His breathing was shallow and fast.
They are fresh, shallow and tideless.
There were tears on her face, and her breathing was shallow and ragged.
Acquaintances were shallow and many, but if a person had one true friend in a lifetime, they were blessed.
Its proximal end forms a shallow cup for articulation with the outer condyle of the humerus; the distal end bears a knob which fits into the radial carpal.
The upper Euphrates consists of two arms, which, rising on the Armenian plateau, and flowing west in long shallow valleys parallel to Mount Taurus, eventually unite and force their way southward through that range to the level of Mesopotamia.
Speechless, Katie couldn.t help thinking Gio was as shallow as her sister.
He crossed to it and saw a shallow bowl filled with water.
The first reached the nearby stream and stumbled, falling to his knees in the center of its shallow waters.
It is exceedingly shallow, however, and is not of much importance as a waterway.
The Bebedero, in San Luis, and Porongos, in Cordoba, and others, are shallow, saline lakes which receive the drainage of a considerable area and have no outlet.
Sometimes, also, when the ice was covered with shallow puddles, I saw a double shadow of myself, one standing on the head of the other, one on the ice, the other on the trees or hillside.
They are not like cups between the hills; for this one, which is so unusually deep for its area, appears in a vertical section through its centre not deeper than a shallow plate.
Her heartbeat was shallow and fast; her head felt like it was in a clamp.
Instincts took her in the direction of the stream, and she reached the top of a shallow ravine in whose valley the stream flowed.
There was no easy way to the edge of the ravine, and it looked too shallow along most places to make a jump pay off.
A hunter told me that he once saw a fox pursued by hounds burst out on to Walden when the ice was covered with shallow puddles, run part way across, and then return to the same shore.
Dean examined the ground for tracks but the water, which while shallow, in most places covered the width of the narrow passageway and obliterated any footprints.
Deep holes in the ground, rimmed with black, pockmarked the shallow valley.
When they stopped beside a wide shallow creek, he crouched with his back to her.
Shadows chased her up the stairs and flew down the halls, coating the floors and walls in shallow, black fog.
It is shallow, and the shores in its vicinity are covered with small timber.
Scrambling to her feet again, she stumbled to shallow water.
It is picturesquely situated in a shallow defile of the Chiltern Hills, towards their western face.
The temperature of the Boiling Spring the same day was 45º, or the warmest of any water tried, though it is the coldest that I know of in summer, when, beside, shallow and stagnant surface water is not mingled with it.
In the northern part of Corrientes there is a large area of swamps and shallow lagoons which are believed to be slowly drying up.
Children ask profound questions, but they often receive shallow answers, or, to speak more correctly, they are quieted by such answers.
"Who the hell put a pool here?" he demanded, pulling his right foot out of the shallow end of an in-ground pool.
5 shows the intermediate type again sheathed with a heavy armour to resist wear in the shallow water near shore.
His attention shifted to his mother, whose breathing was shallow enough, he barely heard it with his super sensitive hearing.
One day Miss Sullivan attracted my attention to a strange object which she had captured basking in the shallow water.
Marya Ignatevna Peronskaya, a thin and shallow maid of honor at the court of the Dowager Empress, who was a friend and relation of the countess and piloted the provincial Rostovs in Petersburg high society, was to accompany them to the ball.
Brandon rolled his eyes before he disappeared down the same shallow hallway Ashley had.
Tertiary Cretaceous Ievel of the Miocene sea, which was very shallow to the N.
Her left foot found the first shallow step, and she took another step back, her eyes pinned on the second kitten running along the table.
Instead of retreating into the forest—the way they'd come—he walked behind a boulder and started up a set of long, shallow steps leading up the mountain.
A thermometer thrust into the middle of Walden on the 6th of March, 1847, stood at 32º, or freezing point; near the shore at 33º; in the middle of Flint's Pond, the same day, at 32º; at a dozen rods from the shore, in shallow water, under ice a foot thick, at 36º.
I drink at it; but while I drink I see the sandy bottom and detect how shallow it is.
Her breathing was shallow, the scent of her blood making him shudder.
He trotted up a set of shallow stairs chiseled into the mountain to the helipad where Dan waited.
of Java, from which it is separated by Bali Strait, which is shallow, and scarcely over a mile in width at its narrowest point.
She trailed the two couples up shallow stairs and took the seat beside Evelyn not occupied by Romas.
He holds that such philosophy is too shallow for theology.
He snatched her before she went under and dragged her back to the shallow waters, carefully maneuvering her upper body onto the small boulder Hilden had placed earlier.
62) Shallow calls Bardolph's companions "cavaleros."
Behind the tent and its low, shallow steps was a small group of blond warriors surrounding a fifth man with darker skin and hair.
Immediately before the Civil War, petroleum was discovered in shallow wells near Parkersburg, and there was a great rush of prospectors and speculators to the Little Kanawha Valley.
He sometimes held the carbon powder against the diaphragm in a small tr ans' shallow cell (from a quarter to half an inch in diameter and about an eighth of an inch deep), and sometimes he used what he describes as a fluff, that is, a little brush of silk fibre with plumbago rubbed into it.
The " nardoo " seed, on which the aborigines sometimes contrived to exist, is a creeping plant, growing plentifully in swamps and shallow pools, and belongs to the natural order of Marsileaceae.
in length to be met with in the shallow lagoons of the interior of the Northern Territory.
The catkins appear soon after the young leaves, usually in England towards the end of May; the acorns, oblong in form, are in shallow cups with short, scarcely projecting scales; the fruit is shed the first autumn, often before the foliage changes.
South of the port is the shallow entrance to the Lagoa do Norte, or Lagoa Mundahu, a salt-water lake extending inland for some miles.
This was constructed of a shallow box placed in a vertical position, with metallic front and back and insulating sides.
Of a wholly different character is the Lago di Varese, between the Lago Maggiore and that of Lugano, which is a mere shallow expanse of water, surrounded by hills of very moderate elevation.
This difference of three and a half degrees between the temperature of the deep water and the shallow in the latter pond, and the fact that a great proportion of it is comparatively shallow, show why it should break up so much sooner than Walden.
It is much larger, being said to contain one hundred and ninety-seven acres, and is more fertile in fish; but it is comparatively shallow, and not remarkably pure.
But a low and smooth shore proves him shallow on that side.
A lake like this is never smoother than at such a time; and the clear portion of the air above it being, shallow and darkened by clouds, the water, full of light and reflections, becomes a lower heaven itself so much the more important.
Next in size is the Lago Trasimeno, a broad expanse of shallow waters, about 30 m.
But this theism is lifeless - a " pale and shallow deism, which India has often confessed with the lips, but which has never won the homage of her heart.'" The thought of India is upon the side of pantheism.
The external form of the Hydromedusae varies from that of a deep bell or thimble, characteristic of the Anthomedusae, to the shallow saucer-like form characteristic of the Leptomedusae.
The umbrella is shallow and has the margin supported by a rim of thickened ectoderm, as in the Trachomedusae, but not so strongly developed.
It occurs in the Hukawng valley, in the Nangotaimaw hills, where it is irregularly worked in shallow pits.
Vegetation of all sorts acts in a similar way, either in forming soil and assisting in breaking up rocks, in filling up shallow lakes, and even, like the mangrove, in reclaiming wide stretches of land from the sea.
The breathing becomes shallow, the drug killing, like nearly all neurotic poisons (alcohol, morphia, prussic acid, &c.), by paralysis of the respiratory centre, and the patient dying in a state of coma.
I read one or two shallow books of travel in the intervals of my work, till that employment made me ashamed of myself, and I asked where it was then that I lived.
These wash back and forth in shallow water on a sandy bottom, and are sometimes cast on the shore.
But if, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, we apply these proportions to Walden, which, as we have seen, appears already in a vertical section only like a shallow plate, it will appear four times as shallow.
Every morning, generally speaking, the shallow water is being warmed more rapidly than the deep, though it may not be made so warm after all, and every evening it is being cooled more rapidly until the morning.
"The nodules, having been imbued with phosphatic matter from their matrix in the London Clay, were dislodged," says Buckland, "by the waters of the seas of the first period, and accumulated by myriads at the bottom of those shallow seas where is now the coast of Suffolk.
A third curve, from the south-easternmost promontory of the Peloponnese through Cerigo, Crete, Carpathos and Rhodes, marks off the outer deeps of the open Mediterranean from the shallow seas of the archipelago, but the Cretan Sea, in which depths occur over 1000 fathoms, intervenes, north of the line, between it and the Aegean proper.
been made to arrive at a definite international agreement on this subject, and certain terms suggested by a committee were adopted by the Eighth International Geographical Congress at New York in 1904.4 The forms of the ocean floor include the " shelf," or shallow sea margin, the " depression," a general term applied to all submarine hollows, and the " elevation."
Katie's breathing grew shallow.
She squeezed her eyes closed, heart quickening and her breathing fast and shallow.
She closed her eyes, breathing growing shallow.
The gravity of the situation encompassed Jackson, his breath became shallow.
Your cut was shallow.
The angle was too steep, though and the roots of the bush too shallow.
Aaron didn't strike her as being that shallow.
The south-moving currents originating from melting ice are probably quite shallow.
But even this sheet of water is an inland sea, the only outlet of which, the Bosphorus, is in foreign hands, while the Caspian, an immense shallow lake, mostly bordered by deserts, possesses more importance as a link between Russia and her Asiatic settlements than as a channel for intercourse with other countries.
