looking forward joyfully to the event.
"Well, how d'you do, my dear fellow?" said Dolgorukov, who was sitting at tea with Bilibin.
She looked up from her tea at the note in his voice.
Caffeine is the active principle in tea, coffee, kola, mate and guarana; while theobromine, a body closely allied to it, is found in cocoa and chocolate.
Assuming it was some sort of uncivilized training exercise engineered by the half-breed in charge of the Council, he was nonetheless stopped from enjoying his first tea since returning from Hell.
Anna Mikhaylovna sat down beside him, with her own handkerchief wiped the tears from his eyes and from the letter, then having dried her own eyes she comforted the count, and decided that at dinner and till teatime she would prepare the countess, and after tea, with God's help, would inform her.
When everything was ready, the stranger opened his eyes, moved to the table, filled a tumbler with tea for himself and one for the beardless old man to whom he passed it.
Prince Andrew went out of the room, and then, leaving "God's folk" to finish their tea, Princess Mary took Pierre into the drawing room.
One morning, between seven and eight, returning after a sleepless night, he sent for embers, changed his rain-soaked underclothes, said his prayers, drank tea, got warm, then tidied up the things on the table and in his own corner, and, his face glowing from exposure to the wind and with nothing on but his shirt, lay down on his back, putting his arms under his head.
Well, you will be coming," he was going to say, "to dine," but changed his mind and said "to take tea with us," and quickly doubling up his tongue he blew a small round ring of tobacco smoke, perfectly embodying his dream of happiness.
That was all he thought about yesterday's ball, and after his morning tea he set to work.
The old people sat with the old, the young with the young, and the hostess at the tea table, on which stood exactly the same kind of cakes in a silver cake basket as the Panins had at their party.
They were drinking tea, and only awaited Prince Bagration to begin the council.
Um, it's … you know what, you can drink your tea and I'll make breakfast, Cora said, taking the eggs.
I dive off a building, and now I'm having a tea party?
"For tea," she clarified.
"Would you like a cup of tea?" the servant asked.
Come. Have some tea while you wait.
Katie sat on a barstool at the breakfast bar, watching the maid pour tea into two mugs sitting beside the stove.
I cook, but mostly toast and tea, and soup in the late afternoon.
"I brought you some tea," Sofi said, handing her a mug.
I invite them in for tea then steal their souls while they talk about the weather.
Have you got anything stronger than tea to drink?
He absently swirled the iced tea in his glass as his gaze finally met hers.
It actually tasted like tea.
Pregnant Martha abstained, content with an iced tea.
He poured them both tea.
Deidre accepted her tea.
He sipped his tea.
She nodded, gaze going to her tea.
She could poison your tea.
Where's this poisoned tea?
She poured them each a cup of steaming tea.
Daniela sipped her tea.
Uncertain what else to do aside from have a mental breakdown, Deidre accepted the tea.
Death curtseyed back, gave Gabriel a final look of warning, and followed the woman in grey to afternoon tea.
Right next to her tea.
Her hands shook as she made tea.
He was perfectly still, and she tried to concentrate on her tea.
I.ll be right back for the tea.
Cynthia poured a cup of tea.
What ever happened to Arthur Godfrey and regular ol' Lipton tea?
She fumbled and stammered and even spilled his tea.
Why don't you come into the house and have a glass of cold tea.
Maybe you could fill the glasses with tea?
Why don't we go into the house for some iced tea?
Why don't you fix us some iced tea?
Fine. You chop the wood and I'll make us some iced tea.
She beamed up at Keaton as he approached with two glasses of iced tea.
She relinquished the ax for the glass of tea.
Jessi sipped her tea.
The chief articles of import are apparel and textiles, machinery and hardware, stimulants, narcotics, explosives, bags and sacks, books and paper, oils and tea.
Among the imported flora are tea, Siberian coffee, cocoa, Ceara rubber (which has not done well), Manila hemp, teak, cocoanut and a number of ornamental trees, fruit-trees, vegetables and garden plants.
Tea is grown in considerable quantities and the cultivation is under a department of the penal settlement.
tea) and those with erect leaves, such as Typlia angustifolia, is bi obably more apparent than real.
above Chang-te Fu; and (4) the Ling-kiang, which flows from the tea district of Ho-feng Chow to the Tung-t'ing lake.
The products of the province are tea (the best quality of which is grown at Gan-hwa and the greatest quantity at Ping-kiang), hemp, cotton, rice, paper, tobacco, tea-oil and coal.
The tea plant thrives and is being planted fairly rapidly on the Black Sea littoral in Transcaucasia.
With regard to the imports into Russia-they consist mainly of raw materials and machinery for the manufactures, and of provisions, the principal items being raw cotton, 17% of the aggregate; machinery and metal goods, 13%; tea, 5%; mineral ores, 5%; gums and resins, 4%; wool and woollen yarns, 32%; textiles, 3%; fish, 3%; with leather and hides, chemicals, silks, wine and spirits, colours, fruits, coffee, tobacco and rice.
The peat is different in character from that of northern Europe: cellular plants enter but little into its composition, and it is formed almost entirely of the roots and stems of Empetrum rubrum, a variety of the common crowberry of the Scottish hills with red berries, called by the Falklanders the " diddle-dee " berry; of Myrtus nummularia, a little creeping myrtle whose leaves are used by the shepherds as a substitute for tea; of Caltha appendiculata, a dwarf species of marsh-marigold; and of some sedges and sedge-like plants, such as Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis and Bostkovia grandif ora.
The principal products of the province are tea, China ware, grasscloth, hemp, paper, tobacco and tallow.
After breakfast " he was expected," he says, to spend an hour with Mrs Gibbon; after tea his father claimed his conversation; in the midst of an interesting work he was often called down to entertain idle visitors; and, worst of all, he was periodically compelled to return the well-meant compliments.
Its title was suggested by the programme of the Spectator : and the compiler claimed the place for his songs "e'en while the tea's fill'd reeking round," which Addison sought for his speculations at the hour set apart "for tea and bread and butter."
Wheat has been produced in some localities, but not on a paying basis, and experiments have also been made with tea.
Manufacturing industry is confined to a few articles and commodities, such as cement, tea, tin cans (for oil), cotton goods, oil refineries, tobacco factories, flour-mills, silk-winding mills (especially at Shusha and Jebrail in the south of Elisavetpol), distilleries and breweries.
At the Cape excellent works and papers are prepared and issued by the government entomologist, Dr Lounsbury, under the auspices of the Agricultural Department; while from India we have Cotes's Notes on Economic Entomology, published by the Indian Museum in 1888, and other works, especially on tea pests.
The Old South church has many associations; it was, for instance, the meeting-place of the people after the " Boston Massacre " of 1770, when they demanded the removal of the British troops from the city; and here, too, were held the meetings that led up to the " Boston Tea Party " of 1773.
