He trained her to look on her future sovereignty as an engagement to make religion respected.
The United States, on assuming sovereignty over Tutuila and the islands E.
Such hints as these indicate the impossibility of recovering a complete picture of the Jews during the sovereignty of the Greeks, which the Talmudists regard as the dark age, best left in oblivion.
In Isaiah both aspects - divine universal sovereignty and justice, taught by Amos, and divine loving-kindness to Israel and God's claims on His people's allegiance, taught by Hosea - are fully expressed.
The sovereignty of Holland and Zeeland was offered to the queen of England, but she, though promising secret support, declined.
If this were an attempt to steer a middle course his true actions could not have been kept secret long, and as it is implied that the Philistines subsequently acquiesced in David's sovereignty in Hebron, it is not easy to see what interest they had in embroiling him with the men of Judah.
The Egyptian government being unwilling to recognize the sovereignty of Beheran over Assab or his right to sell territory to a foreign power, sTisconti-Venosta thought it opportune not then to occupy Assab.
During the continuance of the lease Germany exercises all the rights of territorial sovereignty, including the right to erect fortifications.
Seven years before his death Gian Galeazzo bought the title of duke of Milan and count of Pavia from the emperor Wenceslaus, and there is no doubt that he was aiming at the sovereignty of Italy.
Ahaz had recognized the sovereignty of Assyria and visited Tiglath-pileser at Damascus.
The ruins of Palmyra greatly interested the Arabs, and are commemorated in several poems quoted by Yaqut and others; they are referred to by the early poet Nabigha as proofs of the might of Solomon and his sovereignty over their builders the Jinn (Derenbourg, Journ.
Possibly, as its form suggests, it is based on the imperial crown and symbolized at the outsgt the quasi - sovereignty over the rayah population which Mahommed II.
This was on the 29th of December 1829, and after Senator Benton of Missouri had denounced the resolution as one inspired by hatred of the East for the West, Hayne, on the 19th of January 1830, made a vigorous attack on New England, and declared his opposition to a permanent revenue from the public lands or any other source on the ground that it would promote corruption and the consolidation of the government and "be fatal to the sovereignty and independence of the states."
Southern Albania and Epirus remained under Byzantine domination till 1204, when, after the capture of Constantinople by the crusaders, Michael Comnenus, a member of the imperial family, withdrew to Epirus and founded an independent sovereignty known as the Despotate of Epirus at Iannina; his realm included the whole of southern Albania, Acarnania and Aetolia.
In return for her kindness, being entrusted with foreknowledge by the visitation of God, they prophesied that God had decreed an end of rule for Herod and his line and that the sovereignty devolved upon her and Pheroras and their children.
During those fifteen years the kingdom of Jerusalem was agitated by a struggle between the native barons, championing the principle that sovereignty resided in the collective baronage, and taking their stand on the assizes, and Frederick II., claiming sovereignty for himself, and opposing to the assizes the feudal law of Sicily.
Nowhere in the Old Testament does the doctrine taught by Amos of Yahweh's universal power and sovereignty 1 Viz.
Fourteen months later (February 1854) Great Britain renounced sovereignty over the farmers settled beyond the Orange, and Moshesh found himself face to face with the newly constituted Free State.
In the third place, the rejection of the Wilmot Proviso and the acceptance (as regards New Mexico and Utah) of "Squatter Sovereignty" meant the adoption of a new principle in dealing with slavery in the territories, which, although it did not apply to the same territory, was antagonistic to the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
It leaves the Hindu Kush near the Dorah Pass at the head of one of the minor Chitral affluents, and passing south-west divides Kafiristan from Chitral and Bajour, separates the sections of the Mohmands who are within the respective spheres of Afghan and British sovereignty, and crosses the Peshawar-Kabul route at Lundi-Khana.
His ambition was insatiable; he is said to have exclaimed when looking at a map that the whole world did not form a sovereignty vast enough for one monarch.
Oldenbarneveldt, supported by the states of Holland, came forward as the champion of provincial sovereignty against that of the states-general; Maurice threw the weight of his sword on the side of the union.
The Pisans soon acquired the sovereignty over the whole island with the exception of Arborea, which continued to be independent.
But it was inevitable that, when the barbarians, Lombard or Frank, were once established on the mainland of Italy, Venice should be brought first into trading and then into political relations with their near neighbours, who as masters of Italy also put forward a claim to sovereignty in the lagoons.
The theory, as expressed in legal phrase by St Cyprian in the 3rd century, was that the apostolic power of delegated sovereignty from the Lord, alike legislative and judicial, was held in joint-tenancy by the whole body of Catholic bishops.
At the Riksdag assembled at Stockholm in 1697, the estates, jealous of the influence of the regents, offered full sovereignty to the young monarch, the senate acquiesced, and, after some hesitation, Charles at last declared that he could not resist the urgent appeal of his subjects and would take over the government of the realm "in God's name."
But, on the other hand, the principal power, the widest sovereignty, which the British overthrew in India was that of the Mahrattas.
From 1871 to 1873 he edited the Atlanta Daily Sun, and he published A Constitutional View of the Late War between the States (2 vols., 1868-1870), perhaps the best statement of the southern position with reference to state sovereignty and secession; The Reviewers Reviewed (1872), a supplement to the preceding work; and A Compendium of the History of the United States (1875; new ed., 1883).
In October of that year the district was ceded to the East India Company in absolute sovereignty by Raja Sharabhoji, pupil of the missionary Schwarz.
The predominance of the nobility in this way became as characteristic of feudalism in the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem as the supremacy of the crown was of contemporary feudalism in England; and that predominance expressed itself in the position and powers of the high court, in which the ultimate sovereignty resided.
On the 6th of October, at the secret invitation of the Catholic nobles headed by the duke of Aerschot, the archduke Matthias, brother of the emperor, arrived in Brussels to assume the sovereignty of the Netherlands.
The vigour and success with which he organized the national resources and upheld the national honour, asserted the British sovereignty of the seas, defended the oppressed, and caused his name to be feared and respected in foreign courts where that of Stuart was despised and neglected, command praise and admiration equally from contemporaries and from modern critics, from his friends and from his opponents.
of France for aid, and in 1768 a bargain was struck by which the French government succeeded to the nearly bankrupt sovereignty of Genoa.
The annexation of the Orange River Sovereignty in 1848 followed, finally destroying his hope of maintaining independent native states.
About 1760 a Moslem chieftain, Mehemet of Bushat, after obtaining the pashalik of Scutari from the Porte, succeeded in establishing an almost independent sovereignty in Upper Albania, which remained hereditary in his family for some generations.
The country afterwards became divided into a large number of petty states, while Portugal and France exercised an intermittent sovereignty over the coast.
By cancelling the political power of the Areopagus and multiplying the functions of the popular law-courts, Ephialtes abolished the last checks upon the sovereignty of the commons.
All political power was vested in the noble class; the prince sank to a magistrate, keeping only some of the outward forms of sovereignty; the mass of the people were shut out altogether.
He was opposed to the Covenant of the League of Nations, holding that " either the Covenant involves a surrender of national sovereignty and submits our future destiny to the League, or it is an empty thing, big in name, and will ultimately disappoint all of humanity that hinge its hopes upon it."
Like the other two orders, the Teutonic Order began as a charitable society, developed into a military club, and ended as something of a chartered company, exercising rights of sovereignty on the troubled confines of Christendom.
Although the school of Bec was firmly attached to the doctrine of papal sovereignty, he still assisted William in maintaining the independence of the English Church; and appears at one time to have favoured the idea of maintaining a neutral attitude on the subject of the quarrels between papacy and empire.
Certain propositions are often stated with respect to sovereignty.
conceded full sovereignty to Charles's ally and kinsman the duke of Gottorp, besides paying him an indemnity of 200,000 rix-dollars and solemnly engaging to commit no hostilities against Sweden in future.
The greater part of the territory was formally incorporated into the empire, and the petty potentates, such as the khan of Khiva and the amir of Bokhara, who were allowed to retain a semblance of their former sovereignty, became obsequious vassals of the White Tsar.
He thought it his duty to support the German Habsburgs and the cause of the Roman Catholic Church against the Protestants, to assert his sovereignty over Holland, and to extend the dominions of his house.
Having thus hemmed in the Gond states, however, they made no efforts to assert any effective sovereignty over them; the Gond rajas for their part were content with practical independence within their own dominions.
Although his de facto sovereignty was confined to the town of Laon and to some places in the north of France, Louis displayed a zeal beyond his years in procuring the recognition of his authority by his turbulent vassals.
Considerations such as these could not be expected to appeal to the nation at large, which hailed the advent of the Left as the dawn of an era of unlimited popular sovereignty, diminished administrative pressure, reduction of taxation and general prosperity.
µovapxia, rule of one, µovos, alone, apxii, rule), strictly, the undivided sovereignty or rule of a single person.
He once remarked that the house of Bonaparte dated from the coup d'etat of Brumaire (November 1 799); but it is certain the de Buonapartes had received the title of nobility from the senate of the republic of Genoa which, during the 18th century, claimed to exercise sovereignty over Corsica.
about 1750), an able, cruel and unscrupulous man, subdued the neighbouring pashas and chiefs, crushed the Suliotes and Khimarrhotes, and exercised a practically independent sovereignty from the Adriatic to the Aegean.
The Boer leaders unreservedly accepted British sovereignty.
In this he vindicates, on grounds of right, prescriptive and natural, the revolt of the United Provinces against the sovereignty of Spain.
