He was elected a deputy of the nobility to the states-general, where he sat alongside of his friend La Fayette.
Claude Antoine de Besiade, marquis d'Avaray, was deputy for the bailliage of Orleans in the states-general of 1789, and proposed a Declaration of the Duties of Man as a pendant to the Declaration of the Rights of Man; he subsequently became a lieutenant-general in 1814, a peer of France in 1815, and duc d'Avaray in 1818.
whose seat was finally fixed at Malines (Mechlin) in 1473; the other the summoning of deputies of all the provincial " states " of the Netherlands to a states-general at Brussels in 1465.
The claim of the emperor Maximilian to be regent during the minority of his grandson was recognized by the states-general.
Money had to be raised by taxation, and at a meeting of the states-general (March 20, 1569) the governor-general proposed (1) an immediate tax of 1% on all property, (2) a tax of 5% on all transfers of real estate, (3) a tax of io% on the sale of all articles of commerce, the last two taxes to be granted in perpetuity.
A treaty establishing a firm alliance between the provinces, represented by the states-general, assembled at Brussels on the one part, and on the other by the prince of Orange, and the states of Holland and Zeeland, was agreed upon and ratified under the title of the " Pacification of Ghent."
On the advice of the prince of Orange the states-general refused to receive him as governor-general unless he accepted the " Pacification of Ghent."
By his condemnation of Gallicanism (1613) Paul angered France, and provoked the defiant declaration of the states general of 1614 that the king held his crown from God alone.
sought to revoke it; but both parlements and states-general refused to recognize the revoking decrees.
The Dutch Company in 1614 again resolved to send a fleet to the Moluccas by the westward route, and Joris Spilbergen was appointed to the command as admiral, with a commission from the States-General.
Torquemada went with the sovereigns to Cordova, to Madrid or wherever the states-general were held, to urge on the war; and he obtained from the Holy See the same spiritual favours that had been enjoyed by the Crusaders.
He served in the American War of Independence under Rochambeau, and in 1789 was sent as deputy to the States General by the nobles of the bailliage of Peronne.
Of his two brothers, Theodore Lameth (1756-1854) served in the American war, sat in the Legislative Assembly as deputy from the department of Jura, and became marechal-de-camp; and Charles Malo Francois Lameth (1757-1832), who also served in America, was deputy to the States General of 1789, but emigrated early in the Revolution, returned to France under the Consulate, and was appointed governor of Wiirzburg under the Empire.
In accordance with the consistent policy of inclusion and toleration by which the whole of his official life was characterized, he induced the council to call the assembly of notables, which met at Fontainebleau in August 1560 and agreed that the States General should be summoned, all proceedings against heretics being meanwhile suppressed, pending the reformation of the church by a general or national council.
The States General met in December; the edict of Orleans (January 1561) followed, and finally, after the colloquy of Poissy, the edict of January 1562, the most liberal, except that of Nantes, ever obtained by the Protestants of France.
was pressed by the more reactionary elements to model his parliament on this rough equivalent of the Western states-general.
The day on which the deputation laid these views before Prince Mirski was hailed by public opinion as recalling the 5th of May 1789, the date of the meeting of the French states-general at Versailles.
But 1789 was at hand; the states-general was summoned; Mirabeau's period of probation was over.
He elected to sit for the former city, and was present at the opening of the states-general on the 4th of May 1789.
Auguste Marie Raymond, prince d'Arenberg, known as the Comte de la Marck, was a Flemish nobleman who had been proprietary colonel of a German regiment in the service of France; he was a close friend of the queen, and had been elected a member of the states-general.
He was opposed to the summoning of the states-general advocated by Malesherbes (May 6, 1775), possibly on the ground that the two privileged orders would have too much power in them.
Within the space of ten and a half years from the summoning of the States-General at Versailles (May 1789), parliamentary government fell beneath the sword.
Having been nominated deputy from the bailliage of Guise, he appeared at Laon as one of the commissioners for the election of deputies to the States-General summoned by royal edict of January 24th.
Camille heralded its meeting by his Ode to the States-General.
He, however, shared to the full the excitement which attended the meeting of the States-General.
In 1588 he was appointed by the States-General captain and admiral-general of the Union, in 1590 he was elected stadtholder of Utrecht and Overysel, and in 1591 of Gelderland.
Oldenbarneveldt, supported by the states of Holland, came forward as the champion of provincial sovereignty against that of the states-general; Maurice threw the weight of his sword on the side of the union.
Espousing the principles of the Revolution in 1789, he was commissioned by the noblesse of the province to draw up the cahier (statement of principles and grievances); and the senechaussee of Montpellier elected him deputy to the states-general of Versailles; but the election was annulled on a technical point.
Identifying himself with the Democratic party, he served in the state House of Representatives in 1848, and was a prominent member of the convention for the revision of the state constitution in 1850-1851, a representative in Congress (1851-18s5), commissioner of the United States General Land Office (1855-1859), a United States senator (1863-1869), and governor of Indiana (1873-1877).