They freeze in winter and dry up in summer, and most of them are navigable only during the spring floods; even the Volga becomes so shallow during the hot season that none but boats of light draught can pass over its shoals.
Dvina, which falls into the sea below Riga, is shallow above the rapids of Jacobstadt, but navigation is carried on as far as Vitebsk - corn, timber, potash, flax, &c., being the principal shipments of its navigable tributaries (the Obsha, Ulla and Kasplya).
At Kherson it enters its long (40 m.) but shallow estuary, which receives the S.
These consist of shallow troughs about 18 in.
Where the depth to rail-level was too great for cut-and-cover methods, ordinary tunnelling processes were used; and where the trench was too shallow for the arched roof, heavy girders, sometimes of cast iron, bridged it between the side walls, longitudinal.
The other extreme type is the shallow construction, where the railway is brought to the minimum distance below the street level.
The spring tides rise upwards of 30 ft., and in a channel usually so shallow form a serious danger to shipping.
The valleys between the tilted mountain blocks are smooth and often trough-like, and are often the sites of shallow salt lakes or playas.
The extreme frosts and heats of the English climate are unknown, but occasional heavy snow-falls occur, and the sea in shallow inlets is covered with a thin coating of ice.
The latter class is formed by waters that fall on the barren mountain-sides and rush down in torrents, forming in the valleys shallow bodies of water yellow with the mud held in suspension.
The exterior brick walls are divided by shallow arches and pilasters, as in other churches of Ravenna.
The harbour is well sheltered but generally shallow; it has been considerably improved by the United States government and also by the state, which in 1909 was making a channel 18 ft.
ALGOA BAY, a wide, shallow bay of South Africa, 436 m.
Pascagoula and Point aux Chenes bays; separated from it by the shallow and practically unnavigable Mississippi Sound is a chain of low, long and narrow sand islands, the largest of which are Petit Bois, Horn, Ship and Cat.
Between Hatteras and Lookout is Raleigh Bay and between Lookout and Fear is Onslow Bay; and between the chain of islands and the deeply indented mainland Currituck, Albemarle, Pamlico and other sounds form an extensive area, especially to the northward, of shallow, brackish and almost tideless water.
The Coastal Plain Region is the only part of the state that has any lakes, and these are chiefly shallow bodies of water, with sandy bottoms, in the midst of swamps.
It is mostly shallow and only close to Memel attains a depth of 23 ft.
The roadstead is very shallow, and exposed to winds which cause great variations in the height of the water; it is, moreover, rapidly silting up. At the quay the depth of water is only 8 to 9 feet, and large ships have to lie 5 to 13 miles from the town.
is perhaps the fine spring north of the village, a shallow pool of good water full of small fish, rising between black basalt boulders: or more probably the copious `Ain Jalud.
The autumnal subsidence of the river was followed by shallow ploughing performed by oxen yoked to clumsy wooden ploughs, the clods being afterwards levelled with wooden hoes by hand.
Giovanni Evangelista at the Frari, with its fore-court and screen adorned by pilasters delicately decorated with foliage in low relief, and its noble staircase whose double flights unite on a landing under a shallow cupola.
The campanile is usually a plain brick shaft with shallow pilasters running up the faces.
The fry of clupeoids, which likewise swim in schools, are followed by the mackerel until they reach some shallow place, which their enemies dare not enter.
It is not necessarily deep culture, and during the growing season the cultivation is preferably very shallow.
The question of deep and shallow culture has been much discussed among planters without any conclusion applicable to all soils being reached.
The earliest system adopted for the collection of petroleum appears to have consisted in Early skimming the oil from the surface of the water upon Methods which it had accumulated, and Professor Lesley states, that at Paint Creek, in Johnson county, Kentucky, a Mr George and others were in the habit of collecting oil from the sands, " by making shallow canals loo or 200 ft.
Ordinarily shallow, the rivers after heavy rain fill with great rapidity, sweeping away everything in their path.
Two lateral, shallow pits occur on the side of the body about the level of the hinder end of the proboscis in some species of the genus Carinella, which are termed side-organs.
Along much of the western coast and along nearly the whole of the eastern coast extends a line of sand reefs and narrow islands, enclosing shallow and narrow bodies of water, such as Indian river and Lake Worth - called rivers, lakes, lagoons, bays and harbours.
in area and almost uniformly shallow, its depth seldom being greater than 15 ft.
They live in the mud, which they eat, in comparatively shallow waters up to 50 fathoms.
in height, in other words, it was, like all the most ancient of these artificial burial domes in India, a shallow dome, and cannot have been more than about 35 ft.
To the south of the Nerbudda the Satpura range stretches across the province, containing the greater part of five districts, its crystalline and sandstone rocks rising in places through the superficial stratum of trap, and with large areas of shallow stony land still covered to a great extent with forest interspersed by black-soil valleys of great fertility.
The surface soil of Berar is to a great extent a rich black vegetable mould; and where this surface soil does not exist, there are muram and trap with a shallow upper crust of inferior light soil.
The Nagpur country, drained by the Wardha and Wainganga rivers, contains towards the west the shallow black soil in which autumn crops like cotton and the large millet, juar, which do not require excessive moisture, can be successfully cultivated.
These two lakes are in a class apart from all the rest, being broader for their length, and quite shallow (about 18 ft.
The group has submarine connexion, under relatively shallow sea, with the Timorlaut group to the south-west and the chain of islands extending north-west towards Ceram; deep water separates it on the east from the Aru Islands and on the west from the inner islands of the Banda Sea.
The lake is saline and everywhere very shallow, its mean depth ranging from 3 to 5 ft.
The sea is all shallow, the deepest parts lying off Vaygach Island and the northern part of Novaya Zemlya.
The eastern bay is rocky, shallow and exposed, and is now used only by native craft.
The Sea of Azov is exceedingly shallow, being only about 6 fathoms in its deepest part, and it is largely influenced by the river Don.
The harbours are connected with the town by an embankment and railway built across a shallow, dry at low water save for a narrow channel.
A few shallow salt lakes are filled by rain water, but they dry up on the setting in of the hot weather, leaving a thick crust of salt on their beds, which is used for commercial and domestic purposes.
The surrounding seas are shallow for the most part, but there are three well-defined channels - the Florida or New Bahama channel, between the north-western islands and Florida, followed by the Gulf Stream, the Providence channels (north-east and north-west) from which a depression known as the Tongue of Ocean extends southward along the east side of Andros, and the Old Bahama channel, between the archipelago and Cuba.
The shallow water on the coast made it impossible for the British line-of-battle ships, or even large frigates, to press the attack on them home.
These fjords are very deep; the greatest depth found by Ryder in Scoresby Sound was 300 fathoms, but there are certainly still greater depths; like the Norwegian fjords they have, however, probably all of them, a threshold or sill, with shallow water, near their mouths.
The general characteristics of the lakes in the north differ from those of the south, the former being generally deep, with ragged rocky shores formed by glacial scouring which caused rock basins, the latter being mostly shallow.
This main scheme is complicated in various ways: (r) by the rotation of the earth, which continually deflects currents of water or air to the right in the northern or to the left in the southern hemisphere; (2) by the conformation of the land masses (as in the case of the equatorial stream which is banked up in the Gulf of Mexico and flows out through the Straits of Florida); (3) by the varying depth of the ocean, for currents tend to flow more readily through deep than in shallow waters (as in the case of the main Atlantic drift, which flows most strongly through the deep channel between Shetland and the Faroe Is.); and (4) by the driving force of the winds acting on the surface of the sea (thus the drift of water from the equator is not N.E., as one might expect, but from E.
winds, however, drive it towards the N.E., where it impinges on the shallow seas and shore of northern Europe.
All forms of plankton are more abundant in the shallow coastal waters of relatively low salinity.
The water in shallow seas, off the shores of islands or in lagoons, is saturated with calcium bicarbonate and if the amount of carbonic acid in solution be reduced by any means, normal carbonate must be precipitated.
There are, therefore, a number of agencies, all of which operate in shoal waters on the lee side of islands, or in shallow lagoons in such regions as the Bahamas, and the result of all these is to throw down calcium carbonate from solution in sea-water as minute needle-shaped crystals or little balls of aragonite.
Corals would now grow luxuriantly in these shallow coastal waters of increasing temperature, forming reefs and extensive coral flats.
The gill-pores occur on each side of the dorsal aspect of the worm in a longitudinal series at the base of a shallow groove, the branchial groove.
A narrow and shallow channel leads from the western side of the lake into another sheet of water, the Lake of Ishkul, so called from Jebel Ishkul, a hill on its southern bank 1740 ft.
The Lake of Ishkul is nearly as large as the first lake, but is very shallow.
Small shallow cups are placed below the FIG.
The coagulated rubber separates as a mass of spongy caoutchouc. If the coagulation has been effected in shallow dishes, the rubber is obtained in a thin cake of similar shape known as a " biscuit."
The Funtumia latex can also be coagulated by the astringent infusion of Bauhinia leaves or by exposing it in shallow dishes, when the liquid " creams."
Below 150 fathoms they are rare, but a few such as Terebratulina wyvillei are found down to 2000 fathoms. Lingula is essentially a very shallow water form.
The flat summit is formed by a succession of limestones - all deposited in shallow water - from the Eocene (or Oligocene) up to recent deposits in the above-mentioned atoll with islands on its reef.
The whole series was evidently deposited in shallow water on the summit of a submarine volcano standing in its present isolation, and round which the ocean floor has probably altered but a few hundred feet since the Eocene age.
