Bain, Slavonic Europe, ch.
The large number of Slavonic local names in Albania, even in districts where no trace of a Slavonic population exists, bears witness to the extensive Servian and Bulgarian immigrations in the early middle ages, but the original inhabitants gradually ousted or assimilated the invaders.
In general the attitude of the Albanians in the north-eastern districts towards the Slavonic peasantry may be compared with that of the Kurds towards the Armenians.
There is also a considerable admixture of Turkish and Slavonic words.
His name is supposed to be Slavonic. As a youth he served in the bodyguard ofJustinian, who appointed him commander of the Eastern army.
The precocious lad quickly mastered the German, Latin and principal Slavonic languages, frequently acting as his father's interpreter at the reception of ambassadors.
Austria had persistently adopted a policy of pin-pricks and aggravating police provocation towards the Italians of the Adriatic Littoral and of the Trentino, while encouraging the Slavonic element in the former and the Germans in the latter.
809; the name Serdica was converted into Sredetz by the Slays, who associated it with sreda (middle), and the Slavonic form subsequently became the Byzantine Triaditza.
It is certainly derived, through Rossiya, from Slavonic Rus or Ros (Byzantine `Pws or `Pc o-oc), a name first given to the Scandinavians who founded a principality on the Dnieper in the 9th century; and afterwards extended to the collection of Russian states of which this principality formed the nucleus.
dissatisfaction among men of Slavonic temperament, whose grandfathers had been independent princes, boyars or free lances, and the malcontents could not adopt the old practice of emigrating to some other principality.
It must be added that the pages on the Slavonic peoples and their relations to the empire are conspicuously insufficient; but it must be taken into account that it was not till many years after Gibbon's death that Slavonic history began to receive due attention, in consequence of the rise of competent scholars among the Sla y s themselves.
The Triglav is the dividing range between the Alps and the Karst Mountains, and its huge mass also forms the barrier between three races: the German, the Slavonic and the Italian.
Carniola derives its modern name from the Slavonic word Krajina (frontier).
The Slavonic population settled here during the end of the 6th and the beginning of the 7th century.
Though Greek and Slavonic almost ceased to be written languages under Turkish rule, Europeans showed no disposition to replace them by Ottoman or Arabic literature.
These in their turn migrated to other settlements and were replaced, about the end of the 5th century of our era, by Slavonic tribes, the Wilzi and the Pomerani.
Externally, a Slavonic reaction came, and dealt heavy blows to the eastward advance of German civilization.
Outside the European area vegetation spirits of all kinds seem to be conceived, as a rule, as anthropomorphic; in classical Europe, and parts of the Slavonic area at the present day, the tree spirit was believed to have the form of a goat, or to have goats' feet.
A new form had therefore to be invented for the genuine b in Slavonic, to which there was, at the period when the alphabet was adopted, no corresponding sound in Greek.
It belongs to the group of old Slavonic states which have preserved their nationality while losing their political independence.
At this period there seemed a strong probability of the junction of the north-western and southeastern Sla y s, and the formation of a great Slavonic power to east of the German empire.
Finally about the 13th century the Slavonic Version was made from the a form of the Greek Version.
Patriarchs from MSS., with the Variants from the Armenian and Slavonic Versions and tie Hebrew Fragments (1908).
It may be here mentioned that slave was originally a national name; it meant a man of Slavonic race captured and made a bondman to the Germans.
Old Slavonic >>
All alike belong to the Serbo-Croatian branch of the Slavonic race; and all speak a language almost identical with Servian, though written by the Roman Catholics in Latin instead of Cyrillic letters.
- Under Roman rule Bosnia had no separate name or history, and until the great Slavonic immigration of 636 it remained an undifferentiated part of Illyria stations are Bjelina, Zvornik, Visegrad, Gorazda, Foea, Bilek, Avtovac and Trebinje, along the eastern frontier; Mostar and Stolac in the south; Livno in the west; and Bihac in the north.
qvarn and various forms in Old German; cognate words are found in Slavonic languages pointing to a pre-Aryan root.
Again, the Slavonic Enoch goes back undoubtedly in parts to a Semitic original, though most of it was written by a Greek Jew in Egypt.
- This book has been preserved in Greek, Ethiopic, Armenian and Slavonic. The Greek was first printed at Venice in 1609, and next by Ceriani in 1868 under the title Paralipomena Jeremiae.
- Writings dealing with this subject are extant in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Armenian and Arabic. They go back undoubtedly to a Jewish basis, but in some of the forms in which they appear at present they are christianized throughout.
(iii.) The Slavonic Adam book was published by Jajic along with a Latin translation (Denkschr.
The Christian legend, which is no doubt in the main based on the Jewish, is found in Greek, Syriac, Armenian, Slavonic and Medieval Latin.
This work is preserved partly in Greek, but in its entirety in Slavonic.
There are Syriac, Arabic, Ethiopic and Slavonic versions.
The first advocate of the Pan-Slav idea in Russia itself was Krizanic, a Croat Catholic priest from Dalmatia, and early writers in favour of Slavonic racial and literary unity were the Slovene schoolmaster Bohoricz (1584) and the Dalmatian Croat Orbini, who wrote in Italian (Il regno degli Slavi 1601).
Historical research and literary criticism flourished under Racki, the first president of the Academy, and his pupils: while Strassmayer did much to revive the Glagolitic, or ancient Slavonic liturgy, and to win for it the favour of Pope Leo XIII.
Specially significant were the Memorandum addressed to the throne by 55 deputies of the Croat party of Right, in the Croatian, Bosnian, Dalmatian and Istrian Diets, and the political strike organized by the pupils of both sexes in almost all the middle schools of the Slavonic South.
The settled Scythians would be the remains of this Iranian population, or the different tribes of them may have been connected with their neighbours beyond Scythian dominion - Thracian Getae and Arimaspi, Slavonic Neuri, Finnish Androphagi and such like.
to See especially The Story of Ahikar from the Syriac, Arabic, Armenian, Ethiopic, Greek and Slavonic Versions, by F.
Now it is acknowledged by Christian and Jewish scholars alike to have been written in Hebrew in the 2nd century B.C. From Hebrew it was translated into Greek and from Greek into Armenian and Slavonic. The versions have come down in their entirety, and small portions of the Hebrew text have been recovered from later Jewish writings.
This book survives in two forms in Slavonic and Greek.
The Slavonic is only of secondary value, as it is merely an abbreviated form of the Greek.
Even the Greek cannot claim to be the original work, but only to be a recension of it; for, whereas Origen states that this apocalypse contained an account of the seven heavens, the existing Greek work describes only five, and the Slavonic only two.
- This book is found only in the Slavonic (edited by Bonwetsch, Studien zur Geschichte d.
271-273.) 2 Enoch, or the Slavonic Enoch, or the Book of the Secrets of Enoch.
This work was written in Egypt, according to James, and survives also in Slavonic, Rumanian, Ethiopic, and Arabic versions.
The Slavonic forms, such as Russ.
The population still exhibits a marked Slavonic element.
It also lies on the frontier which separates from one another three races, the German, the Slavonic and the Hungarian.
It is not likely that the Avars, living in their "ring" encampments, destroyed the Roman municipium; and Becs, the Hungarian name for Vienna to this day, is susceptible of a Slavonic interpretation only, and would seem to indicate that the site had been occupied in Slavonic times.