Charles was regarded with much favour in France, and the states-general demanded his release, which, however, was effected by a surprise.
She exulted in the meeting of the states-general, and most of all when her father, after being driven to Brussels by a state intrigue, was once more recalled and triumphantly escorted into Paris.
Their representation in the states general was exactly equal to that of the Dutch, though their population was in the proportion of seven to five.
Moreover, tailles were often granted him by the provincial estates or the states-general.
The invention dates from 1656; on the 16th of June 1657 Huygens presented his first "pendulumclock" to the states-general; and the Horologium, containing a description of the requisite mechanism, was published in 1658.
He distinguished himself as a statesman at the Assembly of Notables at Fontainebleau in 1560, when he delivered an exceedingly brilliant discourse, in which he opposed the policy of violence and demanded a national council and the assembly of the states general.
After studying law in Tuscany, he became an avocat at the upper council of Bastia, and was elected deputy of the Third Estate to the French states-general in 1789.
This came in 1614 when he was elected by the clergy of Poitou to the last States-general which met before the Revolution.
After the States-general was dissolved he remained in Paris, and the next year he became almoner to Anne of Austria, the child-queen of Louis XIII.
Elected by the tiers Nat of Vermandois to represent it in the states-general of Blois, he contended with skill and boldness in extremely difficult circumstances for freedom of conscience, justice and peace.
active part in the states-general of 1614, when he vigorously upheld the ultramontane doctrines against the Third Estate.
He practised as a lawyer at Chalonssur-Marne until 1789, when he was elected to the states-general.
In 1789 he was elected by the third estate of the senechaussee of Annonay as deputy to the states-general.
He was one of those who induced the states-general to proclaim itself a National Assembly on the 17th of June 1789; approved, in several speeches, of the capture of the Bastille and of the taking of the royal family to Paris (October 1789); demanded that strict measures be taken against the royalists who were intriguing in the south of France, and published some pamphlets on finance.
The states-general did not meet, and the remonstrances of the parlement were scarcely tolerated.
Together with almost all his countrymen he welcomed the meeting of the states-general in 1789 as the downfall of a despotism hostile to Great Britain.
On the 8th of July 1672 the states general revived the stadtholderate, and declared William stadtholder, captain-general and admiral for life.
This led to feuds and intrigues on the part of the French king and of Philip of Bresse, and Savoy would probably have been dismembered but for the patriotic action of the States General.
(1472-1482) succeeded, but as he was a minor the States General appointed his mother Yolande regent.
They exercised large administrative powers, and commanded the land and sea forces, but it was with delegated authority given them by each state in domestic affairs, and by the states-general of the confederation in all common and foreign affairs.
The states-general and some of the individual states not only claimed but exercised the right.
The states-general found it necessary to replace Tromp, who was at once sent to sea, again with the charge of seeing the outwardbound trade down Channel, and waiting for the homewardbound.
Tromp was driven into port and told the states-general that they must build better ships if they wished to beat the English at sea.
The states-general now sought for peace, but Cromwell's demands were excessive, and could not be accepted without a surrender of the independence of Holland.
De Ruyter was named commander-in-chief, and John de Witt, or later his brother Cornelius, accompanied the admiral as delegate of the states-general to support his authority.
His talents commended him to the notice of Advocate Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, who sent him, at the age of 26 years, as a diplomatic agent of the states-general to the court of France.
The same year saw the assembling of the States-general, which she had dreaded, the taking of the Bastille, and the events leading to the terrible days of the 5th and 6th of October at Versailles and the removal of the royal family to the Tuileries.
Finally, the majority of the states-general, backed by government, decided that New Guinea must still be reckoned to belong to Asia.
The elections for the States General were soon to take place; and the first important act of the new bishop was to draw up a manifesto or programme of the reforms which he desired to see carried out by the States General of France.
A meeting of the States General had already been summoned to consider the state of the realm.
An attempt of the democratic party to regain power was temporarily successful (January 10, 16ro); but the estates appealed to the States General and Maurice of Nassau, who had been appointed stadtholder on the death of Nuenar, put down the movement with a strong hand, and the Utrechters found themselves compelled to yield.
His great reputation and the influence of Sir William Boswell, the English resident, with the states-general procured his election in 1643 to the chair of mathematics in Amsterdam, whence he removed in 1646, on the invitation of the prince of Orange, to Breda, where he remained till 1652.
The merchants of Amsterdam and Hoorn soon formed themselves into the New Netherland Company, and on the 11th of October 1614 received from the States-General a three years' monopoly of the Dutch fur trade in New Netherland, i.e.
It was authorized to plant colonies and to govern them under a very limited supervision of the States-General, such as the approval of its appointment of a governor and of its instructions to him; and its own government was vested in five chambers of directors and an executive board or college of nineteen delegates from those chambers, eight of the nineteen representing the Chamber of Amsterdam.
The director-general was formally appointed by the Company subject to the approval of the States-General, but the Amsterdam Chamber and the College of Nineteen supervised his administration.