There are also numerous canals, and what look like artificial harbours constructed amid the shallow lagoons.
m., have all been built up out of the shallow waters of the lagoon round about the entrance of the harbour, with high sea-walls composed of the same huge basaltic prisms. In some places the walls of this "Pacific Venice" are now submerged to some depth, as if the land had subsided since the construction of these extensive works.
broad, enclosing a shallow lagoon.
Its chapadas are covered with extensive campos, its shallow valleys with open woodlands, and its deeper valleys with heavy forests.
The lakes formed in this manner are generally shallow, and are sometimes associated with extensive swamps, as in southern Bahia.
Both are navigable, though comparatively shallow and filled with sandbanks.
The port of Pernambuco, or Recife, is formed by a stone reef lying across the entrance to a shallow bay at the mouth of two small rivers, Beberibe and Capibaribe, and is accessible to steamers of medium draught.
Santa Catharina and Maranhao have well-sheltered harbours formed by an island lying in the mouth of a large bay, but the latter is shallow and difficult of access.
Along the coast the best known fisheries are among the Abrolhos islands and in the shallow waters of Espirito Santo, where the garoupa, pargo and vermelho (species of Serranus) abound in great numbers.
Its usual haunts are the shallow margins of the larger lakes and rivers, where fishes are plentiful, since it requires for its sustenance a vast supply of them.
The head of Woolloomooloo Bay, Sydney Cove, the shallow bay between Dawes and Millers Point, and Darling Harbour, are lined with wharves.
It is so shallow that it completely evaporated in 1865, but has filled again since 1870, at the same time changing its configuration.
Small springs of fresh water are frequent and there are 'several shallow lakes or pans - flat bottomed depressions with no outlet.
The shallow lagoons of the llanos, like those of the Argentine pampas, are favourite fishing grounds for these birds.
Throughout its extent Albert Nyanza is shallow; at its southern end the water for a considerable distance is not more than 3 ft.
On the other hand, the shrinkage of the lake level caused the appearance in 1885 of an island where in 1879 there had been an expanse of shallow water.
From Basel to Mainz the Rhine flows through a wide and shallow valley, bordered on the east and west by the parallel ranges of the Black Forest and the Vosges.
The low ground between the slight hills flanking the Thames valley, and therefore mainly south of the present river, was originally occupied by a shallow lagoon of estuarine character, tidal, and interspersed with marshy tracts and certain islets of relatively firm land.
Four lines of surface tramways and four railway lines in shallow tunnels were proposed along these avenues.
These places are frequently referred to by the old dramatists; Justice Shallow boasts of his doings at Mile End Green when he was Dagonet in Arthur's Show.
Behind the sandhills is a low-lying plain in which are a number of shallow lagoons.
In shallow mines the pillars are small and the saving of the mineral of minor importance.
In shallow mines the men use the ladder-way in going to and from their work.
Wooden or steel buckets, holding from 35 to 200 gallons, are employed only for temporary or auxiliary service or for small quantities of water in shallow shafts.
The only hitch that had occurred during the night-time had been at the landing-place within the bay, where the water had proved to be inconveniently shallow for the lighters; this had created some confusion and delay.
If the blowing iron is held vertically with the bulb uppermost the bulb becomes flattened and shallow, if the bulb is allowed to hang downwards it becomes elongated and reduced in diameter, and if the end of the bulb is pierced and the iron is held horizontally and sharply trundled, as a mop is trundled, the bulb opens out into a flattened disk.
5 and 6), which took the form of simple, incised lines, or bands of shallow oval or hexagonal hollows, was more suited to the material than the deep prismatic cutting of comparatively recent times.
Each has a small calyx in the form of a shallow rim, sometimes five-lobed or toothed; five petals, which cohere by their tips and form a cap or hood, which is pushed off when the stamens are ripe; and five free stamens, placed opposite the petals and springing from a fleshy ring or disk surrounding the ovary; each bears a twocelled anther.
On the inner or central side of the seed is a ridge bounded on either side by a shallow groove.
in diameter, which follows the curve of the hemispherical bottom, and is fitted from one side to the other of the defecator; one end is entirely closed, and the other is connected by a small pipe to a shallow circular vessel outside the defecator, covered with an india-rubber diaphragm, to the centre of which is attached a light rod actuating a steam throttle-valve, and capable of being adjusted as to length, &c. The copper pipe and circular vessel are filled with cold water, which on becoming heated by the surrounding juice expands, and so forces up the india-rubber diaphragm and shuts off the steam.
It consists for the most part of a shallow and rapid stream, occupying but a small part of its broad, stony bed.
When a long glass tube open at both ends is filled with soil and one end is dipped in a shallow basin of water, the water is found to move upwards through the soil column just as oil will rise in an ordinary lamp wick.
The ashes should be spread as soon as possible and covered by a shallow ploughing.
It is best adapted for application to clays and fen lands and should not be practised on shallow light sands or gravelly soils, since the humus so necessary for the fertility of such areas is reduced too much and the soil rendered too porous and liable to suffer from drought.
Hangchow lies at the head of the large estuary of that name, which is, however, too shallow for navigation by steamers.
The next step is to remove the harvested crop to the drying-shed; primed leaves are placed at once in shallow baskets or boxes, and when under cover are strung on string or on wire and hung up on laths in the barn.
They were built up by the gradual accumulation of mud deposits in a shallow bay, separated by dunes from the North Sea.
Except on extremely heavy soils or on shallow soils with a subsoil which it is unwise to bring upon the surface, the modern tendency is in favour of the digging plough.
The only natural harbour is Carlisle Bay on the south-western coast, which, however, is little better than a shallow roadstead, only accessible to light draught vessels.
The oldest rocks of Barbados, known as the Scotland series, are of shallow water origin, consisting of coarse grits, brown sandstones and sandy clays, in places saturated with petroleum and traversed by veins of manjak.
The shore line of the bay is broken by large, deeply indented bays (that of Jurujuba being nearly surrounded by wooded hills), shallow curves and sharp promontories.
It is a shallow saucerlike dish either mounted on a stern and foot or on a foot alone.
The principal formation is coralline limestone; the eastern coast is defended by coral reefs, and the neighbouring sea (extending as far as New Guinea, and thus demonstrating a physical connexion with that land) is shallow, and abounds in coral in full growth.
The Gulf of Gabes, the Syrtis Minor of the ancients, is a semicircular shallow indentation of the Mediterranean, about 50 m.
This region is relatively flat, in some districts slightly marshy, but the water oozing from the soil is often brackish, and in places large shallow salt lakes are formed.
The most favourable retort is a shallow iron pan heated in a sand bath, and provided with a screwed-down lid bearing the delivery tube.
She was seaworthy in the shallow waters off the southern coasts and steered fairly well.
She was in such shallow water that the Confederate iron-clad ram could not get near her at ebb tide, and about 5 o'clock the Confederates postponed her capture until the next day and anchored off Sewell's Point.
The harbour is too shallow to admit vessels of large size, but the proximity of the town to Odessa secures for it a thriving business in wine, salt, fish, wool and tallow.
In these the corona is small and shallow as compared with the perianth.
poeticus), in which the perianth is large, spreading and conspicuous, and the corona very small and shallow.
Rhode Island's water powers have been its only natural resources which have aided in the development of its manufactures, and its transportation facilities have always been inadequate, because of shallow water at Providence and scanty railway communication; but the state's manufacturing enterprises are of great importance.
of Kermanshah, on the right bank of the broad but shallow Khorremabad river, also called Ab-i-istaneh, and, lower down, Kashgan Rud.
The plan is unusual, consisting of a large nave without aisles, the span being between 45 and 50 ft.; it also has two shallow transepts and an apsidal east end.
long, with an extreme breadth of nearly 3 m., with a large but shallow lagoon approached from the north by a passage two fathoms deep. The atoll is growing outwards on every side, and at one place rises 19 ft.
The difference consists in the fact that the socket of the eye is comparatively small and shallow, and the osseous ridges at the brows being little marked, the eye is less deeply set than in the European.
Respiration becomes shallow with the increasing coma.
They are shallow troughs about 12 ft.
This consists of a cast-iron pan having a shallow cylindrical bottom holding mercury, in which a wooden muller, nearly of the same shape as the inside of the pan, and armed below with several projecting blades, is made to revolve by gearing wheels.
The waters of the firth are shallow, and a tidal bore occurs periodically.
They occur in mud and on sea-weeds at the bottom of shallow seas below low-water mark and devour organic debris.
Porphyra laciniata, the edible laver; Codium tomentosum, a coarse species; Padina pavonia, common in shallow water; Ulva latissima; Haliseris polypodioides; Sargassum bacciferum; the well-known gulf weed, probably transported from the Atlantic; Zostera marina, forming dense beds in muddy bays; the roots are cast up by storms and are valuable to dress the fields.
The presence of phosphates accounts for the fertility of a shallow soil.
To the north of the walls the site of old Herat was indicated by a vast mass of debris - mounds of bricks and pottery intersected by a network of shallow trenches, where the only semblance of a protective wall was the irregular line of the Tal-i-Bangi.
The bay itself is a shallow indentation of the coast, and is fringed with high picturesque cliffs, breached in places by steepsided narrow gullies.
On the 11th of August the Dutch admiral kept in the shallow waters of the coast looking for a favourable opportunity to attack.