The Tea Act of 1773 was defied by the emptying into the harbour of three cargoes of tea on the 16th of December 1773, by a party of citizens disguised as Indians, after the people in town-meeting had exhausted every effort, through a period of weeks, to procure the return of the tea-ships to England.
Steamers ascend this river as far as Bilyutai, near the Mongolian frontier, and bring back tea, imported via Kiakhta, while grain, cedar nuts, salt, soda, wool and timber are shipped on rafts down the Khilok, Chikoi and Uda (tributaries of the Selenga), and manufactured goods are taken up the river for export to China.
Camphor, sugar, tea, indigo, ground peanuts, jute, hemp, oil and rattans are all articles of export.
Tea and camphor are the staple exports.
He generally took breakfast or tea with some congenial friend and delighted to discuss the deepest subjects.
Notable among the flora are roses, japonicas, hibiscus shrubs of various species, poinsettias, tea olives, crepe myrtle, jasmines, magnolias, camellias, oleanders, chrysanthemums, geraniums and plumbagos.
The Cambodians show skill in working gold and silver; earthenware, bricks, mats, fans and silk and cotton fabrics, are also produced to some small extent, but fishing and the cultivation of rice and in a minor degree of tobacco, coffee, cotton, pepper, indigo, maize, tea and sugar are the only industries worthy of the name.
Its principal imports are coffee (of which it is the greatest continental market), tea, sugar, spices, rice, wine (especially from Bordeaux), lard (from Chicago), cereals, sago, dried fruits, herrings, wax (from Morocco and Mozambique), tobacco, hemp, cotton (which of late years shows a large increase), wool, skins, leather, oils, dyewoods, indigo, nitrates, phosphates and coal.
An enormous development of agricultural resources has taken place within the Brahmaputra basin of late years, chiefly in the direction of tea cultivation, as well as in the production of jute and silk.
In many plantations besides catch crops (cassava, sesame, ground-nuts, &c.) other crops, such as tea, coffee, cocoa and tobacco, are grown with rubber.
Tea makes up nearly one-half of the imports, the other commodities being silks, cottons, hides and wool; while cottons and other manufactured wares constitute considerably over 50% of the exports.
Large quantities of coal and tea are exported.
Berry-White, which is maintained by the government, to train hospital assistants for the tea gardens.
The exports cover a wide range of agricultural, pastoral and natural productions, including coffee, rubber, sugar, cotton, cocoa, Brazil nuts, mate (Paraguay tea), hides, skins, fruits, gold, diamonds, manganese ore, cabinet woods and medicinal leaves, roots and resins.
Besides fruits of nearly all kinds there are cultivated in the low moist regions the sugar-cane, the tea, coffee and tobacco plants, arrowroot, cayenne pepper, cotton, &c. The area under sugar in 1905 was 45,840 acres and the produce 532,067 cwt.
In the same year the production of tea was 1,633,178 lb; of coffee, 24,8591b; of maize, 2,101,470 bushels; of potatoes, 419,946 bushels; and of sweet potatoes, 181,195 bushels.
The tea plant was first introduced in Natal in 1850, but little attention was paid to it until the failure of the coffee plantations about 1875, since when only small quantities of coffee have been produced.
In 1877 renewed efforts were made to induce tea cultivation, and by 1881 it had become an established industry.
Most of the tea estates are situated in the coast belt north of Durban.
The sugar cane, like tea, was first introduced in 1850, the first canes being brought from Mauritius.
The chief exports, not all products of the province, are coal, wool, mohair, hides and skins, wattle bark, tea, sugar, fruits and jams. The import trade is of a most varied character, and a large proportion of the goods brought into the country are in transit to the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Natal affording, next to Delagoa Bay, the shortest route to the Rand.
The British settlers soon realized that the coast lands were suited to the cultivation of tropical or semi-tropical products, and from 1852 onward sugar, coffee, cotton and arrow-root were introduced, tea being afterwards substituted for coffee.
It is calculated that ioo,000 camels are used for the transport of tea only from Kalgan to Siberia, and that no less than 1,200,000 camels and 300,000 ox-carts are employed in the internal caravan trade.
I buy 2 lb of tea, and have 6s.
left out of Ios.; how much per lb did tea cost?
Therefore 2 lb of tea cost 3s.
Therefore 1 lb of tea cost is.
Cost of 2 lb tea = ios.
Cost of i lb tea = is.
the cost of 1 lb tea.
We write: (2 Xcost of 1 lb tea) +6s.
2 Xcost of I lb tea =Ios.
In the tropical district of the Limpopo valley there is some cultivation of the coffee-tree, and this region is also adapted for the growing of tea, sugar, cotton and rice.
Besides rice, the products of the countryinclude tea, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, precious woods and rubber; coffee, pepper, sugar-canes and jute are cultivated to a minor extent.
The exports (total value in 1905 £ 2 37, 010) comprise tea, raw silk and small quantities of cotton, rice and sugar-cane.
He was sober enough (for his day and society) in eating and drinking generally; but drank coffee, as his contemporary, counterpart and enemy, Johnson, drank tea, in a hardened and inveterate manner.
Sugar, tea and coffee are grown in the coast belt by whites.
Other crops which are grown in the province, especially in Upper Burma, comprise maize, tilseed, sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco, wheat, millet, other food grains including pulse, condiments and spices, tea, barley, sago, linseed and other oil-seeds, various fibres, indigo and other dye crops, besides orchards and garden produce.
Situated at the intersection of two roads - from Kulja to Tashkent, and from Semipalatinsk to Kashgar - Vyernyi carries on an active trade in wheat, rice, corn, tea, oil and tobacco.
Throughout Europe it continued to be a costly luxury and article of medicine only, till the increasing use of tea and coffee in the 18th century brought it into the list of principal food staples.
The southern half of the province, that portion south of the Yangtsze Kiang, forms part of the Nan-shan, or hilly belt of the south-eastern provinces, and produces, besides cotton, coal and iron ore, large quantities of green tea.
Over the whole of its southern portion tea is largely grown, notably in the districts of Hui-chow Fu, Tung-liu, Ta-tung and Wu-hu.
Among the principal goods dealt with are tea, silk, opium, sugar, flax, salt, earthenware, oil, amber, cotton and cotton goods, sandal-wood, ivory, betel, vegetables, live stock and granite.
He became a clerk (1870) and then a partner (1875) in his father's tea and silk-importing house, A.
Tea from Pu-erh Fu in S.
Cotton yarn and cloth, petroleum, timber and furs are among the chief imports; copper, tin, hides and tea are important exports; medicines in the shape not only of herbs and roots, but also of fossils, shells, bones, teeth and various products of the animal kingdom; and precious stones, principally jade and rubies, are among the other exports.
Its principal imports are cotton and woollen goods, yarn, metals, sugar, coffee, tea, spices, cashmere shawls, &c., and its principal exports opium, wool, carpets, horses, grain, dyes and gums, tobacco, rosewater, &c. The importance of Bushire has much increased since about 1862.
