The whole distribution system broke down.
It looks like the messaging system is back up.
The security system didn't recognize her thumbprint.
Jackson found the sound system and turned it on.
My security system is top notch though I've had little need to utilize it.
Whatever was working through her system was making her sick.
I can, of course, see everything in it, or if I prefer, set the system to "minimum supplements" or "maximum supplements" and let the system decide.
We have a police force and a court system to apply the laws equally to all.
"I'm afraid he's not in my system," Sondra said.
Lana hacked into the federal system, changing her own profile.
With the proceeds of a recent stock sale, Fred O'Connor had invested in a complete computer system and was off and running.
He had made a new system in making a staff, a world with full and fair proportions; in which, though the old cities and dynasties had passed away, fairer and more glorious ones had taken their places.
"Hack into the system or whatever it is you do and move your flight up," he said.
Do not anchor to any manmade structures including the penstock system large metal pipe.
The Communist system eschewed political liberties in favor of economic ones.
I still regarded arithmetic as a system of pitfalls.
She'd never liked the portal system outside of Hell; this one was scarier.
My brother Ralph, bless his soul, lost a son to the system after a divorce.
My purpose is to explain the net effect of free trade, technological advance, and outsourcing on the overall economic system of the planet.
The system drops the last two digits of the number so it's never even received at the call center.
Adrenaline started through her system again, clearing some of the fog in her mind.
Maybe if he made her choose, she would get it out of her system sooner.
The future system I foresee will not be different in substance, but only in degree.
This abuse resulted in an overhaul of the system that sought to tie the poor to their original parish.
The Emperor said that the fiscal system must be reorganized and the accounts published, recounted Bitski, emphasizing certain words and opening his eyes significantly.
Since Bishop Brooks died I have read the Bible through; also some philosophical works on religion, among them Swedenborg's "Heaven and Hell" and Drummond's "Ascent of Man," and I have found no creed or system more soul-satisfying than Bishop Brooks's creed of love.
The portal system does not work in Hell for mortals.
The system was revised in the 1830s because it was viewed as discouraging work by interfering with the laws of supply and demand relating to labor.
We have a comparatively decent system of common schools, schools for infants only; but excepting the half-starved Lyceum in the winter, and latterly the puny beginning of a library suggested by the State, no school for ourselves.
It was a system--a concurrence of circumstances.
Still others argue for a system of government price supports, incentives, and subsidies, as is found in the United States and Europe.
Real bikers weren't bothered by a little rain, he tried to tell himself, but the car radio spoke of a storm system moving up from the south, bringing with it high winds and torrential rain.
While not confining myself to any special system of instruction, I have tried to add to her general information and intelligence, to enlarge her acquaintance with things around her, and to bring her into easy and natural relations with people.
Brady asked, gazing at the empty highway system on one side of them and the city on the other.
She'd been safe for ten days on her own; maybe hacking into the fed system to change her profile was enough to draw the attention of someone working for General Greene.
I cannot believe that our factory system is the best mode by which men may get clothing.
Now, after twelve years of being in the system, foster homes were scarce.
You won't have to go eat the other foods; the system will remember every meal you have had and will log your headaches.
The late night storm had blown Wednesday's hazy whiteness east to New Jersey and the Atlantic beyond, leaving in its place a high pressure system, a sky painted deep blue and patched with just enough puffy clouds for contrast.
Finally, when I use the word "wisdom," I am talking about applying a value system to knowledge to suggest a course of action.
The meds in her system, the weakness from her injury, the night itself was too much for her to digest fully.
The courtroom was half filled, mostly with pensioners who looked to the system for their daily entertainment.
Vico founded no school, and though during his lifetime and for a while after his death he had many admirers both in Naples and the northern cities, his fame and name were soon obscured, especially as the Kantian system dominated the world of thought.
Delaware is served by the Pennsylvania, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central system), and the Hocking Valley railways, and by two interurban lines.
Fred was frightened enough of the court system already.
Our internal electrical system works by using cells that have built up electrical gradient or energy that can be given off to other cells by direct transfer.
Such a rule of the two diameters not only guides us toward the sun in the system and the heart in man, but draws lines through the length and breadth of the aggregate of a man's particular daily behaviors and waves of life into his coves and inlets, and where they intersect will be the height or depth of his character.
I'll add the message system to the list of shit I have to fix.
The only system error is … five sensors were tripped when the field was disengaged, she murmured with a frown.
The device you found was coded as biowarfare, but when I ran it in the system, I found the serials had been switched.
She had no idea that such an elaborate system existed for the lower class.
that of a system of laws which governs the many things?
Elsewhere local surface currents are developed, either drifts due to the direct action of the winds, or streams produced by wind action heaping water up against the land; but these nowhere rise to the dignity of a distinct current system, although they are often sufficient to obliterate the feeble tidal action characteristic of the Mediterranean.
Just as she drifted into sleep, the spaceship's internal communication system awoke her.
"We'll have to post guards with the security system inoperable," General Greene muttered as he stepped through the hole in the door.
However, if they are getting wealthier over time, even if the rich are getting wealthier faster, the poor will tend to accept the system more.
It is a pacific system, operating to cordialize mankind, by rendering nations, as well as individuals, useful to each other.
Unfortunately, his efforts were all too often thwarted by a sympathetic judge or a system that could not find jail space for the numbers of criminals brought before it.
The room contained a built in recording system, activated by a switch.
He drew simple diagrams, three of which, taken from Dalton's New System of Chemical Philosophy, part ii.
Finally, this system will not just solve for human illness, but all kinds of other problems as well.
Can the system learn to predict crime targets?
Whenever she meets any one who is familiar with this system, she is delighted to use it in conversation.
The reservation system says they have availability.
Men esteem truth remote, in the outskirts of the system, behind the farthest star, before Adam and after the last man.
Not wanting anyone to interfere with her plan for air, she drew a deep breath and asked the portal system to take her outside the stone fortress.
She set it to connect with the fed's central computer system just before dawn, hoping to draw attention away from the town of Randolph while giving her a head start.
The system will also look for anything they've written publicly about this place (Yelp, Facebook, personal blog) and which superlatives they used to describe it.
The system has data from all their GPS records and infers that to drive across town several times for a place is a stronger vote than eating at the corner restaurant.
The system will weigh heavily the choices of people with Italian last names, and people who own restaurants—all these different factors, millions and millions of factors, all from the passively recorded life experiences of a billion people.
We have established that outsourcing, free trade, and technological advance all have the same effect on the system: They lower prices and increase net wealth.
Finally, when the poor see their income shrink while the income of the rich rises, they will buy into the system less.
The system had an office, Overseer of the Poor, in each of 1,500 parishes.
The European system was already founded; all that remained was to organize it.
That's how the system works.