The Adriatic Sea though very shallow in the north deepens southward to about 9 00 fathoms, and the Aegean Sea has a maximum depth of 1230 fathoms north of Crete.
lies the extremely shallow Gulf of Azov; but the greater part of the sea consists of a deep basin, the central part of which is an almost flat expanse at a uniform depth of 1220 fathoms.
The smaller enclosed seas are for the most part very shallow.
Shallow W Ate R Deposits (in less than too fathoms) III.
Littoral Deposits (between high andSands, gravels, muds, &c. low-water marks) Kriimmel prefers to simplify this by grouping the deposits in a single category arranged according to their position into: (a) Littoral (including Murray and Renard's littoral and shallow water deposits [II.
Terrigenous Deposits (formed in deep or shallow water close to land) by a calcareous cement.
In shallow seas the transparency is always reduced in rough weather.
For shallow water greater precision and certainty are obtained by using a lever actuated by a weight slipped down the line to cause the reversal, as in the patterns of Rung, Mill and others.
Even in the tropics the high temperature of the surface is confined to a very shallow layer; thus in the Central Pacific where the surface temperature is 82° F.
As the Arctic Basin is shut off from the North Atlantic by ridges rising to within 300 fathoms of the surface and from the Pacific by the shallow shelf of the Bering Sea, and as the ice-laden East Greenland and Labrador currents consist of fresh surface water which cannot appreciably influence the underlying mass, the Arctic region has no practical effect upon the bottom temperature of the three great oceans, which is entirely dominated by the influence of the Antarctic. The existence of deep-lying and extensive rises or ridges in high southern latitudes has been indicated by the deep-sea temperature observations of Antarctic expeditions.
In other enclosed seas which are shut off from the ocean by a very shallow sill the rule holds good that the homothermic water below the level of the sill is at the lowest temperature reached by the surface water in the coldest season of the year, provided always that the stratification of salinity is such as to permit of convection being set up. To this group belongs the Arctic Sea; the Norwegian Sea is homothermic below J50 fathoms at 29.8° F., but this cold water does not penetrate into the Arctic Basin on account of the ridge between Spitsbergen and Greenland, and there the water below 1400 fathoms has a temperature of 30 6° to 30.7° F.
In shallow seas such as the North Sea and the British fringing seas, where tidal currents run strong, there is a general mixing together of the surface and deeper water, thus making the arrangement of vertical temperature anathermic in summer and katathermic in winter, while at the transitional periods in spring and autumn it is practically homothermic. Thus at Station E2 of the international series at the mouth of the English Channel in 49° 2 7' N., 4 42' W., the following distribution of temperature F.
p. 273), differences in composition are mainly original, the denser and more anthracitic varieties representing plant substance which has been more completely macerated and deprived of its putrescible constituents before submergence, or of which the deposition had taken place in shallow water, more readily accessible to atmospheric oxidizing influences than the deeper areas where conditions favourable to the elaboration of compounds richer in hydrogen prevailed.
In the South Staffordshire and other Midland coalfields, where only shallow pits are required, and the coals are thick, a pair of pits may be sunk for a very few acres, while in the North of England, on the other hand, where sinking is expensive, an area of some thousands of acres may be commanded from the same number of pits.
Back of the islands are the quiet waters of lagoons, and at the mouths of rivers are several shallow bays indenting the mainland; these bays were formed by only a slight subsidence of the land and the rivers are filling them with deposits of silt.
The northern half is more broken and irregular; elevations, usually rounded, mingle with depressions some of which are occupied by small shallow lakes or ponds, the characteristic physical features of this region being due to glaciation.
This tract consists of a succession of stony ridges of trap rock, enclosing valleys or basins of fertile soil, to which cultivation is for the most part confined, except where the shallow soil on the tops of the hills has been turned to account.
Chobe stands on a shallow creek almost inaccessible to shipping.
In a general way it may be said that on the west coast of New Guinea, from Cape Buru to the Louisiades, the sea is shallow, while on its steeper eastern side the water close in-shore is often too deep .Commerson Is.
but, after passing through the gap between the Moravian mountains, and the Carpathians and entering the Silesian plain,, its valley is wide and shallow and its banks generally low.
The Aztecs settled there because of the security afforded by its islands and shallow waters - their city, Tenochtitlan, being so completely surrounded by water that a handful of warriors could easily defend its approaches against a greatly superior force.
In order tofacilitate the regulation of the trade by the Casa de Contratacion, it was concentrated first in Seville, and when the Guadalquivir was found to be becoming too shallow for the growing tonnage of ships, at Cadiz.
The Eskimo on Bering Sea had learned to model shallow bowls for lamps.
In export trade Mariupol ranks next to Taganrog among the ports of the Sea of Azov; but its harbour is open to the south-east and shallow, though it is being gradually deepened by systematic dredging.
Tunis is situated on an isthmus between two salt lakes, the marshy Sebkha-elSejumi to the south-west, and the shallow el-Bahira (little sea), or Lake of Tunis, to the north-east.
The canal which traverses the shallow Bahira, and connects Tunis with the Mediterranean, is nearly seven miles long.
Similar to this is a narrow plain along the southern shore of Lake Erie, which, in fact, lies in a shallow depression in this Erie plain.
The ground is then left unworked and open to the crumbling influence of frost till towards the end of winter, when it is stirred with the cultivator followed by the harrows, or in some cases ploughed with a shallow furrow.
The Weser on the whole is shallow, and navigation above Bremen is sometimes interrupted by drought.
Thus he accepts the shallow dictum of Condillac that toute science se reduit d une langue bien faite.
deep, but it is shallow at the lower end where the water is held back by a morainal dam, and where only 32 m.
The Japanese attack was convergent, but there was no room for envelopment; the Russian position moreover was " all-round " and presented no flanks, and except for the enfilade fire of the Japanese and Russian gunboats in the shallow bays on either side the battle was locally at every point a frontal attack and defence.
Each house consisted of two apartments; the floor was formed of split stems of trees set close together and covered with mats; they were reached from the shore by dug-out canoes poled over the shallow waters, and a notched tree trunk served as a ladder.
The common shrimp is found abundantly on the coasts of the British Islands, in shallow water wherever the bottom is sandy.
Havant lies in a flat coastal district, near the head of Langstone Harbour, a wide shallow inlet of the English Channel.
above the mouth, but here, with a great shallow bay on the Yorkshire side, it increases to 8 m.
The spawn of the herring is adhesive, and is deposited on rough gravelly ground at varying distances from the coast and always in comparatively shallow water.
The armature is immersed in a shallow vessel filled with mercury, which is insulated from the vessel and the armature, except at the ends of the copper strips.
The drift plains also contain numerous shallow hollows, locally termed " pots and kettles," which receive the drainage of their vicinity and form sloughs.
Between these ranges flow the rivers Meping, Mewang, Meyom and Menam, turbulent shallow streams in their upper reaches, but slow-moving and deep where they near the points of junction.
It is a rapid, shallow stream, subject to sudden rises, and navigable for small boats only.
The rivers are small and shallow.
and the Asiatic mainland, all rest on a great submerged bank, nowhere more than ioo fathoms below sea-level, which may be considered a continuation of the continent; while to the east the depth of the sea has been found at various places to be from 1000 to 2500 fathoms. As the value of this fact was particularly emphasized by Wallace, the limit of the shallow water, which is found in the narrow but deep channel between Bali and Lombok, and strikes north to the east of Borneo, has received the name of "Wallace's Line."
To the west a rich tract, still known as Soham Mere, marks the place of one of the many wide and shallow sheets of water in the district now drained.
E.S.E., and separated by high intermont valleys, which are choked with disintegrated material and divided into a chequered pattern of self-contained, shallow lacustrine basins.
down to the shallow salt lake of Ghaz-kol or Chimen-koli (9305 ft.).
The city occupies a part of the upper island or peninsula facing the northern end of the harbour, and is separated from the mainland on the east by a shallow lagoon-like extension of the bay which is bridged by a causeway passing through the extra-mural suburb of Xiximani on another island.
Batavia Bay is rendered secure by a number of islands at its mouth, but grows very shallow towards the shore.
Agriculture is in a very backward condition, however, and the state is classed as one of the poorest and most unprogressive in the republic. The rivers and shallow coast waters are well stocked with fish, but there are no fishing industries worthy of mention.
The bulbs are placed in long shallow boxes, plunged in soil or ashes in the open air, and are later introduced as required into heat in semi-darkness, and are afterwards transferred to benches in the forcing houses where they flower.
The river here is a mile wide, and is ordinarily very shallow and dotted with islets, but rises from 4 to 6 ft.
The speculum lies face upwards in a shallow bath of water (to preserve a uniform temperature), and the polisher fits loosely in a ring, so that the rotation of the speculum makes it revolve also, but more slowly.
The silt and sand form banks and bars at the mouth, the water is too shallow in winter and the current is too strong in summer, and, further, the bed of the river is continually shifting.
Along its entire Atlantic border extends the narrow sandy Sinepuxent Beach, which encloses a shallow lagoon or bay also called Sinepuxent at the north, where, except in the extreme north, it is very narrow, and Chincoteague at the south, where its width is in most places from 4 to 5 m.
The branches as well as the upper parts of the main streams flow through broad and shallow valleys; the middle courses of the main streams wind their way through reed-covered marshes, the water ebbing and flowing with the tide; in their lower courses they become estuarine and the water flows between low banks.
In Mareska and Donny's process the condensation is effected in a shallow iron box, which has a large exposed surface, capable of being cooled by damped cloths.