They confine themselves at present to decorating plaques, boxes and cases for cigars or cigarettes, and an occasional tea or coffee service; but the whole domain of salvers, dessert-services, race-cups and so on remains virtually unexplored.
In the I3th century, however, the introduction 01 tea from China, together with vessels for infusing and serving it revealed to the Japanese a new conception of ceramic possibilities for the potters of the Middle Kingdom had then (Sung dynasty) fully entered the road which was destined to carry them ultimately to a high pinnacle of their craft.
It had long been customary in Japan to send students to China for the purpose of studying philosophy and religion, and she now (1223) sent a potter, Kato Shirozaemon, who, on his return, opened a kiln at Seto in the province of Owari, and began to produce little jars for preserving tea and cups for drinking it.
The raku faience owed much of its popularity to the patronage of the tea clubs.
~The nature of its paste and glaze adapted it for the infusion of powdered tea, and its homely character suited the austere canons of the tea ceremonies.
the TaikO himself paid a visit to the factory at Imbe, Thenceforth utensils for the use of the tea clubs began to bi manufactured.
Unfortunately, the best experts confined themselves to working for the tea clubs, and consequently produced only insignificant pieces, as tea-jars, cups and little ewers.
They still manufacture quantities of tea and coffee sets, and dinner or dessert services of red-and-gold porcelain for foreign markets; but about 1885 some of them made zealous and patient efforts to revert to the processes that won so much fame for the old Kutaniyaki, with its grand combinations of rich, lustrous, soft-toned glazes.
The town has two interesting museums. Emden is the seat of an active trade in agricultural produce and live-stock, horses, timber, coal, tea and wine.
Their food consists of meat, chiefly pork, turnips, rice, barley-meal and tea made from the brick-tea of China.
The commodities otherwise mostly dealt in are opium, tea, rice, oil, raw cotton, fish and silk.
The preparation and packing of tea is the principal industry in the town.
He it was, also, who managed the proceedings of the "Boston Tea Party," and later he was moderator of the convention of Massachusetts towns called to protest against the Boston Port Bill.
Tea is grown in the district, which includes the military sanatorium of Ranikhet.
Tea, coffee, cinchona, sugar-cane, rice, nutmegs, cloves and pepper are cultivated.
The staple imports are piece goods, tobacco, cotton, earthenware, tea and sugar.
Another bill (the Declaratory Act), however, was almost immediately passed by the king's party, asserting absolute supremacy of parliament over the colonies, and in the succeeding parliament, by the Townshend Acts of 1767, duties were imposed on paper, paints and glass imported by the colonists; a tax was imposed on tea also.
In spite of the opposition in the colonies to the Declaratory Act, the Townshend Acts and the tea tax, Franklin continued to assure the British ministry and the British public of the loyalty of the colonists.
Tea gardens cover a considerable area, and the valley contains a colony of European tea planters.
The tea trade of Wen-chow-Fu, formerly important, has declined owing to careless cultivation.
The cultivation of tea was introduced in 1856, and is now a large industry.
The Stamp Act was repealed in March 1766, but the Townshend Acts, imposing duties on glass, paper, lead, painters' colours and tea, followed closely.
When, in 1770, all the duties except those on tea were repealed, the conservative merchants wished to permit the importation of all goods from England except tea.
The principal imports, over 90% being of British origin, are cotton goods, clothing and haberdashery, leather, boots, &c., hardware, sugar, coffee, tea and furniture.
Tea, oni the contrary, is prepared and packed on the estates; but there is a considerable amount of work still done in the Colombo stores in sorting, blending and repacking such teas as are sold at the local public sales; also in dealing with cacao, cardainoms, cinchona bark and the remnant still left of the coffee indiustry.
The cultivation of sugar and coffee owes its development mainly to the Dutch; and to them also is due the introduction of tea.
The principal articles of export are sugar, tobacco, copra, forest products (various gums, &c.), coffee, petroleum, tea, cinchona, tin, rice, pepper, spices and gambier.
In the eastern Astin-tagh a variety of wild tea (chay, mountain tea) is used by the Mongols.
A very few articles (spirits, beer, wine, tobacco, tea, coffee, cocoa) yield practically all of the customs revenue, and, so far as these articles are produced within the country, they are subject to an excise duty, an internal tax precisely equal to the import duty.
It deserves to be noted that in 1872 an important step was also taken towards removing entirely the duties on purely revenue articles, tea and coffee being then admitted free of duty.
The tea plant is found almost everywhere, and the cotton plant is largely cultivated near the sea.
The principal exports are fish, coarse black tea, cotton, vegetable tallow, sweet potatoes, and some wheat.
In the years immediately preceding the Declaration of Independence Maryland pursued much the same course as did other leading colonies in the struggle - a vessel with tea on board was even burned to the water's edge - and yet when it came to the decisive act of declaring independence there was hesitation.
The imports from India are cottons, tea, shawls and indigo.
Precious stones ($43,620,591); fruits and nuts; copper, iron and steel; tobacco (leaf $25,897,650; manufactured, $4,138,521); tin; spirits, wines and liquors; oils, paper, works of art, tea and leather ($16,270,406), being the remaining items in excess of $15,000,000 each.
When the rice in the cover is sufficiently cooked, the medicine is ready, and is then eaten by the patient, who drinks the ginseng tea at the same time."
The principal article of export continues to be black tea, of which staple Hankow has always been the central market.
The bulk of the leaf tea, however, now goes to Russia by direct steamers to Odessa instead of to London as formerly, and a large quantity goes overland via Tientsin and Siberia in the form of brick tea.
The quantity of brick tea thus exported in 1904 was upwards of 10 million lb.
he started a model shop for the sale of tea, and model lodgings.
They can endure exposure without much apparent inconvenience; and though the nature of the food they use is such that they cannot stand absolute privation for any considerable length of time, they can exist for long periods on starvation rations, if eked out with weak soup or buttered tea, which is drunk at frequent intervals.
Most of these districts are governed by deba or chiefs, while a few have kings or gyalpo, the most powerful of the latter being the king of Derge, famous for its inlaid metal and leather work, and of Chagla, or, as it is better known, Tachienlu, as it is called by the Chinese or the Dartsemdo of the Tibetans, the headquarters of the tea trade with China.
The tea imported from Szechuen is for the most part of very inferior quality, estimated at 35% tea-leaves and 65% twigs and other material.
Here the party was stopped by Tibetan authorities and forced to take the tea route through Chinese Tibet (Gyade) by way of Batasumdo, Chebotenchin, Riwoche, Chiamdo to Chiangka, near the upper Yangtse-kiang, whence they proceeded to Tachienlu by Batang and Litang.
von Rosthorn, " Notes on Tea Trade between China and Tibet," Geog.
The imports (cotton goods, sugar, tea, rice, &c.) were valued at £280,000 in 1900, £286,000 in 19"04, and £320,000 in 1906.
Tea and silk are the principal articles of commerce produced in Kiang-su, and next in importance are cotton, sugar and medicines.
