The acts of the synod of Pistoia were published in Italian and Latin at Pavia in 1788.
result of a conference, a synod was convened to meet Synod.
On the 21st of August 1715 he summoned all the preachers in the Cevennes and Lower Languedoc to a conference or synod near the village of Monoblet.
These articles, however, never came into operation; and the decisions of the synod of Dort in 1578, which made the Church independent were equally fruitless.
In 1551 the tsar submitted to a synod of prelates a hundred questions as to the best mode of remedying existing evils, for which reason the decrees of this synod are generally called stoglav or centuria.
In 664 at the synod of Whitby, Oswio accepted the usages of the Roman Church, which led to the departure of Colman and the appointment of Wilfrid as bishop of York.
In 1865 the synod of that province, in an urgent letter to the archbishop of Canterbury (Dr Longley), represented the unsettlement of members of the Canadian Church caused by recent legal decisions of the Privy Council, and their alarm lest the revived action of Convocation "should leave us governed by canons different from those in force in England and Ireland, and thus cause us to drift into the status of an independent branch of the Catholic Church."
In spite of the hostile attitude of the great majority of the bishops, Bishop de' Ricci issued on the 31st of July a summons to a diocesan synod, which was solemnly opened on the 18th of September.
These decrees were issued together with a pastoral letter of Bishop de' Ricci, and were warmly approved by the grand-duke, at whose instance a national synod of the Tuscan bishops met at Florence on the 23rd of April 1787.
Archbishop Longley said in his opening address, however, that they had no desire to assume "the functions of a general synod of all the churches:in full communion with the Church of England," but merely to "discuss matters of practical interest, and pronounce what we deem expedient in resolutions which may serve as safe guides to future action."
Appeals and complaints may be taken from the presbytery to the synod.
The synod is a provincial council which consists of the ministers and representative elders from all the congregations within a specified number of presbyteries, in the same way as the presbytery is representative of a specified number of congregations.
The synod at its first meeting chooses a minister as its moderator whose duties, though somewhat more restricted, are similar to those of presbyterial moderators.
The synod hears appeals and references from presbyteries; and by its discussions and decisions business of various kinds, if not settled, is ripened for consideration and final settlement by the general assembly, the supreme court of the Church.
It was the first general synod of the French Protestant Church, and consisted of representatives from, some say sixty-six, others, twelve churches.
Next in order was the provincial synod which consisted of a minister and an elder or deacon from each church in the province.
Over all was the general or national synod.
When the ministry of a church became vacant the choice of a successor rested with the colloque or with the provincial synod.
Later the synod of Nimes (1572) decreed that no minister might be imposed upon an unwilling people.
Up to 1565 the national synod consisted of a minister with one or two elders or deacons from every church; after that date, to avoid overcrowding, its numbers were restricted to representatives from each provincial synod.
Synods were held in 1718, 1723, 1726 and 1727; and in a remote spot in Bas Languedoc in 1 744 a national synod assembled - the first since 1660 - which consisted of representatives from every province formerly Protestant.
In 1801 and 1802 Napoleon took into his own hands the independence of both Catholic and Protestant Churches, the national synod was abolished, and all active religious propaganda was rigorously forbidden.
In 1574 the first provincial synod of Holland and Zealand was held, but William of Orange would not allow any action to be taken independently of the state.
In 1581 the Middelburg Synod divided the Church, created provincial synods and presbyteries, but could not shake off the civil power in connexion with the choice of church officers.
The Leiden magistrates said in 1581:" If we accept everything determined upon in the synod, we shall end by being vassals of the synod.
Every congregation was visited by ministers appointed by the provincial synod.
The Synod of London met half-yearly from 1647 till 1655.
Synods Synod of also were held in the north.
There were five presbyteries holding monthly meetings and annual visitations of all the congregations within their bounds, and coming together in general synod four times a year.
In 1840 the Synod of Ulster and the Secession Synod united to form the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.
In 1716 this presbytery became a synod by dividing itself into four "subordinate meetings or presbyteries," after the Irish model.
The synod increased the number of its churches by a large accession from New York and from New Jersey, where there had been large Presbyterian settlements.
The synod seems to have remained without a constitution and without subscription until 1729, when it adopted the Westminster standards.
In1730-1732the stricter party in the presbyteries of New Castle and Donegal insisted on full subscription, and in 1736, in a minority synod, interpreted the adopting act according to their own views.
When the synod met in 1741 the moderate men remained away; and thus the synod broke in two.
During the separation the synod of Philadelphia decreased from twentysix to twenty-two ministers, but the synod of New York grew from twenty to seventy-two ministers, and the New Side reaped all the fruits of the Great Awakening under Whitefield and his successors.
The union was not perfect; the presbytery of Donegal was for three years in revolt against the synod; and in 1762 a second presbytery of Philadelphia was formed; but the strength of the synod increased rapidly and at the outbreak of the War of Independence it had 11 presbyteries and 132 ministers.
But there were exceptions: Irish Presbyterians from Ulster formed a church at Londonderry, New Hampshire, which, about 1729, grew into a presbytery; the Boston presbytery, organized in 1745, became in 1774 the synod of New England with three presbyteries and sixteen ministers; and there were two independent presbyteries, that of "the Eastward" organized at Boothbay, Maine, in 1771, and that of Grafton, in New Hampshire, founded by Eleazar Wheelock and other ministers interested in Dartmouth College.
The Anti-Burgher Synod sent Alexander Gellatly and Andrew Arnot in 1752, and two years later they organized the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania; they were joined in 1757 by the Scotch Church in New York City, which.
The Burgher Synod in 1764 sent Thomas Clarke of Ballybay, Ireland, who settled at Salem, Washington county, New York, and in 1776 sent David Telfair, of Monteith, Scotland, who preached in Philadelphia; they united with the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania; in 1771 the Scotch Synod ordered the presbytery to annul its union with the Burghers, and although Dr Clarke of Salem remained in the Associate Presbytery, the Burgher ministers who immigrated later joined the Associate Reformed Church.
In 1782 the presbyteries of the Associate and Reformed churches united, forming the Associate and Reformed Synod of North America; but as there were a few dissenters in both bodies the older Associate and Reformed Presbyteries remained as separate units - the Associate Presbytery continued to exist under the same name until 1801, when it became the Associate Synod of North America; in 1818 it ceased to be subordinate to the Scotch General Synod.
In 1822, under the influence of John Mitchell Mason (1770-1829), the Associate Reformed Synod combined with the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, but the majority was too slender to make the union thorough.
In 1858 the associate synods of the north and west united with the Associate Synod as the United Presbyterian Church.
In 1847 the synod of the Free Presbyterian Church was formed by the anti-slavery secession of the presbytery of Ripley, O.
(New School), and a part of the presbytery of Mahoning, Pa., (Old School); this synod, then numbering five presbyteries with 43 ministers, joined the New School Assembly during the Civil War.
Of the Covenanter bodies the synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church has a theological seminary in Allegheny (Pittsburg), established in 1856, and the general synod in 1887 organized a college at Cedarville, Ohio.
The Associate Reformed Synod of the South has the Erskine Theological Seminary (1837) in Due West, South Carolina.
1858, 6 synods, 21 presbyteries and about 15,000 communicants withdrew and organized the United Synod.
Its strength was increased by the addition: in 1863 of the small Independent Presbyterian Church of South Carolina; in 1865 of the United Synod (New School), which at that time had 120 ministers, 190 churches, and 12,000 communicants; in 1867 of the presbytery of Patapsco; in 1869 of the synod of Kentucky; and in 1874 of the synod of Missouri.
The United Presbyterian Church has a board of foreign missions (reorganized in 1859) with missions in Egypt (1853), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1909, 71 congregations, 70 ministers and 10,341 members), in the Punjab (1854), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1 909, 35 congregations, 51 ministers and 17,321 members), and in the Sudan (1901); and boards of home missions (reorganized, 1859), church extension (1859), publication (1859), education (1859), ministerial relief (1862), and missions to the freedmen (1863).
Presbyterians of different churches in the United States in 1906 numbered 1,830,555; of this total 322,542 were in Pennsylvania, where there were 248,335 members of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (the Northern Church), being more than one-fifth of its total membership; 56,587 members of the United Presbyterian Church of North America, being more than two-fifths of its total membership; 2709 members of the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, three-tenths of its total membership; the entire membership of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada (440), 3150 members of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church, nearly one-fourth of its total membership; and 2065 members of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, general synod, about five-ninths of its total membership. The strength of the Church in Pennsylvania is largely due to the Scotch-Irish settlements in that state.
The Associate Reformed Synod of the South had a membership of 13,201.
The Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America had in 1906 a membership of 9122.
The "Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, General Synod," had a membership of 3620.
The Associate Presbyterian Church, or Associated Synod of North America had a membership of 786.
At the head of the whole organization is a General Synod, sitting at Paris.
Synod Of Jerusalem >>
SYNOD OF ELVIRA, an ecclesiastical synod held in Spain, the date of which cannot be determined with exactness.
before the Diocletian persecution; others for a date between 303 and 314, after the persecution, but before the synod of Arles; still others for a date between the synod of Arles and the council of Nicaea, 325.
