This form of cable has been superseded by a type with paper insulation.
If Barclay is now to be superseded by Bennigsen all will be lost, for Bennigsen showed his incapacity already in 1807.
It seems possible that the road at first led to Tusculum, that it was then prolonged to Labici, and later still became a road for through traffic; it may even have superseded the Via Latina as a route to the S.E., for, while the distance from Rome to their main junction at Ad Bivium (or to another junction at Compitum Anagninum) is practically identical, the summit level of the former is 725 ft.
Up to the beginning of the r9th century the market day was Monday, but the customary Saturday market gradually superseded this old chartered market.
by rail from the port of Guanta, which has superseded the incommodious river port in the trade of this district.
Gradually, unnoticed, all these persons began to disappear and a single question, that of the closed door, superseded all else.
To save life was allowed, but only because danger to life "superseded the Sabbath."
2 The stem of David is superseded by the house of Zadok, the kingship has yielded to the priesthood, and the extinction of national hopes gives new importance to that strict organization of the hierarchy for which Ezekiel had prepared the way by his sentence of disfranchisement against the nonZadokite priests.
The oak in turn has been almost superseded in Denmark by the beech, which, if we may trust Julius Caesar, had not reached Britain in his time, though it existed there in the pre-glacial period, but is not native in either Scotland or Ireland.
copper wires insulated with carefully dried paper of a special quality, has practically entirely superseded the use of wires insulated with gutta-percha.
His whole system of government, his 2 This view of Ranulf Flambard's work, which on Freeman's authority superseded the older view, which attributed the feudal organization of England to the Conqueror himself, was subjected to a destructive criticism by Mr J.
In 1854 he crossed the Danube and besieged Silistria, but was superseded in April by Prince Paskevich, who, however, resigned on the 8th of June, when Gorchakov resumed the command.
The first governor of the island, General Wilks, was soon superseded, it being judged that he was too amenable to influence from Napoleon; his successor was Sir Hudson Lowe.
The 1986 regulations were superseded by the 1995 regulations from 2 May 1995.
On the one hand the retributive principle itself has been very largely superseded by the protective and the reformative; on the other punishments involving bodily pain have become objectionable to the general sense of society.
The cella of the temple of Heracles underwent considerable modifications in Roman times, and the discovery in it of a statue of Asclepius seems to show that the cult of this deity superseded the original one.
(Paris, 1838) has been superseded by F.
In 66 he was superseded by Pompey, who completely defeated both Mithradates and Tigranes.
The open grate still holds favour in England, though in America and on the continent of Europe it has been superseded by the closed stove.
In 104 he superseded Saturninus (q.v.) in the management of the corn supply at Ostia.
In the case of inland telegraphs and of cable communication with the continent of Europe government control has entirely superseded private companies.
A type of transmitter which has come to be invaluable in connexion with long distance telephony, and which has practically superseded all other forms, is the granular carbon transmitter.
In 1707 he was superseded in the Volgan provinces by Andrei Matvyeev.
The first constitution of 1863 was superseded by the present instrument which was adopted August 1872 and was amended in 1880, 1883 and 1902.
But, in proportion as the people gained more power in the field the consuls rose into importance, superseded the bishops and began to represent the city in transactions with its neighbors.
Battles became all but bloodless; diplomacy and tactics superseded feats of arms and hard blows in pitched fields.
Then parliament enacted a new system of Church courts which, though to some extent in its turn superseded by the revival of episcopacy under James VI., was revived or ratified by the act of 1690, c. 7, and stands to this day.
equivalent reQaapa?coo-n) (now superseded by the term p roTEta " the fast"), are derived from the Sunday which was the fortieth day before Easter, as Quinquagesima and Sexagesima are the fiftieth and sixtieth, Quadragesima being until the 7th century the capul jejunii or first day of the fast.
The bishops, who were ex officio inquisitors in their own dioceses, had not succeeded in putting a stop to the evils, nor had the friars, by whom they had been practically superseded.
To "heave the log," a man holds the log-reel over his head (at high speeds the man and portable reel are superseded by a fixed reel and a winch fitted with a brake), and the officer places the peg in the log-ship, which he then throws clear and to windward of the ship, allowing the line to run freely out.
The Propylaea were approached in Greek times by a zig-zag path, terraced along the rock; this was superseded in Roman times by a broad flight of steps.
In the Byzantine and early Romanesque periods it was an essential part of church furniture; but during the middle ages it was gradually superseded in the Western Church by the pulpit and lectern.
superseded was not indigenous to Russia, but had been set up by Peter the Great, who had taken as his model the inquisitorial procedure at that time in vogue on the continent of western Europe.
In the latter case a court of cassation is provided in the district com mittee for the affairs of the peasants (Uyezdnoe po krestianskim dolam prisutstviye), which has superseded the assembly of arbiters of the peace (mirovye posredniki) established in 1866.3 (W.
The old curriculum of the Real schools is now superseded.
The prairies are superseded by wheat-fields, and flocks of sheep destroy the true steppe-grass (Stipa pennata).
The earliest temple must have been erected soon after the foundation of the city, while the later building which superseded it dates from shortly after 600 B.C. The propylon, on the other hand, may date from after 409 B.C.
These measures proving unsatisfactory, they were soon superseded by statutes creating railway commissions with varied powers of regulation.
Passenger carriages were originally modelled on the stage-coaches which they superseded, and they are often still referred to as " coaching stock."
Another form of coupler, which used to be universal in the United States, though it has now been almost entirely superseded by the automatic coupler, was the " link and pin," which differed fundamentally from the couplers commonly used in Europe, in the fact that it was a buffer as well as a coupler, no :side buffers being fitted.
The large majority of the inhabitants live in the East Island, and the predominating element is Scottish - Scottish shepherds having superseded the South American Gauchos.
This has now been superseded by the edition, with copious notes, by Professor J.
The work is now largely superseded.
Lord Auckland had the double mortification of seeing his policy a complete failure and of being superseded before his errors could be rectified.
Isolated by the departure of the papal nuncio from Ireland in February 1649, he made overtures for alliance to Ormonde, and afterwards with success to Monck, who had superseded Monro in command of the parliamentarians in the north.