The only difference was the electricity powering lights in the heavy iron and wood chandeliers overhead and the intercom system installed into the walls beside each entrance.
Within half an hour, the metal door leading to the tunnel system was cleared away.
But he made a system of his own by combining the teaching of his master with parts of the doctrines of others, and with mysticism imbibed from the great teacher Ghazali.
But my car is not a CD player, GPS navigation system, or air conditioner.
I define wisdom as deriving a course of action from applying a value system to a situation.
No more trying to retrace your steps to find your car keys; you can see where you left them by checking your GPS system records.
My car, refrigerator, lawnmower, sprinkler system, smoke alarms, locks, and even my clothes.
It is a safe bet that no one has ever asked that question before, and yet this system is designed to answer it.
This system will look at all the restaurants across the country (even around the world) where you have dined frequently.
This system will look at all the Italian restaurants around the country that you already like and look at all the ingredients they order online and look for restaurants in San Francisco using the same set of ingredients.
And my system will come back with a single answer, something like, You should go to Tommaso's on Kearny Street.
A day later, the system will ask, "Hey, what did you think of Tommaso's?"
If it gets enough "meh" responses, the system knows it has to re-juggle all the stats and do it differently.
Of course, the system only shapes decisions insofar as you take its guidance, which begs the question: Will people follow suggestions they may not fully understand?
It triggers your house's fire system if it detects it has caught on fire.
As I observed a few pages ago in "Let Robots Be Robots," an intelligent system like this won't be creepy because we do not want it to be creepy.
If the poor believe they have less justice than the rich, they buy into the system less. 4.
The system will see that just the right amounts of black-eyed peas, potatoes, and corn are grown.
No such system of laws controls relations among nations, no significant world police force exists, and the world court system is very weak.
Now we have an interlocked banking system that moves money around the world at light speed.
The system we have is not perfect, but it is highly distributed and bottom up.
For no system of marks in a lexicon can tell one how to pronounce a word.
In the silicious matter which the water deposits is perhaps the bony system, and in the still finer soil and organic matter the fleshy fibre or cellular tissue.
A system of some sort was killing him--Pierre--depriving him of life, of everything, annihilating him.
Or perhaps the system won't ask you.
None of us has the time to do that—but in the future, with my system, wisdom will operate at processor speeds.
Although the poor may not believe that wealth is attainable for them, they do not want to rock the boat and risk disrupting the system that guarantees them at least some income.
This might be the adoption of commercial standards as well as the creation and operation of a civil court system and laws.
A breakdown of the ratings system is available in either place.
Humphries is out of the system, according to a friend of mine.
While Martha was on the phone trying to get our air conditioning system checked, I had a few moments alone with my wife.
I considered a stop at the office of these people but I was intelligent enough to see it was wired with a sophisticated security system that I shall not attempt to challenge.
When they questioned Jake Weller about the source of the high-level endorsement, he hinted Lydia Larkin knew someone in the system who'd pulled strings.
It will tide them over while they try to repair their water system.
Dean let him get it out of his system.
Innovations were carried out in the tactical system of the army which were to modify considerably the methods of future battle-fields.
Bellamy's "system" of divinity was in general similar to that of Edwards.
It is served by the Southern, the Louisville & Nashville, the Seaboard Air Line, the Central of Georgia, the Alabama Great Southern (of the Queen & Crescent Route), the Illinois Central, the Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic, the Birmingham Southern (for freight only), and the Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham (Frisco system) railways.
In 1870 the site was a cotton field, where two railways, the South & North, and the Alabama & Chattanooga, now part respectively of the Louisville & Nashville and the Southern System, met.
His work is not essentially different from that of his predecessors Rhazes and Ali; all present the doctrine of Galen, and through Galen the doctrine of Hippocrates, modified by the system of Aristotle.
He introduced into medical theory the four causes of the Peripatetic system.
- The mountain system is extremely complex, especially that of the northern region.
South of the Drin is another complex mountain system, including the highlands inhabited by the Mirdites and the Mat tribe; among the principal summits are Deia Mazzuklit, Mal-i Vels, Kraba, Toli and Mnela.
But the system never took root.
The whole system provides the means of giving sufficient back-pull to the cable to make it grip the drum P, round which it passes several times to prevent slipping.
Smith, worked out a system of communicating between railway stations and moving trains.
Practically all the company's servants were traders in their private capacity, and as they claimed various privileges and exemptions this system was detrimental to the interests of the native princes and gave rise to an enormous amount of corruption.
Connexion is made into the office (or to the underground system, as is often the case) from the aerial wire by means of a copper conductor, insulated with gutta-percha, which passes through a " leading in " cup, whereby leakage is prevented between the wire and the pole.
If you're in a hurry connect to the cafe's modern online ordering system via your laptop or cell phone.
We wanted a firm economy, reasonable real estate costs, and a good school system.
The palace contains no moat, or armed guards, nor do I detect any sophisticated security system.
Our home was as isolated as Howie's place and contained no alarm or security system.
We have a system.
I don't like messing with the legal system.
There a reason you don't want me to run these prints through the system?
Landon issued the orders through the mind message system.
Katie watched her go, feeling better with the otherworldly sustenance in her system.
The ruler of Tri'trij has vacated his planet and lives on colonies outside the solar system.
She has a bit too much Diprivan in her system.
His idea of roughing it was probably a car without a navigational system.
General Greene asked, his voice muffled over the communications system.
Everything looked quiet, until she checked her micro again and saw that the decryption program had begun popping up the messages that had been repressed in the comms system.
She didn't expect to sleep, not with the amount of anti-sleepers in her system.
By Wednesday afternoon the matter was settled and the disposition of the case was in the hands of Bobby Witherspoon, the assistant DA, and the juvenile court system.
Get it out of your system.
Maybe it was best to let him go and get this out of his system.
She eyed the high-tech security system.
But, in attempting to make this conception quite clear and thinkable, we are forced to represent the connexion of things as a universal substance, the essence of which we conceive as a system of laws which underlies everything and in its own self connects everything, but imperceptible, and known to us merely through the impressions it produces on us, which we call things.
It lies in the open valley of the Trent, at a short distance from the river, and near the important Trent Junction on the Midland railway system.
During his tenancy of office the system adopted at Shanghai was applied to the other treaty ports, so that when on Mr Lay's resignation Mr Hart was appointed inspector-general of foreign customs, he found himself at the head of an organization which collected a revenue of upwards of eight million taels per annum at fourteen treaty ports.
"Tetrahedral co-ordinates" are a system of quadriplanar co-ordinates, the fundamental planes being the faces of a tetrahedron, and the co-ordinates the perpendicular distances of the point from the faces, a positive sign being given if the point be between the face and the opposite vertex, and a negative sign if not.