It denied his right to levy certain war taxes, and when it had in vain protested to him against his arbitrary measures it sent a petition, in 1644, to the States-General for his recall, and this was granted.
He treated it with increasing contempt, and the most that it could do was to remonstrate to the States-General.
At the conference held at the Hague in 1610 the Arminians addressed a remonstrance to the states-general in the form of five articles, which henceforth came to be known as the five points of Arminianism.
In 1614, at the instance of the Arminian party, an edict was passed by the states-general, in which toleration of the opinions of both parties was declared and further controversy forbidden; but this act only served, by rousing the jealousy of the Calvinists, to fan the controversial flame into greater fury.
In 1789 he was elected deputy to the states-general, and there _ became known for his advanced opinions.
Francois de Beauharnais, marquis de la FerteBeauharnais, was a deputy in the states-general of 1789, and a devoted defender of the monarchy.
In 1788 the notables had met, and advised the assembling of the states-general.
When the states-general met, Marat's interest was as great as ever, and in June 1789 he published a supplement to his Offrande, followed in July by La constitution, in which he embodies his idea of a constitution for France, and in September by his Tableau des vices de la constitution d'Angleterre, which he presented to the Assembly.
On the 29th of November 1609 Pieter Both was chosen by the states-general, on the nomination of the Dutch East India Company, as first governor-general of Netherlands India.
The burden of defence could no longer be sustained; piracy and smuggling became so common that the company was compelled to appeal to the states-general for aid.
This was never a royal residence as the name would seem to imply, but its description appears to have been derived from the fact that it was usually in this building that the royal address was read to the states-general.
During the French occupation the law courts sat there, and from 1817 to 1830 it was assigned for the sittings of the states-general.
Elected deputy from Paris to the states-general, he was chosen president of the Third Estate (May 5, 1789), led the famous proceedings in the Tennis Court (June 20), and acted as mayor of Paris (July 15, 1789, to November 16, 1791).
The leading burghers were, however, soon alienated by his violent and despotic methods, by his defence of Kieft, and by his devotion to the interests of the company; the nine men became (as early as 1649, when they sent the famous Vertoogh, or Remonstrance, to the states-general asking for burgher government and other reforms) the centre of municipal discontent; and a bitter quarrel ensued.
A prolonged controversy arose, which ended in the states-general in June 1650 commissioning the prince of Orange to visit the towns of Holland and secure a recognition of their authority.
The prince had now obtained that position of supremacy in the republic at which he had been aiming, and could count on the support alike of the states-general and of the provincial states for his policy.
In 1788 he published Deputation aux Etats generaux, a pamphlet remarkable for its bold exposition of liberal principles, and partly on the strength of this he was elected deputy to the states-general by the Third Estate of the bailliage of Metz.
1560), who founded a college for them in 1545 in the town of Billom, besides making over to them his house at Paris, the hotel de Clermont, which became the nucleus of the afterwards famous college of Louis-le-Grand, while a formal legalization was granted to them by the states-general at Poissy in 1561.
Laynez took a leading part in the colloquy of Poissy in 1561 between the Catholics and Huguenots; and obtained a legal footing from the states-general for colleges of the Society in France.
After spending some time in Friesland and in the Palatinate he was in 1570 taken into the service of William, prince of Orange, and in 1572 was sent as his representative to the first meeting of the States-general assembled at Dordrecht.
Although the states-general issued an edict tolerating both parties and forbidding further dispute, the conflict continued, and the Remonstrants were assailed both by personal enemies and by the political weapons of Maurice of Orange, who executed and imprisoned their leaders for holding republican views.
All correspondence passed through his hands, and he was the head and the spokesman of the deputation, who represented the province in the States General.
At the opening of the states-general he began to publish the Courrier de Versailles a Paris et de Paris a Versailles, in which appeared on the 4th of October 1789 the account of the banquet of the royal bodyguard.
Protests against the lettres de cachet were made continually by the parlement of Paris and by the provincial parlements, and often also by the States-General.
The crown, however, did not decide to lay aside this weapon, and in a declaration to the States-General in the royal session of the 23rd of June 1789 (art.
Elected to the states-general as deputy for Douai, he was one of the chief of those who applied the principles of liberty and equality embodied in the decree of the 4th of August 1789 to actual conditions.
The Teutonic Order (q.v.), surviving in the Ballarde (Bailiwick) of Utrecht, was officially established in the Netherlands by the States General in 1580.
By the provisions of the same constitution he establishes the ministerial departments, and shares the legislative power with the first and second chambers of parliament, which constitute the states-general and sit at the Hague.
All communications from the sovereign to the states-general and from the states to the sovereign, as well as all measures relating to internal administration or to foreign possessions, are first submitted to the consideration of the council of state, which consists of 14 members appointed by the sovereign, who is the president.