In 907, with a host made up of all the subject tribes, Slavonic and Finnic, he sailed against the Greeks in a fleet consisting, according to the lyetopis, of 2000 vessels, each of which held 40 men; but this estimate is plainly an exaggeration.
The names of these ambassadors are preserved and they point to the Scandinavian origin of Oleg's host; there is not a Slavonic name among them.
Meanwhile he supported himself by teaching on a very small scale, but his progress was such that at sixteen he had a good knowledge of Hungarian, Latin, French and German, and was rapidly acquiring English and the Scandinavian languages, and also Russian, Servian and other Slavonic tongues.
The Slavonic heroic saga of Russia centres round Vladimir of Kiev (980-1015), the first Christian ruler of that country, whose personality is eclipsed by that of Ilya (Elias) of Mourom, the son of a peasant, who was said to have saved the empire from the Tatars at the urgent request of his emperor.
Slavonic. - A.
Morfill, Slavonic Literature (1883).
In some foreign words like cicala the ch- (tsh) value is given to c. In the transliteration of foreign languages also it receives different values, having that of tsh in the transliteration of Sanskrit and of is in various Slavonic dialects.
During these years the Bohemians and other Slavonic tribes ravaged the eastern frontier of Germany, but although one expedition against them was led by the king in person, the defence of this district was left principally to agents.
In the vicinity are some interesting Slavonic remains and the former Benedictine monastery of Ullesheim.
Like most Slavonic towns, it contains several large squares, the chief of which is adorned with a trinity column, 115 ft.
At a later period Olmiitz was long the capital of the Slavonic kingdom of Moravia, but it ceded that position to Briinn in 1640.
It is equally certain that almost every one of the long line of princes and voivods bore a Slavonic surname, perhaps due to the influence of the Slavonic Church, to which the Rumanians belonged.
With the exception of the extreme southern and south-eastern ramifications, which belong to Rumania, the Carpathians lie entirely within Austrian and 2 The name is derived from the Slavonic word Chrb, which means mountain-range.
Zeitz is an ancient place of Slavonic origin.
Turning his attention to the east, Henry reduced various Slavonic tribes to subjection, took Brennibor, the modern Brandenburg, from the Hevelli, and secured both banks of the Elbe for Saxony.
Under the later Roman Empire the city dwindled into a mere village, which since the 6th century bore the Slavonic name of Goritza.
Viadua; Slavonic, Vjodr), a river of Germany, rises in Austria on the Odergebirge in the Moravian tableland at a height of 1950 ft.
It was Anschar, a monk of Corbie, who first preached to the Scandinavians, and other Benedictines were apostles to Poles, Prussians and other Slavonic peoples..
The Old Testament says nothing about the origin of angels; but the Book of Jubilees and the Slavonic Enoch describe their creation; and, according to Col.
There is sufficient evidence that his family was of Croatian stock: a fact which throws light upon the distinctively Slavonic character of much of his music. He received the first rudiments of education from his father, a wheelwright with twelve children, and at an early age evinced a decided musical talent.
He bought, and edited with great success, the Russkiy Mir in Slavonic interests, devoting himself to the Panslavic idea.
The task is one of extraordinary difficulty, for the textual problems of the various writings are complex and confused: the Greek original is extant in a few cases only (the Commentary on Daniel, the Refutation, on Antichrist, parts of the Chronicle, and some fragments); for the rest we are dependent on fragments of translations, chiefly Slavonic, all of which are not even published.
G 2 denotes the Greek text from which the Slavonic and the second Latin Version (consisting of vi.-xi.) were translated.
The archetype of this section existed independently in Greek; for the second Latin and the Slavonic Versions presuppose an independent circulation of their Greek archetype in western and Slavonic countries.
When the emperor Louis divided his dominions between his sons in 817, Louis received Bavaria and the neighbouring lands, but did riot undertake the government until 825, when he became involved in war with the Slavonic tribes on his eastern frontier.
The "truce" of And russowo proved to be one of the most permanent peaces in history, and Kiev, though only pledged for two years, was never again to be separated from the Orthodox Slavonic state to which it rightly belonged.
Polish Literature The Polish language belongs to the western branch of the Slavonic tongues, and exhibits the closest affinities with the Czech or Bohemian and Lusatian Wendish.
Unlike the people of other Slavonic countries, the Poles are comparatively poor in popular and legendary poetry, but such compositions undoubtedly existed in early times, as may be seen by the writings of their chroniclers; thus Gallus translated into Latin a poem written on Boleslaus the Brave, and a few old Polish songs are included in Wojcicki's Library of Ancient Writers.
A valuable worker in the field of Slavonic philology was Linde, the author of an excellent Polish dictionary in six volumes.
Rakowiecki, who edited the Rousskaia Pravda, and Macieiowski (who died in 1883, aged ninety), author of a valuable work on Slavonic law, may here be mentioned.
Here we have a complete survey of the leading codes of Slavonic jurisprudence.
Poland, as has been said before, is not rich in national songs and legendary poetry, in which respect it cannot compare with its sister Slavonic countries Russia and Servia.
His most celebrated pieces are Hugo; Mnich (" The Monk"); Lambro, a Greek corsair, quite in the style of Byron; Anhelli, a very Dantesque poem expressing under the form of an allegory the sufferings of Poland; Krol duck (" The Spirit King"), another mysterious and allegorical poem; Waclaw, on the same subject as the Marya of Malczewski, to be afterwards noticed; Beniowski, a long poem in ottava rima on this strange adventurer, something in the style of Byron's humorous poems; Kordyan, of the same school as the English poet's Manfred; Lilla Weneda, a poem dealing with the early period of Slavonic history.
He began his labours with The Age of Casimir the Great (1848), and Boleslaw the Brave (1849), following these with Jadwiga and Jagiello, in three volumes (1855-1856) - a work which Spasovich, in his Russian History of Slavonic Literature, compares in vigour of style and fullness of colour with Macaulay's History of England and Thierry's Norman Conquest.
Thaddeus Wojciechowski has published a clever work on Slavonic antiquities.
One of the most active writers on Polish philology and literature is Wladyslaw Nehring, whose numerous contributions to the Archiv fiir slavische Philologie of Professor Jagic entitle him to the gratitude of all who have devoted themselves to Slavonic studies.
Wladimir Spasowicz, a lawyer of St Petersburg, assisted Pipin in his valuable work on Slavonic literature.
Female writers are not very common among Slavonic nations.
Schleicher, Litauische Miirchen, Sprichworte, Rdtsel and Lieder (1857); for Slavonic parallels, F.
Owing to intercourse with Greek and Slavonic Christianity, the title is sometimes to be met with in southern Italy and Sicily, and in Hungary and Poland.
On the other hand, we learn from Herodotus of the great serpent which defended the citadel of Athens; the Roman genius loci took the form of a serpent; a snake was kept and fed with milk in the temple of Potrimpos, an old Slavonic god.
Originally a Slavonic fort, Kolberg is one of the oldest places of Pomerania.
The Slavonic and Georgian MSS.
Dresden (Old Slav Drezga, forest, Drezgajan, forestdwellers), which is known to have existed in 1206, is of Slavonic origin, and was originally founded on the right bank of the Elbe, on the site of the present Neustadt, which is thus actually the old town.