This system is of much service in following out mathematical, physical and chemical problems in which it is necessary to represent four variables.
It lies in the upper part of the Ribble valley, amid the wild scenery of the limestone hills of the Pennine system.
As in Virginia, the county is the unit of government, though an unsuccessful attempt to introduce the township system was made in the first constitution.
These are all under the supervision of a state board of control of three members, appointed by the governor, which was created in 1909, and also has control of the finances of the state educational system.
The southern outfall works of the London main drainage system are at Crossness in the neighbouring lowland called Plumstead Marshes.
The place has become an important junction of the Great North of Scotland railway system.
Equity as thus described would correspond rather to the judicial discretion which modifies the administration of the law than to the antagonistic system which claims to supersede the law.
Between this point and the time when equity became settled as a portion of the legal system, having fixed principles of its own, various views of its nature seem to have prevailed.
In the matter of the rhythms, caesuras and elisions which it allows, the metrical treatment is much more severe than that of Catullus, whose elegiacs are comparatively rude and barbarous; but it is not bound hand and foot, like the Ovidian distich, in a formal and conventional system.
The city owns its water-supply system and owns and operates its gas plant; an electric plant, privately owned, lights the streets and many houses.
At an early date Hastings was placed in charge of an aurang or factory in the interior, where his duties would be to superintend the weaving of silk and cotton goods under a system of money advances.
His first care was to carry out the instructions received from home, and effect a radical reform in the system of government.
The English common law, with all the absurdities and rigours of that day, was arbitrarily extended to an alien system of society.
The commune forms the basis of the native social system.
This system still holds good.
With the crystallization of the feudal system in the 12th century the office of vidame, like that of avoue, had become an hereditary fief.
Da and The micrometer box, and of course with it the whole system of spider webs, is moved by the screw s, whilst the measuring web is independently moved by the screw S.
On this film is ruled a system of lines 5 mm.
apart, and another similar system of lines at right angles to the first, thus dividing the silvered surface of the plate into squares 5 mm.
Both to the east and to the west of this depression the Archean and Palaeozoic rocks which form the greater part of the island are strongly folded, with the exception of the uppermost beds, which belong to the Permian system.
In the western region, on the other hand, all the Mesozoic beds are involved in a later system of folds; but here also the Tertiary beds lie nearly horizontal.
The nomadic system prevails in the island.
The railway system of Sardinia is in the hands of two companies - the Compagnia Reale delle Ferrovie Sarde, and the Compagnia delle Ferrovie Secondarie della Sardegna.
The main road system, which dates from 1828, previous to which there were only tracks, is good, and the roads well engineered; many of them are traversed daily by post vehicles.
Of Nuraghe Lugheras near Paulilatino, or the Nuraghe de S'Orcu near Domusnovas, the entrance may be protected by a regular system of courtyards and subsidiary nuraghi.
Sometimes they occupy the approaches to tablelands, the narrowest points of gorges, or the fords of rivers; sometimes almost inaccessible mountain tops or important points on ridges; and it may be noticed that, where two important nuraghi are not visible from one another, a small one is interpolated, showing that there was a system of signalling from one to another.
In 1815 he was commissioned by government to complete the translation of Strabo which had been begun by Laporte-Dutheil, and in March 1816 he was one of those who were admitted to the Academy of Inscriptions by royal ordinance, having previously contributed a Memoire, " On the Metrical System of the Egyptians," which had been crowned.
The municipality owns its watersupply system.
An extensive system of city and suburban parks, connected by a series of beautiful drives, adds to the city's attractiveness.
An, matter, 'coii, life), in philosophy, a term applied to any system which explains all life, whether physical or mental, as ultimately derived from matter ("cosmic matter," Weldstoff).
He is alleged to have completed the system of nine canals and weirs in three years' time.
It is to her that the Principles of Philosophy were dedicated; and in her alone, according to Descartes, were united those generally separated talents for metaphysics and for mathematics which are so characteristically co-operative in the Cartesian system.
But I have just been at Leyden and Amsterdam to ask after Galileo's cosmical system as I imagined I had heard of its being printed last year in Italy.
His second great work, Meditations on the First Philosophy, which had been begun soon after his settlement in the Netherlands, expounded in more detail the foundations of his system, 1 Ouvres, vi.
Such a reduced and impoverished star is a planet; and the several planets of our solar system are the several vortices which from time to time have been swept up by the central sun-vortex.
But whilst all the organic processes in man go on mechanically, and though by reflex action he may repel attack unconsciously, still the first affirmation of the system was that man was essentially a thinking being; and, while we retain this original dictum, it must not be supposed that the mind is a mere spectator, or like the boatman in the boat.
In the universities of the Netherlands and of lower Germany, as yet free from the conservatism of the old-established seats of learning, the new system gained an easy victory over Aristotelianism, and, as it was adapted for lectures and examinations, soon became almost as scholastic as the doctrines it had supplanted.
Regis was constrained to hold back for ten years his System of Philosophy; and when it did appear, in 1690, the name of Descartes was absent from the title-page.
Pascal and other members of Port Royal openly expressed their doubts about the place allowed to God in the system; the adherents of Gassendi met it by resuscitating atoms; and the Aristotelians maintained their substantial forms as of old; the Jesuits argued against the arguments for the being of God, and against the theory of innate ideas; whilst Pierre Daniel Huet (1630-1721), bishop of Avranches, once a Cartesian himself, made a vigorous onslaught on the contempt in which his former comrades held literature and history, and enlarged on the vanity of all human aspirations after rational truth.
In Germany a few Cartesian lecturers taught at Leipzig and Halle, but the system took no root, any more than in Switzerland, where it had a brief reign at Geneva after 1669.
He is the author of several works, amongst others a system of Cartesian philosophy, where a chapter on " Angels " revives the methods of the schoolmen.
Paris is served by the Vandalia, and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central system) railways; the main line and the Cairo division of the latter intersect here, and the city is the transfer point for traffic from the E.
The principles on which his system rested were these.
Reason and revelation are separate sources of knowledge; and man can put himself in possession of each, because he can bring himself into relation to the church on the one hand, and the system of philosophy, or more strictly Aristotle, on the other.
VIVIANITE, a mineral consisting of hydrated iron phosphate Fe 3 (PO 4) 2 +8H 2 0, crystallizing in the monoclinic system.
In connexion with this system of salaries should be mentioned a somewhat reactionary law carried by Pericles in 451, by which an Athenian parentage on both sides was made an express condition of retaining the franchise and with it the right of sitting on paid juries.
The foundation of cleruchies was an admirable device, which in many ways anticipated the colonial system of the Romans.
A telpher line on his system was subsequently erected at Glynde in Sussex.
His system of theology is contained in the former.
The objective ground on which he bases his system is the religious experience of the Christian community.