The administration of justice is entrusted (1) to the high council (hooge rand) at the Hague, the supreme court of the whole kingdom, and the tribunal for all high government officials and for the members of the states-general; (2) to the five courts of justice established at Amsterdam, the Hague, Arnhem, Leeuwarden and 's Hertogenbosch; (3) to tribunals established in each arrondissement; (4) to cantonal judges appointed over a group of communes, whose jurisdiction is restricted to claims of small amount (under 200 guilders), and to breaches of police regulations, and who at the same time look after the interest of minors.
Repelled in this direction, the States-General next turned themselves to England.
Leicester, on landing in Holland, was in the presence of the States-General and of Maurice of Nassau invested with the title of governor-general and practically sovereign powers (February 1586).
The States of Holland under the leadership of Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, took up an attitude of resolute hostility to him, and the States of Holland dominated the States-General.
In 1591 the States-General, after considerable hesitation, were persuaded by Maurice to sanction an offensive campaign.
The States-General never seriously considered the question of giving in their submission to the new sovereigns.
Dunkirk, as a nest of freebooters who preyed upon Dutch commerce, was made the objective of a daring offensive campaign in 1600 by the orders of the States-General under the influence of Oldenbarneveldt in the teeth of the opposi tion of the stadholders Maurice and William Louis .
For the following three years all the energies alike of the archdukes and the States-General were concentrated on the siege of Ostend (15th of July 1601-20th of Sept.
The advocate and the States of Holland took sides with the Remonstrants, Maurice and the majority of the States-General (four provinces out of seven) supported the Contra-Remonstrants.
The States-General wished to summon a national synod, the States of Holland refused their assent, and made levies of local militia(waard-gelders) for the maintenance of order.
The States-General (9th of July 1618) took up the challenge, and the prince of Orange, as captain-general, was placed at the head of a commission to go in the first place to Utrecht, which supported Oldenbarneveldt, and then to the various cities of Holland to insist on the disbanding of the waardgelders.
The far-sighted stadholder, despite popular opposition, by his powerful personal influence induced the States-General to grant the naval aid, and thus obtain the French alliance on which the safety of the republic depended.
A provisional draft of a treaty had already been drawn up before the demise of Frederick Henry, and afterwards, despite the strenuous opposition of the new prince of Orange (who, under the Acte de Survivance, had inherited all his father's offices and dignities) and of two of the provinces, Zeeland and Utrecht, the negotiations were by the powerful support of the States of Holland and of the majority of the States-General, quickly brought to a successful issue.
Foremost among these was the great commercial capital, Amsterdam, whose rich burgher patriciate did not scruple on occasion to defy the authority of the States-General, the stadholder and even of the States of Holland themselves.
At this juncture the States-General, as in 1618, appointed a commission headed by the prince of Orange to visit the towns of Holland, and provide for the maintenance of order and the upholding of the Union.
All correspondence passed through his hands, he wrote all despatches, conducted the debates over which he presided, kept the minutes, drafted the resolutions, and was ex officio the leader and spokesman of the delegates who represented the Province of Holland in the States-General.
He was supreme in the States of Holland, and Holland was dominant in the States-General (see John De Witt).
The States-General were but the delegates, the stadholders the servants, of a number of sovereign provinces, each of which had different historical traditions and a different form of government, and one of which - Holland - in wealth and importance outweighed the other six taken together.
Between the States of Holland and the States-General there was constant jealousy and friction.
The consent of the States-General was refused, but by of a secret treaty Holland, under the influence of de Witt, accepted it in their own name as a sovereign province.
In 1658, the States-General interfered to save the Danes from Charles Gustavus of Sweden.
Fortunately there was no break of continuity in the policy of the States, the chief conduct of affairs remaining, until his death in 1720, in the capable and tried hands of the grand pensionary Heinsius, who had at his side a number of exceptionally experienced and wise counsellors - among these Simon van Slingeland, for forty-five years (1680-1725) secretary of the council of state, and afterwards grand pensionary of Holland (1727-1736), and Francis Fagel, who succeeded his father in 1699 as recorder (Griffier) of the States-General, and held that important office for fifty years.
Under the close oligarchical rule of the patrician families, who filled all offices in the town councils, the States of Holland, in which the influence of Amsterdam was dominant, and which in their turn exercised predominance in the States-General, became more and more an assembly of " shopkeepers " whose policy was to maintain peace for the sake of the commerce on which they thrived.
Finally the States-General (May 4) appointed the prince, who was the first member of his family to be stadholder of all the seven provinces, captain and admiral-general of the Union, and a little later these offices were declared hereditary in both the male and female lines.
Every effort was made by the English to prevent the Dutch from joining the league, and in this they were assisted by the stadholder, but at last the States-General, though only by the bare majority of four provinces against three, determined to throw in their lot with the opponents of England.
tution The legislative body bore the time-honoured title of of the States-General, and was divided into an Upper Nether- Chamber nominated by the king, and a Lower Chamber lands' elected by the people.
Ministers were declared responsible to the States-General, and a liberal measure of self-government was also granted.