He was superseded there by Delescluze, but he continued to direct the violent acts of the Commune, the overthrow of the Vendome column, the destruction of Thiers's residence and of the expiatory chapel built to the memory of Louis XVI.
The revolutionary leaders, who had already taken the field, were superseded.
In 1772 he was appointed by Wesley "general assistant" in charge of the work in America, and although superseded by an older preacher, Thomas Rankin (1738-1810), in 1773, he remained practically in control.
It was, however, superseded by Islam, which spread to the Malay Archipelago and Peninsula before the 16th century.
1863), has superseded all others.
These were superseded in 1905 by The Life and Letters of R.
He thus superseded Warham, who was legatus flatus, in ecclesiastical authority; and though legates a latere were supposed to exercise only special and temporary powers, Wolsey secured the practical permanence of his office.
In 1775 he was superseded in the empress's graces by Zavadovsky; but the relations between Catherine and her former lover continued to be most friendly, and his influence with her was never seriously disturbed by any of her subsequent favourites.
He also contemplated a thorough-going reform of the ferme generale, but contented himself, as a beginning, with imposing certain conditions on the leases as they were renewed - such as a more efficient personnel, and the abolition for the future of the abuse of the croupes (the name given to a class of pensions), a reform which Terray had shirked on finding how many persons in high places were interested in them, and annulling certain leases, such as those of the manufacture of gunpowder and the administration of the messageries, the former of which was handed over to a company with the scientist Lavoisier as one of its advisers, and the latter superseded by a quicker and more comfortable service of diligences which were nicknamed" turgotines."He also prepared a regular budget.
Manual labour in farming operations began to be superseded by the use of drills, hay-makers and horse-rakes, chaff-cutters and root-pulpers.
Carteaux, an ex-artist, at first held the supreme command, but was superseded on the 23rd of October.
He goes so far as to pronounce the latter to be Cretan importations, their fabric and forms being unlike anything Nilotic. If that be so, the period at which stone implements were beginning to be superseded by bronze in Crete must be dated before 4000 B.C. But it will be remembered that below all Evans's "Minoan" strata lies the immensely thick Neolithic deposit.
Various summaries, controversial articles, &c., formerly quoted, are now superseded by recent discoveries.
Valerius's translation was completely superseded by that of Leo, arch-priest of Naples in the 10th century, the socalled Historia de Preliis.
Sharp, is unlikely to be superseded by the result of any researches into minute imaginal structure.
Confining our attention here to ornithology, Cuvier's arrangement of the class Aver is now seen to be not very much better than any which it superseded.
ornithologiae, also in three volumes, published between 1872 and 1877, is a slight advance, but both works have been completely superseded by the British Museum Catalogue of Birds, the twenty-seventh and final volume of which was published in 1895, and by the compact and invaluable British Museum HandList, the four volumes of which were completed by Dr R.
Gurney, was useful in its day, but has been superseded by the more comprehensive and extremely accurate volumes, the Birds of Africa, by G.
The Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club was published from 1876 to 1884, when it was superseded by The Auk.
First we have the g already-mentioned Manuel d'ornithologie of Temminck, which originally appeared as a single volume in 1815; 6 but that was speedily superseded by the second edition of 1820, in two volumes.
The almuce has now been almost entirely superseded by the mozzetta, but it is still worn at some cathedrals in France, e.g.
Morel (1615); Prudentius Maranuis (1742) are superseded by J.
New Paphos (Papho or Baffo), which had already superseded Old Paphos in Roman times, lies to m.
Along one line there was a gradual elaboration of the tube until it culminated, so far as structural complexity is concerned, in the so-called trapdoor nests or burrows of various families; along the other line the tubular retreat either retains its primitive simplicity in association with a new structure, the snare or net, or is entirely superseded by the latter.
The editio princeps of the original appeared at Augsburg (1471); that of Haverkamp (Leiden, 1738 and 1767) has now been superseded by C. Zangemeister, who has edited the Hist.
Of late years the under-reamer has been largely superseded by the eccentric bit.
The primitive methods originally in use in the Russian oil-fields have already been described; but these were long ago superseded by pipe-lines, while a great deal of oil is carried by tank steamers on the Caspian to the mouth of the Volga where it is transferred to barges and thence at Tzaritzin to railway tank-cars.
Petroleum has largely superseded other oils, and is still gaining ground, as a lubricant for machinery and railway rolling-stock, either alone or in admixture with fixed oils.
(5) Kinnesrin, corresponding to northern Syria; the capital at first was Kinnesrin (Qinnasrin) to the south of Haleb (Aleppo), by which it was afterwards superseded.
He accelerated the process of substituting Normans for Englishmen in all preferments of importance; and although his nominees were usually respectable, it cannot be said that all of them were better than the men whom they superseded.
The representation of plays was perhaps transferred to this spot from the early Orchestra in the Agora at the beginning of the 5th century B.C.; it afterwards superseded the Pnyx as the meeting-place of the Ecclesia.
In the elections of 1828 the new party proved unexpectedly strong, and after this year it practically superseded the National Republican party in New York.
The ever-increasing importance of the electric current in metallurgy and chemical manufactures is making this method of great importance, and in some cases it has partially, if not wholly, superseded the older methods.
This method, as originally proposed, is not in common use, but has been superseded by Kjeldahl's method, since the nitrogen generally comes out too low.
They were superseded by county courts (q.v.).
Latin letters are used throughout; the miniatures of older maps are superseded by symbols, and in the better-known countries the maps are fairly correct, but they fail lamentably when we follow their author into regions - the successful delineation of which depends upon critical combination of imperfect information.
The titles of these atlases survive, though the authors of the original editions are long dead, and the maps have been repeatedly superseded by others bringing the information up to the date of publication.
The earlier sheets of this excellent map were lithographed, but these are gradually being superseded by maps engraved on copper.
It was the Alexandrian theology that superseded them; that is to say, NeoPlatonic mysticism triumphed over the early Christian hope of the future, first among the "cultured," and then, when the theology of the "cultured" had taken the faith of the "uncultured" under its protection, amongst the latter also.