The surface of the department consists of undulating and well-wooded plains, intersected by numerous valleys, and diversified in the north-east by hilly ground which forms a part of the mountain system of the Ardennes.
The principal landowners, who reside in fortified houses, are all Moslems; their estates are cultivated on the metayer system.
In the use of these no uniform system has yet been adopted.
The dual system of education, established in 1871, was abolished in 1890, and the administrative machinery consolidated under a minister of the Crown and an advisory board.
Winnipeg is thus connected with Montreal on the east, and Vancouver on the west, and is the central point of the Canadian Pacific system, having railway..
In 1890 changes in the school system unfavourable to the Roman Catholic Church led to a constitutional struggle, to which was due the defeat of the Federal ministry in 1896.
For reasons of health it may be assumed that no system of heating is advisable which does not provide for a constant renewal of the air in the locality warmed.
The oldest and best known is the " two pipe " system, others being the " one pipe " or " simple circuit," and the " drop " or " overhead."
From this point the " return " pipe drops, usually at the same rate as the flow pipe rises; and in due course the water reaches its starting point, the boiler, and is again heated and again circulated through the system.
The rate of circulation in the ordinary low pressure hot-water system may be considerably accelerated by means of steam injections.
With this system the temperature xiii.
empty system FIG.
If the weather is mild, a moderate heat may be obtained by using the apparatus as an ordinary hot water system, and shutting off the steam injectors.
The tank should be of a size to hold not less than a twentieth part of the total amount of water held in the system.
The automatic inlet of cold water to the hot water system from the main house tank or other source is controlled by a ball valve, which is so fixed as to allow the water to rise no more than an inch above the bottom of the tank, thus leaving the remainder of the space clear for expansion.
The system is hermetically sealed after being pumped full of water, an expansion chamber in the shape of a pipe of larger dimensions being provided at the top of the system above the highest point of circulation.
Thus at no time can steam form in the system.
This system is trustworthy and safe in working.
The one-pipe system is similar in principle, the pipe rising to its greatest height above the boiler and being then carried around as a single pipe falling all the while.
It resembles in many points the one-pipe low pressure hot-water system.
The " minus pressure " steam system, sometimes termed " atmospheric " or " vacuum," is of more recent introduction than those just described.
The system is economical in fuel, but needs skilled attendance to keep the appliances and fittings in order.
The steam is introduced into the pipes at about the pressure of the atmosphere, and is sucked through the system by means of a vacuum pump, which at the same operation frees the pipes from air and from condensation water.
The apparatus needs constant attention, since neglect in stoking would result in stopping the generation of steam, and the whole system would almost immediately cool.
Every installation is made up of a boiler or other water heater, a tank or cylinder to contain the water when heated, and a cistern of cold water, the supply from which to the system is regulated automatically by a ball valve.
The tank system is of much earlier date than this cylinder system, and although the two resemble each other in many respects, the tank system is in practice the less effective.
This method differs from that adopted in the cylinder system, where all services are led from the top of the cylinder.
The coiled pipe firebox of the high-pressure hot-water system previously described may be also classed with boilers.
Should a defect occur with a wrought iron boiler it is usually necessary for the purpose of repair to disconnect and remove the whole apparatus, the heating system of which it forms a part being in the meantime useless.
The lime deposit or " fur " is a poor conductor of heat, and it is therefore most detrimental to the efficiency of the system to allow the interior of the boiler or any other portion to become furred up. Further, if not removed, the fur will in a short time bring about a fracture in the boiler.
These examples show that Napier was in possession of all the conventions and attributes that enable the decimal point to complete so symmetrically our system of notation, viz.
THE System Described As compared with the Church of England (Episcopal) in which there are three orders of clergy - bishops, priests and deacons, Order.
elders or bishops, are the highest permanent officers in the Church and are of equal rank; (3) that an outward and visible Church is one in the sense that a smaller part is controlled by a larger and all the parts by the whole.'9 Though Presbyterians are unanimous in adopting the general system of church polity as here outlined, and in claiming New 1 Phil.
Proceedings of Seventh General Council of the Alliance of Reformed Churches holding the Presbyterian System (Washington, 1899).
In no sense can his" consistorial "system of church government be regarded as Presbyterian.
When the conclusions thus reached by many independent investigators were at length reduced to a system by Calvin, in his famous Institutio, it became the definite ideal of church government for all the Reformed, in contradistinction to the Lutheran, churches.
His system, while preserving the democratic theory by recognizing the congregation as holding the church power, was in practice strictly aristocratic inasmuch as the congregation is never allowed any direct use of power, which is invested in the whole body of elders.
By them he was to be ordained, after vowing to be true in office, faithful to the church system, obedient to the laws and to the civil government, and ready to exercise discipline without fear or favour.
The elders (Anciens, commis, ou deputez par la seigneurie on consistoire) were regarded as the essential part of the system.
The state retained control of the ecclesiastical organization, and Calvin secured his much-needed system of discipline.
The remarkable feature of French church polity was its aristocratic nature, which it owed to the system of co-optation; and the exclusion of the congregation from direct and frequent interference in spiritual matters prevented many evils which result from too much intermeddling on the part of the laity.
In 1851 the system now in force was adopted.
They adopted a purely Presbyterian system which was published as the Orders of Wandsworth.
These types co-operated as in Old England in the county associations; and a mixed system was produced, called by Henry M.
After further travels on the continent he returned to London, where he posed as the founder of a new system of freemasonry, and was well received in the best society, being adored by the ladies.
The public school system is excellent, and the city has a Carnegie library (1903), with more than 22,000 volumes in 1907.
East Orange has a fine water-works system, which it owns and operates; the water supply is obtained from artesian wells at White Oaks Ridge, in the township of Milburn (about 10 m.
The rivers belonging to this inland drainage system are the Vermejo, San Juan and Desaguadero, with their affluents, and their southward flow can be traced from about 28° S.
The three great rivers that form the La Plata system - the Paraguay, Parana and Uruguay - have their sources in the highlands of Brazil and flow southward through a great continental depression, two of them forming eastern boundary lines, and one of them, the Parana, flowing across the eastern part of the republic. The northern part of Argentina, therefore, drains eastward from the mountains to these rivers, except where some great inland depression gives rise to a drainage having no outlet to the sea, and except, also, in the " mesopotamia " region, where small streams flow westward into the Parana and eastward into the Uruguay.
The largest of the rivers through which Argentina drains into the Plata system are the Pilcomayo, which rises in Bolivia and flows south-east along the Argentine frontier for about 400 m.; the Bermejo, which rises on the northern frontier and flows south-east into the Paraguay; and the Salado del Norte (called Rio del Juramento in its upper course), which rises on the high mountain slopes of western Salta and flows south-east into the Parana.