America, and also in shallow ponds and waters at sea-level; (b) the Sididae, with no such involucre, but with seven genera, and rather more than twice as many species.
The Gulf of Nicoya, a shallow landlocked inlet, containing a whole archipelago of richly-wooded islets, derives its name from Nicoya, an Indian chief who, with his tribe, was here converted to Christianity in the 16th century.
The Tempisque enters the Pacific at the head of the Gulf of Nicoya, and tends to silt up that already shallow inlet (5-10 fathoms) with its alluvial deposits.
From a study of remains of the mollusca, brachiopoda and other marine organisms they will determine the shallow water (littoral) and deep water (abyssal) regions of the surrounding oceans, and the clear or muddy, salt, brackish or fresh character of its inland and marginal seas; and even the physical conditions of the open sea at the time will be ascertained.
The body may show modifications of form which can be compared to a shallow saucer, a cup, a bell or a thimble.
There are a number of these lagoons on the Pacific coast - such as Superior and Inferior near Salina Cruz, Papacayo, near Acapulco, Cayutlan, near Manzanillo, and Tecapan in Tepicbut they are usually shallow, sometimes swampy, and have no value for commerce.
It is produced on light shallow soils overlying calcareous rock.
By the "pit" process the green rods are stood upright in shallow pits of water at a depth of about 6 to 9 in.
Deep-sea weeds as a rule contain more iodine than those which are found in the shallow waters.
The rivers are shallow and more or less broken by rapids in the notches; rapids occur also near the outer border of the crystalline belt, as if the rivers there had been lately incited to downward erosion by an uplift of the region, and had not yet had time to regrade their courses.
An uplift, increasing to the south, revealed part of the shallow sea bottom in the widening coastal plain, from its narrow beginning at New York harbour to its greatest breadth of 110 or 120 m.
Indeed, the original interior border of the plain has been well stripped from its inland overlap; the higher-standing inner part of the plain is now maturely dissected, with a relief of 200 to 500 ft., by rivers extended seaward from the older land anti by their inntimerable branches, which are often of insequent arrangement; while the seaward border, latest uplifted, is prevailingly low and smooth, with a hardly perceptible seaward slope of but a few feet in a mile; and the shallow sea deepens very gradually for many nules off shore.
A broad, low crustal arch extends southward at the junction of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains; the emerged half of the arch, constitutes the visible lowland peninsula of Florida; the submerged half extends westward under the shallow Florida.
The western coast has fewer and shorter off-shore reefs; much of it is of minutely irregular outline, which seems to be determined less by the work of the sea than by the forward growth of mangrove swamps in the shallow salt water.
The load of silt borne down stream by the river finally, after many halts on the way, reaches the waters of the Gulf, where the decrease of velocity, aided by the salinity of the sea water, causes the formation of a remarkable delta, leaving less aggraded areas as shallow lakes (Lake Pontchartrain on the east, and Grand Lake on the west of the river).
in a mile, its smooth surface interrupted only by the still more nearly level flood plains of the shallow, consequent river valleys.
Nearly all the rest of the coast is fringed by off-shore reefs, built up by waves from the very shallow sea bottom; in virtue of weak tides, the reefs continue in long unbroken stretches between the few inlets.
in altitude: like the High Plains farther north, it is extraordinarily smooth; it is very dry, except for occa sional shallow and temporary water sheets after rains.
A few of the large streams may, when in flood, spr.ead out in a temporary shallow sheet qn a dead level of clay, or playa, in a basin centre, but the sheet of water vanishes in the warm season and the stream shrinks far up its course, the absolutely barren clay floor of the playa, impassable when wet, becomes firm enough for crossing when dry.
Kings river, rising in the high southern Sieria near I~It Whitney, has built its fan rather actively, and obstructed the discharge from the part of the valley next farther south, which has thus come to be overflowed by the shallow waters of Tulare Lake, of flat, reedy, uncertain borders.
- The system is composed chiefly of clastic rocks, and their composition and structure show that the water in which they were deposited was shallow.
Uefore its close the sea of the Great Basin which had persisted since the Devonian was connected with the shallow sea which covered much of the interior of the United States.
All types of life to which shallow, clear sea-water was congenial appear to have abounded in the interior.
That the chalk was deposited in shallow, clear seas is indicated both by the character of the fossils other than foraminifera and by the relation of the chalk to the elastic portions of the series.
Thus the lower Eocene has some lignite in the eastern Gulf region, while in Teias lignite and saliferous and gypsiferous sediments are found, though most of the system is marine and of shallow water origin.
The drum weirs erected across shallow, regulating passes on the river Marne in1857-1867comprise a series of upper and under wrought-iron paddles, which can make a quarter of a revolution round a central axis laid along the sill of the weir.
Of the nine provinces of Canada only two have no coast line on salt water, the western prairie provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan; but Manitoba and Ontario have a seaboard only on Hudson Bay and its southern extension James Bay respectively, and there is no probability that the shallow harbours of the latter bay will ever be of much importance for shipping, though Churchill Harbour on the west side of Hudson Bay may become an important grain port.
The physical features of Canada are comparatively simple, and drawn on a large scale, more than half of its surface sloping gently inwards towards the shallow basin of Hudson Bay, with higher margins to the south-east and south-west.
All of these are rapid and shallow, affording navigation only for canoes; but the largest of them, Nelson river, drains the great Manitoban lakes, Winnipeg, Winnipegosis and Manitoba, which are frequented by steamers, and receive the waters of Lake-of-the-Woods, Lake Seul and many others emptying into Winnipeg river from Ontario; of Red river coming in from the United States to the south; and of the southern parts of the Rocky Mountains and the western prairie provinces drained by the great Saskatchewan river.
At Canyon City it passes out of the Rockies through the Grand Canyon of the Arkansas; then turning eastward, and soon a turbid, shallow stream, depositing its mountain detritus, it flows with steadily lessening gradient and velocity in a broad, meandering bed across the prairies and lowlands of eastern Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas, shifting its direction sharply to the south-east in central Kansas.
To the left of this is the fissure for the ductus venosus, and to the left of this again, the left lobe, in which a broad shallow groove for the oesophagus may usually be seen.
Veneridae.-Foot well developed; pallial sinus shallow or absent.
- Shell sub-trigonal, inequivalve; pallial sinus shallow; siphons short, united, completely retractile; foot large, pointed, often byssiferous.
It only visits the land to deposit its single white egg, which is laid on a rocky ledge, where a shallow nest is made in the turf and lined with a little dried grass.
Many shallow lakes have been completely filled with alluvium and their sites are now occupied by fertile plains; this process may be seen in operation almost anywhere; a good illustration is the delta of the Rhone in Lake Geneva.
In this a shallow hole is made for receiving the substance to be held in the flame.
The front surface of the incisors has a broad, shallow groove.
and 62° 33' W., and is separated from St Kitts by a shallow channel 2 m.
The shore-line is irregular, and has been modified by the construction of sea-walls and the filling in of shallow bays.
It was undertaken in 1903, during the administration of President Rodrigues Alves, as part of a vast scheme to improve the sanitary and traffic conditions of the city, including the construction of a new shore-line and filling in the shallow parts of the shore, which had long been considered one of the prime causes of the unhealthy state of the city.
The new port works, under construction since 1903, consist of a new water-front for the Saude, Gamboa and Sacco de Alferes districts, in which the shipping interests are centred, and a continuation of the sea-wall across the shallow Sao Christovao bay to the Ponta do Caju, the large reclaimed area to be filled in by the removal of some small hills.
The Anomaluridae are characterized by having rooted cheek-teeth with shallow transverse enamel-folds, the two halves of the lower jaw movably articulated in front, very small post-orbital processes to the skull, and the presence of two rows of scales on the under surface of the base of the tail (figs.
In the skull the tympanic bulla is hollow, the pterygoid fossa shallow and the zygomatic arch slender, with a rudimentary jugal bone.
P. Banks in the Red River expeditions in March-May 1864, in which his gun-boats, held above Alexandria by shallow water and rapids, narrowly escaped isolation, being enabled to return only by the help of a dam built by Lieut.-Colonel (BrigadierGeneral) Joseph Bailey (1827-1867).
The main feature of the northern plain is the so-called Luneburger Heide, a vast expanse of moor and fen, mainly covered with low brushwood (though here and there are oases of fine beech and oak woods) and intersected by shallow valleys, and extending almost due north from the city of Hanover to the southern arm of the Elbe at Harburg.
(For map, see Pacific Ocean.) A comparatively shallow sea surrounds the islands and indicates physical connexion with the Bismarck Archipelago and New Guinea, whereas directly east of the Solomons there 1 Some sentences from W.
Coeloplana has been found in shallow water in the Red Sea and on the coast of Japan.
The seed should be sown in shallow drills, 10 in.
It is then run into settling tanks, from which it next passes into the evaporating pans, which are shallow leadlined pans heated by the gases of the soffioni.
up, this stream runs swiftly through a rough country, but for a long distance is a succession of lakes and shallow, overflowed areas.
above the sea, is little broken except by shallow valleys and occasional knobs.
The Susquehanna is a wide and shallow stream with a zigzag course and numerous islands, but both the Susquehanna and the Delaware, together with their principal tributaries, flow for the most part transverse to the geological structure, and in the gorges and water-gaps through which they pass ridges in the mountain region, is some of the most picturesque scenery in the state; a number of these gorges, too, have been of great economic importance as passages for railways.