Sovereignty is a resultant of many forces.
(See also GOVERNMENT and SOVEREIGNTY.)
Zara became a free city under Italian sovereignty, but as a tiny isthmus without hinterland or islands.
The latter state claimed sovereignty over the Napo and Maranon rivers on the grounds of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction exercised over this section of territory during the period of Spanish dominion, the government of Colombia asserting that these ecclesiastical rights to which Colombia became entitled after her separation from the Spanish crown carried also the right of absolute ownership. In a treaty signed by the three interested states in 1895 a compromise was effected by which Colombia withdrew a part of the claim advanced, and it was agreed that any further differences arising out of this frontier question should be submitted to the arbitration of the Spanish crown.
To Augustine's doctrine of man's total depravity, his incapacity for any good, and the absolute sovereignty of the divine grace in salvation according to the divine election, Pelagius opposed the view that "God's grace 1 For fuller details see separate articles.
The chief seat of the Norwegian sovereignty was Colonsay.
In Bodin's view such states retain their sovereignty (1.
that is, of those persons who thought that a stronger government threatened the sovereignty and prestige of the states, or the special interests, individual or commercial, of localities, or the liberties of individuals, or who fancied they saw in the government proposed a new centralized, disguised "monarchic" power that would only replace the cast-off despotism of Great.
No express pronouncement on this subject could be wrung from him, and his enforced silence concealed the secret design of safeguarding the principle of sovereignty.
The wish of Toussaint was that San Domingo should enjoy a practical independence whilst recognizing the sovereignty and exclusive commercial rights of France.
It seems probable that the bans were originally viceroys of the Croatian kings, who resumed their sovereignty over Bosnia from 958 to ioio.
The dispute, at first of little importance, developed in seriousness during the next year or two, owing to the avowed intention of Russia, which by conquest or treaties with independent chiefs had acquired all the high land between the Caspian and the Black Sea, to take possession of the low lands along the coast, between Anapa and Poti, of which the sultan claimed the sovereignty.
During the early period of the Roman Empire the Thracian kings were allowed to maintain an independent sovereignty, while acknowledging the suzerainty of Rome, and it was not until the reign of Vespasian that the country was reduced to the form of a province (Kalopathakas, De Thracia, provincia romana, 1894; Mommsen, Roman Provinces, Eng.
was restored to the French throne: and Napoleon was permitted to reside in the island of Elba, the sovereignty of which had been conceded to him by the allied powers.
His assumption in the following year of the title of king of the Netherlands was recognized by the powers, and by the treaty of Paris his sovereignty was extended over the southern as well as the northern Netherlands, Belgium being added to Holland "as an increase of territory."
While the persevering policy of the Capets, which aimed at reuniting the great fiefs, duchies, countships, baronies, &c., to the domain of the crown, gradually reconstructed for their benefit a territorial sovereignty over France, the institution of the appanage periodically subtracted large portions from it.
The efforts of the kings to minimize this evil, and of the old jurisprudence to deal with the matter, resulted in two expedients: (1) the reversion of the appanage to the crown was secured as far as possible, being declared inalienable and transmissible only to male descendants in the male line of the person appanaged; (2) originally the person appanaged had possessed all the rights of a duke or count - that is to say, in the middle ages nearly all the attributes of sovereignty; the more important of these attributes were now gradually reserved to the monarch, including public authority over the inhabitants of the appanage in all essential matters.
The idea of the sovereignty of the people was to him utterly abhorrent, and even any delegation of sovereign power on his own part would have seemed a betrayal of a God-given trust.
His son Khengayi fled to Ahmedabad to seek the assistance of the viceroy, who reinstated him in the sovereignty of Cutch, and Morvi in Kathiawar, and in the title of rao, about the year 1540.
The succession continued in the same line from the time of this prince until 1697, when a younger brother, Pragji, murdered his elder brother and usurped the sovereignty.
During the contests for the sovereignty between the usurper and the legal heir, the leader of the royal party, Hansraj, the governor of Mandvi, sought the aid of the British.
A further point decided was that the owners or master of dhows duly authorized to fly the French flag within the ruling of the first point, did not enjoy, in consequence of that fact, any such right of extraterritoriality as would exempt them from the sovereignty and jurisdiction of the sultan.
If it be taken in its strict acceptation of autonomous state sovereignty, the exception is somewhat of a truism.
By the second half of the 12th century the official character of the count had quite disappeared; he had become a territorial noble, and the foundation had been laid of territorial sovereignty (Landeshoheit).
The importance which Brazil was acquiring decided the regent to give it the title of kingdom, and by decree of the 16th January 1815, the Portuguese sovereignty thenceforward took the title of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves.
Commandant Jan Mocke of Winburg (who had helped to besiege Captain Smith at Durban) and others of the " war party " attempted to induce the volksraad not to submit, and a plan was formed to murder Pretorius, Boshof and other leaders, who were now convinced that the only chance of ending the state of complete anarchy into which the country had fallen was by accepting British sovereignty.
On the 17th of January 1852 a con- River vention was signed at a farm near the Sand river in the Orange sovereignty by assistant commissioners nominated by the British high commissioner on the one hand, and by Pretorius and other Boers on the other.
Sir Michael, however, in a despatch dated September the 16th 1878, reiterated the intention of the British cabinet to grant the state " to the utmost practicable extent, its individuality and powers of self-government under the sovereignty of the queen."
On the 31st of May 1902 the articles of peace whereby the Boer leaders recognized British sovereignty were signed at Pretoria, and five years later there assembled in the capital the first parliament of the Transvaal as a self-governing state of the British Empire.
The lake forms part of the (British) Uganda Protectorate, but the north-west shores were leased in 1894 to the Congo Free State during the sovereignty of king Leopold II.
During the war between France and Holland (1672-77) and that of the Spanish Succession, Artois was invaded again, but the treaties of Nijmwegen (1678) and of Utrecht (1713) confirmed the sovereignty of France.
The sovereignty resides jointly in the senate and the Biirgerschaft, or Convent of Burgesses.
In 729 B.C. the summit of his ambition was attained, and he was invested with the sovereignty of Asia in the holy city of Babylon.
She, however, declared that she would submit to any conditions imposed on her and would give Nergal the sovereignty of the earth.
The judgments predicted by the pre-exilic prophets had indeed been executed to the letter, but where were the promised glories of the renewed kingdom and Israel's unquestioned sovereignty over the nations of the earth ?
Probably the sovereignty again became hereditary.
mediatus, mediate, middle), the process by which at the beginning of the 19th century, a number of German princes, hitherto sovereign as holding immediately of the emperor, were deprived of their sovereignty and mediatized by being placed under that of other sovereigns.
Calvin's first principle, the absolute sovereignty of God, had been so applied as to make the divine decree determine alike the acts and the destinies of men; and his formal principle had been so construed as to invest his system with the authority of the source whence it professed to have been drawn.
the sovereignty of God is so exercised as to be compatible with the freedom of man.
This was an event of some importance, as it consituted the first Turkish claim to the sovereignty over Nejd abandoned by Egypt thirty-three years earlier.
Christ established not only a pontifical but a royal sovereignty (principatus) and committed to blessed Peter and his successors the empire both of earth and heaven, as is sufficiently proved by the plurality of the keys" (Codex epist.
'Ali, the son of a Cretan renegade, was proclaimed sovereign by the troops under the title of "Bey," and, being a prince of energy and ability, was able to establish the hereditary sovereignty, which has lasted without change of dynasty to the present time.2 Frequent wars with Algiers form the chief incidents in the internal history of Tunisia under the Beys.
The question hinged to a great extent on the qualification necessary for the inhabitants to vote, in the event of a plebiscite being called to decide whether Chilean ownership was to be finally established or the provinces were to revert to Peruvian sovereignty.
When the Seljuk state broke up, and the Osmanli or Ottoman sovereignty arose, Konia decayed, its population dwindled and the splendid early Turkish buildings were suffered to go to ruin.
of the town is a notable rath or enclosure, taking its name of Crown rath from traditional single encounters between native princes in contention for the sovereignty.
west of Tlemcen, owes its foundation to the attempts of the Beni-Marin rulers of Morocco to extend their sovereignty.
In 1797 he withdrew from parliament, and only came forward in 1798 to reaffirm the doctrine of the sovereignty of the people at a great Whig dinner.
In August 1845 the king of Bondu signed a treaty recognizing French sovereignty over his country.
In its internal history the exarchate was subject to the influences which were everywhere, in central and western Europe at least, leading to the subdivision of sovereignty and the establishment of feudalism.
She was a celebrated dancer and courtesan, who, in the full flower of her beauty and guilty sovereignty over the youth of Antioch, was suddenly converted by the influence of the holy bishop Nonnus, whom she had heard preaching in front of a church which she was passing with her gay train of attendants and admirers.
He was a staunch adherent of the East Roman empire, which still exercised sovereignty over Rome, Ravenna and some other parts of Italy, and he impeded as far as possible the progress of the Lombards.
20) whereby it was agreed that Frederick William and his heirs should henceforth possess the full sovereignty of East Prussia.
His authority, save in Saxony, was merely nominal; but by negotiation rather than by warfare he secured a recognition of his sovereignty from the Bavarians and the Swabians.
The barons chose John of Brienne (titular king of Jerusalem) as emperor-regent for life; Baldwin was to rule the Asiatic possessions of the empire when he reached the age of twenty, was to marry John's daughter Mary, and on John's death to enjoy the full imperial sovereignty.