In December 1767, in reply to a message from Boston, a townmeeting forbade the use of tea, wines, liquors and foreign manufactures; in 1770 all citizens were forbidden to hold 1 The principal village of the Mohegans was originally, it seems, on the site of Norwich.
intercourse with a schoolmaster who had continued to drink tea, and in 1776 a town-meeting directed the town clerk to proceed with his duties without reference to the Stamp Act.
The leaves are used as tea and as a country medicine.
The principal industries are the cultivation and preparation of yerba mate (Paraguayan tea), cattle-farming, fruitgrowing, tobacco-planting and timber-cutting.
Paraguayan tea is used in place of the ordinary tea or coffee in many parts of South America.
The majority of the yerbales (tea plantations) were formerly the property of the government, but have been acquired by private enterprise.
The soil is fertile, and whereas rice is mainly grown on the lowlands the highlands are especially suitable for the cultivation of coffee, tea, tobacco, cinchona and vanilla.
The chief exports are cocoanut products, for the preparation of which there are factories, and tea; and the chief import is rice.
camomile tea; and similarly for the afternoon meal at which tea is served.
The early history of tea as a beverage is mainly traditional.
It may then be learnt who made the first cup of tea, who planted the earliest bushes, and how the primitive methods of manufacture were evolved.
According to Chinese legend, the virtues of tea were discovered by the Emperor Chinnung, 2137 B.C., to whom all agricultural and medicinal knowledge is traced.
It is doubtfully referred to in the book of ancient poems edited by Confucius, all of which are previous in date to 550 B.C. A tradition exists in China that a knowledge of tea travelled eastward to and in China, having been introduced S43 A.D.
But it is quite certain, from the historical narrative of Lo Yu, who lived in the Tang dynasty (618-906 A.D.), that tea was already used as a beverage in the 6th century, and that during the 8th century its use had become so common that a tax was levied on its consumption in the 14th year of Tih Tsung (793).
The use of tea in China in the middle of the 9th century is known from Arab sources (Reinaud, Relation des Voyages, 1845, p. 40).
From China a knowledge of tea was carried into Japan, and there the cultivation was established during the 9th century.
It is somewhat curious that although many of the products of China were known and used in Europe at much earlier times, no reference to tea has yet been traced in European literature prior to 1588.
The Portuguese, however, did little towards the introduction of it into Europe, and it was not till the Dutch established themselves at Bantam early in the 17th century that these adventurers learned from the Chinese the habit of tea drinking and brought it into Europe.
The earliest mention of tea by an Englishman is probably that contained in a letter from Mr Wickham, an agent of the East India Company, written from Firando in Japan, on the 27th June 1615, to Mr Eaton, another officer of the company, resident at Macao, and asking for "a pot of the best sort of chaw."
It was not till the middle of the century that the English began to use tea, and they also received their supplies from Java till in 1686 they were driven out of the island by the Dutch.
At first the price of tea in England ranged from £6 to £10 per lb.
Thomas Garway, the first English tea dealer, and founder of the well-known coffee-house, "Garraway's," in a curious broadsheet, An Exact Description of the Growth, Quality and Virtues of the Leaf Tea, issued in 1659 or 1660, writes, "in respect of its scarceness and dearness, it hath been only used as a regalia in high treatments and entertainments, and presents made thereof to princes and grandees."
Pepys's often-quoted mention of the fact that on the 25th September 1660, "I did send for a cup of tee, a China drink, of which I never had drunk before," proves the novelty of tea in England at that date.
Not until 1677 is the Company recorded to have taken any steps for the importation of tea.
Until the Revolution no duty was laid on tea other than that levied on the infusion as sold in the coffee-houses.
The average price of tea at this period was 16s.
As the 18th century progressed the use of tea in England rapidly increased, and by the close of the century the rate of consumption exceeded an average of 2 lb per person per annum, a rate in excess of that of to-day of all people except those of Mongol and Anglo-Saxon origin.
The business being a monopoly of the East India Company, and a very profitable one, the company at an early stage of its development endeavoured to ascertain whether tea could not be grown within its own dominions.
In 1788 Sir Joseph Banks, at the request of the directors, drew up a memoir on the cultivation of economic plants in Bengal, in which he gave special prominence to tea, pointing out the regions most favourable for its cultivation.
In the meantime a committee had been formed by Lord William Bentinck, the governor-general, for the introduction of tea culture into India, and an official had already been sent to the tea districts of China to procure seed and skilled Chinese workmen to conduct operations in the Himalayan regions.
resolved to institute an experimental establishment in Assam for cultivating and manufacturing tea, leaving the industry to be developed by private enterprise should its practicability be demonstrated.
In 1836 there was sent to London i lb of tea made from indigenous leaves; in 1837 5 lb of Assam tea were sent; in 1838 the quantity sent was 12 small boxes, and 95 boxes reached London in 1839.
In the same auction catalogue were included 95 packages, "the produce of the Government Tea Plantation in Assam," many of which bore the Chubwa mark, one well known to this day.
This auction is most interesting as being the first of British-grown tea, and it included about 6000 lb.
It is of interest also for the reference to the Singpho tribe, who are even now in small numbers in the same district, where they still produce in a primitive manner tea plucked from the indigenous trees growing in their jungles.
In January 1840 the Assam Company was formed to take over the early tea garden of the East India Company, and this, the premier company, is still in existence, having produced up to 1907 no less than 117,000,000 lb of tea and paid in dividends X1,360,000 or 730 per cent.
It is no longer the first company in extent of yield, as the Consolidated Tea and Lands Company produced in 1907 about 15,000,000 lb of tea, besides other products.
The introduction of Chinese seed and Chinese methods was a mistake, and there seems little reason to doubt that, in clearing jungle for tea planting, fine indigenous tea was frequently destroyed unwittingly in order to plant the inferior China variety.
The Dutch were rather earlier than the English in attempting to establish tea growing in their eastern possessions.
Somewhere about 1860 the practical commercial growing of tea was introduced into the island of Formosa.
Attempts were repeatedly made to introduce tea culture in Ceylon, under both Dutch and British authority.
No permanent success was attained till about 1876, when the disastrous effects of the coffee-leaf disease forced planters to give serious attention to tea.
Since that period the tea industry has developed with marvellous rapidity, and now takes first rank in the commerce of the island.
Several plantations have been successfully put out both by the Russian government and private enterprise in the Caucasus, but it is doubtful whether they could exist long but for the high rate of duty on tea entering Russia from foreign countries.
Natal has now about 5000 acres under tea giving a fairly large yield, but of quality pot highly esteemed outside of South Africa, where it benefits to the extent of 4d.
Attempts at tea growing have been made in the West Indies, Brazil, Australia, Nyassaland, Mauritius, the Straits Settlements, Johore, Fiji and at San Miguel in the Azores without marked success.
The tea bush or tree is a member of the natural order Ternstroemiaceae and is closely allied to the well-known ornamental shrub the camellia.
As is commonly the case with plants which have been long under cultivation, there has been some doubt as to specific distinctions among the varieties of tea.