The word is a direct translation into Slavonic of Massaliani, the Syrian name of the sect corresponding to the Greek Euchites.
The Bogomils are identified with the Massaliani in Slavonic documents of the 13th century.
Concerning the Bogomils something can be gathered from the information collected by Euthymius Zygadenus in the 12th century, and from the polemic Against the Heretics written in Slavonic by St Kozma during the 10th century.
The old Slavonic lists of forbidden books of the i 5th and 16th centuries also give us a clue to the discovery of this heretical literature and of the means the Bogomils employed to carry on their propaganda.
According to Slavonic documents the founder of this sect was a certain priest Bogumil, who "imbibed the Manichaean teaching and flourished at the time of the Bulgarian emperor Peter" (927-968).
The Slavonic sources are unanimous on the point that his teaching was Manichaean.
A Synodikon from the year 1210 adds the names of his pupils or "apostles," Mihail, Todur, Dobri, Stefan, Vasilie and Peter, all thoroughly Slavonic names.
of the Starine of the South Slavonic Academy at Agram, shows great resemblance to the Cathar ritual published by Cunitz, 1853.
By this time the extension of Teutonic dominion towards the south and west had brought about its natural sequel in the occupation of the old Teutonic lands in eastern Germany, including even the basin of the Elbe, by Slavonic peoples.
Before the end of the century Bohemia also and Lower Austria, together with the whole of the basins of the Drave and the Save, had become Slavonic countries.
In south-eastern Europe also the Teutonic elements were swallowed up by the native and Slavonic populations, though a small remnant lingered in the Crimea until probably the 17th century.
On the other hand the political consolidation of the various continental Teutonic peoples (apart from the Danes) in the 8th century led to the gradual recovery of eastern Germany together with Lower Austria and the greater part of Styria and Carinthia, though Bohemia, Moravia and the basins of the Vistula and the Warthe have always remained mainly Slavonic. In the British Isles the Teutonic element, in spite of temporary checks, eventually became dominant everywhere.
The settlers, however, were not sufficiently numerous to preserve their nationality, and in almost all cases they were soon absorbed by the populations (Teutonic, Celtic, Latin or Slavonic) which they had conquered.
The beginnings of Silesian history do not reach back beyond the 10th century A.D., at which time the district was occupied by clans of Slavonic nationality, one of which derived its name from the mountain Zlenz (mod.
In consequence of these raids the German element of population in Upper Silesia permanently lost ground; and a complete restitution of the Slavonic nationality seemed imminent on the appointment of the Hussite, George Podiebrad, to the Bohemian kingship in 1457.
The chief importance of the monastic rule and institute of St Basil lies in the fact that to this day his reconstruction of the monastic life is the basis of the monasticism of the Greek and Slavonic Churches, though the monks do not call themselves Basilians.
The picture of Studite life is the picture of normal Greek and Slavonic monachism to this day.
The first monastery to be founded here was that of St Athanasius (c. 960), and in the course of the next three or four centuries monasteries in great numbers - Greek, Slavonic and one Latin - were established on Mount Athos, some twenty of which still survive.
Of much greater importance was the importation of Basilian monachism into Russia, for it thereby became the norm of monachism for all the Slavonic lands.
In the other Slavonic lands there are a considerable number of monasteries, as also in Greece itself, while in the Turkish dominions there are no fewer than zoo Greek monasteries.
Greek and Slavonic monks wear a black habit.
A contest still more stubborn remained with the Slavonic tribes, with their triple and many-headed divinities, their powers of good and powers of evil, who could be propitiated only with human sacrifices.
Mission work commenced in Bulgaria during the latter part of the 9th century; thence it extended to Moravia, where in 863 two Greek missionaries - Cyril and Methodius - provided for the people a Slavonic Bible and a Slavonic Liturgy; thence to Bohemia and Poland, and so onwards to the Russian kingdom of Ruric the Northman, where about the close of the 10th century the Eastern Church " silently and almost unconsciously bore into the world her mightiest offspring."
11 But, though the baptism of Vladimir (c. 956-1015) was a heavy blow to Slavonic idolatry, mission work was carried on with but partial success; and it taxed all the energies of Adalbert, bishop of Bremen, of Vicilin, bishop of Oldenburg, of Bishop Otto of Bamberg the apostle of the Pomeranians, of Adalbert the martyr-apostle of Prussia, to spread the word in that country, in Lithuania, and in the territory of the Wends.
It was not till 1168 that the gigantic four-headed image of Swantevit was destroyed at Arcona, the capital of the island of Riigen, and this Mona of Slavonic superstition was included in the advancing circle of Christian 5 Church, Gifts of Civilization, p. 330.6 Bede, H.E.
The lines laid down by St Basil have continued ever since to be the lines in which Greek and Slavonic monasticism has rested, the new multitudinous modifications of the monastic ideal, developed in such abundance in the Latin Church, having no counterpart in the Greek.
But the element of work has decreased, and Greek and Slavonic monks give themselves up for the most part to devotional contemplation.
The name appears to be Slavonic in origin, cf.
A peculiarity of the period is the development of decoration inspiretl by animal forms, but becoming more and more tortuous and fantastic. Only those eastern parts of Germany which were now occupied by Slavonic peoples remaiied uninfluenced by this rich civilization.
Among the Lugii we may probably include the Silingae, who afterwards appear among the Vandals in Spain, and whose name is preserved in Slavonic form in that of the province Silesia.
To the east of the Vistula were the Slavonic tribes (Veneti), and amongst them, perhaps rather to the north, a Finnish population(Fenni), which disappeared in later times.
By this time all the country east of the lower Elbe seems to have been Slavonic. In the north, perhaps in the province of Schleswig, we hear now for the first time of the Danes.
By the end of the 6th century the whole basin of the Elbe except the Saxon territory near the mouth had probably become Slavonic, To the east of the Saale were the Sorbs (Sorabi), and beyond them the Daleminci and Siusli.
During these years the eastern border of Germany was constantly ravaged by various Slavonic tribes.
Campaigns against the Slavonic tribes,if sometimes failing in their immediate object, taught those peoples to respect the power of the Frankish monarch; and the establishment of a series of marches along the eastern frontier gave a sense of safety to the neighboring districts.
For fifty years the main efforts of Louis were directed to defending his kingdom from the inroads of his Slavonic neighbors, and his detachment from the rest of the Empire necessitated by these constant engagements towards the east, gradually gave both him and his subjects a distinctive character, which was displayed and emphasized when, in ratifying an alliance with his half-brother, the West-Frankish king, Charles the Bald, the oath was sworn in different tongues.
When he was ready he used his new troops, before turning them against their chief enemy, the Magyars, to punish refractory Slavonic tribes; and he brought under temporary subjection nearly all the Slays between the Elbe and the Oder.
Anxious to regain these lands Henry allied himself with some Slavonic tribes, promising not to interfere with the exercise of their heathen religion, while Boleslaus found supporters among the discontented German nobles.
His authority was recognized by the Bohemians, and two expeditions taught the Slavonic tribes between the Elbe and the Oder to respect his power.
Thus - Germany was again threatered with the establishment of a greal and independent Slavonic state upon her eastern frontier.
During this reign the work of conquering and Germanizing the Slavonic tribes east of the Elbe was seriously taken in hand under the lead of Albert the Bear and Henry the Lion, and the foundation of the margraviate of Brandenburg by Albert tended to make life and property more secure in the north-east of Germany.