The area of the grant may have been enlarged by later interpolations; or it may have dealt with property rather than with sovereignty, and have only referred to estates claimed by the pope in the territories named; or it is possible that Charles may have actually intended to establish an extensive papal kingdom in Italy, but was released from his promise by Adrian when the pope saw no chance of its fulfilment.
Some of the emperors wore crowns on occasion, as Caligula and Domitian, at the games, and stellate or spike crowns are depicted on the heads of several of the emperors on their coins, but no idea of imperial sovereignty was indicated thereby.
Though heartily disliked in Holland, Leicester made himself so popular in Utrecht that the burgher guard even presented him with a petition that he would, assume the sovereignty.
Thus the fight dragged on, and was constantly maintained in Acadia, where the sovereignty had been early disputed, and the border never properly settled.
The peoples of the thirteen states which had secured emancipation from British sovereignty were wisely intent on framing their own Federal Union, and in taking effective possession of the vast territories in the Ohio region and beyond the Mississippi.
When the Spanish colonies secured effective independence, and even before their freedom was formally recognized, foreign sovereignty became at once the exception in America.
Had the Spanish government frankly accepted the situation and acknowledged the trade as legitimate, England would have had no objection to the re-establishment of the Spanish sovereignty in America.
The long rivalry of that city and of Genoa had broken out for the last time in 1282, the immediate cause being the incompatible claims of the two cities to sovereignty over the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.
He destroyed sundry sea-monsters, set free the bound Prometheus, took part in the Argonautic voyage and the Calydonian boar hunt, made war against Augeas, and against Nestor and the Pylians, and restored Tyndareus to the sovereignty of Lacedaemon.
He next fought for the sovereignty of Provence against Raymond Berenger I., and not till September 1125 did the war end in an amicable agreement.
Hobson landed in the Bay of Islands on the 22nd of January 1840, hoisted the Union Jack, and had little difficulty in inducing most of the native chiefs to accept the queen's sovereignty at the price of guaranteeing to the tribes by the treaty of Waitangi possession of their lands, forests and fisheries.
The sovereignty over the territory was by a law (Reichsgesetz) of the 9th of June 1871 vested in the German emperor, who, until the introduction of the imperial constitution on the 1st of January 1874, had, with the assent of the federal council (Bundesrat) and, in a few cases, that of the imperial diet (Reichstag), the sole right of initiating legislation.
These emigrants left Cape Colony from various motives, but all were animated by the desire to escape from British sovereignty.
The treaties gave great offence to the Boers, who refused to acknowledge the sovereignty of the native chiefs.
He recognized the failure of the attempt to govern on the lines of the treaties with the Griquas and Basutos, and on the 3rd of February 1848 he issued a proclamation declaring British sovereignty over the country between the Orange and the Vaal eastward to the Drakensberg.
A nominated legislative council was created, a high court established and other steps taken for the orderly government of the country, which was officially styled the Orange River Sovereignty.
The frontier towards the Sovereignty was thereafter known as the Warden line.
In 1851 Moshesh joined the republican party in the Sovereignty in an invitation to Pretorius to recross the Vaal.
The intervention of Pretorius resulted in the Sand River Convention of 1852, which acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal but left the status of the Sovereignty untouched.
The British government (the first Russell administration), which had reluctantly agreed to the annexation of the country, had, however, already repented its decision and had resolved to abandon the Sovereignty.
Lord Grey (the 3rd earl), secretary of state for the colonies, in a despatch to Sir Harry Smith dated the 21st of October 1851, declared, "The ultimate abandonment of the Orange Sovereignty should be a settled point in our policy."
A meeting of representatives of all European inhabitants of the Sovereignty, elected on manhood suffrage, held at Bloemfontein in June 1852, never theless declared in favour of the retention of British rule.
Sir George Russell Clerk was sent out in 1853 as special commissioner "for the settling and adjusting of the affairs" of the Sovereignty, and in August of that year he summoned a meeting of delegates to determine upon a form of self-governrnent.
Even before this committee met a royal proclamation had been signed (January 30, 1854) "abandoning and renouncing all dominion" in the Sovereignty.
In withdrawing from the Sovereignty the British government declared that it had "no alliance with any native chief or tribes to the northward of the Orange River with the exception of the Griqua chief Captain Adam Kok."
The difference between proprietorship and sovereignty was confused or ignored.
" There was," he states, " no alternative from British sovereignty other than an independent diamond field republic."
For nearly two years longer the burghers kept the field under Christian de Wet (q.v.), and other leaders, but by the articles of peace signed on the 31st of May 1902 British sovereignty was acknowledged.
The word sovereignty (Fr.
The following are some of the chief stages in the history of sovereignty: While society is in a rude state or only tribally organized there is no distinct sovereignty, no power which all persons habitually obey.
Thus there is no sovereignty among wandering groups of Australian savages: each family is isolated, each horde is a loose and unstable collection.
"With the council of the confederacy," it has been said, "and, more generally, in the confederacy, sovereignty arises and the true political tradition is evolved" (F.
When the city and the state are conterminous the seat of sovereignty becomes defined.
The Roman jurists say little, and only incidentally, as to sovereignty.
But in the middle ages, under the influence of the Roman law, and with the belief in the existence of an empire entitled to universal sway, an absolutist theory of sovereignty was developed in the writings of the jurists who revived the study of that law: the emperor was sovereign; "quod principi placuit legis habet vigorem" (Institutes, i.
When the power of the emperor was weakened, and the idea of a universal ruler was gone, a new test of sovereignty was applied - that of external independence; the true sovereign states were universitates superiorem non recognoscentes.
In such circumstances the conception of sovereignty was imperfect.
Whatever may be the truth as to this, the modern theory is first clearly stated in Jean Bodin's book On the Commonwealth (French ed., 1576; Latin version, 1586), which, was the first systematic study of sovereignty.
It may be also described as a type of the mechanical or juridical theory of sovereignty.
One favourite theory was that sovereignty originated in a social contract.
It is convenient for the jurist to assume that in every state is one determined or determinable authority in which is vested sovereignty, and from which all other authorities derive their power.
It is at best an unfruitful assumption; and the tendency of students of sociology is to treat discussions as to sovereignty much as modern physiologists treat discussions as to "vital force" or "vital principle."
Sometimes this is designated "the collective sovereignty."
Sovereignty is also used in a wider sense, as the equivalent of the power, actual or potential, of the whole nation or society (Gierke, 3.568).
The distinction between real and nominal sovereignty was familiar to medieval writers, who recognized a double sovereignty, and distinguished between (1) the real or practical sovereignty resident in the people, and (2) the personal sovereignty of the ruler (Adolf Dock, Der Souveranitaitsbegrif, &c., p. 13).
By many writers sovereignty is regarded as resident not in any one organ, but in the Gesammtperson of the community (Maitland, Political Theories of the Middle Ages, xliii.).
Sometimes sovereignty is defined as the organized or general will of the community (Combothecra, Conception juridique de l'etat, p. 96).
"Sovereignty is the organized will of an organized independent community..
"Sovereignty resides in the community" (Woodrow Wilson, p. 1448).
Sovereignty is with them a term descriptive of the real will of the community, which is not necessarily that of the majority.
Sovereignty is used in a further sense when Plato and Aristotle speak of the sovereignty of the laws (Laws, 4.715; Politics, 4.4; 3.15).
Among the definitions of sovereignty may be quoted these: "That which decides in questions of war and peace, and of making or dissolving alliances, and about laws and capital punishment, and exiles and fines, and audit of accounts and examinations of administrators after their term of office" (Aristotle, Politics, 4.4.
"Sovereignty as applied to states imports the supreme, absolute, uncontrollable power by which any state is governed" (T.
"Social control, manifesting itself in the authoritative organization of society as the state, and acting through the organs of government, is sovereignty" (Giddings, Elements of Sociology, p. 217).
Territorial sovereignty is used in a variety of senses.
Often the phrase is the equivalent of sovereignty.
Territorial sovereignty is thus defined by Leibnitz: "Superioritatem territorialem in summo subditos coercendi jure consistere" (Opera, 4.35 8.
Rather we may say with Maine, "Sovereignty is divisible, but independence is not."
To hold sovereignty not to be divisible is for juridical purposes not a working theory; states part, permanently or temporarily, with few or many of the rights and powers comprehended in sovereignty; to speak of it as undivided in the case of Crete, Egypt or Tibet is to do violence to facts.
A frequent deduction from the theory of the indivisibility of sovereignty is that there cannot be double allegiance; in other words, no one can be the subject of two states.
Such double allegiance is apt to exist in times of transition from one sovereignty to another; for example, in the 18th century, in the British possessions in India, the Mogul was said to exercise a personal sovereignty.
A further proposition often stated with respect to sovereignty is that it is unlimited: a proposition which is not true of the legal or political sovereign.
According to one view, sovereignty is not the distinctive note of a state.
In the view of many writers sovereignty is not a necessary attribute of a state (Laband, Das Staatsrecht des deutschen Reiches, 1.87; Jellinek, Die Lehre von den Staatenverbindungen, p. 37; Meyer, Lehrbuch des deutschen Staatsrechtes, p. 5; Ullmann, V olkerrecht, 29.
204) terms political "collectivites secondaires"; that the attributes summed up in sovereignty may be separated and divided in many ways; that there may be new forms of combinations between states or parts of states; and that their morphology is subject to no hard and fast rules.
Moser to describe states possessing some of the attributes of sovereignty.
There are states which possess some attributes of sovereignty, but no others; states possessing internal autonomy, but not externally independent; states which are more or less under the influence of others.