These contain one 1 This municipality was superseded by a new municipal body, with extensive powers, created in 1890.
Even after the introduction of vellum as the ordinary vehicle for literature papyrus still continued to some extent in use outside Egypt, and was not entirely superseded until a late date.
Farther south, in central Bosnia, the oak rarely mounts beyond the foothills, being superseded by the beech, elm, ash, fir and pine, up to 5000 ft.
The downfall of the Moslem aristocracy resulted in an important administrative change: Serajevo, which had long been the commercial centre of the country, and the jealously guarded stronghold of the nobles, superseded Travnik as the official capital, and the residence of the vali.
From the outset, voting by count of heads had been superseded by voting according to nations, i.e.
The Hamburg stations, connected with the other by the Verbindungs-Bahn (or metropolitan railway) crossing the Lombards-Brucke, are those of the Venloer (or Hanoverian, as it is often called) Bahnhof on the south-east, in close proximity to the harbour, into which converge the lines from Cologne and Bremen, Hanover and Frankfort-on-Main, and from Berlin, via Nelzen; the Klostertor-Bahnhof (on the metropolitan line) which temporarily superseded the old Berlin station, and the Lubeck station a little to the north-east, during the erection of the new central station, which occupies a site between the Klostertor-Bahnhof and the Lombards-Brucke.
In Africa it seems probable that the production of rubber from vines is likely to be entirely superseded in process of time, and replaced by the plantations of trees which are already being established in those districts in which careful experiment has determined the kind of rubber tree best adapted to the locality.
The V-system is the oldest, but is being largely superseded by the herring-bone; the spiral system is more recent and is still on trial.
As public penance finally decayed, and auricular confession took its place, these were superseded by the Summae de Poenitentia, - law-books in the strictest sense.
Although acknowledged as the county town of Pembrokeshire, Pembroke was superseded by Haverfordwest as the judicial and administrative centre of the shire on account of the more convenient position of the latter place.
See Franz Cumont, Textes et monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra (Brussels, 1896, 1899), which has superseded all publications on the subject; Albrecht Dieterich, Eine Mithrasliturgie (Leipzig, 1903).
The old system of locating immigrants in colonies, or colonial nuclei, which involved an enormous outlay of money with but slight benefit to the country, has been superseded by a system of locating the immigrants on the large plantations under formal contracts.
And yet the book is an invaluable repertory of facts, and must endure until it is superseded by something better.
Under the Lombards the civil government was in the hands of a gastaldo, under the Carolingians of a count, whose authority, by slow degrees and a course of events similar to what took place in other Italian communes, gave way to that of the bishop, whose power in turn gradually diminished and was superseded by that of the consuls and the commonwealth.
It has superseded Antioch as the economic centre of N.
tions, and for a time the legal government of Hungary was superseded (Patent of March 3, 1673) by a committee of eight persons, four Magyars and four Germans, presided over by a German governor; but the most influential person in this committee was Bishop Kollonich, of whom it was said that, while Pazmany hated the heretic in the Magyar, Kollonich hated the Magyar in the heretic. A gigantic process against leading Protestant ministers for alleged conspiracy was the first act of this committee.
His symbols for greater than and less than ("3 and .) have been completely superseded by Harriot's signs.
The despatch of this expedition seems to prove an almost blind confidence in Nicias, whose request to be superseded the Athenian people refused to grant.
This has been superseded by the Scottish Text Society's edition (ed.
In Mahommedan Spain he was lees regarded, but in Europe his works even eclipsed and superseded those of Hippocrates and Galen.
In the transitional period, when the Arabian school began to influence European medicine, but before the Salernitans were superseded, comes Nicolaus Praepositus, who wrote the Antidotarium, a collection of formulae for compound medicines, which became the standard work on the subject, and the foundation of many later compilations.
From the subtleties of rival systems it is a satisfaction to turn to two movements in the medicine of the 18th century which, though they did not extinguish the spirit of system-making, opened up paths of investigation by which the systems were ultimately superseded.
In the treatment of disease his practical innovations came at a fortunate time, when the excesses of the depletory system had only partially been superseded by the equally injurious opposite extreme of Brown's stimulant treatment.
More important in their results than any of these works were the discoveries of Edward Jenner, respecting the prevention of small-pox by vaccination, in which he superseded the partially useful but dangerous practice of inoculation, which.
The Metropolitan Board of Works was also given certain powers of supervision over the vestries and district boards, and superseded the commissioners of sewers as authority for main drainage.
Steam locomotives have been largely superseded by compressed air or electric locomotives.
Except in a few instances these were long ago superseded by ron-wire ropes, which in turn have p been replaced by steel because of its greater strength.
It is now superseded (see Greece: History, Ancient, § Bibliography).
In 492 he was superseded in his satrapy by Mardonius (Herodotus V.
Crown-glass has at the present day almost disappeared from the market, and it has been superseded by sheet-glass, the more modern processes described above being capable of producing much larger sheets of glass, free from the knob or " bullion " which may still be seen in old crown-glass windows.
Formerly it was fortified, but after the change in the defensive system of Belgium in 1858 the fortress was dismantled and its ramparts superseded by boulevards.
Accordingly, he took his place among the non-jurors, and, as he stood firm to his refusal, he was, in August 1691, superseded in his bishopric by Dr Kidder, dean of Peterborough.
Successive improvements were introduced into it by the kings of the second Assyrian empire; chariots were superseded by cavalry; Tiglath-pileser III.
On the reassembling of the Long Parliament he was superseded; he took no part in the Restoration, and died at Newton Tony in Wiltshire on the 16th of December 1669.
Other Roman names for the vestment were succa, sucta; it was not till the 14th century that the name rochettum appeared at Rome, but it was not long before it had superseded all the native designations.
Thus scepticism and relativism are superseded by a historical philosophy, and the absoluteness of truth is affirmed, but the notion of a definite truth is at the same time both negated and satirized.
In most cases, the company of merchants was merely one of the craft organizations which superseded the gild merchant.
part in the Azov campaigns (1695-96), and superseded Ogilvie as commander-in-chief during the retreat before Charles XII.
Klopper (1893), which in some respects are not yet superseded.