Since the death of Otto the Great the Slavonic lands to the east of the Elbe had been very imperfectly held in subjection by the Germans.
Between the seaward ridge and the mountain, the Stradone, or main street, runs along a narrow valley which, until the 13th century, was a marshy channel, dividing the Latin island of Ragusa from the Slavonic settlement of Dubrovnik, on the lower slopes of Monte Sergio.
Jirecek dissents from this view, and from the common opinion that Dubrovnik is derived from the Slavonic dubrava, " woody."
After 1526 the downfall of Hungary left Ragusa free; and about this time a great development of art and literature, begun in the 15th century and continued into the 17th, earned for the city its title of the "South Slavonic Athens."
About 590 the district was settled by the Slovenes, or Corutanes, a Slavonic people, who formed part of the kingdom of Samo, and were afterwards included in the extensive kingdom of the Avars.
By relinquishing her claim to the Belgian provinces and other outlying territories in western Germany, and by acquiescing in the establishment of Prussia in the Rhine provinces, she abdicated to Prussia her position as the bulwark of Germany against France, and hastened the process of her own gravitation towards the Slavonic East to which the final impetus was given in 1866.
They looked on the German schoolmaster as the apostle of German culture, and they looked forward to the time when the feeling of a common Austrian nationality should obscure the national feeling of the Sla y s, and the Slavonic idioms should survive merely as the local dialects of the peasantry, the territories becoming merely the provinces of a united and centralized state.
The introduction of Slavonic into the middle and higher schools has affected the Germans in their most sensitive point.
The first important regulations which were issued under the law of 1867 applied to Dalmatia, and for that country between 1872 and 1876 a series of laws and edicts were issued determining to what extent the Slavonic idioms were to be recognized.
ANTON GINDELY (1829-1892), German historian, was the son of a German father and a Slavonic mother, and was born at Prague on the 3rd of September 1829.
His family has been variously conjectured, on the strength of the proper names which its members are stated to have borne, to have been Teutonic or Slavonic. The latter seems the more probable view.
Besides these three great foreign wars, Justinian's reign was troubled by a constant succession of border inroads, especially on the northern frontier, where the various Slavonic and Hunnish tribes who were established along the lower Danube and on the north coast of the Black Sea made frequent marauding expeditions into Thrace and Macedonia, sometimes penetrating as far as the walls of Constantinople in one direction and the Isthmus of Corinth in another.
There are references in Rumanian, Slavonic, Armenian, Arabic and Syriac literature to a legend, of which the hero is Ahikar (for Armenian, Arabic and Syriac, see The Story of Ahikar, F.
The Slavonic population, including the Serbo-Croats and Bulgars, is by far the most numerous; its total aggregate exceeds io,000,000.
The Bulgars, who descend from a fusion of the Slavonic element with a later Ugro-Finnish immigration, inhabit the kingdom of Bulgaria (including Eastern Rumelia), parts of the Dobrudja and the greater part of Macedonia, except Old Servia and the Aegean littoral.
The Slavonic masses, however, both Servian and Bulgarian, preserved their language, which saved these nationalities from extinction.
The great Slavonic immigration, which changed the ethnographic face of the Peninsula, began in the 3rd century A.D.
Slavonic place-names, still existing in every portion of the Peninsula, bear witness to the multitude of the invaders and the permanency of their settlements.
In the 6th century the Sla y s penetrated to the Morea, where a Slavonic dialect was spoken down to the middle of the 15th century.
At the end of the 7th century the Bulgars, a Turanian race, crossed the Danube and subjected the Slavonic inhabitants of Moesia and Thrace, but were soon assimilated by the conquered population, which had already become partly civilized.
established his capital at Adrianople; in 1389 the fate of the Slavonic states was decided by the rout of the Servians and their allies at Kossovo.
Riiffer, Die Balkanhalbinsel and ihre Volker (Bautzen, 1869); Mackenzie and Irby, Travels in the Slavonic Provinces of Turkey (London, 1866); and A.
The origin of Pest proper is obscure, but the name, apparently derived from the old Slavonic pestj, a stove (like Ofen, the German name of Buda), seems to point to an early Slavonic settlement.
(30e(30bos), a title in use among certain Slavonic peoples, meaning literally "leader of an army" (Sl.
Various other works have been attributed to Moses, such as the Petirath Moshe, the 1 31 4 13Xos Aoywv, uucrrcK&v Mwuetws, The Exodus of Moses (in Slavonic), &c. See Charles, Assumption of Moses, pp. xiv.
The modern Hungarians (excluding Slavonic elements) are probably a mixture of these Magyars with the remnants of older invaders such as Huns, Petchenegs and Kumans.
The most beautiful and attractive part of the island is the peninsula of Jasmund, which terminates to the north in the Stubbenkammer (Slavonic for "rock steps"), a sheer chalk cliff, the summit of which, the Kbnigsstuhl, is 420 ft.
The symbols are as follows 2: - much discussion authorities on Slavonic seem generally agreed that it was the Glagolitic (the name is derived from the Old Bulgarian, i.e old ecclesiastical Slavonic glagolu, " word").
According to Professor Leskien (Grammatik der altbulgarischen (altkirchenslavischen) Sprache, Heidelberg, 1909, p. xxi.), Cyril had probably made a prolonged and careful study of Slavonic before proceeding on his missionary journey, and probably in the first instance with a view to preaching the Gospel to the Sla y s of Macedonia and Bulgaria, who were much nearer his own home, Thessalonica, than were those of Moravia.
The special forms of the alphabet - the Cyrillic and the Glagolitic - which have been adopted by certain of the Slavonic peoples are both sprung directly frc m the Greek alphabet of the ninth century A.D., with the considerable additions rendered necessary by the much greater variety of sounds in Slavonic as compared with Greek.
863 to Moravia from Constantinople, for the purpose of converting the Slavonic inhabitants to Christianity.
The liturgical language of the Uniat Slav Churches is Old Slavonic, and, so far as their rite is concerned, they differ from the Orthodox Slav Churches only in using the Glagolitic instead of the Cyrillic alphabet.
In Byzantine times it became a bishop's seat, and to judge by its later name "Hellas" it served as a refuge for the Greeks from the Slavonic immigrants of the 8th century.
It obtained great popularity, and was conscientiously exploited by various writers until the 11th century, being translated even into the Slavonic languages.
For the authorities consulted by Malalas, the influence of his work on Slavonic and Oriental literature, the state of the text, the original form and extent of the work, the date of its composition, the relation of the concluding part to the whole, and the literature of the subject, see C. Krumbacher's Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur (1897).
Hitherto Charles had aimed at supporting the weaker Slavonic power against the stronger; but now that Muscovy seemed about to disappear from among the nations of Europe, Swedish statesmen naturally sought some compensation for the expenses of the war before Poland had had time to absorb everything.
It is of great importance that among the Slavonic peoples the same word bogu distinguishes the deity; since this points to ancient cultural influences on which we have yet no more precise information.
886), known as the "Macedonian", Roman emperor in the East, was born of a family of Armenian (not Slavonic) descent, settled in Macedonia.
For a full description of the cathedral, in Serbo-Croatian and French, see the finely illustrated folio Stolna Crkva u Djakovu, published by the South Slavonic Academy (Agram, 1900).