Mesny, has observed similar evidences of the existence of gold at comparatively shallow depths in Koko Nor region, and records that he has seen nuggets, " varying from the size of a pea to that of a hazel-nut," in eastern Tibet.
The north part of the sea is very shallow, and between the southern promontory of Istria and Rimini the depth rarely exceeds 25 fathoms. Between Sebenico and Ortona a well-marked depression occurs, a considerable area of which exceeds Ioo fathoms in depth.
Modern Hebron rises on the east slope of a shallow valley - a long narrow town of stone houses, the flat roofs having small stone domes.
Floor slabs may be regarded as wide and shallow beams, and the remarks made about the stresses in the one apply to the other also; accordingly, the various devices which are used for strengthening beams recur in the slabs.
Timor lies in deep water a little to the west of the hundred fathom line, which marks in this direction the proper limit of the shallow Arafura Sea, extending between it and northern Australia.
The shallow strait separating it from the mainland is liable to be blocked by sand-banks; a canal was cut through these in the 7th century B.C. by the Corinthians, and was again after a long period of disuse opened up by the Romans.
The harbour formed by the Bay of Tangier is an extensive one, the best Morocco possesses, and good in all weathers except during a strong east wind, but vessels of any size have to anchor a mile or so out as the shore to the west is shallow and sandy, and to the east, rocky and shingly.
For epiphytal plants like orchids the most thorough drainage must be secured by the abundant use of potsherds, small pots being sometimes inserted inside the larger ones, or by planting in shallow pots or pans, so that there shall be no large mass of soil to get consolidated.
Thus shallow square or oblong wooden boxes, made of light, inexpensive wood, are very useful for seedsowing, for pricking out seedlings, or for planting cuttings.
Shallow planting, whether of wall trees or standards, is generally to be preferred, a covering of a few inches of soil being sufficient for the roots, but a surface of at least equal size to, the surface of the hole should be covered with dung or litter so as to restrain evaporation and preserve moisture.
He relies mainly upon the best stable manure, a few shallow frames about 4z ft.
- Sow small salading and radishes in the first week, and lettuces in frames on a shallow hotbed for planting out in spring.
Hardier kinds of annuals may be sown; it is best done in shallow boxes, say 2 in.
While therefore the centre and south of England lay under clear water of moderate depth, the north of the country and the south of Scotland were covered by shallow water, which was continually receiving sand and mud from the adjacent northern land.
Running down into the stem from the cap are a number of shallow thick gills.
16, so that the blast, which has been let on just before this, entering through the great number of tuyere holes in the bottom, forces its way up through the relatively shallow layer of iron, throwing it up within the converter as a boiling foam, and oxidizing the foreign elements so rapidly that in some cases their removal is complete after 5 minutes.
The oxidation of the foreign elements must be very slow, lest the effervescence due to the escape of carbonic oxide from the carbon of the metal throw the charge out of the doors and ports of the furnace, which itself must be shallow in order to hold the flame down close to the charge.
He had transferred his flag from his own ship the "St George" (98) to the "Elephant" (74), commanded by Captain Foley, because the water was too shallow for a threedecker.
Their hulks and bomb-vessels were supported by batteries on Zealand; but, as the water is shallow for a long distance from the shore, these defences were too far off to render them effectual aid on the south end of their line.
Only light boats (galary) are floated down this broad, shallow stream, whose flat and open valley is often inundated.
in length, but is shallow and abounds in shoals and sandbanks.
According to his description shallow pits were sunk, and the gravel excavated was gathered into a walled enclosure where it was crushed and water was poured over it, and it was finally sifted in baskets and sorted by hand.
In more modern times there has been the same excavation of shallow pits, and sluicing, sifting and sorting, by hand labour, the only machinery used being chain pumps made of earthen bowls to remove the water from the deeper pits.
These are shallow cylindrical troughs containing muddy water in which the diamonds and other heavy minerals (concentrates) are swept to the rim by revolving toothed arms, while the lighter stuff escapes near the centre of the pan.
In 1906 it was being worked as a shallow open mine; but the description of the Kimberley methods given above is applicable to the washing plant at that time being introduced into the Premier mine upona very large scale.
Although Manila Bay is nearly landlocked, it is so large that in times of strong winds it becomes nearly as turbulent as the open sea, and it was formerly so shallow that vessels drawing more than 16 ft.
The typical fossils unearthed in these deposits are shells of species now living in both the Caspian and the Aral, though in the shallow parts of both seas only, namely (according to Ivan V.
The former section, which is too shallow to store up any large amount of heat during the summer, freezes for three or four months along the shores, effectually stopping navigation on the lower Volga, but out in the middle ice appears only when driven there by northerly winds.
The lowest temperature obtained was 35° -24 on the bottom in shallow water, the highest 70° .
BANGWEULU, a shallow lake of British Central Africa, formed by the head streams of the Congo.
These form the Cochin backwaters, which consist of shallow lagoons lying behind the beach-line and below its level.
Another method largely used is the shallow basket or bucket suspended to strings between two men, who thus bail up the water.
Thus the whole system broke down, the barrage was pronounced a failure, and attention was turned to watering Lower Egypt by a system of gigantic pumps, to raise the water from the river and discharge it into a system of shallow surface-canals, at an annual cost of about £250,000, while the cost of the pumps was estimated at £700,000.
The Periyar scheme has for its object both the addition of new irrigation and the safeguarding of that which exists in the district of Madura, a plain watered by means of a great number of shallow tanks drawing their supply from a very uncertain river, the Vaigai.
The coasts are shallow, and deficient in natural ports, except on the east of Schleswig-Holstein, where wide bays encroach upon the land, giving access to the largest vessels, so that the great naval harbour could be constructed at Kiel.
Lakes Superior and Huron both reach depths hundreds of feet below sea-level, but the next lake in the series, St Clair, towards which Lake Huron drains southward through St Clair river, is very shallow and marshy.
Detroit river connects Lake St Clair with Lake Erie at an elevation of 570 ft.; and this comparatively shallow lake, running for 240 m.
It is said to be shallow, and to run nearly dry in height of summer; but when its depth exceeds 3 ft.
WILHELMSHAVEN, or Wilhelmshafen, a town of Germany, and the chief naval station and war harbour of the empire on the North Sea, situated on the north-west shore of the Jade Busen, a large shallow basin formed by inundations and united with the sea by the Jade, a channel 3 m.
(v.) Dendrostoma, with 4-6 tentacles, a small genus found in tropical shallow water.
Not much can be said in praise of the complete translations into the German language, neither of that of Ullmann, which has appeared in several editions, nor of that of Henning (Leipzig) and Grigull (Halle), all of them shallow amateurs who have no notion of the difficulties to be met with in the task, and are almost entirely dependent on Sale.
The rivers are the great highways of communication, but, in consequence of the lowness of the water between October and May, navigation is then only possible for shallow draught stern-wheel steamers and launches.
near the north coast, which presents slight cliffs towards the shallow sea.
All the lakes are shallow and thc water in them salt or brackish.
Into these basinswhich vary in area from 600 to 5o,ooo acreswater is led by shallow canals when the Nile is in flood.
The coasts are generally low and sandy; the whole western shore of Jutland is a succession of sand ridges and shallow lagoons, very dangerous to shipping.
in length) and Langeland (32 m.), including in a triangular area of shallow sea the islands of Taasinge, Avernako, Dreio, Turo and others.
The prepared land is partitioned off into large basins (adernes or muants) and others (called in France aires, ceuillets or tables salantes) which get smaller and more shallow in proportion as they are intended to receive the water as it becomes more and more concentrated, just sufficient fall being allowed from one set of basins to the other to cause the water to flow slowly through them.
Cubic pseudomorphs representing rock-salt are sometimes seen in strata which have been deposited in shallow water, especially on the margin of a salt-lake.
Large galleys could not anchor in the bay of Zengg, which is shallow and exposed to sudden gales, so the Uskoks fitted out a fleet of swift boats, light enough to navigate the smallest creeks and inlets of the Illyrian shore, and easily sunk and recovered, if a temporary landing became necessary.
Sakhalin is separated from the mainland by the narrow and shallow Strait of Tartary or Mamiya Strait, which often freezes in winter in its narrower part, and from Yezo (Japan) by the Strait of La Perouse.
In the skull the gland-pit is shallow, and the vacuity of moderate size; the nasal bones are well developed, and much expanded at the upper end.
The total thickness of both these groups of rock cannot be less than 30,000 ft., and, as most of them bear evidence of having been deposited in shallow water, they could only have been accumulated during a prolonged period of depression.
As a rule they are shallow in proportion to their extent and surface.
To the last, judging by the specimens of Scandinavian boats which have come down to us, they must have been not very seaworthy; they were shallow, narrow in the beam, pointed at both ends, and so eminently suitable for manoeuvring (with oars) in creeks and bays.
wide, is divided into three great shallow basins or plains by the transverse ridges or paramos of Tiupullo and Azuay.
They are usually shallow and malarial.
Immediately west of the Guayas river the Estero Salado, which comprises a great many shallow tide-water channels, or bayous, penetrates as far inland as Guayaquil, but is used only by canoes.
Even here there are local modifications, as at Ambato, where a shallow depression, surrounded by barren, dust-covered ridges exposed to cold winds, is celebrated for its warm, equable climate and its fruit.
On the top is a shallow cup for the reception of the one or two eggs, which have a bluish-white shell with chalky incrustation.
The Persian Gulf is lacking in good harbours, anchorage being mostly shallow and exposed.