The Mosquito Coast is so called from its principal inhabitants, the Misskito Indians, whose name was corrupted into Mosquito by European settlers and has been entirely superseded by that form except in the native dialects.
(the lastnamed line superseded a horse-tramway built by the French army during the campaign of 1881).
He subdued the Silures, and held the other native tribes in check till he was superseded by Agricola (78).
The singularity of Comte's construction, and the test by which it must be tried, is the transfer of the worship and discipline of Catholicism to a system in which " the conception of God is superseded " by the abstract idea of Humanity, conceived as a kind of Personality.
His work has, however, been partially superseded by T.
But these have all been superseded by the monumental critical edition by B.
But a Fabian policy is never acceptable to an eager people, and when Johnston had been driven back to Atlanta he was superseded by Hood with orders to fight a battle.
On the death of Montgomery and the failure to take Quebec the army retreated to Crown Point, and its commander, General John Sullivan, was superseded by General Horatio Gates.
It was an attempt to provide a more accurate rendering of the Greek Bible than had hitherto existed in Syriac, and obtained recognition among the Monophysites until superseded by the still more literal renderings of the Old Testament by Paul of Tella and of the New Testament by Thomas of Harkel (both in 616-617), of which the latter at least was based on the work of Philoxenus.
Bolingbroke gradually superseded Oxford in the leadership. Lady Masham, the queen's favourite, quarrelled with Oxford and identified herself with Bolingbroke's interests.
He was thereupon declared a public enemy and superseded by C. Cassius (the murderer of Caesar),who attacked him in Laodicea.
high, contain assembly and reading rooms. Of the schools the most notable is the Academy (rebuilt in 1880), which in 1764 superseded the grammar school of the burgh, which existed in the 13th century.
The loose aggregation of agricultural households gives place t o the organized community with new needs and new g y ideals, and at the same time in religious thought the old vague notion of the numen is almost universally superseded by the more definite conception of the dens - not even now quite anthropomorphic, but with a much more clearly realized personality.
In much the same manner Mars takes on in addition to his agricultural character the functions of war-god, which in time completely superseded the earlier idea.
The same spirit continues to show itself in the almost reckless introduction of Greek deities even within the walls of the pomoerium and their ready identification with gods of the old religion, whose cult they in reality superseded.
In the succeeding centuries Augustus's intentions were realized with a fullness which he would hardly have wished, and the cult of the imperial house practically superseded the state religion as the official form of worship.
All these, however, have been superseded for the modern student by the editions of Natalis de Wailly (1872 and 1874), in which the text is critically edited from all the available MSS.
He also published anonymously, in 1745, the lives of English, Scotch and Irish saints, under the title of Britannia Sancta, an interesting work which has, however, been superseded by that of Alban Butler.
The old handicraftsman has been superseded by machine labour and the village artisan by the factory hand.
This same Elector Frederick invited two young divines, Zacharias Ursinus and Caspar Olevianus,, to prepare the afterwards celebrated Heidelberg catechism, which in 1563 superseded Calvin's catechism in the Palatinate.
But the answers may be superseded by better answers, or they may be rendered unnecessary because the questions are no longer asked.
At the time of the Turkish conquest (1458) Nikli had been superseded by a fair-sized town called Mouchli, which in turn disappeared when the new city of Tripolitsa was founded about 3 m.
The original temple was said to have been built by Aleus, the founder of the city; it was superseded by a larger one which was destroyed by fire in 395 B.C. The rebuilding was entrusted to Scopas, the great sculptor; and it is probable that he not only acted as architect, but also provided the sculptural groups which ornamented the pediments.
Vitelli (Naples, 1879-1891), which superseded that of A.
In the 10th century the royal line had been superseded by a dynasty of Falasha Jews, followed by other Christian families; but weakness and disorder continued till the restoration of the "House of Solomon" (c. 1268).
The spelling " cole " was generally used up to the middle of the 17th century, when it was gradually superseded by the modern form, " coal."
The character of such workings is very irregular in plan, and as the ventilation is attended with considerable difficulty, it is now becoming generally superseded by more improved methods.
It has, therefore, been to some extent superseded by the long-wall method, the upper half being taken at the first working, and removed as completely as possible, working backwards from the boundaries to the shaft.
The Report of the earlier royal commission (1870), however, still remains of great value, and must not be considered to have had its conclusions entirely superseded.
It has come into very general use in recent years, and has practically superseded the older forms of block brakes.
The constitution now in force was adopted in 1857, the constitution of 1846 having been superseded chiefly on account of its prohibition of banking corporations.
It has been superseded for municipal business by a new building, and now contains the civic archives and museum.
Both editions were superseded by the discovery of a much better preserved MS. of Perotti in the Vatican, published by Angelo Mai in 1831.
In 1710 it became the chief custom-house port for the Clyde, until superseded by Greenock.
It is probable that after the Danish invasions of the 1 rth century the modern Southampton (Hantune, Suhampton) gradually superseded the Saxon Hantune as the latter did the Roman settlement, the site being chosen for its stronger position and greater facilities for trade.
Only recent books are mentioned, since the older works have been largely superseded owing to modern critical investigations: Thomas A.
Matthew Cradock, first governor of the Company, from the 4th of March 1629 to the 10th of October 1629, was succeeded on the latter date by John Winthrop, who, on reaching Salem on the 12th of June 1630 with the charter, superseded Endecott.
After the battle of Bunker Hill, Gage was superseded by General (Sir William) Howe, and returned to England.
But these applications are being superseded by the electric furnace, and electric light.
Aragon was divided in 1833 into the provinces of Huesca, Teruel and Saragossa; an account of its modern condition is therefore given under these names, which have not, however, superseded the older designation in popular usage.
In Chrismann the word " dogma " has superseded the word " article "; Holden uses both, though " article " has the preponderance.
In 1822 Auguste Miot endeavoured to improve on Larcher; and in 1828-1832 Dr Adolf Scholl brought out a German translation with copious notes (new ed., 1855), which has to some extent superseded the work of Lange.
The caravan route to the Red Sea was superseded in 1906 by a railway, which leaves the Wadi Halfa-Khartum line at the mouth of the Atbara.