Internally one change of government succeeded another; after the States-General came a The Hun- became grand duke.
A bill was passed by the States-General declaring railway strikes illegal.
William, with the support of the states-general and the army, seized five of the leaders of the states-right party and imprisoned them in Loevestein castle; among these was Jacob de Witt.
The treaty included a secret article, which the states-general refused to entertain, but which De Witt succeeded in inducing the states of Holland to accept, by which the provinces of Holland pledged themselves not to elect a stadtholder or a captain-general of the union.
Though the population of Belgium was 3,400,000 and that of Holland only a little more than 2,000,000 the two countries had equal representation in the second chamber of the states-general.
The king summoned an extraordinary session of the states-general, which met at the Hague on the 13th of September and was opened by a speech from the throne, which was firm and temperate, but by no means definite.
In 1620 he represented the Genevan Church at the national synod of Alais, when the decrees of the synod of Dort were introduced into France; and in 1621 he was sent on a successful mission to the states-general of Holland, and to the authorities of the Hanseatic towns, with reference to the defence of Geneva against the threatened attacks of the duke of Savoy.
He was elected to the states-general of 1789 by the noblesse of Paris, and was the spokesman of the minority of Liberal nobles who joined the Third Estate on the 25th of June.
He had no sympathy with political liberalism, but throughout his long reign of forty-two years, with a constant interchange of ministries and many ministerial crises, he never had a serious conflict with the states-general, and his ministers could always count upon his fair-mindedness and an earnest desire to help them to further the national welfare.
He was elected by Marseilles to the States-general, but refused to sit on the score of age.
Drente took part in the revolt of the Netherlands, and being a district covered by waste heath and moor was, on account of its poverty and sparse population, not admitted into the union as a separate province, and it had no voice in the assembly of the states-general.
In the following year Drente at length obtained the privilege, which it had long sought, of being reckoned as an eighth province with representation in the states-general.
In June 1672 a French army invaded the Netherlands; whereupon the elector of Brandenburg contracted an alliance with the emperor Leopold, to which Denmark was invited to accede; almost simultaneously the States-General began to negotiate for a renewal of the recently expired Dano-Dutch alliance.
In May 1673 a treaty of alliance was signed by the ambassador of the States-General at Copenhagen, whereby the Netherlands pledged themselves to pay Denmark large subsidies in return for the services of Io,000 men and twenty warships, which were to be held in readiness in case the United Provinces were attacked by another enemy besides France.
In 5789 he was elected deputy to the states-general by the third estate of Rouen, and in the Constituent Assembly his eloquence gained him great influence.
Thus, by his enemies, Thorbecke was often held up to scorn as a pure materialist and no friend of the fine arts, because at a sitting of the states-general in 1862 he had said that it is not the duty of the state, nor in the true interest of art itself, for the government to "protect" art, since all state-aided art must be artificial, like any forced plant.
The states-general met but once in his reign, in 1468, and then no talk of grievances was allowed; his object was only to get them to declare Normandy inalienable from the crown.
of Huygens there is an original copy of a document (dated 17th October 1608) addressed to the states general by Jacob Andrianzoon (the same individual who is called James Metius by Descartes), petitioning for the exclusive right of selling an instrument of his invention by which distant objects.
Among the acts of the states-general preserved in the government archives at The Hague, Van Swinden found that on 2nd October 1608 the assembly of the states took into consideration the petition of Hans Lippershey, spectacle-maker, a native of Wesel and an inhabitant of Middelburg, inventor of an instrument for seeing at a distance.
In 1789 he was elected a member of the states-general by the clergy of the bailliage of Peronne, and from the first proved to be the most able and persevering defender of the ancien regime, although he had drawn up the greater part of the cahier of the clergy of Peronne, which contained a considerable programme of reform.
During the Revolution period he advocated constitutional monarchy, and was returned as deputy by the Third Estate of the bailliage of Nemours to the states-general, and then to the Constituent Assembly, of which he was elected president on the 16th of October 1790.
Elected in 1789 to the states-general by the noblesse of Paris, he soon revealed a remarkable eloquence.
It was synodically condemned along with Hobbes's Leviathan and other books as early as April 1671, and was consequently interdicted by the states-general of Holland in 1674; before long it was also placed on the Index by the Catholic authorities.
While thus resident in comparative privacy he was sent for to the Hague by Sir Horatio Vere, the English governor of Brill, who appointed him a minister in the army of the states-general, and of the English soldiers in their service, a post held by someï¿½of the greatest of England's exiled Puritans.
When in 1590 Lipsius retired from Leiden, the university and its protectors, the states-general of Holland and the prince of Orange, resolved to obtain Scaliger as his successor.
Richelieu and the states-general of the Netherlands despatched fleets to the Tagus; but commercial rivalry in Brazil and the East led soon afterwards to a colonial war with the Dutch, and Portugal was left without any ally except France.
He was elected in 1789 by the clergy of the bailliage of Nancy to the states-general, where he soon became conspicuous in the group of clerical and lay deputies of Jansenist or Gallican sympathies who supported the Revolution.