None of the tributaries of the La Plata system thus far mentioned is navigable except the lower Pilcomayo and Bermejo for a few miles.
The principal centres of the system are Buenos Aires, Rosario and Bahia Blanca, with La Plata as a secondary centre to the former, and from these the lines radiate westward and northward.
Not only has the breed of cattle been improved, but the system of grazing has completely altered.
This system is mischievous, since, if a few consecutive bad seasons occur, the farmer moves to some more favoured spot; while, on the other hand, a succession of good years tends to increase rents.
The existing system of taxation also presses heavily upon the provinces, as may be seen from the fact that the national, provincial and municipal exactions together amount to £7 per head of population, while the total value of the exports in 1898 was only L6 in round numbers.
The system closely resembles that followed in the United States.
Each province has also its own judicial system.
The proceedings are, with but few exceptions, written, and the procedure is a survival of the antiquated Spanish system.
Each has its own judicial system, and enacts laws relating to the administration of justice, the distribution and imposition of taxes, and all matters affecting the province.
Since 1891 the national budgets have been calculated in both gold and currency, and both receipts and expenditures have been carried out in this dual system.
In 1665 the relaxation of this system was brought about by the continual remonstrances of the people, but for more than a century afterwards (until 1776) the policy of exclusion was enforced.
is watered by the secondary system of the Charente, which descends from ChCronnac (Haute-Vienne), traverses Angoulme and falls into the Atlantic near Rochefort.
The first of these occurred towards the close of the Palaeozoic era, when a great mountain system was raised in the north running approximately from E.
The state, the departments, and the communes were thus relieved from the payment of salaries and grants to religious bodies, an item of expenditure which amounted in the last year of the old system to 1,101,000 paid by the state and 302,200 contributed by the departments and communes.
About 80% of holdings (amounting to about 6o% of the cultivated area) are cultivated by the proprietor; of the rest approximately 13% are let on lease and 7% are worked on the system known as mtayage (q.v.).
Those of the first class, which comprise rather less than half the entire system, have a minimum depth of 64 ft., with locks 126 ft.
The canal and river system attains its greatest utility in the north, northeast and north-centre of the country; traffic is thickest along the Seine below Paris; along the rivers and small canals of the rich departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais and along the Oise and the canal of St Quentin whereby they communicate with Paris; along the canal from the Marne to the Rhine and the succession of waterways which unite it with the Oise; along the Canal de lEst (departments of Meuse and Ardennes); and along the waterways uniting Paris with the Sane at Chalon (Seine, Canal du Loing, Canal de Briare, Lateral canal of the Loire and Canal du Centre) and along the Sane between Chalon and Lyons.
In 1878 it agreed to spend 20,000,000 in purchasing and completing a number of these lines, some of which were handed over to the great companies, while others were retained in the hands of the government, forming the system known as the Chemins de Fer de lEtat.
By the 1859 conventions the state railway system obtained an entry into Paris by means of running powers over the Ouest from Chartres, and its position was further improved by the exchange of certain lines with the Orleans company.
After entering on a rgime of free trade in 1860 France gradually reverted towards protection; this system triumphed in the Customs Law of 1892, which imposed more or less considerable duties on importsa law associated with the name of M.
This system, however, which is opposed by a powerful party, I has at various times undergone modifications.
Before I790 France was divided into thirty-three great and seven small military governments, often called provinces, which are, however, to be distinguished from the provinces formed under the feudal system.
The ordinary judicial system of France comprises two classes of courts: (I) civil and criminal, (2) special, including courts dealing only with purely commercial cases; in addition there are the administrative courts, including bodies, the Conseil dEtat and the Conseils de Prefecture, which dGal, in their judicial capacity, with cases coming under the droit administratif.
There were, however, but few prisons in France adapted for the cellular system, and the process of reconstruction has been slow, In 1898 the old Paris prisons of Grande-Roquette, Saint-Plagie and Mazas were demolished, and to replace them a large prison with 1500 cells was erected at Fresnes-ls-Rungis.
The expenditure of the government has several times been regulated for as long as six months upon this system.
In 1904, under the old system of three-years service with numerous total and partial exemptions, 324,253 men became liable to incorporation, of whom 25,432 were rejected as unfit, 55,265 were admitted as one-year volunteers, 62,160 were put back, 27,825 had already enlisted with a view to making the army a career, 5257 were taken for the navy, and thus, with a few extra details and casualties, the contingent for full service dwindled to 147,549 recruits.
Still the law of 1905 provides a system whereby there is room with the colors for every available man, and moreover ensures his services.
The advantages of a purely territorial system have tempted various War Ministers to apply it, but the results were not good, owing to the want of uniformity in the military qualities and the political subordination of the different districts.
Organization.The general organization of the French army at home is based on the system of permanent army corps, the headquarters of which are as follows: I.
The French navy is manned partly by voluntary enlistment, partly by the transference to the navy of a certain proportion of each years recruits for the army, but mainly by a system known as inscription maritime.
The system of studies-reorganized in 1902embraces a full curriculum of seven years, which is divided into two periods.
In these colonies the system of assimilation was carried to great lengths.
The so-called "Gothenburg System" of municipal control over the sale of spirits was actually devised at Falun as early as 1850.
Thus it was the Aeginetans who, within thirty or forty years of the invention of coinage by the Lydians (c. 700 B.C.), introduced to the western world a system of such incalculable value to trade.
The town has grown rapidly since the completion of the railway system, and has a large trade in petroleum from Baku.
- In the developed hierarchical system the ministers of the sanctuary are divided into distinct grades.
If the hierarchical system as 2 The words "beside that which cometh of the sale of his patrimony" (lit.
" It became clear that in the system of perpetual Becoming and of the dialectical passing over of all forms into one another, the finite personality could scarcely raise a plausible claim to the character of a substance and to immortality in the religious sense."
With the exception of Tasmania there are no important islands belonging geographically to Australia, for New Guinea, Timor and other islands of the East Indian archipelago, though not removed any great distance from the continent, do not belong to its system.
The Southern Ocean system of the Victorian Dividing Range hardly attains to the dignity of high mountains.
An eastern system in South Australia touches at a few points a height of 3000 ft.; and the Stirling Range, belonging to the south-western system of South Australia, reaches to 2340 ft.
The network of streams forming the tributaries of the Darling and Murray system give an idea of a well-watered country.
The Silurian system was marked by the retreat of the sea from central Australia; but the sea still covered a band across Victoria, from the coast to the Murray basin, passing to the east of Melbourne.
The Devonian system includes a complex series of deposits, which are of most interest in eastern Australia.
The Jurassic system is represented by two types.
Under the system of grazing practised throughout Australia it is customary to allow sheep, cattle and horses to run at large all the year round within enormous enclosures and to depend entirely upon the natural growth of grass for their subsistence.