Sir Arthur Helps' Life of Las Casas (London, 1868) has not been superseded; but see also F.
He was to have been superseded, but put to sea before the officer who was to have relieved him arrived - an action which might have been his ruin if he had not signalized his cruise by the capture of the British frigate "Guerriere" (38).
Abdulla Pasha was superseded, and the defence of the capital entrusted to Nazim Pasha, at the time Minister of War in the Turkish Cabinet.
But before it could be carried into effect it was superseded by a "provisional constitution," which gave unlimited power to a boule of 400 (chosen by a roundabout system which favoured intrigue) and its nominees, the ten "absolute" generals.
On the 3rd of December Gates was superseded by Gen.
The island was brought under the immediate administration of New South Wales; a chief magistrate, appointed by the governor of New South Wales, took the place of the elected magistrate, and an elected council of twelve elders superseded the general gathering of the adult population.
Other slighter prolusions will have circulated in that Philonian centre Ephesus, before the great Gospel englobed and superseded them.
In later times, as is proved by the Minaean colony in Al-`01a, which Euting has revealed to us, they superseded the Sabaeans in some parts of the north.
The Sabaeans also recognize `Athtar; but with them he is superseded by Almaqah, who, according to Hamdani, is the planet Venus, and therefore is identical with `Athtar.
The new and more honourable title of elector of Saxony now superseded his other titles, and the name Saxony gradually spread over his other possessions, which included Meissen and Thuringia as well as Saxe-Wittenberg, and thus the earlier history of the electorate and kingdom of Saxony is the early history of the mark of Meissen, the name of which now lingers only in a solitary town on the Elbe.
from 1880 onwards) it has wholly superseded the latter except for girders of less than 100 ft.
pp. 1-28.) These timber framed structures served as models for the earlier metal trusses which began to be used soon after 1850, and which, except in a few localities where iron is costly, have quite superseded them.
A state dispensary, similar to that of South Carolina, was established in 1898 by a vote of 22,170 to 20,557, but it proved ineffective and was superseded in 1900 by the licence system.
In 1795 Jacques Vieau, a Frenchman in the employ of the North-Western Fur Company, established a permanent post here, which seems to have continued, under his direction, with practically no interruption until 1820, when it was superseded by that of Astor's American Fur Company.
Both Libra and the sign it eventually superseded thus owned a Chaldaean birthplace.
The reform by which Krittika, now relegated to the third place, was superseded as the head of the series by " Agvini " 4 was accomplished under Greek influence somewhere near the beginning of the Christian era.
These, and also many of the edicts passed by kings of the Ayuthia period which have been preserved, are now of value more as curiosities of literature and history than anything else, since, for all practical purposes, they have long been superseded by laws more in accordance with modern ideas.
The town was governed largely after the Mosaic law and continued essentially Puritan for fifty years or more; about 1730 Presbyterianism superseded Congregationalism, and in 1734 Colonel Josiah Ogden, having caused a schism in the preceding year, by saving his wheat one dry Sunday in a wet season, founded with several followers the first Episcopal or Church of England Society in Newark - Trinity Church.
He regarded the Berlin visit as a blunder, chiefly owing to his profound distrust of Prussia; but Alexander ignored his representations, and in February 1807 he lost favour and was superseded by Andrei Eberhard Budberg.
They had behind them the revolutionary Commune, the Sections and the National Guard of Paris, and they had gained control of the Jacobin club, where Brissot, absorbed in departmental work, had been superseded by Robespierre.
Pache had twice been minister of war in the Girondist government; but his incompetence had laid him open to strong criticism, and on the 4th of February he had been superseded by a vote of the Convention.
Szujski's book has superseded even Joachim Lelewel's learned History of Poland (Pol., Brussels, 1837), of which there are excellent French (Paris, 1844) and German (Leipzig, 1846) editions.
In November 1903 a syndicate was of Grant (1575) was succeeded by that of Camden (1 595), founded mainly on a Paduan text-book, and apparently adopted in 1596 by Sir Henry Savile at Eton, where it long remained in use as the Eton Greek Grammar, while at Westminster itself it was superseded by that of Busby (1663).
not only the above-mentioned Latin grammar 16 Y g (44) but also the Methode grecque of 1655 and the Jardin des racines grecques (1657), which remained in use for two centuries and largely superseded the grammar of Clenardus (1636) and the Tirocinium of Pere Labbe (1648).
Lakanal (February 1795) were superseded by that of P. C. F.
This was too revolutionary to stand long and in 1867 it was superseded by the present constitution.
C. Pemberton, who has superseded the talented Van Dorn.
When on the point of resuming the offensive, McClellan was suddenly superseded by Burnside, one of his corps commanders.
Moore, a contemporary collection, has been superseded to a great extent by the official records, but is still valuable as a collection of unofficial documents of all kinds.
become superseded by Aramaic as the language spoken by the Jews, i.e.
Its slavish adherence to the original caused the new translation to be received with favour by the Hellenistic Jews, among whom it quickly superseded the older Septuagint.
It was not until after the 6th century that the Old Latin was finally superseded by the Vulgate or Latin translation of the Old Testament made by Jerome during the last quarter of the 4th century.
147, gave alternative dates, Phamenoth 25, Pharmuthi 25, Pharmuthi 1q; that is, according to the fixed Alexandrine calendar of B.C. 26, 21st March, 20th April, 14th April; in the older, not wholly superseded, Egyptian calendar the equivalents with Roman days varied from year to year.
Although now entirely superseded, it has considerable merits as regards style and arrangement.
Merchant's pound, in 1270 established for all except gold, silver and medicines = 6750 grains, generally superseded by avoirdupois in 1303.
Merchant's pound of 7200 grains, from France and Germany, also superseded.
The calculation of the logarithms not only of numbers but also of the trigonometrical functions is therefore due to Briggs and Vlacq; and the results contained in their four fundamental works - A rithmetica logarithmica (Briggs), 1624; Arithmetica logarithmica (Vlacq), 1628; Trigonometria Britannica (Briggs), 1633; Trigonometria artificialis (Vlacq), 1633 - have not been superseded by any subsequent calculations.
