the influence of the pseudo-Dionysian writings were transmitted to the West in the 9th century by Erigena, in whose speculative spirit both the scholasticism and the mysticism of the middle ages have their rise.
Hugh's pupil, Richard of St Victor, declares, in opposition to dialectic scholasticism, that the objects of mystic contemplation are partly above reason, and partly, as in the intuition of the Trinity, contrary to reason.
In him culminates the Jewish expression of the Spanish-Moorish culture; his writings had an influence on European scholasticism and contributed significant elements to the philosophy of Spinoza.
More important in the history of scholasticism are the theological consequences to which Gilbert's realism led him.
He was held to this belief in the substantiality of bodies by his Christianity, by the influence of Aristotle, of scholasticism and of Cartesianism, as well as by his own mechanics.
The distinguishing characteristic of scholasticism is the acceptance by reason of a given matter, the truth of which is independent of rational grounds, and which remains a presupposition even when it cannot be understood.
Scholasticism aims, it is true, in its chief representatives, at demonstrating that the content of revelation and the teaching of reason are identical.
Valentin Weigel (1533-1588), who stands under manifold obligations to Franck, represents also the influence of the semi-mystical physical speculation that marked the transition from scholasticism to modern times.
The final breakdown of scholasticism as a rationalized system of dogma may be seen in Nicolas (or Nicolaus) of Cusa (1401-1464), who distinguishes between the intellectus and the discursively acting ratio almost precisely in the style of later distinctions between the reason and the understanding.
from 5th ed.), in which he carried scholasticism so far as "to revive the ancient Gnostic theory of the fall of man before all time, a theory which found no favour amongst his theological friends" (Otto Pfleiderer).
Jewish orthodoxy found itself attacked by the more revolutionary aspects of mysticism and its tendencies to alter established customs. While the medieval scholasticism denied the possibility of knowing anything unattainable by reason, the spirit of the Kabbalah held that the Deity could be realized, and it sought to bridge the gulf.
Any frank recognition of the abbe's even general principles involves the abandonment of the identification of theology with scholasticism or even with specifically ancient thought in general.
SCHOLASTICISM, the name usually employed to denote the most typical products of medieval thought.
Scholasticism in the widest sense thus extends from the 9th to the end of the 14th or the beginning of the 15th century - from Erigena to Occam and his followers.
Scholasticism opens with a discussion of certain points in the Aristotelian logic; it speedily begins to apply its logical distinctions to the doctrines of the church; and when it attains its full stature in St Thomas it has, with the exception of certain mysteries, rationalized or Aristotelianized the whole churchly system.
" The constant effort of Scholasticism to be at once philosophy and theology " 1 seemed at last satisfactorily realized.
But this is equivalent to a confession that Scholasticism had failed in its task, which was to rationalize the doctrines of the church.
But, although the relation of reason to an external authority thus constitutes the badge of medieval thought, it would be unjust to look upon Scholasticism as philosophically barren, and to speak as if reason, after an interregnum of a thousand years, resumed its rights at the Renaissance.
Scholasticism that 1 Milman's Latin Christianity, ix.
But each system is a fresh recognition of the rights of reason, and Scholasticism as a whole may be regarded as the history of the growth and gradual emancipation of reason which was completed in the movements of the Renaissance and the Reformation.
The next centuries show that peculiar combination of logic and theology which is the mark of Scholasticism, especially in the period before the r3th century.
Albertus Magnus introduces us at once to the great age of Scholasticism (1193-1280).
The coeval origin of consonants and vowels had indeed been questioned or denied by the earliest reformers (Luther, Zwingli, Calvin), but later, in the period of Protestant scholasticism and under the influence of one school of Jewish Rabbis, Protestant scholars in particular, and especially those .of the Swiss school, notably the Buxtorfs, had committed themselves to the view that the vowels formed an integral and original part of the text of the Old Testament; and this they maintained with all the more fervency.
On the other hand, more under the influence of the Thomist reaction, Thomas Harper published The Metaphysics of the School (1879, &c.), describing scholasticism, as it appears in the works of Aquinas; and The Manuals of Catholic Philosophy, edited by R.
Scholasticism he condemned on account of its unquestioning submission to Aristotle.
The writings of Thomas are of great importance for philosophy as well as for theology, for by nature and education he is the spirit of scholasticism incarnate.
This externality of religious truth to the mind is fundamental in scholasticism, while the opposite view is equally fundamental in mysticism.