Here his title was recognized by a synod called by Bernard of Clairvaux at Etampes.
Similar action was taken in Germany by the synod of Wiirzburg.
He was condemned by a Roman synod under Bishop Siricius in 390, and afterwards excommunicated by another at Milan under the presidency of Ambrose.
At the synod of Whitby in 664 Hilda sided with Colman and Cedd against Wilfrid.
After some previous abortive trials, Paul of Samosata was deposed and excommunicated, in 269, by a great synod of the Antiochene district.
There is to be no " stay of execution "; the episcopal sentence is to prevail until the provincial synod otherwise decide.
a " count ") is present at the synod, as an assessor to maintain order and advise upon points of procedure.
A synod was held at Rome, attended by bishops from various regions, which reversed the original judgment of the synod of Tyre which had condemned Athanasius.
A much larger synod at Antioch, gathered only from the East, on the other hand, confirmed that judgment.
Deposition of a bishop by a synod, or of a priest or deacon by his bishop, is to take effect even pending an appeal, and a cleric continuing his functions after sentence in first instance is to lose all right of appeal.
The synod may restore them if convinced of the justice of their cause (and not merely in cases of ajbia).
If a provincial synod be divided as to the guilt of a bishop, the metropolitan is to convene bishops from the neighbouring provinces to decide the cause jointly with the bishops of the original province.
If this be done, the synod of first instance is to send letters to Julius, bishop of Rome.
The appellant may, however, request that bishop to send priests from his side to sit with the synod of appeal.
In Africa in the beginning of the 5th century Apiarius, a priest who had been deposed by the bishop of Sicca for immorality, and whose deposition had been affirmed by the " provincial synod," instead of further appealing to a general synod of Africa, carried his appeal to Pope Zosimus.
At Chalcedon, on the other hand, the imperial commissioners decided points of order, kept the synod to the question, took the votes and adjourned the court.
He was not, however, charged with direct heresy, as were Nestorius and Dioscorus, and the synod seems to have hesitated to deal stringently with the primate of Christendom.
The sixth oecumenical synod decreed that the dead pope Honorius should be " cast out from the holy Catholic Church of God " and anathematized, a sentence approved by the reigning pope Leo II.
and affirmed by the seventh oecumenical synod in 787.
If any clerk have a complaint against his own bishop, he shall have his cause adjudicated upon by the synod of the province.
This synod frequently decided questions belonging to other patriarchates.
Edgar, in a speech to St Dunstan and the bishops in synod (in 969), said, "I hold in my hands the sword of Constantine, you that of Peter.
As to appeals the mixed council of Cliff at Hoo (747) said they should go to the synod of the province.
The synod found him unlawfully deposed and ordered his restoration.
The appeal was heard at great length, in a synod of 703 under John VI., deputies from the archbishop of Canterbury being present.
Isolated examples in the early middle ages of metropolitans dealing with their suffragan bishops by imprisonment in chains were extra-canonical abuses, connected with the perversion of Church law which treated the metropolitan (who originally was merely convener of the provincial synod and its representative during the intervals of sessions) as the feudal " lord " of his comprovincials.
Again, the court takes the place of the synod.
The diocesan synod P Y Y system.
The court of the metropolitan takes the place of the provincial synod, except possibly for the trial of bishops, and even this becomes doubtful.
In first instance they were tried by the provincial synod.
(c) The Provincial Synod consists of a union of three or more presbyteries with the same members.
No appeal can go direct to the General Assembly, omisso medio, unless the presbytery have so expressly directed, or unless there be no meeting of synod after the decision of the presbytery before the meeting of General Assembly.
They consist of five, or at least three, priests nominated by the bishop in and with the advice of the diocesan synod.
p. 179) and only lawfully judged in synod (ib.
This synod in 1667 deposed Nikon, degraded him from holy orders, and sentenced him to perpetual penance in a monastery (ib.
The patriarchate was abolished and its jurisdiction transferred by a council at St Petersburg in 1721 to a Holy Governing Synod.
a vinculo), it only gives a provisional decision, which is reported by the bishop, with his own opinion, for final judgment, to the Most Holy Governing Synod.
The governing synod is the final court of appeal.
The governing synod now sits at St Petersburg, but appoints delegated commissions, with a portion of its jurisdiction, in Moscow and Georgia.
The Holy Synod possesses the metropolitical jurisdiction.
Such a court can only suspend for seven days unless with the sanction of the Holy Synod (Joyce, op. cit.).
The Holy Synod can only inflict temporary suspension, or imprisonment for fifteen days, unless with the sanction of the King's ministry.
The Church of Cyprus has been autocephalous since at any rate the oecumenical synod of Ephesus in 431.
The final court is the island synod, which consists of the archbishop, his suffragans and four dignified priests.
The "exarch " of the archbishop, who is a dignitary but not a bishop, has a seat in the provincial synod.
He protested against the extreme democratic proposals called "The Agreement of the People" (1647), and was one of the commissioners at the Savoy Synod of 1658.
After the Eusebians had, at a synod held in Antioch, renewed their deposition of Athanasius they resolved to send delegates to Constans, emperor of the West, and also to Julius, setting forth the grounds on which they had proceeded.
On his second banishment from Alexandria, Athanasius came to Rome, and was recognized as a regular bishop by the synod held in 340.
The Western bishops who remained confirmed the previous decisions of the Roman synod; and by its 3rd, 4th and 5th decrees relating to the rights of revision, the council of Sardica endeavoured to settle the procedure of ecclesiastical appeals.
In 787 the power of Offa was displayed in a synod held at a place called Cealchyth.
At .the Synod of Lhota (1167), they broke away entirely from the papacy, elected - ministers of their own, and had Michael Bradacius consecrated a bishop by Stephan, a bishop of the Waldenses.
At the synod of Reichenau (1495), they rejected the authority of Peter of Chelcic, and accepted the Bible as their only standard of faith and practice.
At the head of the Church was a body of ten elders, elected by the synod; this synod consisted of all the ministers, and acted as the supreme legislative authority; and the bishops ruled in their respective dioceses, and had a share in the general oversight.
In provincial matters each province is independent, holds its own synods, makes its own laws, and elects its own governing board; but the General Synod meets, on the average, every ten years at Herrnhut, and its regulations are binding in all the provinces.
The foreign missions are managed by a mission board, elected by the General Synod.
- At the last General Synod (1909) they repeated their old fundamental principle that "the Holy Scriptures are our only rule of faith and practice"; but at the same time they declared that their interpretation of Scripture agreed substantially with the Nicene Creed, the Westminster and Augsburg Confessions, and the Thirty-nine Articles.
In response the Moravians, at the General Synod (1909), welcomed the offer, but also declared their wish (a) to preserve their independence as a "Protestant Episcopal Church"; (b) to co-operate freely as heretofore with other Evangelical Churches.
Other important buildings are the Sobranye, or parliament house, the palace of the synod, the ministries of war and commerce, the university with the national printing press, the national library, the officers' club and several large military structures.
Dependent on the Council of Ministers are two other councils: the Holy Synod and the Senate.
The Holy Synod (established in 1721) is the supreme organ of government of the Orthodox Church in Russia.
Apart from the schools under the ministry of war (Cossack voiskos and schools at the barracks), the great bulk of the primary schools are either under the ministry of public instruction or of the Holy Synod.
Those under the latter body are of recent growth, the policy of the last twenty years of the 19th century having been to hand over the budget allowances for primary instruction to the Holy Synod, which opened parish schools under the local priests.
The schools under the Synod are themselves divided into two categories: parish schools and reading schools of an inferior grade.
The principal ecclesiastical authority is the Holy Synod, the head of which, the Procurator, is one of the council of ministers and exercises very wide powers in ecclesiastical matters.
Under his influence a synod endorsed the changes in 1654; one bishop alone, Paul of Colomna, dissented, and he was deposed, knouted and kept in prison till he died mad.
In 1656 the synod anathematized the adherents of the old forms, and the anathema was confirmed by those of 1666 and 1667.
The Russian emperors, having established themselves as heads of the Church and the Holy Synod as a state department, were not likely willingly to tolerate their existence.
In order to prevent such incidents in future, Peter the Great abolished the patriarchate altogether, and entrusted the administration of the Church to a synod entirely dependent on the government.
The new tsar, Alexander III., was an apt pupil of his tutor Pobedonostsev (q.v.), the celebrated procurator of the Holy Synod, for whom the representative system was a modern lie," and his reign covered a period of frank reaction, during which there was not only no question of affected even the stolid and apparently immovable masses of the peasantry.
The emperor, however, whatever his own views, was surrounded by reactionary influences, of which the most powerful were the empress-mother, Pobedonostsev the procurator of the Holy Synod, Count Muraviev and the Grandduke Sergius.