There are also states which have certain of the attributes of sovereignty, but are subject to servitudes or burthens imposed by treaty, usage, the sense that in regard to the same matters at the or force.
The prevalent opinion, however, was that sovereignty was compatible with rights such as were possessed by the Reich over the princes of Germany; that there might be fiefs held in full sovereignty; and that vassal states, when subject only to "nude vassalage," were sovereign.
States which have, by treaty or otherwise, parted with some portion of their sovereignty and formed new political units: what Herbert Spencer calls "compound political heads," or, to use Austin's expression, "composite states."
According to the theory expounded in the Federalist, the individual states did not, after the formation of the constitution, remain completely sovereign: they were left in possession of certain attributes of sovereignty, while others were lodged in the Federal government; while there existed many states, there was but one sovereign.
Many attempts have been made to enumerate the attributes of sovereignty, i.e.
For example, Bodin gives a list of the of Sove- properties of majestas or sovereignty: (a) " Legem reignty.
"These," he says, "are the marks which make the essence of sovereignty, and which are the marks whereby a man may discover in what man, or assembly of men, the sovereign power is placed or resideth."
- The literature of the subject is immense; every book on political science, from Republic of Plato and the Politics of Aristotle, has dealt with or touched sovereignty.
Merriam, History of the Theory of Sovereignty since Rousseau (New York, 1900); J.
18 seq.; "Notes on Sovereignty," American Journal of International Law 1907), i.
To this it added the sovereignty over demons, from a wrong interpretation of Eccles.
According to Pelham, much of his conduct was due to the atmosphere in which he was brought up, and the ideas of sovereignty instilled into him, which led him to pose as a monarch of the Graeco-oriental type.
His sovereignty was little more than titular.
10 Individuals, too, adopted zodiacal emblems. Capricornus was impressed upon the coins of Augustus, Libra on those ' of Pythodoris, queen of Pontus; a sultan of Iconium displayed Leo as his " horoscope " and mark of sovereignty; Stephen of England chose the protection of Sagittarius.
In later times the title of tetrarch is familiar from the New Testament as borne by certain princes of the petty dynasties which the Romans allowed to exercise a dependent sovereignty within the province of Syria.
The enterprise of Sir James Brooke led, after 1838, to the establishment of British sovereignty in North Borneo; in 1895 New Guinea was divided between Great Britain, Germany and the Netherlands; and the Spanish-American War of 1898 resulted in the cession of the Philippines, Sulu Island and the largest of the Mariana Islands to the United States, and the sale of the Caroline group to Germany.
In 1032, with the rest of the kingdom of Burgundy or Arles, it reverted to the emperor Conrad II.,who was crowned king at Payerne in 1033, and in 1034 was recognized as such at Geneva by a great assembly of nobles from Germany, Burgundy and Italy, this rather unwilling surrender signifying the union of those 3 kingdoms. It is said that Conrad granted the temporal sovereignty of the city to the bishop, who, in 1162, was raised to the rank of a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, being elected, from 1215, by the chapter, but, after 1418, named directly by the pope himself.
When Geneva recovered its political independence in 1814 a new constitution was drawn up, but it was very reactionary, for there is no mention in it of the sovereignty of the people.
On the contrary, Rome itself was now for the first time affected by the predominance of the new empire; for Charlemagne converted the patriciate into effective sovereignty, and the successor of St Peter became the chief metropolitan of the Frankish empire.
The close relations between northern Italy and the Empire, and the union of the sovereignty of southern Italy with the German crown, seemed to afford the means for keeping Rome in subjection.
But in the desert there is no king and no sovereignty save that of the divine oracle, and therefore it is from the soothsayers or ministers of the oracle that a public ministry of religion can most naturally spring.
i The whole structure of Hebrew society at the time of the conquest was almost precisely that of a federation of Arab tribes, and thereligious ordinances are scarcely distinguishable from those of Arabia, save only that the great deliverance of the Exodus and the period when Moses, sitting in judgment at the sanctuary of Kadesh, had for a whole generation impressed the sovereignty of Jehovah on all the tribes, had created an idea of unity between the scattered settlements in Canaan such as the Arabs before Mahomet never had.
It was in favour of creating in central Europe a new political and economic system by which permanent peace would be secured - a definite understanding between all the " Succession States " of the former AustroHungarian monarchy in the matter of communications, post, telegraphs, navigation, finance and banking, exchange of goods and commercial treaties generally, opening up the way to a system of unfettered economics and freer trade - but at the same time jealously guarding the economic and political sovereignty of the Czechoslovak Republic.
On the 8th of February 1871 he was elected a member of the National Assembly, in which he maintained that the republic was "the necessary form of national sovereignty," and voted for the continuation of the war; yet, though a member of the extreme Left, he was too clear-minded to sympathize with the Commune, and exerted his influence in vain on the side of moderation.
In lieu of the sovereignty of Tuscany, he obtained in 1802 the electorship of Salzburg, which he exchanged by the peace of Pressburg in 1805 for that of Wiirzburg.
In some speeches delivered at Munich in 1861 he outspokenly declared his view that the maintenance of the Roman Catholic Church did not depend on the temporal sovereignty of the pope.
King James conferred the sovereignty of the isles on his third son, under whom and his successor they formed an independent kingdom up to 1349, from which time their history merges in that of Spain.
He rejects the notion that sovereignty in any way resembles property, and makes even marriage a matter of civil contract.
In return for a vague recognition of the sovereignty of France in Africa, this treaty gave up to the amir the whole of western Algeria.
Johnston, and at Russellville in that district a so-called " sovereignty convention " assembled on the 18th of November.
To us God's sovereignty over nature often seems the hardest thing to conceive; but to primitive peoples who know nothing of laws of nature, His moral sovereignty is a much more difficult conception.
And so too with the following great prophets; the important thing in their work was not their moral earnestness and not their specific predictions of future events, but the clearness of spiritual insight with which they read the spiritual significance of the signs of the time and interpreted the movements of history as proofs of Yahweh's actual moral sovereignty exercised over Israel.
This document lays down: (I) that the temporal sovereignty of kings is independent of the pope; (2) that a general council is above the pope; (3) that the ancient liberties of the Gallican Church are sacred; (4) that the infallible teaching authority of the church belongs to pope and bishops jointly.
As soon as Ismail had assumed the sovereignty at Balkh, Mahmud, who was at Nishapur, addressed him in friendly terms, proposing a division of the territories held by their father at his death.
The glory of the lordship of the isles - the insular sovereignty - had departed.
These disputes, involving as they did the question of the relative powers of Congress and the states, tended to turn the Democratic-Republicans, who were becoming nationalized, back again toward their old state sovereignty principles - to prepare the way for the Jacksonian-Democratic Party.
It is the expression of the ultimate sovereignty of the people, and its existence gives to the working both of the Federal government and of the several state governments, a certain fixify and uniformity which the European, and especially the British, reader must constantly bear in mind, because under such a constitution every legislative body enjoys far scantier powers than in the United Kingdom and most European countries.
The second cause is the Civil War of 186f65, which practically negatived the far-reaching claims of state sovereignty and the right of secession made by statesmen of the type of Calhoun, and showed that the nation was really much stronger than any group of states.
Their working is observed with lively interest, for they carry the principle of direct popular sovereignty to lengths unprecedented except in Switzerland.
It is a system amply provided with checks and balances; it recognizes and enforces the principle of popular sovereignty, while subjecting that principle to many checks in practice; and it is well calculated to maintain unchanged the relation of its component parts each to the other.
Though this province had been ceded to Great Britain in 1713 many of the Acadians had refused to accept British sovereignty.
On account, however, of its opposition to President Jackson's attitude toward nullification, the States Rights party affiliated with thenew Whig party, which represented the national feeling in the South, while the Union party was merged into the Democratic party, which emphasized the sovereignty of the states.
Georgia had responded freely to the call for volunteers, but when the Confederate Congress had passed, in April 1862, the Conscript Law which required all white men (except those legally exempted from service) between the ages of 18 and 35 to enter the Confederate service, Governor Brown, in a correspondence with President Davis which was continued for several months, offered serious objections, his leading contentions being that the measure was unnecessary as to Georgia, unconstitutional, subversive of the state's sovereignty, and therefore " at war with the principles for the support of which Georgia entered into this revolution."
3 In the Psalms the ideal aspect of the kingship, its religious importance as the expression and organ of Yahweh's sovereignty, is prominent.
Its full manifestation indeed, to the eye of sense and to the unbelieving world, lay in the future; but true faith found a present stay in the sovereignty of Yahweh, daily exhibited in providence and interpreted to each generation by the voice of the prophets.
So long as the wars of independence occupied the Palestinian Jews, and the Hasmonaean sovereignty promised a.
In the Hasmonaean sovereignty these ideas took a political form, and the result was the secularization of the kingdom of God for the sake of a harsh and rapacious aristocracy.
Under the General Act of Berlin of the 26th of February 1885, " in case a power exercising rights of sovereignty or protectorate " in any of the regions forming the basin of the Congo and its affluents, including Lake Tanganyika, and extending away to the Indian Ocean, should be involved in a war, the parties to the General Act bound themselves to lend their good offices in order that the territories belonging to this power be placed during the war " under the rule of neutrality and considered as belonging to a neutral state, the belligerents thenceforth abstaining from extending hostilities to the territories thus neutralized, and from using them as a basis for warlike operations " (art.
For services rendered to Caesar after the battle of Pharsalia, he was again rewarded with the sovereignty (Iwo-Tao-la Tou EBvovs, Jos.