The dissolution of feudalism, the development of towns, the growth of scholasticism, all these and much more have been ascribed to the Crusades, when in truth they were concomitants rather than results, or at any rate, if in part the results of the Crusades, were in far larger part the results of other things.
The purely philosophical theories of Aquinas are explained in the article Scholasticism.
By the "fathers," then, we understand the whole of extant Christian literature from the time of the apostles to the rise of scholasticism or the beginning of the middle ages.
Suarez may be considered almost the last eminent representative of scholasticism.
They are the last representatives, of mysticism within the limitations imposed by scholasticism.
(Brussels, 1880); and article Scholasticism.
133; article Scholasticism.
16 551677), represents the climax of Lutheran scholasticism.
Although some of its foremost exponents were famous Talmudists, it was a protest against excessive intellectualism and Aristotelian scholasticism.
It is divisible into two well-marked periods - the first extending to the end of the 12th century and embracing as its chief names Roscellinus, Anselm, William of Champeaux and Abelard, while the second extended from the beginning of the 13th century to the Renaissance and the general distraction of men's thoughts from the problems and methods of Scholasticism.
the end of the 11th and the first half of the 12th century logic - a period more original and more interesting in many ways than the great age of Scholasticism in the 13th century.
The first period of Scholasticism being thus at an end, there is an interval of nearly half a century without any noteworthy philosophical productions.
And, on the whole, the widening of intellectual interests is the chief feature by which the second period of Scholasticism may be distinguished from the first.
The great age of Scholasticism presents, indeed, a substantial unanimity upon this vexed point, maintaining at once, in different senses, the existence of the universals ante rem, re and post rem.
In general it may be said that Duns shows less confidence in the power of reason than Aquinas, and to that extent Erdmann and others are right in looking upon his system as the beginning of the decline of Scholasticism.
For Scholasticism, as perfected by Aquinas, implies the harmony of reason and faith, in the sense that they both teach the same truths.
His destructive criticism thus tended to reintroduce the dualism between faith and reason which Scholasticism had laboured through centuries to overcome, though Scotus himself, of course, had no such sceptical intention.
The last stage of Scholasticism preceding its dissolution is marked by the revival of Nominalism in a militant form.
In another way also Occam heralds the'dissolution of Scholasticism.
The principle of the twofold nature of truth 1 thus embodied in Occam's system was unquestionably adopted by many merely to cloak their theological unbelief; and it is significant of the internal dissolution of Scholasticism.
They belong indeed (Gerson in particular) to the history of mysticism rather than of Scholasticism, and the same may be said of another cardinal, Nicolaus of Cusa (1401-1464), who is sometimes reckoned among the last of the Scholastics, but who has more affinity with Erigena than with any intervening teacher.
But after the beginning of the r 5th century Scholasticism was divorced from the spirit of the time, and it is useless to follow its history further.
Scholasticism had been the expression of a universal church and a common learned language.
The university of Paris, with its scholars of all nations numbered by thousands, was a symbol of the intellectual unity of Christendom; a.nd in the university of Paris, it may almost be said, Scholasticism was reared and flourished and died.
Scholasticism, therefore, which was in its essence ecclesiastical, had no longer a proper field for its activity.
A critical survey of recent literature on Scholasticism is given by Baeumker in the Archiv far Geschichte der Philosophie, vols.
The reaction against scholasticism was still in full tide; it was the transition time between the old and the new, when the eager and forwardlooking spirits had first of all to do battle with scholastic Aristotelianism.
In the revival of learning, scholarship supplanted scholasticism, and the old ways of medieval thinking were forgotten.
A few of the humanists became Protestants - Melanchthon, Bucer, Oecolampadius and others - but the great majority of them, even if attracted for the moment by Luther's denunciation of scholasticism, speedily repudiated the movement.
A new type of theology made its appearance at the opening of the 16th century, in sharp contrast with the Aristotelian scholasticism of the Thomists and Scotists.
The result was a structure which is well named the Protestant scholasticism.
Here then, under Protestant scholasticism (Lutheran and Reformed), we have the first perfectly definite conception of dogma, and the most definite ever reached.
Every true dogma, says Johann Gerhard 8 - the most representative figure of Lutheran scholasticism - occurs in plain terms somewhere in Scripture.
2 And historically it seems plain that - since the age of Protestant scholasticism - there has been nothing in Protestant church life to which the name " dogma " can be assigned, without dropping a good deal of its original connotation.
But more important than all this, perhaps, is the thoroughly practical tone which Guido assumes in his theoretical writings, and which differs greatly from the clumsy scholasticism of his contemporaries and predecessors.