Nicolas de Bauffremont, his son Claude, and his grandson Henri, all played important parts in the states-general of 1576, 1588 and 1614, and their speeches have been published.
During the war between Mexico and the United States General Zachary Taylor arrived before the city on the 19th of September 1846, with about 6600 men.
After this important conquest, Eugene and Marlborough proceeded to the Hague, where they were received in the most flattering manner by the public, by the states-general, and above all, by their esteemed friend the pensionary Heinsius.
Hence the importance attached to the vote of Holland in the assembly of the States-General.
These states, which met at the Hague in the same building as the States-General, consisted of representatives of the burgher oligarchies (regents) of the principal towns, together with representatives of the nobles, who possessed one vote only.
spokesman in the States-General.
whom the States-General and the provincial states delegated executive powers that were little less than monarchical.
In 1617 the Maurice outbreak of the religious dispute between the Remon- Prince of strant and Contra-remonstrant parties brought on a Orange life and death struggle between the sovereign province and John of Olden- of Holland and the States-General of the union.
With particular regard to this last named duty the college deputed two of its members to attend all meetings of the states-general, to watch the proceedings and report at once any proposals which they held to be contrary to the interests or to infringe upon the rights of the province of Holland.
The states-general of the 2nd of February 1317, consisting of the nobles, prelates, and the burgesses of Paris, approved the coronation of Philip, swore to obey him, and declared that women did not succeed to the Crown of France.
The states-general were convoked at Versailles for the 5th of May 1789, and Barnave was chosen deputy of the tiers etat for his native province.
CLAIR ANTOINE THIBAUDEAU, Comte (1765-1854) French politician, was born on the 23rd of March 1765, the son of Antoine de Thibaudeau a lawyer of Poitiers and a deputy to the States-General of 1789.
He was admitted to the bar in 1787, and in 1789 accompanied his father to the States-General at Versailles.
Raids of the Black Prince in Languedoc led to the states-general of 1355, which readily voted money, but sanctioned the right of resistance against all kinds of pillage - a distinct commentary on the incompetence of the king.
The Hague is the chief town of the province, the usual residence of the court and diplomatic bodies, and the seat of the government, the states-general, the high council of the Netherlands, the council of state, the chamber of accounts and various other administrative bodies.
Close by on the one side are the courts of justice, and on the other the first and second chambers of the states-general, containing some richly painted ceilings and the portraits of various stadtholders.
1254-1296) made it his residence and it thus became the seat of the supreme court of justice of Holland and the centre of the administration, and from the time of William of Orange onward the meeting-place of the states-general, it only received the status of a town, from King Louis Bonaparte, early in the 19th century.
Charles, who was acting as regent, and the French states-general refused to confirm them.
The landowners, who formed the majority of the House, were not elected directly, as was the case with the nobility of the French states-general, by their own class, but by electors who, though generally loyal to them, would have broken off from them if they had attempted to make themselves masters of their fellow citizens.
at St Pauls, the French states-general met at Versailles.
Burke was more than sixty years old when the states-general met at Versailles in the spring of 1789.
If the king or queen could either have had the political genius of Frederick the Great, or could have had the good fortune to find a minister with that genius, and the good sense and good faith to trust and stand by him against mobs of aristocrats and mobs of democrats; if the army had been sound and the states-general had been convoked at Bourges or Tours instead of at Paris, then the type of French monarchy and French society might have been modernized without convulsion.
Though hampered in his command by the restrictions of the states-general, he repelled the invasion, and the bishop, Christoph von Galen, was forced to conclude peace.
In Paris he gained reputation as an avocat at the parlement, and was a deputy to the states-general in 1789.
The present article deals with the progress of the Revolution itself from the convocation of the states-general to the coup d'etat of the 18th Brumaire which placed Napoleon Bonaparte in power.
The elections to the states-general of 1789 were held in unfavourable circumstances.
On the 5th of May the states-general were opened by Louis in the Salle des Menus Plaisirs at Versailles.
The last trace of the historic States-General disappeared and the National Assembly was perfect.
For the purpose of choosing its representatives in the states-general the Third Estate of Paris had named 300 electors.
The Right who wanted to revive, as they said, the ancient constitution, in other words, to limit the king's power by periodic States-General of the old-fashioned sort, were more numerous and had able chiefs in Cazales and Maury, but strove in vain against the spirit of the time.
It may be said that since the first meeting of the states-general the executive authority had been paralysed in France.
No Assembly after the states-general was freely elected and none deliberated in freedom.
More, however, was due to the total dissolution of society which followed the meeting of the states-general.
The Cahiers were the statements of grievances drawn up for the guidance of deputies to the States-General by those who had elected them.
It joined the union of Utrecht in 1579, and came finally under the effective government of the states-general in 1585, all the later attacks of the Spaniards being repulsed.
In view of the gravity of the occasion Philip made an unusually extended appeal to public opinion by convoking the states-general at Notre-Dame in Paris (1302).