The work went through several editions during the 18th century, and was at length superseded in 1785 by Hutton's tables, which continued in successive editions to maintain their position for a century.
Now all these efforts were superseded by Luther's Smaller Catechism meant for the people themselves and especially for children, and by his Larger Catechism intended for clergy and schoolmasters.
In 1592 these were superseded by that of John Craig, for a time the colleague of John Knox at the High Church, Edinburgh.
Being uncatechetical in form and addressed to the clergy rather than to the people, it missed its intention, and was superseded by others of less exalted origin, especially by those of the Jesuit Peter Canisius, whose Summa Doctrinae et Institutionis Christianae (1554) and its shorter form (1556) were already in the field.
Congregationalists for some time used Isaac Watts's Catechisms for Children and Youth (1730), since superseded by the manuals of J.
The general's supremacy received a shock when the eleventh general congregation appointed Oliva as vicar, with the right of succession and powers that practically superseded those of the general Goswin Nickel, whose infirmities, it is said, did not permit him to govern with the necessary application and vigour; and an attempt was made to depose Tirso Gonzalez, the thirteenth general, whose views on probabilism diverged from those favoured by the rest of the Jesuits.
Iron was not known, but copper and tin ores were mined, and the metals combined into bronze of much the same alloy as in the Old World, of which hatchet blades and other instruments were made, though their use had not superseded that of obsidian and other sharp stone flakes for cutting, shaving, &c. Metals had passed into a currency for trading purposes, especially quills of gold-dust and T-shaped pieces of copper, while coco-beans furnished small change.
Probably the Mexican elements superseded the Maya so completely that there remained no trace of the Maya except archaeological objects; it is to be supposed that the Lenca and Sumo tribes superseded the Chorotega in Salvador.
sought the co-operation of the viceroy Apodaca, who, however, refused; but he was presently superseded by General O'Donoju, who, being unable to get beyond Vera Cruz, recognized the independence of Mexico.
Oaxaca city, under Porfirio Diaz,' capitulated to Bazaine - who had superseded the too pro-clerical Forey in October 1864 - in February 1865, and by the autumn of that year the condition of the Juarists in the north seemed desperate.
Whittingham's enterprise was, however, soon superseded by an issue of the whole Bible, which appeared in 1560, the so-called Genevan Bible, popularly also known as the Breeches The Bible, from its rendering of Gen.
His edition of the celebrated Codex vaticanus, completed in 1838, but not published (ostensibly on the ground of inaccuracies) till four years after his death (1858), is the least satisfactory of his labours and was superseded by the edition of Vercellone and Cozza (1868), which itself leaves much to be desired.
Walter (1827), but was immediately superseded by the translation of the second edition by Julius Hare and Connop Thirwall, completed by William Smith and Leonhard Schmitz (last edition, 1847-1851).
The attacks on Washington failed, and in March 1778 Mifflin was finally superseded as quartermaster-general by General Nathanael Greene.
The quinquennales superseded the Ilviri or I Vviri juri dicundo every five years, and differed from them only in possessing, in addition to their other powers, those exercised in Rome before the time of Sulla by the censors.
The policy adopted by the early emperors of encouraging, within the limits of a uniform system, the independence and civic patriotism of the towns, was superseded in the 3rd and 4th centuries by a deliberate effort to use the towns as instruments of the imperial government, under the direct control of the emperor or his representatives in the provinces.
Introduced into England by one Eloye Mestrel in 1561, it was used for twelve years, and was then abandoned owing to the opposition of the mint officials to Mestrel, who was executed for counterfeiting and striking money outside the precincts of the Tower of London; but it was again introduced by one Peter Blondeau in 1662, when it permanently superseded hammering.
At election times they also direct and superintend the work of bringing up voters to the polls and of watching the taking and counting of the votes; but in this work they are often aided or superseded by specially appointed temporary bodies called campaign committees, These party committees are permanent, and though the membership is renewed every year, the same men usually continue to serve.
On the south side of the cloister we have the remains of the old refectory (II), running, as in Benedictine houses, from east to west, and the new refectory (12), which, with the increase of the inmates of the house, superseded it, stretching, as is usual in Cistercian houses, from north to south.
The woollen trade once promised to reach considerable dimensions, but towards the end of the 18th century was superseded by the linen (for which flax came to be largely grown); and when this in turn collapsed before the products of the mills of Dundee, Dunfermline and Glasgow, straw-plaiting was taken up, though only to be killed in due time by the competition of the south.
As a source for the text it is superseded by the printed edition, and if there is more than one, then by the latest printed edition, which has been revised in proof by the author, or, in certain cases, by his representative; and the task of the textual critic is restricted to the detection of "misprints," in other words, of errors which the compositor (the modern analogue to the scribe) has made in "setting up" the manuscript, and which have escaped the notice of the proof-reader and the author or his representative.
Although he had left the church, his earlier writings continued to be extensively read; and in the 4th century his works, along with those of Cyprian, were the principal reading of Western Christians, until they were superseded by those of Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine and Gregory.
But the importance of Prometheus is mainly mythological; the Titan belonged to a fallen dynasty, and in actual cult was largely superseded by Hephaestus.
(1846), and Saint-Aulaire's Histoire de la Fronde, have been superseded by P. A.
Burrard was in turn superseded by Sir Hew Dalrymple, and the campaign ended with the convention of Cintra, which provided for the evacuation of Portugal by the French, but gave Junot's troops a free return to France.
This form of government continued until 1851, when a local board was formed, which in 1894 was superseded by an urban district council.
In 41 B.C. he was practically superseded by Antony's appointment of Herod and Phasael to be tetrarchs of Judaea; and in the following year he was taken prisoner by the Parthians, deprived of his ears that he might be permanently disqualified for priestly office, and carried to Babylon.
Still later came the "Spiritual Department," or "Holy Synod" (January 1721), which superseded the ancient patriarchate.
It may also be prepared by heating a mixture of carbon, oxide of iron and magnesite to bright redness; and by heating a mixture of magnesium ferrocyanide and sodium carbonate, the double cyanide formed being then decomposed by heating it with metallic zinc. Electrolytic methods have entirely superseded the older methods.