Luther never quite shook off scholasticism, whereas Zwingli had early learnt from Dr Thomas Wyttenbach that the time was at hand when scholastic theology must give place to the purer and more rational theology of the early Fathers and to a fearless study of the New Testament.
For his views and his controversy with Abelard, see Scholasticism and Abelard.
The monastic reform movement was essentially Latin in origin; and even more significant was the fact that scholasticism, the new theology, had its home in the Latin countries.
In so doing they set to work at the same time to complete the development of ecclesiastical dogma; the formulation of the Catholic doctrine of the Sacraments was the work of scholasticism.
Canon law is the twin-sister of scholasticism.
1489), were not competent to restore to the Church what she had once possessed in scholasticism - that is to say, a conception of Christianity in which all Christendom recognized the convictions in which it lived and had its being.
This was the long task essayed by Scholasticism; and, though the great Schoolmen of the 13th century refrained from attempting to rationalize such doctrines as the Trinity and the Incarnation, they were far from considering Theory of them as essentially opposed to reason.
Albert's activity, however, was rather philosophical than theological (see Scholasticism).
Hence the philosophy which arose at Athens was what may fairly be termed scholasticism.
He imparted a life and impulse to prevailing tendencies, helping on the construction of the system hereafter to be completed in Scholasticism.
How the mental faculties are blunted by scholasticism and mere memory work must be seen to be believed; such an education is enough to spoil the best head.
18) as the fundamental law of religious morals, became in a certain sense a commonplace of Pharisaic scholasticism.
As in religion he is entitled to be called one of the "Reformers before the Reformation," so in philosophy he was one of those who broke with scholasticism while it was still the orthodox system.
John of Damascus has sometimes been called the "Father of Scholasticism," and the "Lombard of the Greeks," but these epithets are appropriate only in a limited sense.
He marks, indeed, a stage of transition from the older Platonizing philosophy to the later and more rigid scholasticism.
Scholasticism The living force in the spiritual life of the Roman empire was, after all, not philosophy, but religion, and specifically Christianity.
The upshot is what is called Scholasticism.
Scholasticism is the Aristotelianism of medieval orthodoxy as taught in the " schools " or universities of Western Europe.
Scholasticism embodied what the Christian community had saved from the wreckage of Greek dialectic. Yet with all its effective manipulation of the formal technique of its translated and mutilated Aristotle, Scholasticism would have gone under long before it did through the weakness intrinsic to its divorce of the form and the matter of knowledge, but for two reasons.
It was respited by the opportunity which was afforded it of fresh draughts from the Aristotle of a less partial and purer tradition, and we have, accordingly, a golden age of revived Scholasticism beginning in the 13th century, admitting now within itself more differences than before.
It is to the schoolmen of the two centuries preceding the Turkish capture of Constantinople that the controversial refinements usually associated with the name of Scholasticism are attributable.
The Analytics of Aristotle now entered quite definitely into the logical thought of Scholasticism and we have the contrast of a logica vetus and logica nova .
He is with the nominalists of the later Scholasticism and the naturalists of the early Renaissance.
Wolff's formalism is the bastard outcome of the speculation of Leibnitz, and is related to it as remotely as Scholasticism is to Aristotle.
Scholasticism, which absorbed the attention of most thinkers from about the 11th to about the 15th centuries, is so easily marked off and played so considerable a role in the academic history of that time, that historians often refer to it as the only intellectual interest of "medieval" men.
For a generation nursed in decadent scholasticism and stereotyped theological formulae it was the fountain of renascent youth, beauty and freedom, the shape in which the Helen of art and poetry appeared to the ravished eyes of medieval Faustus.
The time was ripe for a great change; scholasticism, long decaying, had begun to fall; the authority not only of school doctrines but of the church had been discarded; while here and there a few devoted experimenters were turning with fresh zeal to the unwithered face of nature.
They do not, however, exclude the possibility that by the side of the scholasticism of the early Jewish academical circles was the more popular thought which, forming a link between Jews and Christians, ultimately fell into neglect as Judaism and Christianity formulated their theologies.
The great interest of Adelard in the history of philosophy lies in the fact that he made a special study of Arabian philosophy during his travels, and, on his return to England, brought his knowledge to bear on the current scholasticism of the time.
For the relative importance of this doctrine see article Scholasticism.
was another tendency in post-Aristotelian thought - to lean upon authority and substitute learning for independent research - which grew stronger just in proportion as the fresh interest in the problems of the universe and the zeal for discovery declined - a shadow, we may call it, of the coming Scholasticism thrown a thousand years in advance.