The explanation appears to be that the shallow and landlocked waters of the Zuider Zee, as well as the sea on the Dutch coast, become raised to a higher temperature in summer than any part of the sea about the British coasts, and that therefore anchovies are able to spawn and maintain their numbers in these waters.
Its length is 78 m., but it is too shallow and rocky to be navigable.
It then flows through a wide but shallow channel, joining the Sioule some distance above Moulins, the chief town on its banks.
The low and dangerous coasts, off which the seas are generally very shallow, are efficiently served by a series of lifeboat stations.
Broadly speaking the salt consumed in India is derived from four sources: (1) importation by sea, chiefly from England and the Red Sea and Aden; (2) solar evaporation in shallow tanks along the seaboard; (3) the salt lakes in Rajputana; (4) quarrying in the salt hills of the northern Punjab.
CHILWA (incorrectly Shirwa), a shallow lake in south-east Africa, S.S.E.
The torrent ran in a few hours to the sea, and formed that shallow or lagoon called by Pliny Subitum Vadum, which prevented the ships approaching the shores."
The harbour of Montevideo consists of a shallow bay, circular in shape and about 22 m.
It consists of a rock-hewn altar of burnt-offering with a place for killing the victims beside it and a shallow court, perhaps intended to hold water, in front: the most complete specimen of an ancient Semitic sanctuary that is known.'
Submarine mountain ranges connect not only the islands within the archipelago, but also the archipelago itself with Borneo and Celebes, so that only shallow channels connect the interior waters with the Pacific Ocean and the China Sea.
Numerous shallow ponds or jhils mark the former beds of the shifting rivers.
The rivers are shallow and rocky, and are usually only navigable for a few miles from the sea.
The middle part of this river, wider and more shallow than the lower reaches, gives rise to a region of inundation and lakes which extend as far as the northern mountain chain.
The proximity of the mountain range to the seashore causes the rivers of the west coast, with the single exception of the Padas, to be rapid, boulder-obstructed, shallow streams of little value as means of communication for a distance of more than half a dozen miles from their mouths.
The Cambrian rocks previ-, ously described are all such as would result from deposition, in comparatively shallow seas, of the products of degradation of land surfaces by the ordinary agents of denudation.
Evidences of shallow water conditions arc abundant; very frequently on the bedding surfaces of sandstones and other rocks we find cracks made by the sun's heat and pittings caused by the showers that fell from the Cambrian sky, and these records of the weather of this remote period are preserved as sharply and clearly as those made only to-day on our tidal reaches.
During the general advance of the sea, local warpings of the crust may have given rise to shallow lagoon or inland-lake conditions.
To enlarge the area, or raise the surface-level where that was necessary, layers of logs, brushwood, heather and ferns were piled on the shallow, and consolidated with gravel and stones.
in diameter, the substructure formed of logs and brushwood mingled with stones and clay, and outlined by piles driven into the bottom of the shallow lake.
In the cup and ball pivot the end of the shaft HJJ and the step present two recesses facing each other, into which are fitted two shallow cups of steel or hard bronze.
Large numbers of darekh, a kind of herring, exist in the lake, and are caught in nets from boats or when they enter the shallow lagoons in the spring and summer.
About 150 species distributed among thirty-four genera are now known, many from shallow water and from between tide-marks, some from very great depths.
For the preparation of " artist's oil," the finest form of linseed oil, the refined oil is placed in shallow trays covered with glass, and exposed to the action of the sun's rays.
The Gulf of Suez is shallow, and slopes regularly down to the northern extremity of the Red Sea basin, which has a.
to the banks of Suakin and Farsan in 20° N., the loo-fathom line keeps to a belt of coral reef close inshore, but in lower latitudes the shallow coral region, 300 m.
The grapes are, after gathering, dusted over with plaster of Paris, and then crushed by treading in a shallow rectangular vessel termed the lagar.
The network of shallow and still limans or "cut-offs" in the delta of the Volga and the shallow waters of the northern Caspian, freshened as these are by the water of the Volga, the Ural, the Kura and the Terek, is exceedingly favourable to the breeding of fish, and as a whole constitutes one of the most productive fishing grounds in the world.
The lagoon has become very shallow in consequence of the silt brought down by the Mejerda.
The seedlings when large enough to handle are placed either singly in very small pots or several in a pot or shallow pan, and put in a bottom heat, in a moist atmosphere with a temperature from 60° to 70°.
In the shallow lakes and enclosed bays of the sea there began to be formed and still is in course of formation a deposit known by the name gyttja, characterized by the diatomaceous shells it contains.
Large shallow saline lakes are also characteristic features of this region.
Many of the socalled ports are only landing-places on an open coast, others are on shallow bays and obstructed river-mouths, and some are little-known harbours among the channels and islands of the south.
The latter lay their eggs in one and the same nest, a shallow pit scraped out by their feet, with the earth heaped around to form a kind of wall against which the outermost circle of eggs rest.
They may then be placed in oyster cases (caisses ostre'ophiles) or in shallow ponds (claires) made on the fore-shore.
There is also a herring which frequents only the southern half of the Caspian, not passing over the shallow part of the sea which extends from Baku eastwards.
Beyond Hawes, towards the source, the valley soon becomes wide, bare and shallow, less rich in contrast, but wilder.
10 19' E., a little south of the ruins of Carthage, and on the north side of the ship canal which traverses the shallow Lake of Tunis and leads to the city of that name.
The mackintosh sheet forms a shallow bath, and the water may afterwards be run off from it at the lower end of the bed.
It is claimed, as a further result of the experiments, that from May to October the young fish would be practically free on the shallow part of the Bank from the risk of premature capture by trawlers, and that the increased value of the fish, consequent upon their phenomenal growth-rate, would greatly exceed the cost of transplantation.
The coast of the mainland is low but picturesque, and is broken by the shallow estuaries of the Beaulieu River and the Lym, with the small port of Lymington upon it.
In the south-east there are several large shallow lakes whose character and size change with the season.
The lake is shallow and the district about it is sparsely populated.
If we place a small floating body in a shallow vessel of water and wet one side of it with alcohol or ether, it will move off with great velocity and skim about on the surface of the water, the part wet with alcohol being always the stern.
Thus, a shallow tin vessel, such as the lid of a biscuit box, may be levelled and filled with tap-water through a rubber hose.
It is dominated by high mountains, gashed by superb canyons of rivers, scarred with dry gullies and washes, the beds of intermittent streams, varied with great shallow basins, sunken deserts, dreary levels, bold buttes, picturesque mesas, forests and rare verdant bits of valley.
In this method the bacteria are distributed in a gelatine or agar medium liquefied by heat, and the medium is then poured out on sterile glass plates or in shallow glass dishes, and allowed to solidify.
wide and now almost silted up. To the north lies an extensive shallow basin, called the lagoon of Osman Aga, originally part of the great harbour but now cut off from it by a narrow sandbank.
Internal communication is also provided for by an excellent system of electric tram-lines, by an overhead electric railway running from the Zoologischer Garten to the Schlesische Tor with a branch to the Potsdam railway station, and by an underground railway laid at a shallow depth under the Leipzigerstrasse.
Marie, which passes the rapids of St Mary's River; the St Clair Flats, at the north end of Lake St Clair, by which a deeper channel is made through shallow water; and the Portage Lake, in the copper district, which connects that lake with Lake Superior.
In the .scorification method the ore is mixed in the scorifier (a shallow dish of burned clay) with from ten to twenty times its weight of granulated metallic lead (test lead) and a little borax glass, and heated in a muffle, the front of which is at first closed.
(I) In the Korra/30s Si òu43 t4 cw shallow saucers (4143a4a) were floated in a basin or mixing-bowl filled with water; the object was to sink the saucers by throwing the wine into them, and the competitor who sank the greatest number was considered victorious, and received the prize, which consisted of cakes or sweetmeats.
in width, with shallow waters of inconsiderable salinity (greatest depth, 22 fathoms), freezes to some extent every year.
In order to get rid of this fluid, called " pasewa " or " pussewah," the opium is placed in a shallow earthen vessel tilted on one side, and the pussewah drained off.
If containing much water it is placed in shallow wooden drawers and constantly turned over.
Various portions, each weighing 10 seers (of 23 5 lb), are selected by test assay so as to ensure the mass being of standard consistence (70% of the pure dry drug and 30% of water), and are thrown into shallow drawers and kneaded together.
into shallow vats to to 15 ft.
The harbour is shallow at its entrance, and craft drawing more than 14 ft.
In later installations, under the 1895 patent, the anodes are placed horizontally on a porous tray resting within the solution above an endless silver band revolving, also horizontally, over rollers placed near the ends of a long shallow tank.
above sealevel - in a series of picturesque ravines, skirts the west foot of the Sabine Mountains in a broad shallow valley, then crosses the Roman Campagna, cutting its way through Rome, and finally enters the Tyrrhenian (Mediterranean) Sea by two arms at Ostia and Fiumicino, the latter artificial.
The chief localities of natural scalps on the British coast are Morecambe Bay in Lancashire and the flat eastern shores, especially that of the Wash of Lincoln, and similar shallow bays.
The numerous islands on the west coast probably formed part of the peninsula at no remote period, and the sea between them and the mainland is shallow and full of sandbanks.
The septal ostia become widened and the gastral cavity flattened, whereby the taeniolae become comparatively shallow columns, similar to the septal nodes or cathammata of other forms.'
Sessile, stalked, with eight shallow marginal lobes bearing one or more rows of tentacles; without tentaculocysts; with four gonads.