Its ancient name, though no longer used officially, except to designate a military district, has not been superseded in popular speech by the names of the eight modern divisions.
The office of governor, superseded in 1776 by a president and council of twelve, was restored in 1790.
investigations to the language as a whole, and provided Europeans for the first time with the means of making a practical study of modern Tibetan and the speech of the people His Tibetan-English Dictionary and Tibetan Grammar are models of scientific precision and important sources of our knowledge of the structure and development of the language, and the former is not superseded by Chandra Das's Dictionary.3 The language was first reduced to writing with the assistance of Indian Buddhist monks in the middle of the 7th century A.
xvii.); though apparently now confined solely to purposes of witchcraft, it perhaps contains survivals of a former extensive system superseded by the alphabetic writing introduced from India.
The Basilian service of the Eucharist was used in the 5th century, but superseded later on by a Byzantine rite which will be found translated in F.
have been superseded by Waliszewski's two volumes, Le Roman d'une imperatrice (Paris, 1893) and Autour d'un Trone: Catherine II., ses collaborateurs, ses amis, ses favoris (Paris, 1894).
For centuries the chief port of the eastern Sudan, Suakin has been since 1906 to some extent superseded by Port Sudan, a harbour 36 m.
It has been to a great extent superseded by Portland cement, on account of the much greater strength of the latter, though lime concrete is still used in many places for dry foundations and small structures.
In 1853 the two villages were united under a city charter, which was superseded by a revised charter in 1887.
In 1732 a silk mill was erected, but the silk trade was superseded by the cotton trade early in the 19th century.
It was superseded by the writings of Tacitus, and, early in the 5th century, Symmachus had little hope of finding a copy (Epp. xiv.
The fyrd was gradually superseded by the gathering of the thegns and their retainers, but it was occasionally called out for defensive purposes even after the Norman Conquest.
2 Sharon Turner suggests that cniht from meaning an attendant simply may have come to mean more especially a military attendant, and that in this sense it may have gradually superseded the word thegn.
4 It is pretty clear, therefore, that the word cniht could never have superseded the word thegn in the sense of a military attendant, at all events of the king.
It consisted of the king and the Black Prince, and 24 knights divided into two bands of 12 like the tilters in a hastilude - at the head of the one being the first, and of the other the second; and to the companions belonging to each, when the order had superseded the Round Table and had become a permanent institution, were assigned stalls either on the sovereign's or the prince's side of St George's Chapel.
Thus he distrusted, and probably never fully accepted, Gay-Lussac's conclusions as to the combining volumes of gases; he held peculiar and quite unfounded views about chlorine, even after its elementary character had been settled by Davy; he persisted in using the atomic weights he himself had adopted, even when they had been superseded by the more accurate determinations of other chemists; and he always objected to the chemical notation devised by J.
The duke, as a conscientious Protestant, refused to marry his mistress according to the rites of her Church, and she, the chosen champion of its cause, agreed to be married to him, not merely by a Protestant but by one who before his conversion had been a Catholic bishop, and should therefore have been more hateful and contemptible in her eyes than any ordinary heretic, had not religion as well as policy, faith as well as reason, been absorbed or superseded by some more mastering passion or emotion.
Her correspondence in cipher from thence with her English agents abroad, intercepted by Walsingham and deciphered by his secretary, gave eager encouragement to the design for a Spanish invasion of England Under the prince of Parma, - an enterprise in which she would do her utmost to make her son take part, and in case of his refusal would induce the Catholic nobles of Scotland to betray him into the hands of Philip, from whose tutelage he should be released only on her demand, or if after her death he should wish to return, nor then unless he had become a Catholic. But even these patriotic and maternal schemes to consign her child and re-consign the kingdom to the keeping of the Inquisition, incarnate in the widower of Mary Tudor, were superseded by the attraction of a conspiracy against the throne and life of Elizabeth.
But the most splendid Government map of all is that put forth by the Swiss Federal Topographical Bureau, under the title of Siegfried Atlas (scale 1 :50,000 for the Alpine districts), which has quite superseded the Dufour Map (scale 1: loo,000), the history of which was published in 1896.
These are being superseded, however, by sliding-out trays of convenient lengths and about 9 in.
Amongst them are the Ageratums, the old tall-growing sorts of which have been superseded by dwarfer blue and white flowered varieties; Alternantheras, the principal of which are A.
- Frictional machines are, however, now quite superseded by the second class of instrument mentioned above, namely, influence machines.
Hartmann in the Monumenta Germaniae historica (Berlin, 1887-1899), and this splendid edition has superseded all others.
He regarded, it is true, the agency of this cause for the improvement of the race as largely superseded by moral influences in the more advanced social stages.
As the leader of the Protectionist wing of the party he was superseded by the tariff reform advocates, such as John G.
The influence of Flood did much to give direction to Grattan's political aims; and it was through no design on Grattan's part that when Lord Charlemont brought him into the Irish parliament in 1775, in the very session in which Flood damaged his popularity by accepting office, Grattan quickly superseded his friend in the leadership of the national party.
Stephanus (1559); of other editions the best are: P. Wesseling (1746), not yet superseded; L.
Everywhere the original source of law was the old German common law, but in each district it had been wholly or partly superseded by codes, text-books and statutes to a great extent founded on the principles of the Roman civil law.
The constant changes in the law made by current legislation in the different states really only added to the confusion, and though imperial laws on these points with which the central government was qualified to deal superseded the state laws, it is obvious that to pass occasional acts on isolated points would have been only to introduce a further element of complication.
This superseded the complicated system of laws and royal ordinances which had accumulated in Prussia during the fifty years that had elapsed since the system of short service had been introduced; the application to other states of course made a clearer statement of the laws desirable.
Lasker soon died; others, such as Forckenbeck and Bunsen, retired from public life, unable to maintain their position at a time when the struggle of class interests had superseded the old conflicts of principle.
But these collections are merely heaps of historical material, good and bad; the documents therein were not examined and they are now quite superseded.
The corporation, however, was superseded, under the provisions of the Municipal Reform Act of 1840, by a board of municipal commissioners.