Terms of peace were arranged, but at the last moment difficulties arose and the treaty was abandoned; and in October 1119 both emperor and anti-pope were excommunicated at a synod held at Reims. The journey of Calixtus to Rome early in 1120 was a triumphal march.
This pastoral was subsequently in 1786 annexed to the resolutions passed by the reforming synod of Pistoia, and was condemned with eighty-four other propositions by papal bull in 1794.
In 1533, in an important synod, he defended against Martin Bucer the principles of religious freedom as well as his own doctrine and life.
From the synod at Elvira in the 4th century this process began, and it was continued in the West-Gothic Church legislation, in the Lateran councils (especially the fourth in 1215), and in the council of Trent (1563).
The vast majority of the Christian population belongs to the Orthodox (Greek) Church, which is governed by a synod of seven bishops under the presidency of the metropolitan of Candia.
SYNOD OF LAODICEA, held at Laodicea ad Lycum in Phrygia, some time between 343 and 381 (so Hefele; but Baronius argues for 314, and others for a date as late as 399), adopted sixty canons, chiefly disciplinary, which were declared ecumenical by the council of Chalcedon, 451.
TR.) Synod of Arles (314).
The attempt of Seeck to date the synod 316 presupposes that the emperor was present in person, which is highly improbable.
Gregory, still supported by Naples, Hungary, Bavaria, and by Rupert, king of the Romans, found protection with Ladislaus, and in a synod at Cividale del Friuli banned Benedict and Alexander as schismatical, perjured and scandalous.
A second synod, composed entirely of bishops, determined that Origen must be deposed from the presbyterial status.
In 1846 he had been deputed to attend the General Evangelical Synod at Berlin.
The synod of Reims in 1148 procured papal sanction for four propositions opposed to certain of Gilbert's tenets, and his works were condemned until they should be corrected in accordance with the principles of the church.
The toleration edicts of Galerius and of Constantine and Licinius were published during his pontificate, which was also marked by the holding of the Lateran synod in Rome (313) at which Caecilianus, bishop of Carthage, was acquitted of the charges brought against him and Donatus condemned.
In the American Presbyterian church he was a prominent figure; he worked for union with the Congregationalists and with the Dutch Reformed body; and at the synod of 1786 he was one of the committee which reported in favour of the formation of a General Assembly and which drafted "a system of general rules for.
In return for this negligence the Thebans fastened a religious quarrel upon their neighbours, and secured a penal decree against them from the Amphictyonic synod (356).
Under the dominion of the Roman republic its national league was dissolved, but was revived by Augustus, who also restored to Phocis the votes in the Delphic Amphictyony which it had lost in 346 and enrolled it in the new Achaean synod.
The ostensible purpose of his mission (apart, of course, from those of pilgrimage and perhaps relic-hunting) was that he might gain further instruction from Jerome on the points raised by the Priscillianists and Origenists; but in reality, it would seem, his business was to stir up and assist Jerome and others against Pelagius, who, since the synod of Carthage in 411, had been living in Palestine, and finding some acceptance there.
induced to summon at his capital in June 415 a synod at which Orosius communicated the decisions of Carthage and read such of Augustine's writings against Pelagius as had at that time appeared.
All that Orosius succeeded in obtaining was John's consent to send letters and deputies to Innocent of Rome; and, after having waited long enough to learn the unfavourable decision of the synod of Diospolis or Lydda in December of the same year, he returned to north Africa, where he is believed to have died.
Such were the forces set in movement by Urban II., when, after holding a synod at Piacenza (March, 10 9 5), and receiving there fresh appeals from Alexius, he moved to Clermont, in the S.E.
Because of it Berengar was condemned as a heretic without being heard, by a synod at Rome and another at Vercelli, both held in 1050.
Trusting in Hildebrand's support, and in the justice of his own cause, he presented himself at the synod of Rome in 1059, but found himself surrounded by zealots, who forced him by the fear of death to signify his acceptance of the doctrine " that the bread and wine, after consecration, are not merely a sacrament, but the true body and the true blood of Christ, and that this body is touched and broken by the hands of the priests, and ground by the teeth of the faithful, not merely in a sacramental but in a real manner."
Hildebrand, now pope as Gregory VII., next summoned him to Rome, and, in a synod held there in 1078, tried once more to obtain a declaration of his orthodoxy by means of a confession of faith drawn up in general terms; but even this strong-minded and strong-willed pontiff was at length forced to yield to the demands of the multitude and its leaders; and in another synod at Rome (1079), finding that he was only endangering his own position and reputation, he turned unexpectedly upon Berengar and commanded him to confess that he had erred in not teaching a change as to substantial reality of the sacramental bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ.
At the instance of Pippin, Boniface secured Adalbert's condemnation at the synod of Soissons in 744; but he, and Clement, a Scottish missionary and a heretic on predestination, continued to find followers in spite of legate, council and pope, for three or four years more.
In 747 a synod of the Frankish bishops sent to Rome a formal statement of their submission to the papal authority.
In 1102 a national synod at Westminster under Anselm adopted canons against simony, clerical marriages and slavery.
At St Paul's the legatine constitutions of Otto were published in a synod of 1237, those of Ottobon in 1268: these were the most important national councils held after the independence of York had been established.
A synod at Lambeth in 1281 put forth canons none too welcome to Edward I.; they included a detailed scheme for the religious instruction of the faithful.
During the next two centuries the councils devoted much attention to heresy: eight propositions concerning the body of Christ after his death were rejected at St Mary-le-Bow in 1286; the expulsion of the Jews from England was sanctioned by a legatine synod of Westminster in 1291; ten theses of Wiclif's were condemned at the Dominican friary in 1382, and eighteen articles drawn from his Trialogus met the same fate at.
Meletius thus makes his debut as an ecclesiastic of the court party, and as such became bishop of Sebaste in succession to Eustathius, deposed as an Homousian heretic by the synod of Melitene.
According to Socrates he attended the synod of Seleucia in the autumn of 359, and then subscribed the Acacian formula.
The synod of Alexandria sent deputies to attempt an arrangement between the two anti-Arian Churches; but before they arrived Paulinus had been consecrated bishop by Lucifer of Calaris, and when Meletiusfree to return in consequence of the emperor Julian's contemptuous policy - reached the city, he found himself one of three rival bishops.
At the synod of Corinth (338) Philip was solemnly declared the captain-general (o-TpaTsyis auroKpitTCep) of the Hellenes against the Great King.
The recognition as captain-general he had obtained at another synod in Corinth, by an imposing military demonstration in Greece immediately upon his accession.
The monks appealed against this to the Holy Synod; but the synod declared against them and ordered the abbots to repress the heresy.
On the appeal of the abbots the dispute was now referred by the Holy Synod to the court of the Patriarch of Constantinople, and the intervention of the Russian Government was invited.
The Holy Synod decided that the peculiar tenets of Bulatovich and his followers were to be known and condemned as.` the heresy of the Name of God."
Martin himself, however, died before the opening of the synod.
The progress of heresy, the reported troubles in Germany, the war which had lately broken out between the dukes of Austria and Burgundy, and finally, the small number of fathers who had responded to the summons of Martin V., caused that pontiff's successor, Eugenius IV., to think that the synod of Basel was doomed to certain failure.
In 1748 he organized the first Lutheran synod in America.
The synod of Chalcedon in 451, following the lines of Pope Leo I.'s famous letter, endeavoured to steer a middle course between the so-called Nestorian and Eutychian positions.
Timothy Aelurus was chosen bishop, and a synod which he called was so powerful as to impress even the emperor Leo I.
C. A.) Synod Of Ancyra.
- An important ecclesiastical synod was held at Ancyra, the seat of the Roman administration for the province of Galatia, in A.D.
Instead of this he renounced it, and confirmed his renunciation by a solemn oath to Pope Adrian, to whom the synod sent him.
Another synod was held at Frankfort in 794, by which the new doctrine was again formally condemned, though neither Felix nor any of his followers appeared.
In this synod Alcuin of York took part.
816) of Lyons, being on one of these commissions, persuaded Felix to appear before a synod at Aix-laChapelle in 799.
In a synod held here in 954, Dunstan was elected bishop of Winchester.
Sofia in Bulgaria) formed themselves into a synod, and naturally declared in favour of Athanasius and Marcellus, while at the same time they anathematized the leaders of the Eusebian party.
The Magyar clergy was still a married clergy, and their connubial privileges were solemnly confirmed by the synod of Szabolcs, presided over by the king, in 1092.
By the new constitution of the Lutheran Church, published at first in 1870 for the city only, but in 1876 extended to the rest of the Hamburg territory, the parishes or communes are divided into three church-districts, and the general affairs of the whole community are entrusted to a synod of 53 members and to an ecclesiastical council of 9 members which acts as an executive.
Rome is indeed to be honoured as the mother of the churches; nor would Gerbert oppose her judgments except in two cases - (I) where she enjoins something that is contrary to the decrees of a universal council, such as that of Nice, or (2) where, after having been once appealed to in a matter of ecclesiastical discipline and having refused to give a plain and speedy decision, she should, at a later date, attempt to call in question the provisions of the metropolitan synod called to remedy the effects of her negligence.