GREAT SALT LAKE, a shallow body of highly concentrated brine in the N.W.
This area is not constant, as the water is very shallow at the margins, and the relation between supply from precipitation, &c., and loss by evaporation is variable, there being an annual difference in the height of the water of 15-18 in.
deep, clearly prove the main facts as to lake Bonneville: a dry basin was first occupied by the shallow waters of a small lake; then, during a long period of excessive moisture (or cold), the waters rose and spread over an area nearly as large as lake Huron with a maximum depth of 1000 ft.; a period of great dryness followed, in which the lake disappeared; then came a second, shorter, but more intense period of moisture, and in this time the lake rose, covered a larger area than before, including W.
The great lake was then gradually reduced by evaporation, leaving only shallow bodies of salt water, of which Great Salt Lake is the largest.
These are commonly called lakes, but are in reality shallow depressions receiving water from the overflow of the rivers in times of flood, and in return feeding them when the floods have subsided.
The production of tin rapidly declined after 1881, when the value of ore raised was £569,000: the production varies both with the price and the occurrence of rain, but the principal cause of the decreased production was the exhaustion of the shallow deposits of stream tin, from which most of the ore was obtained.
The sea around the Bahrein islands is shallow, so shallow as to admit only of the approach of native craft, and the harbour is closely shut in by reefs.
The east coast faces the shallow North Sea, which widens from the point where it joins the Channel to 375 m.
The coast-land north of the mouth of the Thames is a low plain; and on the south coast somewhat similar tracts are found in Romney Marsh, and about the shallow inlets (Portsmouth Harbour and others) which open from Spithead.
The shallow inlet of Poole Bay is followed by the eminence of St Alban's Head, and thereafter, right round the south-western promontory of England, the cliff-bound coast, with its bays and inlets closely beset with hills, predominates over the low shore-line, exhibits a remarkable series of different forms, and provides the finest scenery of its kind in England.
The continuity of the belts of Chalk and of the Middle and Upper Oolites in the Eastern Plain is broken by the shallow depression of the Wash and the Fenland.
The coast is everywhere low and deeply indented by ragged and shallow estuaries, that of the Thames being the largest.
Shallow lagoons formed along the lower courses of the rivers of Norfolk have given to that part of the country the name of the Broads, a district of low and nearly level land.
Among shell-fish, crabs and oysters are taken principally off the east coast; the oyster beds in the shallow water off the north Kent and Essex coasts, as at Whitstable and Colchester, being famous.
THE WASH, a shallow bay of the North Sea, on the Lincolnshire and Norfolk coast of England.
Southwards too, immediately under the snows, we find ` crystalline schists,' smooth grassy heights, separated by shallow trenches, which form the lesser undulations of the three basins, the drei Langenhochthdler Imeritiens of Dr Radde.
2) consists of a receptacle varying in form from that of a shallow saucer to that of a long cylindrical or trumpet-shaped tube, thin or fleshy in consistence, and giving off from its upper border the five sepals, the five petals (rarely these latter are absent), and the threads or membranous processes constituting the "corona."
The barren " mud flats," frequently found on the desert floor, result from the drying up of temporary shallow lakes, or playas.
The soil, though shallow, is fertile, and mutton fed on the grass has a peculiar rich flavour: Quarrying, fishing and agriculture are the chief industries.
It lies in a shallow sea, and is quite low, the highest point being 250 ft.
for a navigation mark in shallow waters, for a support on which a bird may rest, or for a pole which joins the back with the fore part of a wagon or other four-wheeled vehicle.
The tissue at the apex of the megaspore grows slightly above the level of the archegonia, so that the latter come to lie in a shallow depression.
At the south-west of the island, Back Bay, a shallow basin rather more than 2 m.
The presence of petroleum, indicated by many ancient workings in the shape of shallow hand- (dug wells, can be traced continuously at the foot of the Transylvanian Alps, from Turnu Severin into Bukovina.
The Gulf of Morosquillo, a broad shallow indentation of the coast south of Cartagena, receives the waters of the Rio Sinu, at the mouth of which is the small port of Cispata.
There is some traffic in small steamers on its shallow waters, which is increasing with the development of fruit cultivation on its eastern and southern sides.
The rainfall is heavy in the wet season, causing many of the rivers to spread over extensive areas, but in the dry season the inundated plains become dry, the large rivers fed by the snows and rainfall of the Andes return within their banks, the shallow lagoons and smaller streams dry up, vegetation disappears, and the level plain becomes a desert.
The largest class, perhaps, is that formed by the astonishing number of water-fowl which throng the shallow lagoons and river beaches at certain seasons of the year.
There is also the same liability to change its channel, as shown in the case of Mompox, once an important and prosperous town of the lower plain situated on the main channel, now a decaying, unimportant place on a shallow branch 20 m.
Rounding the stormvexed Cape of Good Hope the shore trends south-east in a series of curves, forming shallow bays, until at the saw-edged reefs of Cape Agulhas (Portuguese, Needles) in 34° 51' 15" S.
Yet the vast arid plains are covered with shallow beds of the richest soil, which only require the fertilizing power of water to render them available for pasture or agriculture.
Besides these pans there are in the interior plateaus many shallow pools or vleis whose extent varies according to the dryness or moisture of the climate.
It may be regarded as a shallow basin occupied by the almost horizontal rocks of the Karroo.
On the other side of the door, against the same wall, is a shallow trough, which is said to mark the original site of the stone on which Abraham stood to build the Ka`ba.
Hence, throughout the world we find the shallow well still very common in rural districts.
The shallow well, however, rarely supplies enough water for more than a few houses, and being commonly situated near to those houses the water is often seriously polluted.
Hence it arises that, in sand formations, only shallow wells or small boreholes are commonly found.
Reservoirs From very ancient times in India, Ceylon and elsewhere, reservoirs of great area, but generally of small depth, have been built and used for the purposes of irrigation; and in modern times, especially in India and America, comparatively shallow reservoirs have been constructed of much greater area, and in some cases of greater capacity, than any in the United Kingdom.
It was also called Venezuela (little Venice) because of an Indian village on the gulf coast built on piles over the shallow water; this name was afterwards bestowed upon the province of which Coro was the capital.
- A defective harbour, with a shallow sand and gravel bar at its entrance, long retarded the trade of Aberdeen, but under various acts since 1773 it was greatly deepened.
Lake Erie is very shallow, and may be divided into three basins, the western extending to Point Pelee and including all the islands, containing about 1200 sq.
It is picturesquely situated on a peninsula between Holes Bay and the shallow irregular inlet of Poole Harbour.
Synallactinae, Deimatinae, Elpidiinae, Psychropotinae), Holothuriidae (shallow water), Pelagothuriidae (pelagic).
The crest-line of an anticline or trough-line of a syncline is rarely horizontal for any great distance; its departure from horizontality is designated the "pitch," and the fold is said to pitch (or dip) towards the north, &c. Most simple folds - with the exception of very shallow curvatures of wide area, - when considered in their entirety, are seen to be somewhat canoe-shaped in form.
In the east portion of the state are immense beds of bituminous coal, often at shallow depths or cropping out on the surface.
The barons expressed their wish for a peace with France, and when summoned to produce their feudal contingents pleaded poverty, and raised a rather shallow theory to the effect that their services could not be asked for wars beyond seasagainst which there were conclusive precedents in the reigns of Henry I.
Its rise and fall are rapid and uncertain, and it is shallow and full of sandbanks and snags.
along its Guiana margin up the Amazon, is a belt of half-submerged islands and shallow sandbanks.
Scent-glands, Eec. - Besides the universally distributed sweatglands connected with the hair-system, most mammals have special glands in modified portions of the skin, often involuted to form a shallow recess or a deep sac with a narrow opening, situated in various parts of the surface of the body, and secreting odorous substances, by the aid of which individuals recognize one another.
Between Esthonia and Courland is the Gulf of Riga, a shallow inlet of roughly circular form, about loo m.
In the deeper hollows in the south part of the Baltic the bottom consists almost invariably of either soft brown or grey mud or hard clay, while on the shallow banks and near the low coasts fine sand, of white, yellow or brown colour with small pebbles, is usually found.
PATERA, the Latin name for a shallow circular vessel used for drinking or for pouring libations.
Shallow reaches are not uncommon, and there are at least seven considerable shoals in the south-western part of the course; partly owing to this cause, and partly to the scarcity of ship-timber in the Voronezh government, the Don, although navigable as far up as Voronezh, does not attain any great importance as a means of communication till it reaches Kachalinskaya in the vicinity of the Volga.
(4) The enthusiastic view of the possibilities of the Christian life - associated, as modern and especially Western Christians must suspect, with shallow external views of sin - lent itself to belief in sinless perfection.
sented a shallow if honest intellectualism.
The sea grew shallow, the deposits became conglomeratic and shaly, volcanic eruptions began, and the present folds of the Apennines were initiated.
It fills a shallow depression which is drying up with astonishing rapidity, so that the process of desiccation can be shown on surveys separated by intervals of only ten years; large parts of it, like Aibughir Gulf, have dried up since the Russians took possession of its shores.
The Tarim, which is on the whole a sluggish, shallow, winding stream, fringes the great desert of Takla-makan on the west, north and east, and, after being extensively drawn upon for irrigation purposes in the oases (Yarkand, Kashgar, Maral-bashi, Ak-su), through which it passes, it eventually dies away in the salt reed-grown lake or marsh of Lop-nor (Karakoshun).
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.