The divergence of policy of that state from that pursued by the other states was caused by the inability of the government to construct lines, when the extension of the railway system was urgently needed in the interests of settlement.
Such a system gave to the elder men of a tribe a predominant position, and generally respect was shown to the aged.
When that system was abolished, the social conditions of New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia became more equal.
A similar system was introduced into South Australia by an act passed in 1900 amending the Factory Act of 1894, which was the first legislation of the sort passed in that state.
During the first six years of federation there were five ministries; the tenure of office under the threeyearly system was naturally uncertain, and this uncertainty was reflected in the proposals of whatever ministry was in office.
His efforts met with great success, and in 1800 he founded what was virtually a new and independent church organization on the Methodist system, of which he became the presiding elder, and eventually (1807) bishop. This church is officially the Evangelical Association, but its adherents have been variously known as "New Methodists."
It belongs to the same volcanic system as the mainland near it, and the Monte Epomeo (anc. 'Eirwircbs, viewpoint), the highest point of the island (2588 ft.), lies on the N.
Still more original and remarkable, however, was that part of his system, fully stated in his Laws of Thought, which formed a general symbolic method of logical inference.
The second part of the Laws of Thought contained a corresponding attempt to discover a general method in probabilities, which should enable us from the given probabilities of any system of events to determine the consequent probability of any other event logically connected with the given events.
Its remoteness from the control of the authority of the German and French kings, together with its inaccessibility, gave special facilities in Lower Lorraine to the growth of a number of practically independent feudal states forming a group or system apart.
In the astral-theological system he is represented by the number 30, and the planet Venus as his daughter by the number 15.
materia, matter), in philosophy, the theory which regards all the facts of the universe as explainable in terms of matter and motion, and in particular explains all psychical processes by physical and chemical changes in the nervous system.
In anti-religious materialism the motive is hostility to established dogmas which are connected, in the Christian system especially, with certain forms of spiritual doctrine.
But, from the national distrust of system, it has not been elaborated into a consistent metaphysic, but is rather traceable as a tendency harmonizing with the spirit of natural science.
In Mesopotamia and Yemen disturbance was endemic; nearer home, a semblance of loyalty was maintained in the army and among the Mussulman population by a system of delation and espionage, and by wholesale arrests; while, obsessed by terror of assassination, the sultan withdrew himself into fortified seclusion in the palace of Yildiz.
GOTHITE, or Goethite, a mineral composed of an iron hydrate, Fe203.H20, crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with diaspore and manganite.
At first he threw himself with great energy into the task of building up an adequate system of schools.
The principal railways are: the lines operated by the Boston & Maine system, extending along the eastern border from Brattleboro through Bellows Falls, and St Johnsbury to the Canada boundary (Vermont Valley, Sullivan County, and Connecticut & Passumpsic Rivers railways), with a line, the St Johnsbury & Lake Champlain railway, extending across the northern part of the state from Lunenburg to Maguam Bay; the Central Vermont railway (Grand Trunk system) which crosses the state diagonally from S.E.
to N.E., connecting Burlington, Montpelier and St Albans and affording connexion to the north with Montreal and to the south over trackage shared with the Boston & Maine, with the New London Northern which is leased by this road, and the Rutland railway (New York Central system) extending along the western edge of the state and connecting Rutland with Burlington to the north and with Bellows Falls and Bennington to the south.
The public-school system is under the supervision of a state superintendent of education, elected biennially by the General Assembly, and local schools are under union superintendents and in a few cases under town superintendents.
The district system was displaced in 1893 by a township system.
Cromwell was essentially a conservative reformer; in his attempts to purge the court of chancery of its most flagrant abuses, and to settle the ecclesiastical affairs of the nation, he showed himself anxious to retain as much of the existing system as could be left untouched without doing positive evil.
The revolts of royalists and sectaries against his government had been easily suppressed, and the various attempts to assassinate him, contemptuously referred to by Cromwell as "little fiddling things," were anticipated and prevented by an excellent system of police and spies, and by his bodyguard of 160 men.
A new foundation had to be laid on which a new system of legality might be reared.
Mr Robertson found them without education, without religion, without laws and without any system of government, but living comfortably on clearings of cultivated land.
But he was chiefly attracted to the philosophical system represented by Reid and Stewart.
The former contributed nothing new to the system except a more emphatic statement of the distinction between psychology and physiology.
He founded no system; he contributed nothing of importance to philosophical science; he initiated nothing which has survived him.
The twelve senior thegns of the hundred play a part, the nature of which is rather doubtful, in the development of the English system of justice.
A judicial system has been instituted to which natives as well as Europeans are amenable.
To make matters worse, the pen which records the motion of the plate is often connected with it by an extensive system of chains and levers.
Hence when useful work can be obtained from a system by simply connecting visible portions of it by a train of mechanism, such energy is more readily recognized than is that which would compel us to control the behaviour of molecules before we could transform it into useful work.
It should be noticed, however, that this energy is possessed by the system consisting of the earth and pound together, in virtue of their separation, and that neither could do work without the other to attract it.
The system consisting of the earth and the pound therefore possesses an amount of energy which depends on the relative positions of its two parts, on account of the latent physical connexion existing between them.
In most mechanical systems the working stresses acting between the parts can be determined when the relative positions of all the parts are known; and the energy which a system possesses in virtue of the relative positions of its parts, or its configuration, is classified as "potential energy," to distinguish it from energy of motion which we shall presently consider.
Available kinetic energy is possessed by a system of two or more bodies in virtue of the relative motion of its parts.
If a body whose mass is m grammes be moving with a velocity of v centimetres per second relative to the earth, the available kinetic energy possessed by the system is Zmv 2 ergs if m be small relative to the earth.
But if we consider two bodies each of mass m and one of them moving with velocity v relative to the other, only 4mv 2 units of work is available from this system alone.
Such a system is called "conservative," and is well illustrated by the swinging pendulum above referred to.
When work is done against these forces no full equivalent of potential energy may be produced; this applies especially to frictional forces, for if the motion of the system be reversed the forces will be also reversed and will still oppose the motion.
"It is hardly necessary to add," he remarks, "that anything which any insulated body or system of bodies can continue to furnish without limitation cannot possibly be a material substance; and it appears to me to be extremely difficult, if not quite impossible, to form any distinct idea of anything capable of being excited and communicated in the manner that heat was excited and communicated in these experiments, except it be motion."
Though we can convert the whole of the energy possessed by any mechanical system into heat, it is not in our power to perform the inverse operation, and to utilize the whole of the heat in doing mechanical work.
The ratio of the portion of the energy of a system which can under given conditions be converted into mechanical work to the whole amount of energy operated upon may be called the "availability" of the energy.