The formal transfer of sovereignty took place on the 12th of August 1898, when the flag of the United States (the same flag hauled down by order of Commissioner Blount) was raised over the Executive Building with impressive ceremonies.
Under the latter's weak rule the island suffered considerably from the inroads of various adventurers; hence in 1386 it placed itself under the protection of Venice, which in 1401 acquired formal sovereignty over it.
Thus there arose a kind of sovereignty, disputed, it is true, by Constantinople, but which succeeded in maintaining itself.
influences and from the domination of lay sovereignties; to convert the Church thus regenerated, spiritualized, and detached from the world, into an organism which would be submissive to the absolute authority of the papal see, and to concentrate at Rome all its energies and jurisdictions; to establish the supremacy of the Roman see over all the Christian Churches, and win over to the Roman Church the Churches of the Byzantine Empire, Africa and Asia; to establish the temporal domain of St Peter, not only by taking possession of Rome and Italy, but also by placing all the crowns of Europe under the supreme sovereignty of the popes, or even in direct vassalage to them; and, finally, to maintain unity of faith in Christendom and defend it against the attacks of unbelievers, Mussulmans, heretics and pagans - these were the main features of his scheme.
and his successors the great moral and religious sovereignty of former times became a purely bureaucratic monarchy, in which the main preoccupation of the governors appeared to be the financial exploitation of Christendom.
But he was soon confronted with an extremely dangerous enemy, in the person of Duke Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan, who was aiming at the sovereignty of all Italy.
His temporal sovereignty he attempted to strengthen through his family connexions, and magnificent provision in general was made for the members of his house.
There is a touch of tragedy in the fact that, in the following year, the pope saw his temporal sovereignty - even his life - threatened by a conspiracy hatched among the adherents of the pseudo-humanism.
The Third Republic can never forget that it was to the support of the temporal sovereignty of the pope that Napoleon III.
1, 1885), in which he adopted the strongest attitude against the principle of the sovereignty of the people (ex its autem Pontificum prcescriptis illud omnino intelligi necesse est, ortum publicce potestatis a Deo ipso, non a multitudine repeti posse), refuting the notion that the principle of public power emanates from the will of the people alone (principatum non esse nisi populi voluntatem), and absolutely rejecting the sovereignty of the people as such.
The note of the pope to Rampolla of the 8th of October 1895, in consequence of the celebrations on the 10th of September, declared, in terms more decided than any that had until then been uttered, that the papacy required a territorial sovereignty in order to ensure its full independence, and that its interests were therefore incompatible with the existence of the kingdom of Italy as then constituted.
Having murdered his stepbrother Chrysippus, Atreus fled with Thyestes to Mycenae, where he succeeded Eurystheus in the sovereignty.
The independent dynasty which was then established was drawn under the influence of the German king, Frederick Barbarossa, and two princes who in 1163 divided the sovereignty among themselves as dukes of Upper and Lower Silesia inaugurated the policy of inviting German colonists to their vacant domains.
A Republican in politics, and a firm believer in the doctrines of strict construction and state sovereignty which Thomas Jefferson had been principally instrumental in formulating, he opposed consistently the demand for internal improvements and increased tariff duties, and declined to follow Henry Clay in the proposed recognition of the independence of the Spanish colonies in South America and in the Missouri Compromise legislation.
After the fall of Quebec the place remained under French sovereignty until '777, when it was occupied by a British garrison.
of France reconquered the Milanese by the battle of Marignano, and Massimiliano resigned the sovereignty for a revenue from France.
From the beginning of the r4th to the end of the 17th century the district under the name Mingrelia (q.v.) was governed by an independent dynasty, the Dadians, which was succeeded by a semi-independent dynasty, the Chikovans, who by 1838 had submitted to Russia, though they retained a nominal sovereignty.
Elsewhere Dutch sovereignty was gradually extended - in 1664 over Indrapura; in 1666 over Padang, until by 1803 it was established over much of the southern part of the eastern lands, including Palembang.
of Abjuration, by which at his persuasion the repret sentatives of the provinces of Brabant, Flanders, Holland, Zeeland, Gelderland and Utrecht, assembled at the Hague, declared that Philip had forfeited his sovereignty over them, and that they held themselves henceforth absolved from their allegiance to him.
Meanwhile Anjou soon grew tired of his dependent position and of the limitations placed upon his sovereignty.
The sovereignty of the provinces was offered to Henry III., but the king, harassed by civil discords in his own country, declined the dangerous honour (1585).
Elizabeth was alarmed by the successes of the Spanish arms, and especially by the fall of Antwerp; and, though refusing the sovereignty, she agreed to send a force of s000 foot and I 000 horse to the aid of the Provinces under the command of the earl of Leicester, her expenses being - guaranteed by the handing over to her the towns of Flushing, Brill and Rammekens as pledges (loth of August 1585).
He saw that unaided the patriotic party could not hope to resist the power of Philip II., and he had therefore resolved to gain the support of France by the offer of the sovereignty of the Netherlands to the duke of Anjou.
1581) a treaty was concluded with the duke, by which he, under certain conditions, agreed to accept the sovereignty of the Netherland provinces, except Holland and Zeeland.
feeling death approaching, resolved to marry his elder daughter, the Infanta Isabel Clara Eugenia, to her cousin, the Cardinal Archduke Albert of Austria, who had been governor-general of the Netherlands since 1596, and to erect the Provinces into an independent sovereignty under their joint rule.
In case the mar riage should have no issue, the sovereignty of the Netherlands was to revert to the king of Spain.
The death of the Infanta Isabel in November 1633, and the reversion of the Netherlands to the sovereignty of the king of Spain, rendered all efforts to end the war, for the time being, fruitless.
The moment seemed to be favourable for the assertion of provincial sovereignty because of the youth and inexperience of the new prince of Orange.
sovereignty under a free constitution (Dec. i, 1813), with the title of sovereign prince.
After several meetings with the king, a treaty was drawn up, which acknowledged the sovereignty of Ashanti over the territory of the Fanti, and left the natives of Cape Coast to the mercy of their enemies.
The order in council mentioned, which may be described as the first constitution granted Ashanti by its British owners, provides that the governor, in issuing ordinances respecting the administration of justice, the raising of revenue, or any other matter, shall respect any native laws by which the civil relations of any chiefs, tribes or populations are regulated, "except so far as they may be incompatible with British sovereignty or clearly injurious to the welfare of the natives themselves."
To secede is a sovereign right; secession, therefore, is based on the theory that the sovereignty of the individual states forming a confederacy or federal union has not been absorbed into a single new sovereignty.
Most of the original states, and many of the later ones, at some period when rights were in jeopardy proclaimed that their sovereignty might be exercised in secession.
The right to secede was based, the secessionists claimed, upon the fact that each state was sovereign, becoming so by successful revolution against England; there had been no political connexion between the colonies; the treaty of 1783 recognized them "as free, sovereign and independent states"; this sovereignty was recognized in the Articles of Confederation, and not surrendered, they asserted, under the Constitution; the Union of 1787 was really formed by a secession from the Union of 1776-1787.
So, in the United States, secession along with state sovereignty is of the past.
From the historical point of view it may be suggested that neither North nor South was correct in theory in 1861: the United States were not a nation; neither were the states sovereign; but from the embryo political communities of 1776-1787, in which no proper sovereignty existed anywhere, two nationalities were slowly being evolved and two sovereignties were in the making; the North and the South each fulfilled most of the requirements for a nation and they were mutually unlike and hostile.
placed under the sovereignty of the Habsburg claimant, who had, by the death of his brother, become the emperor Charles VI.
The beginnings of Austrian sovereignty were marked by many collisions between the representatives of the new rulers and the States General, and provincial " states."
The sovereignty of the newly formed state was given to the prince of Orange, who mounted the throne (23rd of March 1815) under the title of William I.
The preface to this work places Cerdic's assumption of the sovereignty six years after his landing, that is, in the year 500, and assigns him a reign of sixteen years, which makes his death fall eighteen years before 534, the date recorded in the annals.
Fateh Khan was barbarously murdered by Kamran (Mahmud's son) near Ghazni in 1818; and in retaliation Mahmud himself was driven from power, and the Barakzai clan secured the sovereignty of Afghanistan.
41 4), was not dissolved before he had ready " a little treatise in English," in which he sought to prove that the points of the royal prerogative which the members were determined to dispute before granting supplies " were inseparably annexed to the sovereignty which they did not then deny to be in the king."
History shows that states forming unions of the second class are certain in after time to deny or assert that the sovereignty of the state is one of the rights reserved, according as the state belongs to a stronger or weaker section or faction; state sovereignty being the defence of the weaker state or faction, and being denied by the stronger group of states which controls the government and which asserts that a new sovereign state was created by a union of the former independent ones.
This dispute is usually ended by civil war and the destruction of state sovereignty.
Most of the states claimed at one time or another that sovereignty was one of the reserved rights of the states and on this theory the Southern states acted in the secession in 1861.
The war that resulted destroyed all claims of state sovereignty.
Garrison in 1831, had stirred the conscience of the North, and had had its influence even upon many who strongly deprecated its extreme radicalism; the Compromise of 1850 had failed to silence sectional controversy, and the Fugitive Slave Law, which was one of the compromise measures, had throughout the North been bitterly assailed and to a considerable extent had been nullified by state legislation; and finally in 1854 the slavery agitation was fomented by the passage of the KansasNebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and gave legislative sanction to the principle of "popular sovereignty" - the principle that the inhabitants of each Territory as well as of each state were to be left free to decide for themselves whether or not slavery was to be permitted therein.