In a certain sense, Scholasticism began with Chrysippus.
Men had become weary of Protestant scholasticism; religious wars had made peaceful thinkers seek to take the edge off dogmatical rancour; and the multiplicity of religious sects, coupled with the complete failure of various attempts at any substantial reconciliation, provoked distrust of the common basis on which all were founded.
Among these hypothetical beings, the creations of a sickly scholasticism, hollow abstractions without life or reality, the particular trinity in which the historical Gotama was assigned a subordinate place naturally occupied the most exalted rank.
The form is that of question and answer, and the method is rigidly scholastic. Of small intrinsic value, it is interesting partly as the first philosophical contribution of the Franciscans who were afterwards to take a prominent part in medieval thought (see Scholasticism), and partly as the first work based on a knowledge of the whole Aristotelian corpus and the Arabian commentators.
As regards his so-called Conceptualism and his attitude to the question of Universals, see Scholasticism.
In 1807, inspired by his study of Dante, he published his first work Abi lard and Dulcin, a defence of scholasticism and medieval thought.
It is the best specimen of the final aspect of scholasticism.
The title Ultimus Scholasticorum is often wrongly bestowed on Biel; scholasticism did not cease with him, even in Germany, and continued to flourish long after his time in the universities of Spain.
Nationalokonomik (Munich, 1874), pp. 21-28; and works quoted under Scholasticism.
If Abelard stands for the intellectual daring of scholasticism, Lombard represents its other pole - interest in piety, i.e.
But before the great outburst of scholasticism, ancient literature found a somewhat less inadequate channel in Arabian and partly even in Jewish scholarship. Aristotle was no longer strained through the meshes of Boetius; study of and the new light inspired Roscellinus with heresy.
It is possible to exaggerate the influence of the revived knowledge of Aristotle; but, so far as one can trace causes in the mysterious intellectual life of mankind, that influence gave scholasticism its vigour.
(See Arabian Philosophy, Scholasticism.) With the new knowledge and impulse, there came a new method.
The Sentences had resolved theology into a string of headings; with scholasticism each topic dissolves into a string of arguments for and against.
One might add a still further distinction of the Protestant scholasticism.
On the basis of belief in inspiration we find, during the days of Protestant scholasticism, the most reckless and insane assertions of scriptural perfection.
In the early period known as the Protestant scholasticism there was no desire for progress in doctrine.
Semler), linking Protestant scholasticism with modern thought, and exhibiting the continuity of science in spite of great revolutionary changes and great reactions.
It has been supposed that the Reformed divinity here set itself to remedy the dogmatic dryness of Protestant scholasticism, fifty years before the Lutheran G.
But a powerful counterpoise to this tendency was continually maintained by the fervid inwardness of Augustine, transmitted through Gregory the Great, Isidore of Seville, Alcuin, Hrabanus Maurus, and other writers of the philosophically barren period between the destruction of the Western empire and the rise of Scholasticism.
Erigena's contemporaries, and was certainly unorthodox enough to justify the condemnation which it subsequently received from Honorius III.; but its influence, together with that of the Pseudo-Dionysius, had a considerable share in developing the more emotional orthodox mysticism of the 12th and 13th centuries; and Neoplatonism (or Platonism received through a Neoplatonic tradition) remained a distinct element in medieval thought, though obscured in the period of mature scholasticism by the predominant influence of Aristotle.
As the properly philosophic interest of scholasticism faded in the 14th and 15th centuries, the quasi-legal treatment of morality came again into prominence, borrowing a good deal of matter from Thomas and other schoolmen.
Scholasticism, while reviving philosophy as a handmaid to theology, had metamorphosed its method into one resembling that of its mistress; thus shackling the renascent intellectual 2 As the chief English casuists we may mention Perkins, Hall,.
Immediately after this event he went to Paris, where the "new learning" was now at length ousting the medieval scholasticism from the university.
See Scholasticism; also V.
His point of view may be described as Scholasticism; for, like the scholastic doctors, he believes that theology and philosophy are not opposed sciences, but that reason has to make clear the truths given by authority and revelation.
The agreeable versidecadence fication of an amateur like Ausonius, the refined of GauL panegyrics of a Eumenius, disguising nullity of thought beneath elegance of form, already foretold the perilous sterility of scholasticism.
In France it had ~ originally no revolutionary character whatever; it proceeded from traditional Gallican theories and from the innovating principle of humanism, and it began as a protest against Roman decadence and medieval scholasticism.