In 1843, however, Mr Robert Fortune found that, although the two varieties of the plant existed in different parts of China, black and green tea were produced from the leaves of the same plant by varying the manufacturing processes.
A further characteristic feature of the cellular structure of the tea-leaf is the abundance, especially in grown leaves, of large, branching, thick-walled, smooth cells (idioblasts), which, although they occur in other leaves, are not found in such as are likely to be confounded with or substituted for tea.
experts appointed in India and Ceylon to assist and guide the tea planters.
One reason may be that analyses are generally made of tea liquors produced by distilled water, which is the very worst possible from the point of view of the commercial expert or in domestic usage.
The principal chemicals in tea are: caffeine, tannin and essential oil.
The following is suggested as a typical analysis sample of black tea: Albuminous matters Gummy matters.
2 per cent.) of boheic acid, a vegetable acid peculiar to tea.
At the stage of final firing, tea is supposed to be desiccated as completely as possible, and it is then sealed up to exclude air entirely.
Caffeine (formerly known as theme) is the alkaloid of tea, and is identical with that of coffee, guarana, mate and kola nut.
The essential oil of tea is of a citron yellow colour; it is lighter than water and possesses the distinctive odour of tea.
In 1877, except to the initiated, tea meant China tea., India and Java were producing a little, but practically for use only in Great Britain and Holland.
China and Japan have hitherto been regarded as the chief producers of tea, and the reputed large domestic consumption of those Mongolian peoples has led to assumptions of vast internal productions.
In both of those countries tea is grown principally in a retail manner, and much of it simply for family consumption.
The country cultivator has, as a rule, only a small area - perhaps a corner of his farm or garden - planted with tea, the produce of which is roughly sun-dried and cured in a primitive manner.
The modern developments of production and consumption have rendered the subject of China tea one of subordinate interest, except China.
Of the exported quantity referred to tea.
Out of that total, Great Britain consumed only about 5,000,000 Ib, against a consumption of 126,000,000 lb of China tea in 1879.
Green tea is represented by 28,000,000 lb, and this went chiefly to the United States of America, to Central Asia and to North Africa.
The remainder, 80,000,000 lb, is brick China and tablet tea sent entirely to Asiatic and European green tea, Russia.
The method of compressing tea into tablets 8 or bricks is unfamiliar in western Europe.
more primitive methods of transit, the system is still continued to meet the wants of the consumer who would not recognize his tea in any other shape.
The preparation of the tea in the requisite form has, however, largely left Chinese hands.
The Russians have themselves established several important factories at Hankow, which is the chief seat of this industry, and to which place they import in large quantities tea-dust and small broken tea from India, Ceylon and Java.
Of a somewhat different nature is the brick tea prepared chiefly at Ya-chou in Brick t ea the province of Ssu-chuan, for overland transit to Tibet, for Tibet.
to investigate the commerce in which Mr James Hutchi son, M.A., was sent in 1906 as a special commissioner for the Indian Tea Cess Committee.
This tea is mostly prepared from exceedingly rough leaf, including even bush prunings, which would not be plucked for manufacturing purposes in India or Ceylon.
The Japanese production is almost entirely green tea for North American use.
The export production of the island of Formosa is limited to a particular class of tea termed Formosa Oolong, practically all produced for the United States Oolong.
The Tea Cess Committees of India and Ceylon have both sent representatives in recent years to study the manner of growth and production, but in neither country has there been so far any successful attempt to produce commercially tea of the class.
Soil, situation and climatic conditions have doubtless much influence on the peculiar character of the tea produced.
The manufacturing methods are elaborate and careful, and the produce has in its choicest qualities a particular delicacy and bouquet possessed by no other variety of tea.
As the planting, productive and manufacturing processes of India may be taken to be generally representative of Indian tea Ceylon and Java also, and therefore of the tea of modern trade.
A rich and exuberant growth of the plants is a first essential of successful tea cultivation.
The climate indeed which favours tropical profusion of jungle growth - still steaming heat - is that most favourable for the cultivation of tea, and such climate, unfortunately, is often trying to the health of Europeans.
It was formerly supposed that comparatively temperate latitudes and steep sloping ground afforded the most favourable situations for planting, and much of the disaster which attended the early stages of the tea enterprise in India is traceable to this erroneous conception.
Tea thrives best in light friable soils of good depth, through which water percolates freely, the plant being specially impatient of marshy situations and stagnant water.
Undulating well-watered tracts, where the rain escapes freely, yet without washing away the soil, are the most valuable for tea gardens.
finished tea per bush.
Tea grows and thrives from about sea-level in the tropics to 7000 ft.
During recent years in India a new development has taken place in planting tea upon what are termed "bheels," - lands resembling to a great extent the peat bogs of Ireland and Scotland.
The lower leaves on the young shoots are too old and hard to manufacture into tea.
The plucking is done by women and children, and is now practically the only part of the work where the tea is touched by hand.
On a successful wither the amount of the tea ferment or enzyme is dependent.
Should the leaf be intended to be cured as green tea, the fermenting process is omitted and some other processes applied, but in India very little green tea is manufactured.
Upon completion of the sifting, the tea is again fired, and while warm it is packed tightly into lead-lined chests, and the lead covers completely soldered over it, so that it may be kept perfectly air-tight until required for use.
A production temporarily in excess of the world's demand of several years ago, led to the offering of bonuses for the production in India and Ceylon of green teas, with a view to lessening the black tea output.
The methods adopted were successful, and Green tea.
The methods of producing this tea are not so complicated as those followed in China and Japan.
The principal difference from the manner described of making black tea lies in the omission of the withering and fermenting, and the substitution for those of a steaming or panning process.
Tea Consumption.-The following table gives particulars relative to the principal consuming countries, from which it will be seen that Great Britain and its English-speaking dependencies are the great consumers: Tea Consumption of Chief Consuming Countries in 1906.
The progressive increase in the consumption of tea in Great Britain and Ireland during 50 years from 1836 to 1886 is shown in the table below.
From 1860 onwards, the amount of Indian tea entered for home consumption is shown in monthly average by a black column.
This column brings out the remarkable fact that the Indian tea alone consumed in 1886 equalled the consumption of all kinds in 1860, and was double the quantity of all kinds in 1836.
sumption, but a similar one on next page, bringing the figures up to 1907, shows the gradual and almost total displacement of China tea by that grown in the English dependencies.
1 3 2 of prices for sugar during recent times has undoubtedly assisted in increasing the amount available for expenditure on tea.
In Russia tea costs more to the consumer than in any country where modern transit by railway and steamer exists.
But in return the government, with a paternal care for its people, makes absolutely certain that the tea reaches their hands as pure and unadulterated as when it first entered the country.
Russian tea has always had a high reputation - largely a sentimental one, however.
Tea that makes a dark, strong liquor is preferred - not that such liquor is used, but that the greatest possible quantity of tea-coloured water may be drained from the teapot by refilling it over and over again from the samovar.