It became early the scene of important historical events, the avenue and junction of the migration of peoples; and it forms the borderland between the German and Slavonic worlds.
Here in the first half of the 7th century Samo repulsed the invading hordes of the Avars, which threatened the independence of the newlysettled Slavonic inhabitants; here also Wratislas II.
Morfill, Slavonic Literature (1883); A.
Spasovic, History of Slavonic Literature (written in Russian, translated into German by Trangott Pech, Gesch.
This liturgy and the service generally are either in Old Greek or in Old Slavonic, and frequent disputes have arisen in particular districts about the language to be employed.
For example, the church of Mount Sinai may be regarded as all that survives of the ancient church of northern Arabia; the autocephalous Slavonic churches of Ipek and Okhrida, which derived their ultimate origin from the missions of Cyril and Methodius, were absorbed in the patriarchate of Constantinople in 1766 and 1767 respectively; and the Church of Georgia has been part of the Russian Church since 1801-1802.
The supersession of the Celtic Cornish by English, and of the Slavonic Old-Prussian by German, are but examples of a process which has for untold ages been supplanting native dialects, whose very names have mostly disappeared.
Two German dailies, one Slavonic daily, one Slavonic weekly, two Italian weeklies, and iron, building, coal and glass trade journals are published in the city.
HOSPODAR, a term of Slavonic origin, meaning "lord" (Russ.
The pronunciation as hospodar of a word written gospodar in all but one of the Slavonic languages which retain the Cyrillic alphabet is not, as is sometimes alleged, due to the influence of Little Russian, but to that of Church Slavonic. In both of these g is frequently pronounced h.
ENOCH The Book of Enoch, or, as it is sometimes called, the Ethiopic Book of Enoch, in contradistinction to the Slavonic Book of Enoch (see later), is perhaps the most important of all the apocryphal or pseudapocryphal Biblical writings for the history of religious thought.
The Book Of The Secrets Of Enoch, or Slavonic Enoch.
Although the characteristic titles of voivode, knez and ban (all implying military as well as civil authority) are of Slavonic origin, and perhaps derived from the practice of the later Bulgarian (or Bulgaro-Vlachian) empire, the growth of Vlach feudal institutions is attributed to German influences, which permeated through Hungarian channels into the Vlach world, and transformed the primitive tribal chiefs into a feudal aristocracy of boiars or boyards 2 (nobles).
The government, civil and ecclesiastical, was practically the same as that described in the case of Walachia, the officials bearing for the most part Slavonic titles derived from the practice of the Bulgaro-Vlachian tsardom.
The so-called Chronicle of Hurul is a modern forgery, and up to the 14th century the only valid authorities are Slavonic, Hungarian and Byzantine chroniclers.
Picot (Paris, 1878); Rumanian text in Old Slavonic characters, with French translation and notes of great value; the 17th-century Opere Complete of Miron Costiu, ed.
TR.; X.) Language Rumanian 1 is, geographically, an isolated eastern member of the group of Romance languages, being severed from all the rest by countries in which the predominant speech is Slavonic or Magyar.
The Latin alphabet is used, with special signs to represent sounds borrowed from Slavonic, &c. All the unaccented vowels except e are pronounced as in Italian; e has the same phonetic value as in Old Slavonic (=French e) and is often similarly preiotized (= ye in yet), notably at the beginning of all words except neologisms. The accented vowels é and ó are pronounced as ea and oa (petra, rock, = peatra; morte, death, = moarte); they are written in full, as diphthongs, at the end of a word and sometimes in other positions.
cind =quando) as in those derived from Slavonic; is represented by d or i, having the nasal sound of un in French; i and is at the end of a word are mute or short.
(X.) Literature The intellectual development of Rumania has never until modern times been affected by Latin culture, but it has been profoundly influenced first by Slavonic literature, then by the Greek or Byzantine literature, and last, by the Western, notably French and Italian novels.
The history of Rumanian literature can be divided into three distinct periods: the Slavonic, from the beginnings of Rumanian literature in the middle of the 16th century down to 1710; the Greek, from 1710-1830, corresponding with the era of Phanariote rule; and the modern period, from 1830 to the present.
The change from Slavonic to Rumanian was very gradual.
Even when the Rumanian language at last supplanted the Slavonic, it did not emancipate itself from the original; the new was merely a translation from the old, and at the beginning it was as literal as possible.
We have therefore in the first period a medieval literature transplanted to Rumania and consisting of translations from the Slavonic. The reason of the change from Slavonic into Rumanian is to be sought in the influence the Reformation had among the Rumanian inhabitants of Transylvania.
The second period is marked by a complete waning of Slavonic influence, through the literary activity of the Greek hospodars.
The Slavonic kingdoms of the south had lost their independence; they had ceased to produce anything worth having, whilst the Greeks brought with them the old literature from Byzantium and thus drove out the last remnants of Slavonic. They also treated Rumanian as an uncouth and barbarian language, and imposed upon the Church their own Greek language, Greek literature and Greek culture.
The oldest of these are direct translations from Slavonic texts, following the original word for word, even in its grammatical construction.
It is under their orders and often at their expense that the first Slavonic printing-presses were established in places like Kronstadt (Brashov) Oratia, Sasz-Shebesh and Belgrad (Alba Julia, in Transylvania)where Slavonic and Rumanian books appeared.
An absolutely identical Slavonic text of the Gospels appeared in the same year, or one year earlier, which no doubt was the original for the Rumanian translation.
Following up the list of publications of the books of the Bible in chronological order, we find Diakonus Koresi immediately afterwards - the date has not yet been definitely ascertained - printing The a Rumanian translation of the Acts of the Apostles; in 1 577 he printed at Sasz-Shebesh a Psalter in both Slavonic and Rumanian; the Rumanian follows thee Slavonic verse for verse.
The Slavonic language still reigned supreme in the Church; yet once the example had been set in Transylvania, and the influence of the Slavonic nations had begun to slacken, it was inevitable that the Rumanian language should sooner or later come to its own.
This translation was based upon the Slavonic original, but the text had been verified and corrected, by comparison with a Calvinistic translation, and had been collated with the Greek.
As far back as 1600 Dositheiu had made a new translation of the Psalter from the Slavonic and printed it in both languages (Jassy, 1680).
A new translation of the Psalter from Slavonic, with a commentary, the first of its kind, was made in 1697 by Alexander Dascalul (Alexander Preceptor Polonus).
A Slavonic original sent by the metropolitan Serafim of Walachia served as the basis for a second collection of homilies known as Evangelie inv¢(dtoare (1580 It differs from the former in language and tendency and proves that Koresi was only a translator and printer.
All the service books were in Slavonic, but during this period most of them were translated, and some of them printed, although Liturgy not yet officially used.
In 1694 Alexander Dascalul translated, and the bishops Mitrofan of Buseu and Kesarie of Ramnicu Valcea printed (among other church books) the twelve volumes of the Mineu in Slavonic with Rumanian rubrics, and short lives of the saints, as well as the Triod and the Anthologion.
de virtu; the Invdtdturi crectine.Ft i, " Christian teachings " of Filoteos (ibid., 1700); the short moral guide, Ceirare pre scurt, by Ioan of Vinci (Belgrad, 1685), translated from some Hungarian original; the Mdntuirea paciitosilor, or " Salvation of sinners," translated from the Greek by a certain Cozma in 1682, which is a storehouse of medieval exempla; and above all the Mirror of Kings, ascribed to Prince Neagoe Bassaraba, written originally in Slavonic (or Greek, if the prince be really the author), and translated (c. 1650) into Rumanian.