He borrowed from the ancien rÃ©gime its plenipotentiaries; its over-centralized, strictly utilitarian administrative and bureaucratic methods; and afterwards, inorder to bring them into line, the subservient pedantic scholasticism of its university.
It was in the universities of north Italy that Averroism finally settled, and there for three centuries it continued as a stronghold of Scholasticism to resist the efforts of revived antiquity and of advancing science.
He entered with a passion for Catholic scholasticism.
Since she agreed with scholasticism in its practice of medicine, it would seem that she was embracing the scholastic tradition.
The world almost divides into two, but stops short of the split as Descartes reverts back to the comfort of medieval scholasticism.
Again, this requires him to dismiss as products of later scholasticism, without cogent grounds, the many suttas that draw such distinctions.
In chapters 10-12 Dreyfus presents an inquiry into the nature of debate and its function in Tibetan scholasticism.
But let us not waste our time over such philological scholasticism.
Hence arises the compatibility of philosophy and theology which was the fundamental axiom of scholasticism, and the possibility of a Summa Theologiae, which is a Summa Philosophiae as well.
(See also Scholasticism.) The most important of his works consisted of questions and commentaries on the writings of Aristotle, and on the Sentences of Lombard, the so-called Opus Oxoniense or Anglicanum.
Fully a century later, when the system of scholasticism was gradually breaking up under the predominance of Occam's nominalism, Pierre d'Ailly (1350-1425), and his more famous scholar John Gerson (1363-1429), chancellor of the university of Paris, are found endeavouring to combine the doctrines of the Victorines and Bonaventura with a nominalistic philosophy.
At most, therefore, it may be admitted that the Crusades contributed to the dissolution of feudalism by putting property on the market and disturbing the validity of titles; that they aided the development of towns by vastly increasing the volume of trade; and that they furthered the growth of scholasticism by bringing the West into contact with the mind of the East.
Thus the Kabbalah linked the old scholasticism with the new and independent inquiries in learning and philosophy after the Renaissance, and although it had evolved a remarkably bizarre conception of the universe, it partly anticipated, in its own way, the scientific study of natural philosophy.
These schools became the centres of medieval learning and speculation, and from them the name Scholasticism is derived (cf.
Erigena is really of the spiritual kindred of the Neoplatonists and Christian mystics rather than of the typical Scholastic doctors, and, in fact, the activity of Scholasticism is mainly confined within the limits of the 11th and the 14th centuries.
In speaking of the origin of Scholasticism - name and thing - it has been already noted that medieval speculation takes its rise in certain logical problems. To be more precise, central theme of Scholastic debate (see Nominalism, Realism).
The cause of the new development of Extension Scholasticism in the 13th century was the acquisition for of know- the first time of the complete works of Aristotle (see ledge of Classics and Arabian Philosophy).
Passing from this particular vein of sceptical or semi-sceptical thought, we find, as we should expect, that the downfall of Scholasticism, and the conflict of philosophical theories and religious confessions which ensued, gave a decided impetus in 16th to sceptical reflection.
Thus he "entered on an atmosphere which was beginning to be charged with the elements of reaction against traditional scholasticism in physics and in metaphysics" (A.
The fundamental principles of his system (see Scholasticism) are that "Essentia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem" ("Occam's Razor"), that nouns, like algebraical symbols, are merely denotative terms whose meaning is conventionally agreed upon (suppositio), and that the destructive effect of these principles in theological matters does not in any way destroy faith (see the Centilogium Theologicum, Lyons, 1495, and Tractatus de Sacramento Altaris).
From these sources they attempted to evolve a philosophy of religion, which would not only refute the views of Hobbes, but would also free theology finally from the errors of scholasticism, without plunging it in the newer dangers of unfettered rationalism (see ETHIcs).
The beautiful mosques and madrasas (theological colleges) are dilapidated; no astronomers study the sky from the tops of their minarets; and the scholars of the madrasas waste their time on the most deplorably puerile scholasticism.
He borrowed from the ancien rÃƒ©gime its plenipotentiaries; its over-centralized, strictly utilitarian administrative and bureaucratic methods; and afterwards, inorder to bring them into line, the subservient pedantic scholasticism of its university.
It was with them that the deification of Aristotle began; and from them the belief that in him human intelligence had reached its limit passed to the later schoolmen (see Scholasticism).
Could this indicate that much of the self-perpetuating nature of Christian scholasticism is based on prejudice instead of fact?
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