If a system be removed from all communication with anything outside of itself, the whole amount of energy possessed by it will remain constant, but will of its own accord tend to undergo such transformations as will diminish its availability.
All we can do in such cases is to place the system under certain conditions of transformation, and be content with the amount of work which it is, as it were, willing to render up under those conditions.
The most important of his comprehensive writings are: System der Ethik (1850-1853), Anthropologie (1856, 3rd ed.
A nervous system has been shown to exist in many species, and consists of a perioesophageal ring giving off usually six nerves which run forwards and backwards along the lateral and median lines; these are connected by numerous fine, circular threads in the sub-cuticle.
The presence of these parasites seems at times to have little effect on the host, and men in whose system it is calculated there are some 40-50 million larvae have shown no signs of disease.
In other cases very serious disorders of the lymphatic system are brought about, of which the most marked is perhaps Elephantiasis.
The lines include the Chatham, the Royal Marine, the Brompton, the Hut, St Mary's and naval barracks; the garrison hospital, Melville hospital for sailors and marines, the arsenal, gymnasium, various military schools, convict prison, and finally the extensive dockyard system for which the town is famous.
Down to the closing decades of the 19th century hydraulic power was practically the only system available for working cranes from a power station.
(2) The hook may be attached to a rope or chain, and the pulling cylinder connected with a system of pulleys around which the rope is led; by these means the lift can be very largely increased.
In the southeastern division the river system is important.
Geologically considered, the country may be divided into three regions - a central, and the largest, comprising the whole width of the Aravalli system, formed of very old sub-metamorphic and gneissic rocks; an eastern region, with sharply defined boundary, along which the most ancient formations are abruptly replaced by the great basin of the Vindhyan strata, or are overlaid by the still more extensive spread of the Deccan trap, forming the plateau of Malwa; and a western region, of very ill-defined margin, in which, besides some rocks of undetermined age, it is more or less known or suspected that Tertiary and Secondary strata stretch across from Sind, beneath the sands of the desert, towards the flanks of the Aravallis.
It was, however, reserved for the genius of Khammurabi to make Babylon his metropolis and weld together his vast empire by a uniform system of law.
The whole land is covered with feudal holdings, masters of the levy, police, &c. There is a regular postal system.
The metayer system was in vogue, especially on temple lands.
She was to hale the offenders to the palace, which implied an efficient and accessible police system.
Interest was rarely charged on advances by the temple or wealthy landowners for pressing needs, but this may have been part of the metayer system.
This telegraph required six wires, and was shortly afterwards displaced by the single-needle system, still to a large extent used on railway and other less important circuits.
This system required two line wires, and, although a remarkably serviceable apparatus and in use for many years, is no longer employed.
In the aerial or overground system of land telegraphs the use of copper wire has become very general.
The underground system of paper cables has been very largely extended, Cables between London, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Liverpool.
In order to maintain a system of telegraph lines in good working condition, daily tests are essential.
12, compiled from the actual records obtained during the laying of the Canso-Fayal section of the Commercial Cable Company's system, shows by the full line the actual strain recorded which secured the even distribution of 8 per cent.
The instruments used for land telegraphs on this system are of two types - " sounders," which indicate by sound, and " recorders," which record the signals.
The arrangement on the " open-circuit " system for single-current working is shown in fig.
The connexions for single-current working on the " closed-circuit " system are shown in fig.
- Closed Circuit, Singleis long and contains a large current System.
The arrangement at a station worked by relay on the " single-current " system is shown in fig.
The first to introduce a really good practical system of duplex telegraphy, in which this difficulty was sufficiently overcome for land line purposes, was J.
In order that the line between two stations may be worked on the duplex system it is essential that the receiving instrument shall not be acted on by the outgoing currents, but shall respond to incoming currents.
This system of duplexing cables has proved remarkably successful.
- Grouping of Segments in Multiplex System.
Thus between London and Manchester only four sets of apparatus could be worked, but between London and Birmingham, a shorter distance, six sets (the maximum for which the system is adapted) were used.
In Squier and Crehore's " Synchronograph " system " sine waves of current, instead of sharp " makes and breaks," or sharp reversals, are employed for transmitting signals, the waves being produced by an alternating-current dynamo, and regulated by means of a perforated paper ribbon, as in the Wheatstone automatic system.
In the improved Pollak-Virag system the received signals are recorded in characters similar to ordinary handwriting.
It is not a system likely to have general application.
This system of telegraphic printing has a great advantage over the step-by-step system in avoiding the necessity for the rapidly acting electric escapement, which, however skilfully planned and executed, is always liable to failure when worked too rapidly.
The system brought out in 1874 by Emile Baudot and since considerably developed is a multiplex system giving from two to six channels on one wire, each channel giving a working, speed of thirty words per minute.
It can also be duplexed or repeated similar to any other telegraph system.
In the Murray system the messages are first prepared in the form of a strip of perforated paper about half an inch wide.
Per forating machines equipped with typewriter keyboards are used for the preparation of the messages, two or three keyboard perforators being employed at each end of the telegraph lines on which the Murray system is used.
The Murray automatic system was designed specially for dealing with heavy traffic on long lines.
The Murray automatic system is not regarded as suitable for short telegraph lines or moderate traffic, printing telegraphs on the multiplex principle being considered preferable in such circumstances.
The Creed system is a development of the Morse-Wheatstone system, and provides a keyboard perforator which punches Morse letters or figures on a paper strip by depressing type writer keys.
The telautograph is on a similar principle to the Cowper apparatus, the motion of the transmitting pencil or stylus used in writing being resolved by a system of levers into two component rectilinear motions, which are used to control and vary the currents in two distinct electrical circuits.
Each coil is attached to a shaft by a bell crank arrangement, and to these shafts there is secured a system of levers similar to that at the transmitter carrying the receiving pencil at the junction.
The advantage of using the magnetic bridge duplex method is that the maximum current is sent to line or cable, and the receiving system benefits accordingly.
Reports to the Postmaster-General upon proposals for transferring to the Post Of f ice the Telegraphs throughout the United Kingdom (1868); Special Reports from Select Committee on the Electric Telegraphs Bills (1868, 1869); Report by Mr Scudamore on the reorganization of the Telegraph system of the United Kingdom (1871); Journ.
Encouraged by this success, he even made the further suggestion that the remaining metallic portion of the circuit might perhaps some day be abolished and a system of wireless telegraphy established.'
He found, as others have dune, that if a battery, dynamo or induction coil has its terminals connected to the earth at two distant places, a system of electric currents flows between these points through the crust of the earth.
Canal system of flow lines of current through the sea, and these might be detected by any other ships furnished with two plates dipping into the sea at stem and stern, and connected by a wire having a telephone in its circuit, provided that the two plates were not placed on the same equipotential surface of the original current flow lines.