4 On the ground of his writings he was condemned and deposed by the " robber synod " of Ephesus (449), but was restored by the Council of Chalcedon (451), after he had anathematized Nestorius.
His chief importance in the history of the Persian Church lies in his having induced a synod of bishops to declare that church independent of the see of Antioch and of the " Western Fathers " (Labourt, p. 122 sqq.).
In 1559 it was the headquarters of the Lords of the Congregation, and in 1607 the scene of the meetings of the synod of Fife known as the Three Synods of Dysart.
The district was one of the chief centres of the Methodist revival of the 18th century, the first synod of the Calvinistic Methodists being held in 1743 at Watford farm close to the town, from which place George Whitefield was married at Eglwysilan church two years previously.
In 743 a Roman synod decreed that all bishops subject to the metropolitan see of Rome should meet personally every year in that city to give an account of the state of their dioceses.
The great churches of Paris and Rouen also contended for him, and to win him sent their deputies to the provincial synod of Anjou.
Amyraut had left the choice to the synod.
Chosen to represent the provincial synod of Anjou, Touraine and Maine at the national synod held in 1631 at Charenton, he was appointed as orator to present to the king "The Copy of their Complaints and Grievances for the Infractions and Violations of the Edict of Nantes."
This gave rise to a charge of heresy, of which he was acquitted at the national synod held at Alengon in 1637, and presided over by Benjamin Basnage (1580-1652).
The charge was brought up again at the national synod of Charenton in 1644, when he was again acquitted.
A third attack at the synod of Loudun in 1659 met with no better success.
Univ., s.v.; John Quick's Synod.
In time, however, the word council came to be restricted to oecumenical gatherings, while synod was applied to meetings of the eastern or western branches of the Church (the first council of Constantinople was originally a mere council or synod of the East), or to councils of the Reformed churches, e.g.
the Synod of Dort.
The supreme governing body in the Russian branch of the Orthodox Eastern Church is known as the Holy Synod.
In the Presbyterian churches a synod is an assembly containing representatives of several presbyteries and intermediate between these and the General Assembly; similarly in the Wesleyan and other Methodist churches the synod is the meeting of the district which links the circuits with the conference.
So late as 1260 the provincial synod of Cologne decreed that the vestis camisialis must be long enough entirely to cover the everyday dress.
The energy and imprudence of Eutyches in asserting his opinions led to his being accused of heresy by Domnus of Antioch and Eusebius, bishop of Dorylaeum, at a synod presided over by Flavian at Constantinople in 448.
There the synod of Ephesus was declared to have been a "robber synod," its proceedings were annulled, and, in accordance with the rule of Leo as opposed to the doctrines of Eutyches, it was declared that the two natures were united in Christ, but without any alteration, absorption or confusion.
These were Christians, whose ecclesiastical language was Syriac, though the language of intercourse was Arabic. A Christian bishop of Hira is known to have attended a synod in 410.
On the accusation of the orthodox he was deposed by the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus, but at Chalcedon in 451 was pardoned on condition of anathematizing both Nestorius and Eutyches and accepting the Tome of Leo.
In their new environment the Nestorians abandoned some of the rigour of Catholic asceticism, and at a synod held in 499 abolished clerical celibacy even for bishops and went so far as to permit repeated marriages, in striking contrast not only to orthodox custom but to the practice of Aphraates at Edessa who had advocated celibacy as a condition of baptism.
The Syrians submitted to Rome at the synod of Dampier in 1599, but it was a forced submission, and in 1653 when the Portuguese arrested the Syrian bishop just sent out by the catholicus of Babylon, the rebellion broke out.
One of the Nestorian bishops joined the Russian Orthodox Church in 1898, and returned the same year with a small band of missionaries sent by the Holy Synod of Russia.
In 1862-1863 he took an active part in a movement for reform within the Hanoverian Church, and he was a member of the synod which passed the new constitution.
He also raised his brother to the office of Procurator of the Holy Synod and his Goadachev relations to high diplomatic appointments.
But as he did not long observe his oath he was deposed at a synod held in St Peter's, after Otto had compelled the Romans to swear they would elect no pope without the imperial consent; and a nominee of the emperor, who took the name of Leo VIII., was chosen in his stead.
The grand-duke is a Protestant; under him the Evangelical Church is governed by a nominated council and a synod consisting of the " prelate," 48 elected, and 7 nominated lay and clerical members.
He was active at the first synod of Antioch (A.D.
We know that in 498 he was staying at Edessa l; in or about 507, according to Theophanes, he was summoned by the emperor to Constantinople; and he finally presided at a synod at Sidon which was the means of procuring the replacement of Flavian by Severus.
This heresy was condemned by the synod of Dort 0619).
The Synod of Dort (1619) not only condemned Arminianism, but its defenders were expelled from the Netherlands; only in 1625 did they venture to return, and not till 1630 were they allowed to erect schools and churches.
enabled the diocesan alone, without the co-operation of a synod, to pronounce sentence of heresy, and required the sheriff to execute it by burning the offender, without waiting for the consent of the crown.'
Hale, as quoted by Phillimore (Ecc. Law), says that before the time of Richard II., that is, before any acts of Parliament were made about heretics, it is without question that in a convocation of the clergy or provincial synod" they might and frequently did here in England proceed to the sentencing of heretics."But later writers, while adhering to the statement that Convocation might declare opinions to be heretical, doubted whether it could proceed to punish the offender, even when he was a clerk in orders.
The general affairs of the league were managed by a synod which met periodically in the temple of Apollo and Artemis at Delos, the ancient centre sanctified by the common worship of the Ionians.
In this synod the allies met on an equality under the presidency of Athens.
Its organization, adopted by the common synod, was the product of the new democratic ideal embodied in the Cleisthenic reforms, as interpreted by a just and moderate exponent.
Athens, as the chosen leader, and supported no doubt by the synod, enforced the contributions of ships and money according to the assessment.
Gradually the allies began to weary of personal service and persuaded the synod to accept a money commutation.
Athens became more and more powerful, and could afford to disregard the authority of the synod.
Athens thus became mistress of the Aegean, while the synod at Delos had become practically, if not theoretically, powerless.
This meant that the synod was quite powerless.
c. 3 de ref., of the council of Trent, made dependent upon the consent of the provincial synod after cause shown (causa cognita et probata); and the only two powers left to the archbishop in this respect are to watch over the diocesan seminaries and to compel the residence of the bishop in his diocese.
Since there is no example of the archbishop of York exercising or being reputed to have such disciplinary jurisdiction over his suffragans,' and this right could, according to the canon law cited above, in the middle ages only be exercised normally in concert with the provincial synod, it would seem to be a survival of the special jurisdiction enjoyed by the pre-Reformation archbishop as legatus natus of the pope.
The trial began on the 12th of February 1889 before the archbishop and certain assessors, the protest of Dr King, based on the claim that he could only be tried in a provincial synod, being overruled by Archbishop Benson on the grounds above stated.
The writer of the Oratorian Commentary (Theodulf of Orleans?) addressing a synod which instructed him to provide an exposition of this work on the faith, writes of it, as " here and there recited in our churches, and continually made the subject of meditation by our priests."
On the same lines the Belgian Confession of 1561, written by Guido de Bres in French, and translated into Dutch was widely accepted in the Netherlands and confirmed by the synod of Dort (1619).
They were then published as " Articles agreed on by the bishops and other learned men in the Synod of London."
It shows the influence of Arminian theology against Calvinism, which was vigorously upheld in the Quin-particular formula, put forward by the synod of Dort in 1619 to uphold the five points of Calvinism, after heated discussion, in which English delegates took part, of the problems of divine omniscience and human free-will.
Mention may also be made of the longer catechism of the Orthodox Catholic Church compiled by Philaret, metropolitan of Moscow, revised and adopted by the Russian Holy Synod in 1839.
SYNOD OF JERUSALEM (1672).
Against the Calvinists the synod of 1672 therefore aimed its rejection of unconditional predestination and of justification by faith alone, also its advocacy of what are substantially the Roman doctrines of transubstantiation and of purgatory; the Oriental hostility to Calvinism had been fanned by the Jesuits.
Curiously enough, the synod refused to believe that the heretical confession it refuted was actually by a former patriarch of Constantinople; yet the proofs of its genuineness seem to most scholars overwhelming.
- The confession of Dositheus, or the eighteen decrees of the Synod of Jerusalem, appeared in 1676 at Paris as Synodus 1 Patriarch of Jerusalem (1669-1707), who presided over the synod.
(text after Hardouin and Kimmel, with Latin translation); The Acts and Decrees of the Synod of Jerusalem translated from the Greek, with notes, by J.
A sermon which he preached before the Synod at St Andrews against the dissoluteness of the clergy gave great offence to the provost, who cast him into prison, and might have carried his resentment to the extremest limit had not Alesius contrived to escape to Germany in 1532.
Melanchthon, who in the tension which prevailed at the synod had shown himself inclined to negotiation, became suspicious on his return, and endeavoured to influence the elector of Saxony and Luther in accordance with his views.