This adroit attempt to reconcile the principle of popular sovereignty with the Dred Scott decision, though it undoubtedly helped Douglas in the immediate fight for the senatorship, necessarily alienated his Southern supporters and assured his defeat, as Lincoln foresaw it must, in the presidential campaign of 1860.
On the 26th of June 1857 Lincoln in a speech at Springfield answered Douglas's speech of the 12th in which he made over his doctrine of popular sovereignty to suit the Dred Scott decision.
Before the latter event, in order to assert his right of sovereignty over Rome, he called himself king of the Romans, a designation which henceforth was borne by his successors until they received the higher title from the pope.
Ulti- Second mately, in -1748, she was able to conclude an honorable ~~t~~sii peace at Aix-la-Chapelle; but she had been forced, as before, to rid herself of Frederick by confirming him in the sovereignty of the territory he had seized.
Metternich had been allowed to take the initiative in negotiating with the princes of the Confederation of the Rhine, and the price of their adhesion to the cause of the allies had been the guarantee by Austria of their independent sovereignty.
She therefore took up the cause of Duke Frederick, and under her influence a small majority of the federal diet decided to iequest the two powers to invest him with the sovereignty of Holstein.
The states retained their autonomy except in those matters which were expressly transferred to the imperial authorities; the princes retained their sovereignty; .the king of Prussia, though he now took the title of German emperor, was only primus inter pares; he was president of the confederation, but had no suzerainty over the other princes..
traders had long been active, and the proclamation of British sovereignty was impending when the German flag was hoisted.
The sovereignty of the Luxemburg duchy passed to the next heir male of the house of Nassau, Adolphus, ex-duke of Nassau.
On the establishment of the confederation of the Rhine, his son Prosper Louis (to whom, becoming blind, he had ceded his domains in 180 3) became a member (5806), and showed great devotion to the interests of France; but in 5850 he lost his sovereignty, Napoleon incorporating Meppen with France and Recklinghausen with the grand - duchy of Berg, and indemnifying him by a rent of 240,702 francs.
In 1879 the Porte, after long delay, recognized the occupation on the distinct understanding that the sovereignty of the sultan was acknowledged.
Some of the tribes, disappointed at not being taken over by Great Britain, refused to acknowledge German sovereignty.
The settlement of the English Baptists at Victoria, Ambas Bay, was at first excluded from the German protectorate, but in March 1887 an arrangement was made by which, while the private rights of the missionaries were maintained, the sovereignty of the settlement passed to Germany.
In the XXIst dynasty the secondary line of priest kings of Thebes upheld his dignity to the best of their power, and the XXIInd dynasty favoured Thebes: but as the sovereignty weakened the division between Upper and Lower Egypt asserted itself, and thereafter Thebes would have rapidly decayed had it not been for the piety of the kings of Ethiopia towards Ammon, whose worship had long prevailed in their country.
In that year both provinces were subdued, their emirs deposed, and letters of appointment given to new emirs, who undertook to rule in accordance with the requirements of humanity, to abolish slave-raiding and slave dealing, and to acknowledge the sovereignty of Great Britain.
1805) obtained from the Porte in 1841 the right to bequeath the sovereignty to his descendants, one of whom, Ismail Pasha, received the title Khedive, which is still held by Mehemet Alis descendants.
In the eight years of his government the Tulunid empire contracted, owing to the revolts of the deputies which HrUn was unable to quell, though in 898 he endeavoured to secure a new lease of the sovereignty in Egypt and Syria by a fresh arrangement with the caliph, involving an increase of tribute.
So soon as al-Aflal had got possession of his nephews person, he started on an expedition for the recovery of Damascus: al-Adil not only frustrated this, but drove him back to Egypt, where on the 25th of January 1200 a battle was fought between the armies of the two at Bilbeis, resulting in the defeat of al-Aflal, who was sent back to Sarkhad, while aI-Adil assumed the regency, for which after a few months he substituted the sovereignty, causing his nephew to be deposed.
The efforts of al-Kamil after his accession to the independent sovereignty were seriously hindered by the endeavour of an amir named Abmed b.
The sovereignty was seized by this BIbaIS.
Egyptian sovereignty in the Sudan dates from 1820, when Mehemet Ali sent a large force into the country, and ultimately established his authority over Sennar and Kordofan.
But although hereditary sovereignty had been introduced, the laws of the land had not been abolished.
Hereditary sovereignty per se was not held to signify unlimited dominion, still less absolutism.
With the disappearance of the Rigsraad, which, as representing the Danish crown, had hitherto exercised sovereignty over both kingdoms, Norway ceased to be a subject principality.
But then and always the prime concern of the Pharisees was the extension of God's sovereignty (the Kingdom of God) throughout the world.
The theologians tried to uphold the orthodox theory by declaring the sultanate to be subordinate to the imamate or sovereignty of the caliphs, and dependent on the latter especially in all religious matters; but their artificial theories have never modified facts.
After the occupation of Pretoria in June 1900 by Lord Roberts the Boer forces had been reduced to guerilla warfare, and Lord Kitchener, learning that the Transvaal commandants were despondent, invited General Botha to enter into negotiations, on the basis of the recognition of British sovereignty.
He fled south and became the pensioner and ally of Edward IV., who reasserted the traditional claim to sovereignty over Scotland - " his rebels of Scotland!"
In the first volume, Le Regime seigneurial (1886), he depicts the triumph of individualism and anarchy, showing how, after Charlemagne's great but sterile efforts to restore the Roman principle of sovereignty, the great landowners gradually monopolized the various functions in the state; how society modelled on.
The town came voluntarily under Roman sovereignty in 318 B.C., afforded a refuge to the Roman fugitives after Cannae, and remained faithful for the rest of the war.
The Knights of the Golden Circle, and other secret societies, whose aims were the promulgation of state sovereignty and the extension of aid to the Confederate states, began to flourish, and it is said that in 1864 there were 50,000 members of the Sons of Liberty in the state.
Valerius Publicola, the champion of popular rights, further established the custom that the fasces should be lowered before the people, as the real representatives of sovereignty (Livy ii.
In consequence, although the high judicial character of the men appointed and the lawyers' regard for precedent served to keep the court in the path marked out by Marshall and Story, the state sovereignty influence was occasionally manifest, as, for example, in the opinion (written by Taney) in the Dred Scott case (18 57, 19 Howard, 393)393) that Congress had no power to abolish slavery in territory acquired after the formation of the national government.
Poseidon was also the god of springs, which he produced by striking the rock with his trident, as he did on the acropolis of Athens when disputing with Athena for the sovereignty of Athens (Herodotus viii.
1423), in the united sovereignty of Gelderland, Zutphen and Jiilich, who, in accordance with a promise made before his accession, ceded the town of Emmerich to Duke Adolf of Cleves.
Pilate fulfilled his pledge by giving them the man of their choice, and Jesus, whom he had vainly hoped to release on a satisfactory pretext, he now condemned to the shameful punishments of scourging and crucifixion; for the cross, as Jesus had foreseen, was the inevitable fate of a Jewish pretender to sovereignty.
In 1479 the sovereignty of Ferdinand and Isabella over the Canaries was established by the treaty of Alcagova, between Portugal and Castile.
Not till 611 do we find any event of importance in the uninteresting record of Byzantine sovereignty.
Abbasids seized the sovereignty and transferred it to Bagdad (750).
His descendant in 1505, Singhan Deo, having distinguished himself in an expedition against the freebooters of the Deccan, was rewarded by the sovereignty of the small territory of Gohad, with the title of rana.
The Senate represents the sovereignty of the state and is presided over by the Oberburgermeister, who during his two years' term of office bears the title of "magnificence."
In southern India at this time authentic history begins with the Hindu empire of Vijayanagar, which exercised an ill-defined sovereignty over the entire south from the 14th to the 16th century.
One of the blood-royal of Vijayanagar fled to Chandragiri, and founded a line which exercised a prerogative of its former sovereignty by granting the site of Madras to the English in 1639.
In the Deccan proper, the Nizam-ul-Mulk founded an independent dynasty, with Hyderabad for its capital, which exercised a nominal sovereignty over the entire south.
The Carnatic, or the lowland tract between the central plateau and the eastern sea, was ruled by a deputy of the nizam, known as the nawab of Arcot, who in his turn asserted claims to hereditary sovereignty.
The system thus organized in Bengal was afterwards extended to Madras and Bombay, when those presidencies also acquired territorial sovereignty.
From the first he laid down as his guiding principle that the British must be the one paramount power in the peninsula, and that the native princes could only retain the insignia of sovereignty by surrendering the substance of independence.
Their sovereignty dates only from 1767, in which year they overran the valley of Katmandu, and gradually extended their power over all the hills and valleys of Nepal.
Georgia argued that it could not be so sued, on the ground that it was a sovereign state, but Jay decided against Georgia, on the ground that sovereignty in America resided with the people.
From that date the sovereignty of Portugal over the coast-line, from its present southern limit as far north as Ambriz (7° 50' S.) has been undisputed save between 1640 and 1648, during which time the Dutch attempted to expel the Portuguese and held possession of the ports.
In 1884 Great Britain, which up to that time had steadily refused to acknowledge that Portugal possessed territorial rights north of Ambriz, concluded a treaty recognizing Portuguese sovereignty over both banks of the lower Congo; but the treaty, meeting with opposition in England and Germany, was not ratified.