Philip the Fair had never regarded the states-general as a financial institution, but merely as a moral support.
Once more the states-general had to be convoked.
An uprising obliged him to call the states-general together again in February 1357, when they transformed themselves into a deliberative, independent and permanent assembly by means of the Grande Ordonnance.
Amid this reign of terror and of revolt the university, the only moral and intellectual force, taking the place of the impotent The Or- states-general and of a parlement carefully restricted to donnance the judiciary sphere, vainly tried to re-establish a firm Cabo- monarchical system by means of the Ordonnance Cabochienne.
These latter prudently made conces- Th M~4 sions: reducing the taille, sacrificing some of Louis XI.s Wr creatures to the rancour of the parlement, and restoring i.#&c. a certain number of offices or lands to the hostile princes (chief of whom was the duke of Orleans), and even consenting to a convocation of the states-general at Tours (1484).
Despite the edict of Romorantin, which by giving the bishops the right, of cognizance of heresy prevented the introduction of the Inquisition on the Spanish model into France; despite the assembly of Fontainebleau, where an attempt was made at a compromise acceptable to both Catholics and moderate Calvinists; the reform party and its Bourbon leaders, arrested at the states-general of Orleans, were in danger of their lives.
Henry IV., moreover, was forced to take an oath at the camp of Saint Cloud to associate the nation in the affairs of the kingdom by means of the states-general.
The need of living caused the neglect of that necessity for control which had been maintained by the states-general from 1560 to 1593.
The states-general, called together ten times in the 16th century, and at the death of Henry III.
in 1482; but by charging much upon indirect taxation, and slightly lessening the burden of direct taxation, he avoided an appeal to the states-general and gave an illusion of relief.
undermined as far as he could the right of control by the states-general, the right of remonstrance by the parlements, and the communal franchises, while ensuring the impoverishment of the municipalities by his fiscal methods.
The convocation of the states-general was about to take place, wrung, as in all minorities, from the royal weaknessthis time by Cond; so the elections were influenced in the monarchist interest.
In vain Condb tried to play with the parlement of Paris the same game as with the states-general, in a sort of anticipation of the Fronde.
As president of the clergy at the states-general of 1614 he had figured as an adherent of Spain and the ultramontane interest; he appeared to be a representative of that religious party which was identical with the Spanish party.
No one might meddle in political affairs, neither parlements nor states-general; still less had the public any right to judge the actions of the government.
detested the states-general and never convoked them, and the parlements were definitely reduced to silence in 1673; he completed the destruction of municipal liberties, under pretext of bad financial administration.; suffered no public, still less private criticism; was ruthless when his exasperated subjects had recourse to force; and made the police the chief bulwark of his government.
Protestants were successively removed from the states-general, the consulates, the town.
referred the minister to the states-general, the representative of the nation.
The royal declaration of the 23rd of September 1788 convoked the states-general for the Ist of May 1789, and the fall of Brienne and Lamoignon followed the recall of Necker.
Thenceforward public opinion, which was looking for something quite different from the superannuated formula of 1614, abandoned the panements, which in, their turn disappeared from view; for the struggle beginning between the privileged classes and the government, now at bay, hadgiven the public, through the states-general, that means of expression which they had always lacked.
In the procedure of the elections h the traditional system of the states-general of 1614 eTie~0torate.
reform: the vote on the budget, order in finance, regular convocation of the states-general, and a written constitution in order to get rid of arbitrary rule.
Economic reformers found a moral justification for their dissatisfaction in philosophical theories; the chance conjunction of a philosopho-political idea with a national deficit led to the preponderance of the third estate at the elections, and to the predominance of the democratic spirit in the states-general.
When the states-general opened on the 5th of May 1789 Louis XVI.
Four years later, in 1789, he was elected deputy by the estates of Bigorre to the states-general, which met in May.
His political life began when he was elected deputy to the states-general of 1789 by the clergy of the bailliage of Huningue.
1 That honour must be assigned to Johannes Lippershey, an obscure optician of Middleburg, who, on the 2nd of October 1608, petitioned the states-general of the Low Countries for exclusive rights in the manufacture of an instrument for increasing the apparent size of remote objects.
This method, on which he laid great stress, and for the facilitation of which he invented a binocular glass, and devised some skilful mechanical contrivances, was offered by him in 1616 to the Spanish government, and afterwards to that of Tuscany, but in each case unsuccessfully; and the close of his life was occupied with prolonged but fruitless negotiations on the same subject with the states-general of Holland.
The Spanish Cortes had never been so entirely suspended as the states-general of France.
He summoned the states-general of northern France (Langue d'ozl) to Paris in October 1356 to obtain men and money to carry on the war.
The states-general were again convoked in February 1357.
The states-general of 1358 were summoned to Compiegne instead of Paris, and granted a large aid.
War was renewed in May after a meeting of the states-general.