The tea is generally drunk from glasses and while very hot, with a liberal addition of sugar and a flavouring of lemon.
The method of use is Indian Tea Ceylon Tea China Tea ° wvwy Jaua.
Tea ------- FIG.
- Diagram showing the alterations in the relative proportions of different growths of tea consumed during the 21 years ended the 31st of December 1907; the variations in the London average prices for Indian teas, and the changes in the English rate of duty.
The diagonal line shows the average price per lb of all Indian tea sold in the London public auctions.
France, considering that it is England's nearest neighbour, has a remarkably small tea consumption: 06 lb per person per annum, or about i hth only of the English rate.
Some of the peoples of eastern Europe take their tea with an admixture of rum.
In Morocco and generally throughout North Africa there is a considerable demand for green tea, which is drunk hot out of glasses, the liquor being almost saturated with sugar and strongly flavoured with mint.
In China and Japan tea is generally drunk without any other qualifying or flavouring addition.
In Japan the ceremony of serving tea has, among the better classes, been raised to a high art, which the girls have to study at school for protracted periods.
In Mongolia and other parts of Central Asia tea is made into a kind of soup, somewhat on the lines of the following written regarding tea in Tibet by Colonel Waddell in his book Lhasa and its Mysteries.
Writing of the Tibetan he states: "As a beverage he drinks, all day long, cupfuls of, hot buttered tea, which is really a soup or broth made by boiling tea-leaves with rancid butter and balls of dough, and adding a little salt, and straining - a decoction which was invariably nasty to our taste, though no doubt it is wholesome; for it is not merely a stimulating hot drink in the cold, but overcomes the danger of drinking unboiled water in a country where the water supply is dangerously polluted."
Geography of Tea.
- The successful commercial production of tea on a large scale is confined to a strictly limited area enclosed by about 40° of latitude (5° S.
In the northern hemisphere (excluding the races who consume their own produce) the material consumption of tea is in regions lying 40° N.
In the early part of the 19th century the tea shipped to England was destined to supply many countries, as London was then, and until comparatively recent times, the common warehouse and central market for the world, and England the common carrier.
As the trade grew in importance, the advantages of rapid transit for the tea of new season's production began to be appreciated, and the slow and stately progress of the old East Indiaman became out of date.
A type of vessel, specially designed for the rapid carrying of tea from China to England via the Cape of Good Hope, was introduced, known as the "China Clipper," and the competition was always keen as to which ship should make the most rapid passage.
The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 soon changed the course of all trade with the East, and in a few years the sending of tea per sailing ship round the Cape of Good Hope was a thing of the past.
America gets its tea largely through its western seaboard from China, Japan, Ceylon and India, while not a little is reaching it of recent years by steamers running direct from those countries via the Suez Canal to New York.
The extensive Russian trade is now largely conducted over the Siberian railroad, and this, next to the transit to London, represents the largest volume of tea traffic passing in one channel.
A most interesting and adventurous episode in connexion with Russian trade was the effort repeated over several successive years by the late Captain Wiggins to convey tea entirely by sea from Chinese ports around the North Cape and through the Kara Sea to the Obi and Yenisei rivers.
1 I -1111 I ' 24 a 4 4° 60 s° Tea Adulteration.
- In the earlier days of the tea trade, adulteration, especially prior to importation, was frequent, because the prices obtainable made it remunerative.
The effect of the use of tea upon health has been much discussed.
In the modern days of machine-made black tea, produced under British supervision, both the tea-taster and the ordinary consumer have to deal with a product which, if carefully converted into a beverage and used in moderation, should be harmless to all normal human beings.
There has been constant controversy as to whether China tea is better than that of other growths, but the verdict first of all of Great Britain, and subsequently of all the other large consuming countries, has relegated the produce of the Celestial Empire to a very subordinate position.
A limited section of medical opinion has recommended China tea for reasons of health, and undoubtedly the inferior strength it possesses reduces the risk arising from improper use, but it also reduces the stimulating and comforting effects the ordinary tea-drinker hopes to experience.
Next to water, tea is the beverage most widely in use throughout the world as regards the number of its votaries as well as the total liquid quantity consumed.
The literature of tea is very copious, but scattered in pamphlet form to a great extent.
Houssaye, Monographie du The (Paris, 1843); Robert Fortune, Three Years' Wanderings in China (London, 1847); Id., A Journey to the Tea Countries of China (London, 1852); S.
Ball, Tea Cultivation in China (London, 1848); J.
Money, Cultivation and Manufacture of Tea (3rd ed., London, 1878); F.
Deas, Young Tea Planter's Companion (London, 1886).
See also parliamentary papers and official publications of Indian government; Monographs on brick tea, Formosa tea and other special studies, prepared for the Tea Cess Committees of India and Ceylon; Journals of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal of the Society of Arts, Geographical Journal, Tea and Coffee Trade Journal (New York), &c. For practical planting details, see Tea; its Cultivation and Manufacture, by David Crole (1897), with a full bibliography; also Rutherford's Planter's Handbook.
For scientific aspects see Chemistry and Agriculture of Tea, by M.
An old quack doctor named Levett, who had a wide practice, but among the very poorest class, poured out Johnson's tea in the morning and completed this strange menagerie.
Metals and metal goods, rice, wool and woollen goods, and cotton and cotton goods are the chief imports; and silk, silk goods and tea are the chief exports.
In Northern Nigeria up to the moment of the British occupation the foreign trade was chiefly in the hands of Tripoli Arabs whose caravans crossed the desert at great risk and expense, and carried to the markets of Kuka and Kano tea, sugar and other European goods, taking away the skins and feathers which constituted the principal articles of export to the Mediterranean coast.
When the crews of the whale-boats were conveying stores, the forwarding officers tried to keep brandy and such like medical comforts from the European crews, coffee and tea from Canadian voyageurs and sugar from Kroo boys.
Goat skins, eggs and beeswax are the principal exports, cotton goods, tea, sugar and candles being the chief imports.
Here, in confidence begotten of friendly chats over afternoon tea, the disillusioned autocrat confessed his mistake.
consumed in Scotland, for the obvious reason that large quantities of goods are brought into the country by rail, nearly all the tea, for example, consumed in Great Britain being imported into London, while several ports have almost a monopoly of certain other imports.
On the east coast the leading yards are at Leith, Kirkcaldy, Grangemouth, Dundee, Peterhead and Aberdeen, which, in the days of sailing ships, was renowned for its clippers built for the tea trade.
Yet Duncan Forbes of Culloden, president of the Court of Session, after the outbreak of the war with Spain, reported amazing scarcity of money in the country, and strenuously advised legislative checks on the taste for tea, which naturally diminished the profits of the excise on more generous beverages.
Trade is large and increasing, the chief exports being copra, coir and other coco-nut products, pepper, tea, sugar, areca-nuts, timber, hides, coffee, &c. The capital is Trivandrum.