All that can be meant by such a proposition is that according to the well-understood rules of international law a change of sovereignty by cession ought not to affect private property, but no municipal tribunal has authority to enforce such an obligation.
The Arminian system was an attempt to modify the Calvinistic theory in a moral interest, so as to maintain human responsibility, good and ill desert; but to this moral interest the system sacrificed the religious interest in the sufficiency and the sovereignty of divine grace.
long on the east bank of the Vistula near Marienwerder and four villages with the harbour of Kurzebrack on the same river were assigned to Poland in order to secure for the Polish State, at this point, the sovereignty over the course of the Vistula accorded to it by the Treaty.
To these elements of discord we must add: - (r) That the Arabs, notwithstanding the bond of Islam that united them, maintained their old tribal institutions, and therewith their old feuds and factions; (2) that the old antagonism between Ma`adites 1 - (original northern tribes) and Yemenites (original southern tribes), accentuated by the jealousy between the Meccans, who belonged to the former, and the Medinians, who belonged to the latter division, gave rise to perpetual conflicts; (3) that more than one dangerous pretender - some of them of the reigning family itself - contended with the caliph for the sovereignty, and must be crushed collie que collie.
In northern Italy and in Germany, on the other hand, where the crown had proved too weak to combat the forces of disruption, it came ultimately to imply independent sovereignty.
Madison's scheme, as expressed in a letter to Washington dated the 16th of April 1787, was that individual sovereignty of states was irreconcilable with aggregate sovereignty, but that the "consolidation of the whole into one simple republic would be as inexpedient as it is unattainable."
At the same time he received from Oudh the sovereignty over the province of Benares.
By a treaty dated August 22nd 1910, which came into effect seven days later the emperor of Korea made "complete and permanent cession to the emperor of Japan of all rights of sovereignty over the whole of Korea."
He was welcomed, not as a successful combatant in a civil war, but as the man who had vindicated the sovereignty of Rome against its assailants, as the saviour of the republic and of his fellow-citizens, above all as the restorer of peace.
Over the greater part of the country the native princes retain their sovereignty under the superintendence of French officials.
It originally signified a count of more than usual power or dignity, and in some cases implied sovereignty.
With the reign of James I., whose coronation took place at Scone on the 21st of May 1424, constitutional sovereignty may be said to begin in Scotland.
Sovereignty over the Filipinos having been accepted by virtue of the ratification of the Paris treaty, President McKinley was not at liberty to do otherwise than assert the authority of the United States and use every endeavour to suppress the insurrection.
He still preached the gospel of the people's sovereignty in civil life and the pope's supremacy in religion, but brought to his propagandism the full resources of a mind familiar with philosophy, history and literature, and indeed led the reaction against Voltairean scepticism.
This arrangement was ratified by Palmerston; and all four powers now combined to press it on the reluctant Porte, pointing out, in a joint note of the 30th of January 1841, that "they were not conscious of advising a course out of harmony with the sovereignty and legitimate rights of the sultan, or contrary to the duties imposed on the Pasha of Egypt as a subject appointed by His Highness to govern a province of the Ottoman Empire."
As in the political world the states gained first the undisputed control of matters secular, rejecting even the proffered counsel of the Church, and then proceeded to establish their sovereignty over the Church itself, so was it in the empire of the mind, The rights gained for independent research were extended over the realm of religion also; the two indeed cannot remain separate, and man must subordinate knowledge to the authority of religion - or make science supreme, submitting religion to its scrutiny and judging it like other phenomena.
54 55 Protestant churches this situation cannot arise, as they make no claims to governmental sovereignty.
So far as concerns the residue of powers unallotted to the central or federal authority, the separate states retain unimpaired their individual sovereignty, and the citizens of a federation consequently owe a double allegiance, one to the state, and the other to the federal government.
During the last ten years practically all unclaimed Arctic lands have come under the sovereignty of one or other State.
The Supreme Council in 1919 conferred the sovereignty of Spitsbergen and Bear I.
These characteristics were naturally emphasized in the Aramaic writing on papyrus which, beginning about 500 B.C., during the Persian sovereignty in Egypt, lasted on there till about zoo B.C. The gradual development of this script into the square Hebrew, and the more ornamental writing of Palmyra, may be traced in the works of Berger and Lidzbarski.'
In iooi his envoy Asztrik obtained Pope Silvester II.'s confirmation of this act of sovereignty.
While they were struggling to enforce their claims to universal sovereignty, the royal power, less extravagant but more real, was welding together the feudal states of France and moulding the England of to-day.
After more than twelve years' exile, Humayun regained his sovereignty, which, however, he had held only for a few months when he died.
So absolute became the papal sovereignty over conscience that more than one government took alarm.
Leo was absolutely convinced that a territorial sovereignty was required to ensure the moral independence of the papacy; and he believed that the new Italian kingdom was a mushroom growth, that might fall in pieces at any moment.
The right of judging such an infraction belonged to the state, being an attribute of sovereignty of which the state could not be deprived without being reduced to a wholly subordinate condition.
Webster declared that the Federal government through the Supreme Court was the ultimate expounder and interpreter of its own powers, while Calhoun championed the rights of the individual state under a written contract which reserved to each state its sovereignty.
The modes employed are various, but they all rest on the sovereignty of the state, whether exercised by the central officials or by the courts.
The sovereignty of the state enables it to deal as it thinks best with the public creditor.
3 Man's sovereignty over nature, which is founded on knowledge alone, had been lost, and instead of the free relation between things and the human mind, there was nothing but vain notions and blind experiments.
His marriage with Caterina Cornaro, a Venetian lady of rank, was designed to secure the support of the powerful republic of Venice, but had the effect after a few years, in consequence of his own death and that of his son James III., of transferring the sovereignty of the island to his new allies.
During the 6th century the battle of Deorham gained by the West Saxons in 577 cut off communication with Cornwall, and in 613 the great battle of Chester, won by King Ethelfrith, prevented the descendants of Cunedda from ever again asserting their sovereignty over Strathclyde; the joint effect, therefore, of these two important Saxon victories was to isolate Wales and at the same time to put an end to all pretensions of its rulers as the inheritors of the ancient political claims of the Roman governors of the northern province of Britain.
Some degree of peace was, however, given to the distracted country during the reign of Llewelyn ap Seissyllt, the husband of Angharad, heiress of Gwynedd, who at length secured the overlordship or sovereignty of all Wales, and reigned till 1022.
After ineffectual conferences at Noyon in 1516 and at Montpellier in 1518, an active effort was made in 1521 to establish him in the de facto sovereignty; but the French troops which had seized the country were ultimately expelled by the Spaniards.
In his famous " Nicholson letter " of December 1847 he made what was probably the earliest enunciation of the doctrine of " popular sovereignty," namely, that the people of the territories should decide for themselves whether or not they should have slavery.
His ideas of popular sovereignty, however, were not inconsistent with the vigorous Democratic spirit of the west, of which he was a typical representative, and it is not clear that he believed that the application of this principle would result in the extension of slavery.
Ashur rises into majestic sovereignty as the " Ruler of all the gods," the supreme religious form of Assyrian sway: when the empire falls beneath the revived power of Babylon, he fades away and disappears.
Judgment, indeed, was an inevitable outcome of the sovereignty of Yahweh, but it would be passed upon the nation in the immediate scene of its misdoings; and even when the scope of the divine doom 8 Von Kremer, Die Herrschenden Ideen des Islams, p. 233 ff.
3 That the Edomites preserved this tradition of Saul's sovereignty and (from their standpoint) enrolled him among their kings (Gen.
He accounts for their temporary success by recording that "the Mussulman hordes experienced the comfort of fighting for their religion, and the blessings of it reverted to the sovereignty of his just and pious majesty."
A monument to a local celebrity named Chapuis is interesting for the reason that his execution by order of the prince-bishop of Liege was the last act of sovereignty taken by that prelate.
The chief cause of dispute was the quartering by the Danish king of the three crowns of Sweden on the Dano-Norwegian shield, which was supposed to indicate a claim of sovereignty.
By this peace, Sweden's possession of Livonia, and the elector of Brandenburg's sovereignty over east Prussia, were alike confirmed; and the king of Poland renounced all claim to the Swedish crown.
The crowned puppet who possessed a casting vote in the real, of which he was the nominal president, and who was allowed to create peers once in his life (at his coronation), was rather a state decoration than a sovereignty.
They maintained that the Swedish demands were incompatible with the sovereignty of Norway, as the foreign minister was a Swede and the proposed Norwegian consular service, as a Norwegian institution, could not be placed under a foreign authority.
According to this constitution the sovereignty resides in the nation, but suffrage is restricted to married citizens over twenty-one and unmarried citizens over twenty-five years of age, not in domestic service, who can read and write, and who are the owners of real estate, or who have capital invested in business or industry, or who receive salaries or incomes proportionate in value to such real estate as investment; and as 75% of the population is classed as illiterate, and a great majority of the labouring classes is landless, badly paid, and miserably poor, it is apparent that political sovereignty in Chile is the well-guarded possession of a small minority.
to men who were worthy, and as God does not withhold from men a share in His attributes - such as sovereignty and fatherhood - it was fitting that Christ who has wrought salvation for mankind should obtain this highest name.
It succumbed to the Indo-Scythian Empire of the Kushana, who had obtained the sovereignty of Bactria as early as about A.D.
But the ambitious men, whose goal was to erect their own sovereignty on the ruins of the republic, took up the project.
and Shapur 1., represents the king and the god Ormuzd both on horseback, the latter in the act of handing to his companion the ring of sovereignty.