The continuous interest taken by the king in ecclesiastical affairs was shown at the synod of Frankfort, over which he presided in 794.
It was on his initiative that this synod condemned the heresy of adoptianism and the worship of images, which had been restored in 787 by the second council of Nicaea; and at the same time that council was declared to have been superfluous.
In 1872 he was elected moderator of the United Presbyterian Synod and represented his church in Paris at the first meeting of the Reformed Synod of France.
Synod Of Neo-Caesarea >>
Of these 401,720 were Baptists; 3 1 7,495 Methodists; 308,356 Roman Catholics; 62,090 Presbyterians; 39,550 Disciples of Christ; 34,006 members of the Churches of Christ; 27,437 Lutherans; 14,246 Protestant Episcopalians; 7745 members of the German Evangelical Synod of North America, and 1856 Congregationalists.
More than once also Huss, together with his friend Stanislaus of Znaim, was appointed to be synod preacher, and in this capacity he delivered at the provincial councils of Bohemia many faithful admonitions.
A provincial synod, held at the instance of Wenceslaus in February 1413, broke up without having reached any practical result; and a commission appointed shortly afterwards also failed to bring about a reconciliation between Huss and his adversaries.
In 1906 it was estimated that there were 788,667 communicants of all religious denominations; of these 207,607 were Roman Catholics; 164,329 Methodists; 117,668 Lutherans; 60,081 Presbyterians; 55,948 Disciples of Christ; 44,096 Baptists; 37,061 Congregationalists; 11,681 members of the German Evangelical Synod; and 8990 Protestant Episcopalians.
German Evangelical Synod Of North America >>
In 1527, supported by the diet, he carried his measures for secularizing such portions of the Church property as he thought fit, and for subjecting the Church to the royal power (Ordinances of Vesteras); but many of the old religious ceremonies and practices were permitted to continue, and it was not until 1592 that Lutheranism was officially sanctioned by the Swedish synod .2 Charles V., finding that his efforts to check the spread of the religious schism were unsuccessful, resorted once more to conferences between Roman Catholic and Lutheran theologians, but it became apparent that no permanent compromise was possible.
In spite of continued persecution a national synod was assembled in Paris in 1559, representing at least twelve Protestant churches in Normandy and central France, which drew up a confession of faith and a book of church discipline.
The government was frankly theocratic. Said Winthrop (1637): " We see not that any should have authority to set up any other exercises besides what authority bath already set up "; and a synod at Cambridge in 1637 catalogued eighty-two " opinions, some blasphemous, others erroneous and all unsafe," besides nine " unwholesome expressions," all of which were consigned " to the devil of hell from whence they came."
Another synod at Cambridge in 1647 more formally established the principle of state control.
LEO VIII., pope from 963 to 965, a Roman by birth, held the lay office of protoscrinius when he was elected to the papal chair at the instance of Otto the Great by the Roman synod which deposed John XII.
In February 964, the emperor having withdrawn from the city, Leo found it necessary to seek safety in flight, whereupon he was deposed by a synod held under the presidency of John XII.
It is usually said that, at the synod which deposed Benedict, Leo conceded to the emperor and his successors as sovereign of Italy full rights of investiture, but the genuineness of the document on which this allegation rests is more than doubtful.
For this purpose a synod of abbots was assembled at Aix-laChapelle in 817, and a series of 80 Capitula passed, regulating the life of the monasteries.
It was decreed that the Benedictine houses of each ecclesiastical province should henceforth be federated for the purposes of mutual help and the maintenance of discipline, and that for these ends the abbots should every third year meet in a provincial chapter (or synod), in order to pass laws binding on all and to appoint visitors who, in addition to the bishops, should canonically visit the monasteries and report on their condition in spirituals and temporals to the ensuing chapter.
In 1618 he attended the synod of Dort, and was soon after made dean of the Chapel Royal and translated to Winchester, a diocese which he administered with loving prudence and the highest success.
In 649, after the accession of Martin I., he went to Rome, and did much to fan the zeal of the new pope, who in October of that year held the (first) Lateran synod, by which not only the Monothelite doctrine but also the moderating ecthesis of Heraclius and typus of Constans II.
In 662 he was again brought to Constantinople and was condemned by a synod to be scourged, to have his tongue cut out by the root, and to have his right hand chopped off.
The treuga or treva Dei, the prohibition of every act of private warfare during certain days, goes back at least to the Synod of Elne, held in the Pyrenees in 1027, which suspended all warfare from noon on Saturday till prime on Monday.
The treuga Dei was decreed for Flanders at the Synod of Therouanne (1063) and was instituted in southern Italy in 1089, probably through Norman influence.
The bishop of Liege introduced it in Germany in 1082, and three years later a synod held at Mainz in the presence of the emperor Henry IV.
In 1292 a synod was held here, and in 1474 an imperial diet, preliminary to that of Vienna, in which the concordat was decided which has therefore been sometimes called the Aschaffenburg Concordat.
The affairs of the church were managed by a general synod held every year.
A synod was held in 1532 at Chanforans in the valley of the Angrogne, where a new confession of faith was adopted, which recognized the doctrine of election, assimilated the practices of the Vaudois to those of the Swiss congregations, renounced for the future all recognition of the Roman communion, and established their own worship no longer as secret meetings of a faithful few but as public assemblies for the glory of God.
C.) The parent church in the valleys is ecclesiastically governed by a court for internal affairs called the "Table," after the old stone table round which the ancient barbas used to sit, and a mission board, with an annual synod to which both the home and mission boards are subject.
This sacrifice of local autonomy was in a measure prepared for by an earlier centralizing movement proper to the churches themselves, whereby those in certain areas met in conference or " synod " to formulate a common policy on local problems. Such inter-church meetings cannot be traced back beyond the latter half of the 2nd century, and were purely ad hoc and informal, called to consider specific questions like Montanism and Easter observance.
A compromise was arrived at by two assemblies, the first a convention of ministers held at Boston in 1657, the second a general synod of the churches of Massachusetts in 1662.
Of 3,591,974 members of all religious denominations in 1906, 2,285,768 were Roman Catholics, 313,689 Methodist Episcopalians, 199,923 Presbyterians, 193,890 Protestant Episcopalians, 176,981 Baptists, 124,644 Lutherans, 57,351 Congregationalists, 35,34 2 Jews (heads of families only), 26,183 members of the German Evangelical Synod, 19,302 members of Eastern Orthodox churches and 10,761 Universalists.
One of his first public acts was to hold the well-known Easter synod of 1049, at which celibacy of the clergy (down to the rank of subdeacon) was anew enjoined, and where he at least succeeded in making clear his own convictions against every kind of simony.
After presiding over a synod at Pavia, he joined the emperor Henry III.
After his return to Rome he held (29th April 1050) another Easter synod, which was occupied largely with the controversy about the teachings of Berengarius of Tours; in the same year he presided over provincial synods at Salerno, Siponto and Vercelli, and in September revisited Germany, returning to Rome in time for a third Easter synod, at which the question of the reordination of those who had been ordained by simonists was considered.
After a fourth Easter synod in 1053 Leo set out against the Normans in the south with an army of Italians and German volunteers, but his forces sustained a total defeat at Astagnum near Civitella (18th June 1053); on going out, however, from the city to meet the enemy he was received with every token of submission, relief from the pressure of his ban was implored and fidelity and homage were sworn.
He took a leading part in the synod of Dort, assembled in 1618 to judge of the doctrines of Arminius.
In 1617 Prince Maurice of Orange committed himself definitely to the Calvinistic party, found an occasion for throwing Oldenbarnevelt and Grotius into prison, and in November of that year called a synod intended to crush the Arminians.
This synod, which assembled at Dort in November 1618, was strictly national - called by the national authority to decide a national dispute, and not intended to have more than a national influence.
At the fourth sitting it was decided to cite Simon Episcopius and several other Remonstrants to appear within fourteen days before the synod, to state and justify their doctrines.
During the interval between the citation and the appearance of the accused, the professorial members of the synod was instructed to prepare themselves to be able to confute the Arminian errors, and the synod occupied itself with deliberations as to a new translation of the Bible, for which a commission was named, made arrangements for teaching the Heidelberg catechism, and granted permission to the missionaries of the East Indies to baptize such children of heathen parents as were admitted into their families.
At the 25th sitting Episcopius and the others cited appeared, when Episcopius surprised the deputies by a bold and outspoken defence of his views, and even went so far as to say that the synod, by excluding the Arminian deputies, could now only be regarded as a schismatic assembly.
The Remonstrants were asked to file copious explanations of the five points in dispute (Sententia Remonstrantium), but objecting to the manner in which they were catechized, they were, at the 57th sitting, dismissed from the synod as convicted "liars and deceivers."
The synod then proceeded in their absence to judge them from their published writings, and came to the conclusion that as ecclesiastical rebels and trespassers they should be deprived of all their offices.
The synod was concluded on the 9th of May 1619, by a magnificent banquet given by the chief magistrate of Dort.