Stevenson, who in 1892 advocated the use of the inductive system pure and simple for communication between the mainland and isolated lighthouses or islands.
Rathenau of Berlin made many experiments in 1894 in which, by means of a conductive system of wireless telegraphy, he signalled through 3 m.
Sir Oliver Lodge in 1898 theoretically examined the inductive system of space telegraphy.
a system by which the primary and secondary circuits were " turned " or syntonized by including condensers in the circuits.
(Id., 27, p. 852.) In addition to the systems of wireless or space telegraphy depending upon conduction through earth or water, and the in ductive system based upon the power of a magnetic Eelson.
The system was put into practical operation in 1887 on the Lehigh Valley railroad in the United States, and worked well, but was abandoned because it apparently fulfilled no real public want.
There is no evidence that this plan of Edison's was practically operative as a system of telegraphy.
A very similar system of wireless telegraphy was patented by Professor A.
In March 1899 communication was effected by his system between England (South Foreland lighthouse) and France (Wimereux, near Boulogne), a distance of 30 m.
In January 1901 he established communication by his system between the Lizard in Cornwall and Niton in the Isle of Wight, a distance of 200 m.
A full account of the development of his system was given by him in an article published in the Fortnightly Review for June 1902; see also a paper by him in the Journ.
Marconi's successes and the demonstrations he had given of the thoroughly practical character of this system of electric wave telegraphy stimulated other inventors to enter the same field of labour, whilst theorists began to study carefully the nature of the physical operations involved.
In order to produce electric oscillations in the system, the first or alternating current transformer must charge the condenser connected to its secondary terminals, but must not produce a permanent electric arc between the balls.
It was found to be peculiarly adapted for communication between ships at sea and between ship and shore, and a system of regular supermarine communication was put into operation by two limited companies, Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company and the Marconi International Marine Communication Company.
Marconi in an operative system of syntonic wireless telegraphy.
When this is done we have a syntonic system which is not easily affected by electric waves of other than the right period or approximating thereto.
Lodge had previously described in 1897 a syntonic system of electric wave telegraphy, but it had not been publicly seen in operation prior to the exhibitions of Marconi and Slaby.'
At a later date a syntonic system comprising, as above stated, an antenna directly coupled to a resonant closed circuit was put into operation by Lodge and Muirhead, and much the same methods have been followed in the system known as the Telefunken system employed in Germany.
When the methods for effecting this had been worked out practically it finally led to the inventions of Slaby, Braun and others being united into a system called the Telefunken system, which, as regards the transmitter, consisted in forming a closed oscillation circuit comprising a condenser, spark gap and inductance which at one point was attached either directly or through a condenser to the earth or to an equivalent balancing capacity, and at some other point to a suitably tuned antenna.
In July and August 1899 the Marconi system of wireless telegraphy was tried for the first time during British naval manoeuvres, and the two cruisers, " Juno " and " Europa," were fitted with the new means of communication.
In 1904 a regular system of communication of press news and private messages from the Poldhu and Cape Breton stations to Atlantic liners in mid-Atlantic was inaugurated, and daily newspapers were thenceforth printed on board these vessels, news being supplied to them daily by electric wave telegraphy.
An important modification of this method enables not only audible signals but articulated words to be transmitted, and gives thus a system of wireless telephony.
The system has already been put into practice in Germany by the Gesellschaft fur drahtlose Telegraphie, and in the United States by R.
The wide streets are traversed by a system of tramways, which pass through modern suburbs to the mining district about two leagues inland, and on the west a canal enables small vessels to enter the town without using the port.
The necessary condition for a successful system of telephony is the ability to reproduce these characteristics.
It is not practicable to connect each subscriber directly to all the others, hence a system of exchanges has been adopted.
A system of wires, similar to that which connects the district exchanges in an area, links together the various local areas in the territory, and sometimes the territory of one administration with that of another.
These advantages led to the gradual supersession of the single-wire system until at the present day the all-metallic system is employed almost universally.
Since the time when the system first became prominent all switchboards have been arranged for metallic circuits.
Though many types of manually operated switchboards have been brought into use, differing from each other in respect of circuit and working arrangements, yet each of them may be placed in one or other of three main classes according as the system of working is magneto, call-wire, or common battery.
The fundamental principle of the magneto system has been described in connexion with the " Standard board."
The magneto system itself is dying out.
There are still many magneto exchanges in existence, but when new exchanges are erected only the very smallest are equipped for magneto working, that system having succumbed to the common battery one in the case of all equipments of moderate and large dimensions.
The " call-wire " system has been used to some extent, but it is now obsolete.
One of the greatest advances made in the development of the art of telephony was the introduction of the " common battery relay system."
- Hayes Common Battery System.
The Stone system (fig.
- Stone Common Battery System.
The Stone system, compared with that of Hayes, possesses the Exchanc 1.
- Dean Common Battery System.
- Subscriber's Circuit, Common Battery System.
An improvement was effected in this respect by the introduction of the " bridging " system, in which the bells possessing high inductance are placed in parallel between the two wires of the circuit.
This system of course requires that the exchange equipment shall include machines _ capable of delivering a positive pulsating current and a negative pulsating current, besides the usual alternations required for the ringing of ordinary subscribers.
In another party line system a harmonic principle is employed: the ringing machines deliver alternating currents of four frequencies, while each bell is constructed to operate at a particular frequency only.
The system of the British Post Office is worked as follows: A subscriber desiring a long-distance connexion calls up his local exchange in the ordinary way, and the operator there, being informed that a trunk connexion is desired, extends the subscriber's line to the Post Office by means of a record circuit.
- Typical Cord Circuit, Western Electric Co.'s System, No.
- Typical Cord Circuit, British Insulated Co.'s System.
The idea of automatic telephony is to substitute for the operator of the manual exchange an electromechanical or other switching system, which, controlled in its movement by the action of the subscriber, will automatically select, connect and disconnect circuits as desired.
Each subscriber's circuit on this system terminates upon the incoming portion of a selector switch, called a first selector, and is multipled upon the outgoing portions of a number of similar switches called connector switches.
In one system the main cables terminate in large airtight iron boxes placed in the manholes.
The decision covered also future invention in regard to " every organized system of communication by means of wires according to any preconcerted system of signals."
In short, all-round competition was authorized, and the Post Office decided to establish a telephone system in London in competition with the company.
But the tendency is towards a system of charging a moderate sum to cover the rent of the instrument and an additional fee per message.
The message-rate system equalizes the charges according to the service rendered.
For subscribers who desire the telephone for occasional use, the party-line system has been devised, whereby several telephones are connected to one line leading to the exchange.
The capital expenditure on the purchase and development of the trunk wire system amounted to £3,376,252.