Shapur II., a posthumous child of the late king, was then raised to the throne, a proof that the great magnates held the sovereignty in their own hands and attempted to order matters at their own pleasure.
Besides exercising sovereignty over Transoxiana and those vast regions more or Th.
The nearest approach to a sovereignty in those parts on the death of Abu Said is that of Uzun Ijasan, the leader of the Ak Kuyun, or White Sheep Turkomans, and conqueror of the Black Sheep, whose chief, Jahan Shah, he defeated and slew.
He was succeeded by his eldest brother, Mahommed Mirza, otherwise Mahommed called Mahommed Khudabanda, whose claim to Khuda- sovereignty had been originally put aside on the banda.
Abbas, who had been proclaimed king by the nobles at Nishapur some two or three years before this occurrence, may be said to have now undertaken in earnest the cares of sovereignty.
But such usurpation at the old Safawid capital would have been too flagrant an act for general assent; so he put forward Ismail, a nephew of Shah Ilusain, as the representative of sovereignty, and himself as one of his two ministersthe other being Karim Khan, a chief of the Zend Kurds.
The campaign ended in the capture of Shiraz and assumption of sovereignty by Ali Murad, who caused Sadik Khan to be put to death.
The first who wrote such a mathuawi was Abti Shukur of Balkh, the oldest literary representative of the third dynasty of KhorSsSn, the Skmgnids, who had been able in the course of time to dethrone the Saffarids, and to secure the government of Persia, nominally still under the supremacy of the caliphs in Bagdad, but in fact with full sovereignty.
Gaiseric seems to have counted the years of his sovereignty from the date of its capture.
Sir Harry, deeming no other course open to him, proclaimed (February 1848) the country between the Orange and Vaal rivers British territory, under the name of the Orange River Sovereignty.
In the Sovereignty difficulties arose in defining the reserves of the native chiefs, and with the Basutos there were armed conflicts.
The home government (the first Russell administration), which had reluctantly consented to confirm Sir Harry Smith's annexation of the Orange River territory., on learning of these difficulties, and also that many of the burghers remained dissatisfied, changed their policy, and in 1851 the governor was informed that the ultimate abandonment of the Sovereignty was a settled point.2 In fulfilment of their settled policy to keep the British South African dominions within the smallest possible limits, the cabinet decided to recognize the independence of the Boers living beyond the Vaal.
This recognition, the necessary preliminary to the abandonment of the Orange River Sovereignty; was made in the Sand River Convention on the 17th of January 1852.
The British government meantime pursued its policy of abandonment, and in February 1854, by the Bloemfontein Convention, forced independence upon the people of the Sovereignty, which now became the Orange Free State.
The abandonment of the Orange River Sovereignty marked the close of the eventful period in South African history which began eighteen years before with the Great Trek.
Govern ment are not prepared to depart from the settled policy of their predecessors by advising the resumption of British sovereignty in any shape over the Orange Free State."
The new administration, notwithstanding Mr Gladstone's public utterances, declared their intention of retaining British sovereignty in the Transvaal, coupling with that decision a pious hope for the speedy accomplishment of confederation so as to allow of free institutions being given to Natal and the Transvaal.
As a member of the Cape parliament he undertook a mission, before the arrival of Warren, to the Goshen and Stellaland Boers, endeavouring, unsuccessfully, to obtain from them a recognition of British sovereignty.
It could be made perfectly clear that our action was not directed against the existence of the republic. We should only be demanding the re-establishment of rights which now exist in the Orange Free State, and which existed in the Transvaal itself at the time of, and long after, the withdrawal of British sovereignty.
No terms could be granted which did not include the explicit recognition of British sovereignty.
1881, of a restoration of independence; that matter the Boers themselves had settled by their acceptance of British sovereignty.
The love of ease exercised an entire sovereignty in his thoughts.
After various success, the Kambaranis at length possessed themselves of the sovereignty of a considerable portion of that 1 See V.
The khan frequently distinguished himself in the subsequent wars of Kabul; and, as a reward for his services, the king bestowed upon him several districts in perpetual and entire sovereignty.
His elder brother, the chief of the Barakzai, Fatteh Khan, took an important part in raising Mahmud to the sovereignty of Afghanistan in 1800 and in restoring him to the throne in 1809.
Thenceforward, until 1822, the Portuguese sovereignty was styled the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
In 1885 Portugal recog- Colonial nized the Congo Free State, and admitted its Affairs: sovereignty over the north bank of the Lower Congo, although, in an unratified treaty of 1884, Great Britain had recognized both banks of the river as Portuguese territory.
The first year of his reign (Seleucid year 170 143-142 B.C.) was made the beginning of a new era, and the issue of a Jewish coinage betokened the independence of his sovereignty.
By this treaty Chile declared that if, in consequence of the plebiscite (to take place under the treaty of Ancon with Peru), or by virtue of direct arrangement, she should " acquire dominion and permanent sovereignty over the territories of Tacna and Arica, she undertakes to transfer them to Bolivia in the same form and to the same extent as she may acquire them "; the republic of Bolivia paying as an indemnity for that transfer $5,000,000 silver.
ORANGE The small principality of Orange, a district now included in the French department of Vaucluse, traces back its history as an independent sovereignty to the time of Charlemagne.
By the marriage of John of Chalons with Marie de Baux, the house of Chalons succeeded to the sovereignty in 1393.
It is the union of these ideas with a hierarchical system, and with the temporal sovereignty of the head of that system in Tibet, which constitutes what is distinctively understood by the term Lamaism.
Its representatives continued for some time to claim the sovereignty; but the country was practically very much in the condition of Germany at about the same time - chieftains of almost independent power ruled from their castles on the hill-tops over the adjacent valleys, engaged in petty wars, and conducted plundering expeditions against the neighbouring tenants, whilst the great abbeys were places of refuge for the studious or religious, and their heads were the only rivals to the barons in social state, and in many respects the only protectors and friends of the people.
Thus was the foundation laid at one and the same time of the temporal sovereignty of the Lamas of Tibet, and of the suzerainty over Tibet of the emperors of China.
Since that time the abbots of these monasteries have continued to exercise the sovereignty over Tibet.
Under the Carolingian empire, a vast system grew up in the North Italian cities of episcopal "immunities," by which a city with its surrounding district was removed, more or less completely, from the jurisdiction of the ordinary authority, military or civil, and placed under that of the bishop. These "immunities" led to the temporal sovereignty of the bishops; under it the spirit of liberty grew more readily than under the military chief.
Despagnet the term suzerain is applicable to a case in which a state concedes a fief, in virtue of its sovereignty (Essai sur le protectorat international, p. 46), reserving to itself certain rights as the author of this concession.
Another writer draws these distinctions: (a) a state connected by protectorship with another previously enjoyed autonomy; the vassal state did not; (b) the protected state retains its nationality and its internal administration; the vassal state acquires a distinct nationality; (c) the establishment of a protectorate modifies few of the institutions of the protectorate state except as to foreign relations; the establishment of a suzerainty changes the institutions of the vassal state; (d) the protected state exercises its internal sovereignty a peu pres pleinement; the vassal state remains subordinate in several respects; (e) while the protected state has the right to be assisted in case of war by the protecting state, but is not bound to defend the latter, the vassal state is bound to aid its suzerain (Tchomacoff, De la Souverainete, p. 53) See also Hachenburger, De la Nature juridique du protectorat.
On the whole, usage seems to favour this distinction: while a protectorate flows from, or is a reduction of, the sovereignty of the protected state, suzerainty is conceived as derived from, and a reduction of, the sovereignty of the dominant state.
nized the suzerainty of Turkey over the Danubian principalities Moldavia and Wallachia, modifying the " sovereignty " of Turkey recognized by the Treaty of Adrianople.
It is based, of course, on the great body of bishops; but episcopal rule, through the various grades of metropolitan, primate, exarch, attains to sovereignty only in the five patriarchal thrones.
In 1771 Shah Alam, the son of Alamgir II., was nominally raised to the throne by the Mahrattas, the real sovereignty resting with the Mahratta chief, Sindhia.
A pension of £120,000 per annum was allowed to the king, with exclusive jurisdiction over the palace, and the titular sovereignty as before; but the city, together with the Delhi territory, passed under British administration.
The city used to be the extensive, splendid and opulent capital of an independent sovereignty of the same name, but now retains only the vestiges of its former grandeur.
Haugesund is the reputed death-place of Harald Haarfager, to whom an obelisk of red granite was erected in 1872 on the thousandth anniversary of his victory at the Hafsfjord (near Stavanger) whereby he won the sovereignty of Norway.
He was essentially a North Carolinian first, and an American afterwards; and throughout his career he was an aggressive advocate of state sovereignty and an adherent of the doctrines of the "Old Republicans."
His residence in Louisiana, his ownership of a large plantation with its slaves, and his family connexion with Jefferson Davis (who had married his daughter), rendered him more acceptable to many of the Southern Democrats than their party candidate, Lewis Cass, an advocate of " squatter sovereignty " and the representative of the democracy of the free North-west.
Now it is recognized that God's sovereignty must be conceived as consistent with man's liberty.
of England, and civil war began in the autumn, but in 1412 the Armagnacs in their turn sought .English aid, and, by promising the sovereignty of Aquitaine to the English king, gave John the opportunity of posing as defender of France.
in 1498, without any children, Anne exercised the sovereignty in Brittany, and in January 1499 she married Louis XII., who had just repudiated Joan of France.