Though the canons of Dort were adopted by but two churches outside of Holland, the synod ranks as the most impressive assemblage of the Reformed Church.
Christians are like a council of frogs in a marsh or a synod of worms on a dunghill, croaking and squeaking, "For our sakes was the world created."
Its representative assembly consisting of 35 clergymen and 42 laymen is called a synod (Synode).
On his return he took strong parliamentary measures against Presbyterians, and consequently, at a provincial synod held at St Andrews in April 1586, he was accused of heresy and excommunicated, but at the next General Assembly the sentence was remitted as illegal.
His first recorded act was, after a synod had been held at Rome, to write to Constantius, then in quarters at Arles (353-354), asking that a council might be called at Aquileia with reference to the affairs of Athanasius; but his messenger Vincentius of Capua was compelled by the emperor at a conciliabulum held in Arles to subscribe against his will a condemnation of the orthodox patriarch of Alexandria.
In a synod which met in 430, he decided in favour of the epithet 1 At Alexandria the mystic and allegorical tendency prevailed, at Antioch the practical and historical, and these tendencies showed themselves in different methods of study, exegesis and presentation of doctrine.
On hearing from Rome, Cyril at once held a synod and drew up a doctrinal formula for Nestorius to sign, and also twelve anathemas covering the various points of the Nestorian dogmatic. Nestorius, instead of yielding to the combined pressure of his two great rivals, merely replied by a counter excommunication.
It was then announced that John of Antioch had been delayed on his journey and could not appear for some days; he, however, is stated to have written politely requesting that the opening of the synod should not be delayed on his account.
The reply they received was that he would appear as soon as all the bishops were assembled; and at the same time the imperial commissioner, Candidian, presented himself in person and formally protested against the opening of the synod.
There is some evidence that he was summoned to the Council of Chalcedon,' though he could not attend it, and the concluding portion of his book known as The Bazaar of Heraclides not only gives a full account of the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus 449, but knows that Theodosius is dead (July 450) and seems aware of the proceedings of Chalcedon and the flight of Dioscurus the unscrupulous successor of Cyril at Alexandria.
Of the Presbyterians the greater part are in connexion with the General Synod of Ulster, and the other are Remonstrants, who separated from the Synod in 1829, or United Presbyterians.
In spite of all opposition their teaching was finally justified by the Eastern Church (sixth synod of Constantinople, 1351).
The obscure town Libertum (inferred from the title Episcopus Libertinensis in connexion with the synod of Carthage, A.D.
The General Synod of the Evangelical Church of the United States, organized in 1820, has no other creed than the Augsburg Confession, so liberally interpreted as not to exclude Calvinists.
The General Council, a secession from the General Synod, was organized in 1867, and accepts the "unaltered" (invariata) Augsburg Confession in its original sense, and the other Lutheran symbols as explanatory of the Augsburg Confession.
The Evangelical Lutheran Immanuel Synod came into being in 1864, and has a membership of 5300 with 13 ordained pastors.
In cases that call for consultation together, the Consistorium and the Synod appoint committees to confer.
It was at the synod of Leczyca, nearly a century before the compact of Kassa, that the property of the Church was first safeguarded against the encroachments of the state.
The first Calvinist synod in Poland was held at Pinczow in 1550.
The Bohemian Brethren evangelized Little Poland, but ultimately coalesced with the Calvinists at the synod of Kozminek (August 1555).
At the diet of 1555 they boldly demanded a national synod, absolute toleration, and the equalization of all the sects except the Antitrinitarians.
The king, however, perceiving a danger to the constitution in the violence of the szlachta, not only supported the bishops, but quashed a subsequent reiterated demand for a national synod.
Ile rejected a petition for a national The pacificatory synod as unnecessary, inasmuch as the Counter - council of Trent had already settled all religious questions, and at the same time consented to the 1° Poland.
It was he who held the first Danish Synod at Lund in 1167.
Meantime, in the West, an important Synod was held by Damasus at Rome in 382 which, under the dominant influence of Jerome and the Athanasian tradition,drew up a list corresponding to the present Canon.
In 1824, however, Prince Galitzin ceased to be procurator of the Holy Synod, and Seraphim, metropolitan of St Petersburg, became president of the Russian Bible Society.
As revised by the synod of Dort in 1619, this catechism became the standard of most of the Reformed churches of central Europe, and in time of the Dutch and German Reformed churches of America.
This bulwark against the encroachments of the Jesuits and the Reformed Church was standardized by the synod of Jerusalem in 1672.
He was received with great enthusiasm at Avignon, Montpellier and other cities, held a synod at Vienne in January 1119, and was planning to hold a general council to settle the investiture contest when he died at Cluny.
The following month he excommunicated Arnold of Brescia in a synod at Cremona, and thenceforth devoted most of his energies to the recovery of his see.
Street at the charge of Mr Henry Roe, a merchant of Dublin, who also presented the Synod House.
Bishop Strachan devoted the latter years of his long life entirely to his episcopal duties, and by introducing the diocesan synod he furnished the Episcopal Church in Canada with a more democratic organ of government.
The judgment of the synod was enforced by the deposition and in some cases the banishment of Remonstrant ministers; but the government soon became convinced that their party was not dangerous to the state, and in 1630 they were formally allowed liberty to reside in all parts of Holland and build churches and schools.
Beryllus, however, was convinced of the wrongness of this view by Origen, and recanted at the synod which had been called together in 244 to discuss it.
A month after the coming of the Greeks, the Union Synod was solemnly inaugurated on the 9th of April 1438.
The time-honoured question of the filioque was still in the foreground when it seemed for several reasons advisable to transfer the council to Florence: Ferrara was threatened by condottieri, the pest was raging; Florence promised a welcome subvention, and a situation further inland would make it more difficult for uneasy Greek bishops to flee the synod.
On the basis of the above-mentioned agreements, as well as of minor discussions as to purgatory and the Eucharist, the decree of union was drawn up in Latin and in Greek, and signed on the 5th of July by the pope and the Greek emperor, and all the members of the synod save Eugenikos and one Greek bishop who had fled; and on the following day it was solemnly published in the cathedral of Florence.
On the 26th of April 1441 the pope announced that the synod would be transferred to the Lateran; but before leaving Florence a union was negotiated with the Oriental Christians known as Jacobites, through a monk named Andreas, who, at least as regards Abyssinia, acted in excess of his powers.
As for the Greeks, the union met with much opposition, particularly from the monks, and was rejected by three Oriental patriarchs at a synod of Jerusalem in 1443; and after various ineffective attempts to enforce it, the fall of Constantinople in 1453 put an end to the endeavour.
As Turkish interests demanded the isolation of the Oriental Christians from their western brethren, and as the orthodox Greek nationalists feared Latinization more than Mahommedan rule, a patriarch hostile to the union was chosen, and a synod of Constantinople in 1472 formally rejected the decisions of Florence.
In 1896 he was Lyman Beecher lecturer at Yale University, and in 1900 he was moderator of the synod of the English Presbyterian church.
He lays stress on the relation of the supposed confession of faith of Constantine, embodied in the forgery, to that issued by the emperor Constantine V., pointing out the efforts made by the Byzantines between 756 and the synod of Gentilly in 767 to detach Pippin from the cause of Rome and the holy images.
In 1152 the place is mentioned as the seat of a synod convened by the papal legate, Cardinal Paparo; in 1224 it was chosen by Lucas de Netterville, archbishop of Armagh, for the foundation of the Dominican friary of which there are still remains; and in 1228 the two divisions of the town received separate incorporation from Henry III.
Synod Of Pistoia >>
The Amphictyonic Council represented Greece as an ecclesiastical synod represented western Christendom.
The bishop of Utrecht supported him warmly, and got him to preach against concubinage in the presence of the clergy assembled in synod.
Still later came the "Spiritual Department," or "Holy Synod" (January 1721), which superseded the ancient patriarchate.
The Anglo-Saxon homilist 1Elfric, in his Lives of the Saints (996 or 997), refers to it as in common use; but the earliest evidence of its authoritative prescription is a decree of the synod of Beneventum in 1091.
In return for the excesses of the democracies Rome dissolved the league, which, however, was allowed to revive under Augustus, and merged with the other central Greek federations in the Achaean synod.
In 1892 the district meeting became known as the District Synod, and in 1893 the circuits began to choose representatives to the Synod in addition to the circuit stewards.
A synod was held at Sutri, at which the powerful Godfrey, duke of Lorraine and Spoleto, and margrave of Tuscany, and the chancellor Wibert were present.
A synod assembled at the Lateran in April passed the famous new regulations for the elections to the papacy.
At the synod of the dissident cardinals, assembled at Pisa, views of this type were in the ascendant; and, although protests were not lacking, the necessities of the time served as a pretext for ignoring all objections.
Since whole universities and numerous scholars had pronounced in favour of the new theories, the Pisan synod dismissed all canonical scruples, and unhesitatingly laid claim to authority over both popes, one of whom was necessarily the legitimate pope.