Of the lives of saints, the Prolog, translated from the Slavonic at the beginning of the 17th century (MS.), and the Vietile Sfintilor, by Dositheiu (2 vols., Jassy, 1682), are the most important.
In the latter, which is his greatest work, Dositheiu uses not only Greek texts, but also Slavonic legends and other MS. material; and he includes a goodly number of the apocryphal legends of saints.
The Slavonic Nomokanon, which rests on Greek legislation and embodies the canonical and civil law, had previously been used in Rumania.
In 1652 there appeared in Bucharest a complete code of laws, translated from the Greek and Slavonic and adapted to local needs under the direction of the prince of Walachia, Matthias Bassaraba.
The earliest historical works are short annals, written originally in Slavonic by monks in the monasteries of Moldavia and Walachia.
In 1620 Moxa translated from the Slavonic a short history History.
Two other universal histories were translated from Greek and Slavonic chronographs.
Both are still in MS. The Old Slavonic annals were later on translated and new notes were added, each subsequent writer annexing the work of his predecessor, and prefixing his name to the entire compilation.
So long as the Rumanians were spiritually united with the other Orthodox nations, and so long as they used the Slavonic or Cyrillic alphabet, they would practically be cut off from the Latin West.
If, however, they could be induced to discard the old Slavonic alphabet and substitute for it the Latin, and could be brought to recognize their national and ethnical unity with ancient Rome, it was hoped that then they would be more easily induced to enter into the unity of faith.
Slavonic having entirely disappeared from the sources of literature, writers and translators turned to Greek originals and for more than a century were busy translating into Rumanian the most important works of the older Fathers of the Church.
Udriste (Uriil) Nasturel translated the History from the Slavonic in 1640.
Of similar oriental origin is the Dream of Mamer, the interpretation of which goes back to the Panchatantra, and must have reached Rumania early in the 18th century, probably in Slavonic. The history of Syntippa and the Seven Masters has also become a popular book.
Far larger than the secular is the religious popular literature; it comprises many apocryphal tales from the Old and the New Testaments, and not a few of the heretical tales circulated by the various sects of Asia Minor and Thracia, which percolated into Rumania through the medium of Slavonic. A brief enumeration of the chief tales must suffice.
Pomerania, protected on the south by virgin forests and almost impenetrable morasses, was in those days inhabited by a valiant and savage Slavonic race akin to the Wends, who clung to paganism with unconquerable obstinacy.
The obstinacy of the resistance convinced Boleslaus that Pomerania must be christianized before it could be completely subdued; and this important work was partially accomplished by St Otto, bishop of Bamberg, an old friend of Boleslaus's father, who knew the Slavonic languages.
Fontenelle tells us that his uncle had translations of the Cid in every European tongue but Turkish and Slavonic, and M.
In Saracen times there was a Slavonic quarter on the southern side of the city, and there is still a colony of United Greeks, or more strictly Albanians.
Potsdam was originally a Slavonic fishing-village named Portupimi, and is first mentioned in a document of 993.
An influx of Slavonic settlers in the 8th century A.D.
The last sparks of resistance were extinguished in 1018, and the great Slavonic realm lay in the dust.
He travelled in Russia, European Turkey and Asia Minor, gaining a thorough knowledge of Greek, Turkish and several Slavonic languages.
The population, however, has undergone a great change, independently of the large admixture of Slavonic blood that has affected the Greeks of the mainland generally, by the immigration of Albanian colonists, who now occupy a great part of the country.
More than four-fifths of this number belong to the Serbo-Croatian branch of the Slavonic race; while the remainder is composed of about 160,000 Rumans, 47,000 gipsies, 8000 Austro-Hungarians and Germans, and 5000 Jews.
Primary education in the state schools is free and compulsory; the reading of Church Slavonic, nature-study and agriculture (for boys), domestic science (for girls), certain handicrafts, singing and gymnastics are among the subjects taught.
(X.) History The Serbs (Srbi, as they call themselves) are a Slavonic nation, ethnically and by language the same as the Croats (Hrvati, Horvati, Croati).
(X.) Language The Servian language belongs to the family of Slavonic languages (see Slavs).
yezika, Belgrade, 1874), the Servians were the first Slavonic branch which separated from the original Slavonic stem, while the Russians and the Bulgarians only separated from it at a considerably later date.
The Russian and Bulgarian languages undoubtedly stand nearer to Old Slavonic than the Servian.
179) two separate branches developed from the Old Slavonic stem, one identical with the western Slays, and the other with the south-eastern group; and from the Slavonic of the south-east the first languages to separate were the Russian and the South Slavonic. From the latter developed Bulgarian, on one side, and Servian-Slovene on the other, while from the last-named branch Servian or Serbo-Croatian and Slovene developed on two separate twigs.
There can be no doubt that in the south-eastern group of the Slavonic languages SerboCroatian and Slovene form a special closely-connected group, in which the Servian and the Croat languages are almost identical.
There can be little doubt that this absorption softened and enriched the Serbo-Croatian dialects, a process to which climatic conditions and intercourse with Italy also contributed, until Serbo-Croatian became one of the richest and most melodious of Slavonic languages.
Practically, however, there are only three principal dialects, which are differentiated by the manner in which the Old Slavonic double vocal ye (the so-called yach) is pronounced.
Servian and Croatian are only two dialects of the same Slavonic language.
They are as follows: (a) while the Servians pronounce the Old Slavonic yach as ye or e or ee, the Croats pronounce it always as ee (Servian beeyelo or belo, Croatian beelo); (b) the Servians have the sound gye (softened d or g), the Croats are without it, but have instead ya or ye (Servian gospogya, Croatian gospoya); (c) the Servians let the vowel i transform the preceding consonant into a soft consonant, whereas the Croats pronounce the consonant unaffected by the softening influence of i (Servian bratya, Croatian bratia); (d) the Servians change the letter l at the end of a word into o whereas the Croats always pronounce it as 1.
The great dictionary compiled and published by the South Slavonic Academy of Agram is called The Lexicon of the Servian or Croatian Language.
Formation of a Servian - Slavonic Language.
Cyril and 1Vlethodius used the Greek alphabet somewhat modified and adapted to the necessities of the Slavonic language.
The Old Slavonic church books had naturally to be copied from time to time, and the Servian, Bulgarian and Russian copyists were unable to resist the influences of their respective living languages.
Thus comparatively soon there appeared church books no longer written in pure Old Slavonic (of which the so-called " Asseman's Gospel " in the Vatican is the best type), but in Old Slavonic modified by Servian, Bulgarian, Russian influences, or in the languages which could be called Servian-Slavonic, Bulgarian-Slavonic, Russian-Slavonic. The best extant specimen of the Servian-Slavonic is " Miroslav's Gospel," written in the second half of the 12th century for the Servian prince Miroslav; a facsimile edition was published in 1897 in Belgrade.