It is admirably situated as a trade centre and serves as a depot for the silk from Chehkiang and Szech`uen, the tea from Hu-peh and Ho-nan, and the sugar from Szech`uen destined for the markets of Kan-suh, Turkestan, Kulja and Russia.
Increasing attention was given to tea, while coffee was largely discarded.
In the last half of 1920 the great fall in prices, at a time when the administration had placed heavy export duties on cotton, tea and tobacco, caused a financial crisis.
The leaves are eaten by cattle, and have been employed as a substitute for tea.
The hilly portion of the province furnishes large supplies of tea, and in the plain which extends along the coast, north of Ning-po, a great quantity of silk is produced.
At the beginning and end of their meal they drink a strongly sweetened liquid-made from green tea and mint.
The chief items are cotton goods, sugar and tea.
The cultivation of tea in India began within the memory of men still living, and now has replaced indigo as the chief article for European capital, more particularly in Assam.
The real tea (The y viridis), a plant akin to the camellia, grows wild in Assam, being commonly found throughout the hilly tract between the valleys of the Brahmaputra and the Barak.
The success of these undertakings engendered a wild spirit of speculation in tea companies both in India and at home, which reached its climax in 1865.
The area under tea, of which nine-tenths lies in the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam, expanded by 85% during the sixteen years from 1885 to 1901, while the production increased by 167%.
This great rise in the supply, unaccompanied by an equal expansion of the market for Indian tea, involved the industry in great difficulties, to meet which it became necessary to restrict the area under tea as far as possible, and to reduce the quantity of leaf taken from the plant, thus at the same time improving the quality of the tea.
The area under tea in 1885 was 283,925 acres and the yield 71,525,977 lb, while in 1905 the area had increased to 527,290 acres and the yield to 222,360,132 lb, while the export alone was 214,223,728 lb.
As much as 92% of the export goes to the United Kingdom, where China tea has been gradually ousted by tea from India and Ceylon.
The other chief countries that afford a market for Indian tea are Canada, Russia, Australia, Turkey in Asia, Persia, and the United States.
India's consumption of tea is computed to average 84 million pounds, of which 52 millions are Indian and the remainder Chinese.
Unlike tea, coffee was not introduced into India by European enterprise; and even to the present day its cultivation is largely followed by the natives.
The chief exports are raw cotton, cotton goods and yarn, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, raw jute and jute-manufactures, hides and skins, tea, opium and lac. In1905-1906there was great activity in both the cotton and jute industries.
The tea outlook was good, and the coffee industry was recovering from the effects of plant disease and Brazilian competition.
Many of the roots and vegetables of Europe have been introduced, as well as some of those peculiar to the tropics, including maize, millet, yams, manioc, dhol, gram, &c. Small quantities of tea, rice and sago, have been grown, as well as many of the spices (cloves, nutmeg, ginger, pepper and allspice),' and also cotton, indigo, betel, camphor, turmeric and vanilla.
Since the beginning of the 10th century some attention has been paid to the cultivation of tea and cotton, with encouraging results.
Valuable cargoes of tea are landed here for carriage overland, via Kalgan and Kiakhta, to Siberia.
It also occurs in tea, cocoa, coffee, tobacco and in the ashes of beetroot.
The principal products of cultivation are sugar, coffee, rice and also tea and pulse (rachang), the plantations being for the most part owned by Europeans.
It has few manufactures, but does an extensive trade principally in the importation of silk from Cheh-kiang and Sze-ch`uen, tea from Hu-peh and Hu-nan, and sugar from Sze-ch`uen, and in the exportation of these and other articles (such as skins and furs) to Kan-suh, Russia and Central Asia.
The Siberian harbour is conspicuous during the fair on account of its accumulations of tea boxes and temporary shelters, in which the different kinds of tea are tried and appraised by tasters.
The merchants carry on a brisk trade, valued (apart from that of the fair) at more than £2,000,000 of purchases and £1,800,000 of sales; the principal items are corn q200,000 to 50o,000), salt, iron, tea, fish, groceries and manufactured goods.
The Russian goods constitute four-fifths of the whole trade; those brought from Asia - tea (imported via Kiakhta and via Canton and Suez), raw cotton and silk, leather wares, madder and various manufactured wares - do not exceed 10 or 11%.
His last official act was to carry out his intention by passing through parliament resolutions, which even his colleagues deprecated in the cabinet, for taxing several articles, such as glass, paper and tea, on their importation into America, which he estimated would produce the insignificant sum of L40,000 for the English treasury, and which shrewder observers prophesied would lead to the loss of the American colonies.
His disorder was an oedematous affection of the wind-pipe, contracted by exposure during a long ride in a snowstorm, and aggravated by neglect and by such contemporary remedies as bleeding, gargles of "molasses, vinegar and butter" and "vinegar and sage tea," which "almost suffocated him," and a blister of cantharides.
The son of a tea merchant, he was for some time engaged in business in Leith and in Australia, but, returning to his studies of physics at Edinburgh, he became assistant to J.
The chief exports are tea, porcelain and paper.
The falling off of exports is due to the decreased demand for China tea, for which Amoy was one of the chief centres.
Common tannin, or tannic acid, C, 4 H, 0 0 9.2H 2 O, occurs to the extent of 50% in gall-nuts, and also in tea, sumach and in other plants.
==Tea Plantations== The most important article of commerce produced in Assam is tea.
The tea plantations are the one great source of wealth to the province, and the necessities of tea cultivation are the chief stimulants to the development of Assam.
Jenkins was deputed by the governor-general of India, Lord William Bentinck, to report upon the resources of the country, and the tea plant was brought to his especial notice by Mr Bruce; in 1834 a minute was recorded by the governor-general on the subject, in which it is stated that his attention had been called to it in 1827 before his departure from England.
Some seeds were obtained from China; but they proved to be of small importance, as it was clearly ascertained by the members of the Assam deputation that both the black and the green tea plants were indigenous here, and might be multiplied to any extent; another result of the Chinese mission, that of procuring persons skilled in the cultivation and manufacture of black tea, was of more material benefit.
Subsequently, under Lord Auckland, a further supply of Chinese cultivators and manufacturers was obtained - men well acquainted with the processes necessary for the production of green tea, as the former set were with those requisite for black.
In 1838 the first twelve chests of tea from Assam were received in England.
Mercantile associations for the culture and manufacture of tea in Assam began to be formed as early as 1839; and in 1849 the government disposed of their establishment, and relinquished the manufacture to the ordinary operation of commercial enterprise.
Tea is now cultivated in all the plains district of the provinces.
When the industry was first established, the land which was supposed to be best for the plant was hill or undulating ground; but now it has been found in the Surma valley that with good drainage the heaviest crops of tea can be raised from low-lying land, even such as formerly supported rice cultivation.
Between 1893 and 1898 there was a great extension of tea cultivation, with the result that the industry began to suffer from the congestion that follows over-production.
For these reasons there was a crisis in the tea industry of Assam, which was relieved to some extent by the reduction of the English duty on tea in 1906.