It was in vain that Carlo di Malatesta, a stanch adherent of Gregory, sought at the eleventh hour to negotiate a compromise between Gregory and the synod.
The synod grounded its procedure against the rival popes on a fact, ostensibly patent to all, but actually believed by none - that they were both supporters of the schism, and not merely this, but heretics in the truest and fullest sense of the word, since their attitude had impugned and subverted the article of faith concerning the one Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.
Thus, as the sentence of Pisa found recognition in France and England, as well as in many parts of Germany and Italy, the synod, which was to secure the restoration of unity, proved only the cause for worse confusion - instead of two, there were now three popes.
He might have hoped that his share in convening the synod would give him a certain right to regulate its proceedings, and that, by the aid of his numerous Italian prelates, he would be able to influence it more or less according to his views.
- [ED.] By consenting to this, the synod indirectly acknowledged that its previous sessions had not possessed an ecumenical character, and also that Gregory's predecessors, up to Urban VI., had been legitimate popes.
It was an impressive moment, when, on the 4th of December 1563, the great ecumenical synod of the Church came to a close.
The march of Arab conquest kept the Armenians friendly to Byzantium for a few years; but in 718 the catholicus John of Odsun ascended the throne and at the council of Manazkert in 728 repeated and confirmed the anathemas against Chalcedon and the tome of Leo, that had been first pronounced by the catholicus Babken in 491 at a synod held in Valarshapat by the united Armenian, Georgian or Iberian, and Albanian churches.
The Armenians marked their complete disruption with the Greeks by starting an era of their own at the synod of Dvin.
A synod of bishops, monks and doctors meets regularly to transact under his eye the business of the convent and the oecumenical affairs of the church; but its decisions are subject to the veto of a Russian procurator.
In 1341 the dispute came before a synod held at Constantinople and presided over by the emperor Andronicus; the assembly, influenced by the veneration in which the writings of the pseudoDionysius were held in the Eastern Church, overawed Barlaam, who recanted and returned to Calabria, afterwards becoming bishop of Hierace in the Latin communion.
When in 1747 "the Associate Synod," by a narrow majority, decided not to give full immediate effect to a judgment which had been passed in the previous year against the lawfulness of the "Burgess Oath," Gib led the protesting minority, who separated from their brethren and formed the Antiburgher Synod (April loth) in his own house in Edinburgh.
Gib's action in forming the Antiburgher Synod led, after prolonged litigation, to his exclusion from the building in Bristo Street where his congregation had met.
Livingston (1746-1825), who had become pastor of the New York City church in 1770, on the basis of a plan drafted by the Classis of Amsterdam Coetus and Conferentie were reunited with a substantial independence of Amsterdam, which was made complete in 1792 when the Synod (the nomenclature of synod and classis had been adopted upon the declaration of American Independence) adopted a translation of the eighty-four Articles of Dort on Church Order with seventy-three "explanatory articles."' In 1800 there were about forty ministers and one hundred churches.
A conservative secession "on account of Hopkinsian errors" in 1822 of six ministers (five then under suspension) organized a General Synod and the classes of Hackensack and Union (central New York) in 1824; it united with the Christian Reformed Church, established by immigrants from Holland after 1835, to which there was added a fresh American secession in 1882 due to opposition (on the part of the seceders) to secret societies.
The organization of the Church is: a General Synod (1794); the (particular) synods of New York (1800), Albany (1800), Chicago (1856) and New Brunswick (1869); classes, corresponding to the presbyteries of other Calvinistic bodies; and the churches, numbering, in 1906, 659.
The agencies of the Church are: the Board of Education, privately organized in 1828 and adopted by the General Synod in 1831; a Widows' Fund (1837) and a Disabled Ministers' Fund; a Board of Publication (1855); a Board of Domestic Missions (1831; reorganized 1849) with a Church Building Fund and a Woman's Executive Committee; a Board of Foreign Missions (1832) succeeding the United Missionary Society (1816), which included Presbyterian, Dutch Reformed and Associate Reformed Churches, and which was merged (1826) in the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, from which the Dutch Church did not entirely separate itself until 1857; and a Woman's Board of Foreign Missions (1875).
The principal missions are in India at Arcot (1854; transferred in 1902 to the Synod of S.
It is first mentioned in the 11th century, in a canon of the synod of Coyaca in Spain (1050) and in an ordinance of King Edward the Confessor.
Rev.George Macalister.mainly as medical mission governed by Scotland and was working under Synod of Bombay and directed by United Prysbetarian mission calcutta.
The Aetolians also used the Amphictyonic synod for passing solemn enactments.
The bond between church and state which had been established by the synod of Dort (1618) and the organization of the Low-Dutch Reformed Church (Nederlandsche Hervormde Kerk) as the national Protestant church, practically came to an end in the revolution of 1795, and in the revision of the Constitution in 1848 the complete religious liberty and equality of all persons and congregations was guaranteed.
It is governed by a general assembly or " synod " of deputies from the principal judicatures, sitting once a year.
For the whole kingdom this supervision is entrusted to a common " collegium " or committee of supervision, which meets at the Hague, and consists of II members named by the provincial committee and 3 named by the synod.
The States-General wished to summon a national synod, the States of Holland refused their assent, and made levies of local militia(waard-gelders) for the maintenance of order.
Meanwhile the National Synod had been summoned and had met at Dort on the 13th of November 1618.
Restrictions were placed upon them by the synod of Fritzlar (1269), by that of Mainz (1281) and Eichstatt (1281), and by the synod of Beziers (1299) they were absolutely forbidden.
They were again condemned by a synod held at Cologne in 1306; and at the synod of Trier in 1310 a decree was passed against those "who under a pretext of feigned religion call themselves Beghards.
Johann Heinrich Goetschius was pastor (c. 1731-38) of ten churches in Pennsylvania, and was ordained by the Presbyterian Synod of Philadelphia in 1737.
The Coetus had actually assumed the power of ordination in 1772 and formally assumed it in 1791; in 1792 a synodical constitution was prepared; and in 1793 the first independent synod met in Lancaster and adopted the constitution, thus= becoming independent of Holland.
The Synod in 1819 divided itself into eight Classes.
In 1824 the Classis of Northampton, Pennsylvania (13 ministers and 80 congregations), became the Synod of Ohio, the parent Synod having refused to allow the Classis to ordain.
In 1825 there were 87 ministers, and in the old Synod about 23,300 communicants.
A schism over the establishment of a theological seminary resulted in the organization of a new synod of the "Free German Reformed Congregations of Pennsylvania," which returned to the parent synod in 1837.
In 1842 the Western Synod (i.e.
the Synod of Ohio) adopted the constitution of the Eastern, and divided into classes.
The Synods organized a General Synod in 1863.
New German Synods were: that of the North-West (1867), organized at Fort Wayne, Ind.; that of the East (1875), organized at Philadelphia; and the Central Synod (1881), organized at Galion, Ohio.
The principal organizations of the Church are: the Board of Publication (1844); the Society for the Relief of Ministers and their Widows (founded in 1755 by the Pennsylvania Coetus; incorporated in 1810; transferred to the Synod in 1833); a Board of Domestic Missions (1826); a Board of Foreign Missions (1838; reorganized in 1873), which planted a mission in Japan (1879), now a part of the Union Church of Japan, and one in China (1900).
$ The Council of Trent enjoined due payment of tithes, and excommunicated those who withheld them .° In England the earliest example of legal recognition of tithes is, according to Selden, a decree of a synod in 786.10 Other examples before the conquest occur in the Foedus lElfredi Guthruni and the laws of Athelstan, Edgar and Canute."A full discussion of their origin and history is to be found in Lord Selborne's Ancient Facts and Fictions concerning Churches and Tithes (1888); the History of the Law of Tithes in England, by G.
In 1620 he represented the Genevan Church at the national synod of Alais, when the decrees of the synod of Dort were introduced into France; and in 1621 he was sent on a successful mission to the states-general of Holland, and to the authorities of the Hanseatic towns, with reference to the defence of Geneva against the threatened attacks of the duke of Savoy.
The letter just mentioned is the only indisputably contemporary document concerning him and was addressed to Dionysius and Maximus, respectively bishops of Rome and Alexandria, by seventy bishops, priests and deacons, who attended a synod at Antioch in 269 and deposed Paul.
It is interesting to note that at the synod of Antioch the use of the word consubstantial to denote the relation of God the Father to the divine Son or Logos was condemned, although it afterwards became at the Council of Nicaea the watchword of the orthodox faction.
He was the author of a Catechism (Kiev, 1645) and other minor works, but is principally celebrated for the Orthodox Confession, drawn up at his instance by the Abbot Kosslowski of Kiev, approved at a provincial synod in 1640, and accepted by the patriarchs of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria and Antioch in 1642-1643, and by the synod of Jerusalem in 1672.
Almost his first official act was to summon a synod (the first Lateran) for dealing with the Monothelite heresy.
Martin published the decrees of his Lateran synod in an encyclical, and Constans replied by enjoining his exarch to seize the pope and send him prisoner to Constantinople.