Miklosich's Monumenta Serbica, Putsich's Srpski Spomenitsi u Dubrovachkoy Arkhivi, and the publications of the Royal Servian Academy in Belgrade and the South Slavonic Academy of Science in Agram).
All the works of Palmotich have been published by the South Slavonic Academy (Stari Pisci, vols.
In 1756 he published a book entitled Razgovor Ugodni Naroda Slovinskoga (" The Popular Talk of the Slavonic People "), in which in 261 songs he described - in the manner and in the spirit of the national bards - the more important historic or legendary events and heroes of the " Slavonic people."
(Moscow, 1 754); the Short Introduction into the History of the Origin of the SlavenoServian Nation, by Paul Yulinats (Venice, 1765); and above all the History of the Slavonic Nations, more especially of the Bulgarians, Croats and Servians, by Archimandrite Yovan Raich (Vienna, 1794).
Only a few of his contemporaries followed the example which Dositey set in writing in the vernacular (although even he introduced from time to time purely Slavonic words and forms).
In philology a very high place is occupied by Gyuro Danichich, once professor of philology at the high school in Belgrade and secretary to the South Slavonic Academy at Agram, where he was for years the principal editor of the great lexicon of the Servian or Croatian language.
Spassovich, History of Slavonic Literatures (in Russ., St Petersburg, 1879, in French, Paris, 1881), and Dr Mathias Murko, Die Kultur osteuropaischer Li,'eraturen and die slavischen Sprachen (Berlin and Leipzig, 1908).
The proportion of sheep to other live-stock is lower than in most of the South Slavonic lands, and the scarcity of goats is also noteworthy.
The population rose from 1,892,499 in 1881 to 2,416,304 in 1900, an increase of little less than one-third, resulting from a uniformly low death rate, with a high marriage and birth rate, and characterized by that preponderance of male over female children which is common to all the South Slavonic lands.
The distinction between Croats and Serbs is religious, and, to a less extent, linguistic. Croats and Serbs together constitute a single branch of the Slavonic race, frequently called the Serbo-Croatian branch.
Foremost among the Educa- educational institutions is the South Slavonic Academy Educa- of Sciences and Arts (Jugoslavenska Akademija Znanosti i Umjetnosti), founded by Strossmayer and others in 1867, as an improvement on a learned society which had existed since 1836.
These were in turn expelled from Croatia by the Croats, a Slavonic people from the western Carpathians, who, according to some authorities, had occupied the territories of the Marcomanni in Bohemia, and been driven thence in the 6th century by the Czechs.
The Croats formed the western division of the great migratory horde of Serbo-Croats which colonized the lands between Bulgaria and the Adriatic. Contemporary chroniclers called them Chrovati, Belochrobati (" White Croats"), Chrovati, Horvati, or by some similar Latin or Byzantine variant of the Slavonic Khrvaty.
The Croats occupied most of the region now known as Croatia-Slavonia, Dalmatia, and north-western Bosnia, displacing or absorbing the earlier inhabitants everywhere except along the Dalmatian littoral, where the Italian city-states usually maintained their independence, and in certain districts of Slavonia, where, out of a mixed population of Slavonic immigrants, Avars and Pannonians, the Sla y s, and especially the Serbo-Croats, gradually became predominant.
The newly elected diet was soon dissolved for its advocacy of a great South Slavonic confederation under imperial rule, and no other was elected until 1865.
It was opposed by Austria as tending to create a new and formidable Slavonic nation within the Dual Monarchy, and by Hungary as a menace to Magyar predominance in Transleithania.
For the place of the Croatian dialects among Slavonic languages generally, see Slavs.
The Croatian dialects, like the Servian, have gradually developed from the Old Slavonic, which survives in medieval liturgies and biblical or apocryphal writings.
With the foundation of the South Slavonic Academy at Agram, in 1867, the study of science and history received a new impetus.
The only detailed history is one in Serbo-Croatian, written by a succession of the highest native authorities, and published by the South Slavonic Academy (Agram, from 1861).
Makushev, in Latin and Italian, with notes in Slavonic (Belgrade, 1885); De regno.
Having asserted his authority over the Bohemians and other Slavonic tribes, Conrad went a second time to Italy in 1036 in response to an appeal from Heribert of Milan, whose oppressions had led to a general rising of the smaller vassals against their lords.
The Varangian god Perun was probably Thor himself under a Slavonic name (Russian perun, "thunderbolt").
In the west division the population is wholly Teutonic, but in the east there is a strong Wendish or Slavonic element, still to be traced in the peculiar manners and costume of the country-people, though these are gradually disappearing.
Greece, India and Scandinavia will supply a fair example of Aryan mythology (without entering on the difficult Slavonic and Celtic fields).
396 Alaric destroyed the city and at a later period Laconia was invaded and settled by Slavonic tribes, especially the Melings and Ezerits, who in turn had to give way before the advance of the Byzantine power, though preserving a partial independence in the mountainous regions.
The word seems, however, to have disappeared from the Slavonic languages.
Zamoyski feared their influence upon Poland, which he would have made the head of the Slavonic powers by its own endeavours.
Mackenzie, Travels in the Slavonic Provinces of Turkey (1877); M.
During the early years Of the Christian era, the district was inhabited by the Semnones, and afterwards by various Slavonic tribes, who were partially subdued by Charlemagne, but soon regained their independence.
It has been preserved in Greek, Ethiopic, Armenian and Slavonic. The Greek was first printed at Venice in 1609, next by Ceriani in 1868 in his Mon.
A notable example where this relationship has been especially fruitful concerns the provision for Slavonic studies.
iconography of the old Slavonic period right up to the end of the 19th century.
Consequently, you may study Comparative Slavonic philology with special reference to Polish, Czech or Russian.
You may be offered introductory lectures to Comparative Slavonic philology during your time at Oxford.
velvety tones of Tunstall, and Meditation On Dvorak's Slavonic Fantasy.
By insisting on the superiority of the Magyars to the Slavonic inhabitants of Hungary, by his violent attacks on Austria (he already discussed the possibility of a breach with Austria), he raised the national pride to a dangerous pitch.
At a very early age he entertained an exalted idea of his own divine authority, and his studies were largely devoted to searching in the Scriptures and the Slavonic chronicles for sanctions and precedents for the exercise and development of his right divine.
While the other primitive populations of the peninsula were either hellenized or latinized, or subsequently absorbed by the Slavonic immigration, the Albanians to a great extent remained unaffected by foreign influences.
It is customary for young men who are attached to each other to swear eternal brotherhood (compare the Slavonic pobratimstvo); the contract is regarded as sacred, and no instance has been known of its violation.
It possesses seven vowels; among the consonants are the aspirated d and t, as in Greek, and many other sounds, such as b, d, sh, zh (French j), and hard g, which are wanting in Greek, but exist in the Slavonic languages.
The suffix-article likewise appears in Rumanian and Bulgarian, but in no other Latin or Slavonic language; it is in each case a form of the demonstrative pronoun.
of dova, "I will"), like the Greek 6a, is prefixed without change to all persons of the verb: a similar usage in Servian and Bulgarian, as well as in Rumanian (especially the Macedonian dialect), is peculiar to these languages in the Slavonic and Latin groups.
Since he wrote, new authorities have been discovered or rendered accessible; works in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, Armenian, Syriac, Arabic and other languages, which he was unable to consult, have been published.