The labour required on the tea gardens is almost entirely imported, as the natives of the province are too prosperous to do such work.
The chief items were tea, rice in the husk, oil-seeds, tea-seed, timber, coal and jute.
during the five years 1901-1905 were as follows: - The principal imports comprise live animals, fish, coffee, mate (Ilex paraguayensis), tea, sugar, wood and its manufactures, structural iron and steel, hardware and machinery, railway and telegraph supplies, lime and cement, glass and earthenware, cotton, woollen and silk manufactures, coal,fpetroleum, paints, &c. Import duties are imposed at the rates of 60, 35, 1 5, 5 and 25%, and certain classes of merchandise are admitted free.
The sea-borne exports consist chiefly of jute, other items being tea, raw cotton, rice and hides.
Tea cultivation is moderately successful.
The principal imports into Persia in approximate order of value are cottons, sugar, tea, woollens, cotton yarn, petroleum, stuffs of wool and cotton mixed, wool, hardware, ironmongery, matches, iron and steel, dyes, rice, spices and glass-wdre.
These provisions to some extent counterbalanced the losses inflicted on British trade by the Russo-Persian commercial treaty signed in 1902, which had seriously damaged the Indian tea trade, and had led to a rapid extension of Russian influence.
British Commercial MissionsOwing to the success of the Maclean mission, which visited and reported upon the markets and trade-routes of north-western Persia in 1903, under the direction of the Board of Trade, a similar mission was sent to southern Persia in 1904, under the auspices of the Upper India Chamber of Commerce, the Bengal Chamber and the Indian Tea Cess Company.
In suitable regions tea, coffee, sugar and rice, as well as tobacco and cotton, are cultivated.
In the Cape, Natal and the Transvaal coal mining is largely developed; in the Transvaal and the Cape tobacco is grown extensively; sugar, tea and other tropical and sub-tropical produce are largely cultivated in Natal and the Portuguese territory, and, since 1905, mealies have become an important article of export.
Frequent doses of a teaspoonful of tannin dissolved ' in water should be administered, together with strong tea and coffee and mucilaginous fluids.
From the opposite quarter an influx of Japanese and Chinese forms, such as the rhododendrons, the tea plant, Aucuba, Helwingia, Skimmia, Adamia, Goughia and others, has taken place, these being more numerous in the east and gradually disappearing in the west.
The cultivation of tea, however, is carried on successfully on a large scale, both in the east and west of the mountains.
In the western Himalaya the cultivated variety of the tea plant of China succeeds well; on the east the indigenous tea of Assam, which is not specifically different, and is perhaps the original parent of the Chinese variety, is now almost everywhere preferred.
Its fair is one of the most important in the southern Ural region for cattle, hides, furs, grain, tea, manufactured articles, crockery, &c., which are sold to the annual value of X500,000.
It is a centre for tea exported to Russia, cattle brought from Transbaikalia and Mongolia for the Amur, and for grain.
Lumber, grain and flour, fruits and their products, fish, tea and coffee are characteristic staples of commerce.
It is the best-built port of the sultanate and is generally second in point of trade, which is carried on mainly with Marseilles, London, Gibraltar and the Canaries, the principal exports being almonds, goat-skins, gums and olive-oil, and the principal imports cotton goods, sugar and tea.
The imposition of the import duty on tea and other commodities was the project of Charles Townshend, and was carried into effect in 1767 without consultation with Lord Chatham, if not in opposition to his wishes.
Austin (1784-1870),(1784-1870), attorney-general of the state, who said that Lovejoy had died "as the fool dieth," and compared his murderers to the men who threw the tea into Boston harbour just before the War of Independence.
Against England the colony had fewer grievances than did some of its more commercial neighbours, but the Stamp Act and the subsequent efforts to tax tea aroused great opposition.
In 1774 occurred the " Greenwich Tea Party."' The last colonial assembly of New Jersey met in November 1775.
In the summer of 1774 the captain of the ship " Greyhound," bound for Philadelphia with a cargo of tea, on account of the state of opinion in that city, put in at Greenwich and stored his tea there in a cellar.
It remained undisturbed till the night of the 22nd of November, when a band of about 40 men dressed as Indians, in imitation of the Boston party, broke into the cellar and made a bonfire of the tea.
G ea I al tea Nayl E ?
above sea-level), chestnut, apricot, apple, pear, plum, cherry, melon, tea (on the coast between SukhumKaleh and Batum), maize (yielding the staple food of the inhabitants), wheat (up to 6000 ft.), potatoes, peas, currants, cotton, rice, colza and tobacco.
A considerable trade is carried on with Russia; raw cotton, raw silk, tobacco, hides, sheepskins, fruit and cotton and leather goods are exported, and manufactured wares, textiles, tea and sugar are imported and in part re-exported to Kashgaria and Bokhara.
Under the last head fall tobacco, tea, coffee, cocoa, sugar, Peruvian bark and other drugs.
Sugar, tea, coffee and cocoa are also among the articles commonly selected.
Tea cultivation is the other great industry carried on by European capital, but that is chiefly confined to Assam, the industry in Darjeeling and the Dwars being on a small scale.
The principal imports are cotton piece goods, railway materials, metals and machinery, oils, sugar, cotton, twist and salt; and the principal exports are jute, tea, hides, opium, rice, oil-seeds, indigo and lac. The inter-provincial trade is mostly carried on with Eastern Bengal and Assam, the United Provinces and the Central Provinces.
From the United Provinces come opium, hides, raw cotton, wheat, shellac and oil-seeds; and from Assam, tea, oil-seeds and jute.
Trade has enormously expanded; new centres of commerce have sprung up in spots which formerly were silent jungles; new staples of trade, such as tea and jute, have rapidly attained importance; and the coalfields and iron ores have opened up prospects of a new and splendid era in the internal development of the country.
Scheele; it occurs in the leaves of the bearberry, in pomegranate root-bark, in tea, in gall-nuts to the extent of about 3%, and in other vegetable productions.
The aboriginal inhabitants collect a kind of tea called t`ien ch`a, or celestial tea, which looks like the leaves of a wild camellia, and has an earthy taste when infused.
Automatic Tea Weighing Machine (fig.
- This machine is designed to weigh out tea in quantities of 4 lb each, which are done up in separate packets by hand.
The tea is fed into a hopper, which has a large opening at the bottom, and this opening is entirely closed by two cylindrical brushes, which are mounted end to end on a horizontal shaft.
As they revolve these brushes engage the tea in the hopper, draw it out by degrees, and drop it into a compartment of a circular drum which hangs on one end is placed in the weights-pan of the balance, and is the only loose weight used with the machine.
The circular drum is divided into four equal compartments by radial diaphragms. And in a pan at the other end of the beam (which is counter - balanced for the weight of the drum) is a I-lb weight to weigh the tea.
The tea is shot out and falls into a receptacle below, and the drum makes a quarter of a revolution, and is again held in position by the detent with an empty compartment at top ready for the next filling.