The states-general were silenced and the royal prerogative increased; the royal domains were extended, and the wealth of the crown was augmented; additions were made to the revenue by the sale of municipal charters and patents; and taxation became heavier, since Charles set no limits to the gratification of his tastes either in the collection of jewels and precious objects, of books, or of his love of building, examples of which are the renovation of the Louvre and the erection of the palace of Saint Paul in Paris.
Necker put a stop to the rebellion in Dauphine by legalizing its assembly, and then set to work to arrange for the summons of the states general.
Throughout the early months of 1789 he was regarded as the saviour of France, but his conduct at the meeting of the states general showed that he regarded it merely as an assembly which should grant money, not organize reforms. But as he had advised the calling of the states general, and the double representation of the third estate, and then permitted the orders to deliberate and vote in common, he was regarded as the cause of the Revolution by the court, and on July 11 was ordered to leave France at once.
In 1789, with his debts paid up by his father, he was elected by the noblesse of Limoges a deputy to the States General.
Though nominally the servant of the States of Holland he made himself politically the personification of the province which bore more than half the entire charge of the union, and as its mouthpiece in the states-general he practically dominated that assembly.
The first rift between them came in 1600, when Maurice was forced against his will by the states-general, under the advocate's influence, to undertake an expedition into Flanders, which was only saved from disaster by desperate efforts which ended in victory at Nieuwport.
The states-general meanwhile by a bare majority (4 provinces to 3) agreed to the summoning of a national church synod.
It was a declaration of sovereign independence on the part of Holland, and the states-general took up the challenge and determined on decisive action.
On the 23rd of August, by order of the states-general, the advocate and his chief supporters, de Groot and Hoogerbeets, were arrested.
Oldenbarneveldt was with his friends kept in the strictest confinement until November, and then brought for examination before a commission appointed by the states-general.
He was president (bdtonnier) of the order of avocats in Colmar, and in 1789 was elected deputy to the States-General by the Third Estate of the bailliage of Colmar-Schlestadt.
remonstratethey presented a plea for less stringency in doctrinal matters, strongly remonstrating against the States General.
The provinces agreed first to eject the foreigner, then to meet in states-general and regulate all matters of religion and defence.
William seized his opportunity, and with a body of picked troops advanced into Flanders, occupied Ghent, and entered into negotiations with the leader of the states general at Brussels, for a union of all the provinces on "The the basis of exclusion of foreigners and non-interference Spanish g Fury.
During the Thirty Years' War the depopulation of Moravia was so great that after the peace of Westphalia the states-general published an edict giving every man permission to take two wives, in order to "repeople the country."
He had begun his career at the bar by pleading against the feudal droit du colombier, and when he was sent by his fellow-citizens to the states-general of 1789 he demanded the abolition of nobility and the substitution of the title of king of the French and the Navarrese for king of France and Navarre, and helped to establish the civil constitution of the clergy.
Another cartographic publishing firm was established at Amsterdam in 1612 by Willem Janszon Blaeu (1571-1638), a friend of Tycho Brahe, from 1633 " mapmaker " of the states-general, and a man of scientific culture.
The states of Holland, on the other hand, were determined to thwart any attempts for a renewal of war, and insisted, in defiance of the authority of the captaingeneral supported by the states-general, in virtue of their claim to be a sovereign province, in disbanding a large part of the regiments in their pay.
In 1789, when the states-general were about to assemble, he crossed over to Flanders in the hope of being allowed to offer himself for election, but he was sternly forbidden to enter France.
While thus resident in comparative privacy he was sent for to the Hague by Sir Horatio Vere, the English governor of Brill, who appointed him a minister in the army of the states-general, and of the English soldiers in their service, a post held by someÃ¯¿½of the greatest of England's exiled Puritans.
In May 1789 - that memorable month of May in which the states-general marched in impressive array to hear a sermon at the church of Notre Dame at Versailles - a vote of censure had actually been passed on him in the House of Commons for a too severe expression used against Hastings.
Against this exaltation of their power two adversaries might have been formidable; but one, the Church, was a captive in Babylon, and the second, the people, was deprived of the communal liberties which it had abused, or humbly effaced itself in the states-general behind the declared will of the king.
A loyal bureaucracy, far more powerful than the phantom administration of Bourges or of Poitiers, gradually took the place of the court nobility; and thanks to this the institutions of control which the War had called into powerthe provincial states-general were nipped in the bud, withered by the peoples poverty of political idea and by the blind worship of royalty.
The kings majority, solemnly proclaimed on the 28th of October 1614, further strengthened the throne; while owing to the bungling of the third estate, who did not contrive to gain the support of the clergy and the nobility by some sort of concessions, the states-general, the last until 1789, proved like the others a mere historic episode, an impotent and inorganic expedient.
Its next action ruined its ephemeral popularity, by claiming the convocation of the states-general according to the formula observed in 1614, as already demanded by the ~ ~t estates of Dauphin at Vizille on the 21st of July 2788.
In 1610, they presented a plea for less stringency in doctrinal matters, strongly remonstrating against the States General.
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