The word "pear" or its equivalent occurs in all the Celtic languages, while in Slavonic and other dialects different appellations, but still referring to the same thing, are found - a diversity and multiplicity of nomenclature which led Alphonse de Candolle to infer a very ancient cultivation of the tree from the shores of the Caspian to those of the Atlantic. A certain race of pears, with white down on the under surface of their leaves, is supposed to have originated from P. nivalis, and their fruit is chiefly used in France in the manufacture of Perry (see Cider).
Its author is usually known as pseudo-Callisthenes, although in the Latin translation by Julius Valerius Alexander Polemius (beginning of the 4th century) it is ascribed to a certain Aesopus; Aristotle, Antisthenes, Onesicritus and Arrian have also been credited with the authorship. There are also Syrian, Armenian and Slavonic versions, in addition to four Greek versions (two in prose and two in verse) in the middle ages (see Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur, 18 97, p. 8 49).
In Europe the Slavonic area is the principal seat of vampire beliefs, and here too we find, as a natural development, that means of preventing the dead from injuring the living have been evolved by the popular mind.
But the new sultan was as averse from accepting any of the formulae proposed as were his predecessors: Servia and Montenegro were with great difficulty pacified, but it was plain that Russia, whose Slavonic and Orthodox sympathies had been strongly aroused, would soon begin hostilities herself.
The oldest and for the most part Jewish portion of this literature is preserved to us in Greek, Armenian, Latin and Slavonic. (i.) The Greek Ooryr7vcs r€pi 'ASaµ rcai Eras (published under the misleading title 'AlroicaXvi/ics Mwvo ws in Tischendorf's Apocalypses Apocryphae, 1866) deals with the Fall and the death of Adam and Eve.
The Syriac has in turn become the parent of the Arabic, Armenian and Ethiopic-- possibly also of the Greek and Slavonic versions.'Ã‚° Another deeply interesting Syriac Apocryphon is the Acts of Judas Thomas (i.e.
There are independent versions of these chapters in Latin and Slavonic. (See Isaiah, Ascension Of.) Shepherd of Hermas.
The introduction, which is wanting in the Greek MS., has been supplied by a Latin translation from the Slavonic version (see pp. vii.-ix.).
The spirit of courage and endurance which had enabled the Czechoslovaks to achieve their independence was now to inspire a further work of no mean significance - the consolidation of a free, democratic and enlightened republic in the heart of Europe, the most westerly outpost of the great Slavonic world stretching from the banks of the Elbe and the Danube to the Pacific Ocean, and at the same time a nation bound by ties of gratitude and common interest to the Anglo-Saxon and Latin races.
The old town-hall is a quaint Slavonic adaptation of Romanesque forms. The royal castle, begun in 1905 and completed in 1910 at a cost of £250,000, is a pretentious building in what is officially called Romanesque style.
The Slavonic peoples, whose territories then extended to the Elbe, and embraced the whole southern shore of the Baltic, were beginning to recoil before the vigorous impetus of the Germans in the West, who regarded their pagan neighbours in much the same way as the Spanish Conquistadores regarded the Aztecs and the Incas.
KcvpLaKOv [bWµa], " the Lord's [house]," and common to many Teutonic, Slavonic and other languages under various forms - Scottish kirk, Ger.
The Ritual in Slavonic written by the Bosnian Radoslavou, and published in vol.
The wolf story again recalls the tales of werewolves so common among Slavonic peoples, and there is much probability in Schafarik's conjecture that the Neuri are nothing but the ancestors of the Sla y s.
The name Uprauda is said to be derived from the word prauda, which in Old Slavic means jus, justitia, the prefix being simply a breathing frequently attached to Slavonic names.
The Servian dialect extending into regions which escaped the Turkish yoke, enjoyed certain advantages denied to the Bulgarian: in free Montenegro the first Slavonic printing-press was founded in 1493; at Ragusa, a century later, Servian literature attained a high degree of excellence.
He secured its frontiers by inviting Slavonic settlers into the depopulated districts and by restoring the army to efficiency; when the Arabs renewed their invasions in 726 and 739 they were decisively beaten.
It has also only one symbol for e and je (ye) for the phonetic reason that je always appears in the old ecclesiastical Slavonic, for which the alphabets were fashioned, at the beginning of words and after vowels: cp. the English use of the symbol u in unspoken and uniform.
Another authority derives it from the German word Briihl, a marshy district, and the Slavonic termination in; thus Briihl, by the regular transmutation Biihrl (compare Ger.
In official documents the language used was Slavonic, the style of a Moldavian ruler being Nachalnik i Voievoda Moldovlasi, prince and duke (= Ger.
The Latin alphabet is used, with special signs to represent sounds borrowed from Slavonic, &c. All the unaccented vowels except e are pronounced as in Italian; e has the same phonetic value as in Old Slavonic (=French e) and is often similarly preiotized (= ye in yet), notably at the beginning of all words except neologisms. The accented vowels Ã© and Ã³ are pronounced as ea and oa (petra, rock, = peatra; morte, death, = moarte); they are written in full, as diphthongs, at the end of a word and sometimes in other positions.
The sound of the Slavonic y,J (a guttural y) is represented by d, e or o, though these letters occur as frequently in words of Latin origin (e.g.
Slavonic had been the language of the Church from the early middle ages, and was therefore hallowed in the eyes of the people and the clergy; through the political connexion with the Slavonic kingdoms of the south, Bulgaria and Servia, it had also been the language of the chancellories and of the court.
One of the minor causes of that turbulence is to be found in the struggle between the ancient Slavonic order of inheritance, according to which a Zhupan ought to be succeeded by the oldest member of the family and not necessarily by his own son, and the natural desire of every ruler that his own son should inherit the throne.
The Old Slavonic words lyepo, byelo, are pronounced by the Servians of Herzegovina, Bosnia, Montenegro, Dalmatia, Croatia and south-western Servia as leeyepo, beeyelo; by the Servians of Syrmia the same vowel is pronounced sometimes as e (lepo, belo), sometimes as ee (videeti, leteeti); by the Servians of the Morava valley and its accessory Ressava valley, always only as e (lepo, belo, videti, leteti).
To facilitate this reform, to overcome the ecclesiastical prejudices of the Roman Catholic Croats against the Eastern Orthodox Servians, and vice versa, certain Croatian patriots, led by Ljudevit Gaj, proposed that all the Slavonic peoples in the north-western part of the Balkan Peninsula should call themselves Illyri and their language Illyrian (see Croatia-Slavonia: Language and Literature and History).
- Servian literature begins with the biblical and liturgical books, written in " Old Slavonic," or " Church Slavonic," into which " the Slavonic apostles " Cyril and Methodius (see Slavs) had translated the Bible and other church books about the middle of the 9th century.
The Cyrillic aphabet replaced an older Servian, or probably Old Slavonic, alphabet called " Glagolitic" (see Slavs: Alphabets).
Their skill in maritime affairs, exemplified first in the 9th century by the pagan corsairs of the Narenta (see Dalmatia: History), and later by the numerous Dalmatian and Croatian sailors who served in the navies of Venice and Austria, is remarkable in a Slavonic people, and one which had so recently migrated from central Europe.
Highlights include the mournful refrain of Lazarus, featuring the velvety tones of Tunstall, and Meditation On Dvorak 's Slavonic Fantasy.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.