The Greek Church, represented by the patriarch of Constantinople, and the Russian Church, represented by the Holy Synod, also canonize their saints after a preliminary examination of their titles to public cultus.
At a synod convened by Louis XII.
A synod held at Rome under Agatho (680) ordained his restitution; but even this decision could not prevent his being cast into prison on his return home.
During the I9th century, however, a large measure of ecclesiastical self-government (by means of general synods, &c.) was introduced, pan passu with the growth of constitutional government in the state; and in effect, though the theoretical supremacy of the sovereign survives in the church as in the state, he cannot exercise it save through the general synod, which is the state parliament for ecclesiastical purposes.
Enraged by this unexpected arrogance, Henry summoned a synod of German bishops to Worms in January 1076, and Hildebrand was declared deposed.
the case of Paul of Samosata, c. 265, and the Synod of Ancyra in Galatia, c. 314).
But as known to the West through Rufinus's Latin version, it was quoted as genuine by the synod of Vaison (A.D.
As vicar of the Holy See he convened a synod at Capua on the 7th of March 1087, resumed the papal insignia on the 21st of March, and received tardy consecration at Rome on the 9th of May.
In August 1087 he held a synod at Benevento, which renewed the excommunication of Guibert; banned Archbishop Hugo of Lyons and Abbot Richard of Marseilles as schismatics; and confirmed the prohibition of lay investiture.
Falling ill at the synod, Vicar returned to Monte Cassino, where he died on the 16th of September 1087.
Not long afterwards, his attention having been called to the spread of Origenistic opinions in Syria, he issued an edict condemning fourteen propositions drawn from the writings of the great Alexandrian, and caused a synod to be held under the presidency of Mennas (whom he had named patriarch of Constantinople), which renewed the condemnation of the impugned doctrines and anathematized Origen himself.
Two further developments must be mentioned: (a) The creation of diocesan and provincial synods, the first diocesan synod to meet being that of New Zealand in 1844, whilst the formation of a provincial synod was foreshadowed by a conference of Australasian bishops at Sydney in 1850; (b) towards the close of the r9th century the title of archbishop began to be assumed by the metropolitans of several provinces.
It was first assumed by the metropolitans of Canada and Rupert's Land, at the desire of the Canadian general synod in 1893; and subsequently, in accordance with a resolution of the Lambeth conference of 1897, it was given by their synods to the bishop of Sydney as metropolitan of New South Wales and to the bishop of Cape Town as metropolitan of South Africa.
The conference of Anglican bishops from all parts of the world, instituted by Archbishop Longley in 1867, and known as the Lambeth Conferences, though even for the Anglican communion they have not the authority of an ecumenical synod, and their decisions are rather of the nature of counsels than commands, have done much to promote the harmony and co-operation of the various branches of the Church.
Whether or no the so-called "fourth formula" (Hahn, § 156) is to be ascribed to a continuation of this synod or to a subsequent but distinct assembly of the same year, its aim is like that of the first three; while repudiating certain Arian formulas it avoids the Athanasian shibboleth "homoousios."
The somewhat colourless compromise doubtless proceeded from the party of Eusebius of Nicomedia, and proved not inacceptable to the more nearly orthodox members of the synod.
Ecclesiastical power is vested chiefly in the metropolitan (later called archbishop), and the semi-annual provincial synod (cf.
The numerous objections made by eminent scholars in past centuries to the ascription of these twenty-five canons to the synod in encaeniis have been elaborately stated and probably refuted by Hefele.
Of a synod that was held at Armagh as early as 448, there is an interesting memorial in the Book of Armagh, an Irish MS. dating about A.D.
In 1618 and 1619 it was the seat of the synod of Dort.
He writes "ingeminating peace," deploring that the council was not a national synod, which would have been a better means of arriving at the truth.
Meanwhile Rome was too strong, and in 604, in a synod held at Whitby, St Wilfrid procured the acceptance of Roman as against Celtic doctrine in the questions th.en at issue.
In January 1644, a Scottish army crossed Tweed, to aid the parliament, with preachers to attend the synod of Westminster.
As the author of "the spiritual regulation" for the reform of the Russian Church, Theofan must, indeed, be regarded as the creator of "the spiritual department" superseding the patriarchate, and better known by its later name of "the holy synod," of which he was made the vice-president.
To the same effect, the synod of Chalon-sur-Saone (813) reprobated the superstition which was wedded to the pilgrimage (c. 13); and it would be easy to collect similar judgments, delivered in every centre of medievalism.
Caine was the scene of the synod of 978 when, during the discussion of the question of celibacy, the floor suddenly gave way beneath the councillors, leaving Archbishop Dunstan alone standing upon a beam.
29) the hermit Paul of the 4th century who threw away a pebble as he recited each of his 300 daily prayers; and a canon of the English synod of Cealcythe in 816 (Mansi xiv.
Conference, 36,366 of the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, 14,768 of the General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, and 14,005 of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Iowa and other states), 152,870 were Baptists (118,884 of the Northern Convention, 16,081 of the National (Colored) Baptist Convention, 7755 Free Baptists, 6671 General Baptists, and 5163 Primitive Baptists), 115,602 were Presbyterian (86,251 of the Northern Church, 17,208 of the Cumberland Church (now a part of the Northern Church), and 9555 of the United Presbyterian Church), 101,516 were Disciples of Christ, 59,973 were members of the German Evangelical Synod of North America, 54,875 were Congregationalists, and 36,364 were Protestant Episcopalians.
By Theophilus's instrumentality a synod was called to try or rather to condemn the archbishop; but fearing the violence of the mob in the metropolis, who idolized him for the fearlessness with which he exposed the vices of their superiors, it held its sessions at the imperial estate named " The Oak " (Synodus ad quercum), near Chalcedon, where Rufinus had erected a stately church and monastery.
Without examining it, the council confirmed the former sentence, and, in accordance with canon 12 of the Synod of Antioch (341), pronounced his deposition for having resumed his functions without their permission.
In July 1852 he presided at Oscott over the first provincial synod of Westminster, at which Newman preached his sermon on the " Second Spring "; and at this date Wiseman's dream of the rapid conversion of England to the ancient faith seemed not incapable of realization.
It appeared the same year in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English, and in the Eastern Church started a controversy which culminated in 1691 in the convocation by Dositheos, patriarch of Jerusalem, of a synod by which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemned.
Under the Empire, Argos was the headquarters of the Achaean synod, and continued to be a resort of Roman merchants.
Vigilius continued him in his diplomatic appointment, and he was sent by the emperor Justinian in 542 to Antioch on ecclesiastical business; he afterwards took part in the synod at Gaza which deposed Paul of Alexandria.
He attended many synods, and we last hear of him at the synod of Antioch in 341.
In this connexion it is interesting to note the account given by Severus of the synod held at Rimini in 359, where the question arose whether the bishops attending the assembly might lawfully receive money from the imperial treasury to recoup their travelling and other expenses.
In a number of edicts, both before and after the synod, he published throughout India the grand principles of the faith.
But the small number of fathers who attended at the latter town, and above all, the disquieting tendencies whin began to make themselves felt there, induced the pope to force on a dissolution of the synod.
granted a charter to Worms in 1074, and held a synod there in 1076, by which Pope Gregory VII.
2 The majority of this synod joined the Church of Scotland in 1839.
A small majority (twentyseven ministers in all) of the Synod of United Original Seceders joined the Free Church in 1852.
A dissentient remnant (eight congregations) of the General Associate Synod united with the Constitutional Associate Presbytery in 1827, the resultant body being called the Associate Synod of Original Seceders.
in the Synod of Sutri, sat in judgment on the impotent and demoralized papacy.
In 816 it was confirmed, with certain modifications, by the synod of Aix-la-Chapelle, and became the law for collegiate and cathedral churches in the Frankish empire.
- This, though still the most important numerically of all the Uniat Churches, is but a fragment of the Church which proclaimed its union with Rome at the synod of Brest in Lithuania in 1596, a union which, after long and bitter resistance, was completed by the submission of the dioceses of Lemberg and Luzk in 1700 and 1702.
Thus, for example, at the great synod held in Antioch in 268 the word oµoou6cos was rejected, as seeming to favour Unitarianism.
In 441 a synod of sixteen bishops was held at Orange under the presidency of St Hilary of Arles, which adopted thirty canons touching the reconciliation of penitents and heretics; the ecclesiastical right of asylum, diocesan prerogatives of bishops, spiritual privileges of the defective or demoniac, the deportment of catechumens at worship, and clerical celibacy (forbidding married men to be ordained as deacons, and digamists to be advanced beyond the sub-diaconate).
In 529 a synod of fifteen bishops, under the presidency of Caesarius of Arles, assembled primarily to dedicate a church, the gift of Liberius, the lieutenant of Theodoric, in Gaul, but proved to be one of the most important councils of the 6th century.
These to the number of twenty-five the synod subscribed, and adopted a supplementary statement, reaffirming the Augustinian doctrines of corruption, human inability, prevenient grace and baptismal regeneration.