We are intimately acquainted with the most minute particulars of Wood's life from his Diaries (1657-1695) and autobiography; all earlier editions are now superseded by the elaborate work of Andrew Clark, The Life and Times of Anthony Wood, Antiquary, of Oxford, 1632-1695, described by himself (Oxford Historical Society, 1891-1900, 5 vols.
Under the charter for the Colony of Massachusetts Bay (1629), which superseded the Dorchester Company patent, Endecott continued as governor until the arrival in 1630 of John Winthrop, who soon removed the seat of government from Salem first to Charlestown and then to Boston.
Then from 1st January 1900 the old reckoning by gulden was superseded, that by krone being introduced in all government accounts, the new silver being made a legal tender only for a limited amount.
historic rights of the Bohemian as of the Hungarian crown, and in 1865 the constitution of 1861 had been superseded, while the territorial diets remained.
Were the movement not stopped the constitution would be superseded, and the union with Hungary endangered.
It has, of course, long been superseded as a result of the research indicated above.
The nuncios are of lower rank than the legati a latere, but have practically superseded them as ambassadors of the papacy.
At the same time Lysander's year of office expired and he was superseded by Callicratidas, to the disgust of all those whom he had so carefully organized in his service.
Apart from such qualification, it signified chiefly the temporary commission which superseded all the ordinary magistrates of the Republic from 451 to 449 B.C., for the purpose of drawing up a code of laws.
It superseded Babylon as the industrial focus of Babylonia and counted some 600,000 inhabitants (plebs urbana) according to Pliny, N.H.
But Mahomet showed no anxiety to have these superseded enactments destroyed.
The temporary enactments of the earlier days were then superseded by laws based upon a more accurate knowledge of local conditions and rendered possible by the effective administration which had been set up throughout the country.
This line, now disused, had itself superseded the overland route organized by Lieut.
For other than the purposes indicated, the native judicial system, both civil and criminal, was superseded in 1884 by tribunals administering a jurisprudence modelled on that of the French code.
The details of this settlement, promulgated by decree of the I 7th of November 1876, need not be given, as it was superseded in 1880.
MONTH, a hawk-headed god of the Thebaid: in Thebes itself his cult was superseded by that of Ammon, but it persisted in Hermonthis.
By such labors after forty years the results attained by Champollion in decipherment were entirely superseded.
(B) The reliefs of the early XVIIIth Dynasty are closely like the scenes of the tombs in the pyramid age, but soon carving was superseded by the cheaper painting, and but few tombs in relief are known.
But three new temples at Karnak, that of Month (Mentu), of Mut and a smaller one, all are due to this reign, as well as the long avenue of sphinxes before the temple of Khons; these indicate that the present Ramesside temple of Khon.s has superseded an earlier one of this king.
By the 18th century the importance of the pasha was quite superseded by that of the beys, and two offices, those of Sheik al-Balad and Amir al-~ajj, which were held by these ~of thC persons, represented the real headship of the community.
After gaining some small successes, Abd-el-Kader was superseded by Suliman Niagi on the 20th of February 1883, and on the 26th of March Ala-eddin Pasha was appointed governor-general.
The session 1900-1901 was remarkable for the further disintegration of the Conservative party still in office (the Sehested cabinet superseded the Horring cabinet on the 27th of April 1900) and the almost total paralysis of parliament, caused by the interminable debates on the question of taxation reform.
12, 13a, 14a, 15b) is more fragmentary, having been doubtless superseded in most cases by the fuller and more graphic narrative of J, but the plague of darkness (x.
In this branch too of the law there existed some, though a less formidable, uncertainty; for there were constitutions which practically, if not formally, repealed or superseded others without expressly mentioning them, so that a man who relied on one constitution might find that it had been varied or abrogated by another he had never heard of or on whose sense he had not put such a construction.
The manufacture and export of native cloth have now been almost entirely superseded by the introduction of European piece goods.
Though superseded by Aleppo as capital of N.
The great bulk of the code was an obstacle to the multiplication of copies of it, whilst the necessity for them was in a great degree superseded by the publication from time to time of synopses and encheiridia of its contents, composed by the most eminent jurists, of which a very full account will be found in the Histoire au droit byzantin, by the advocate Mortreuil, published in Paris in 1846.
This contained some elegant and valuable improvements on then existing methods, which have themselves, however, long been superseded.
ii., 1804, an elaborate work, now completely superseded.
Originally they were maintained by tolls, but this method, after several counties had obtained separate acts for its abolition, was superseded in 1883 by the act of 1878.
Royal authority, sheriffs, juries and witnesses gradually superseded ordeal, compurgation, and trial by battle, though even barons long retained the right of " pit and gallows."
The 13th-century town hall was restored in 1899 and now contains the municipal antiquarian museum, having been superseded by a more commodious building.
1888), a scholarly work, though now superseded by that of O.
He returned to his place in the Long Parliament on its recall, was appointed a member of the council of state on the 14th of May 1659, and became president in August; and subsequently, on the fresh expulsion of the Long Parliament, he was included in the committee of safety which superseded the council.
civ., 1881, p. 450) in which barium monoxide is heated in a current of air, forming the dioxide, which when the retorts are exhausted yields up oxygen and leaves a residue of monoxide; but this method is now being superseded, its place being taken by the fractional distillation of liquid air (The Times, Engin.
About the middle of the 17th century it became famous for its "checks," which were afterwards superseded by a similar linen-and-cotton fabric known as "Blackburn greys."
The hand-wrought black-ash furnace has been mostly superseded in the large factories by the revolving black-ash furnace, shown in fig.
sulphur, they were superseded by another - a process which had been originally proposed by W.
It is highly probable that before it became important merely as a temple, it was the fortified centre uniting the Argive people dwelling in the plain, the citadel which was superseded in this function by Tiryns.
When Mycenae was built under the Perseids it was still the chief sanctuary for that centre, which superseded Tiryns in its dominance over the district, and which this temple clearly antedated in construction.
Shoe-making, tanning, agricultural trade, tin-plating, and the manufacture of confectionery and cider have superseded the former large woollen and serge industries.
This process, owing to its expensive nature, was not in use very long, being superseded by another, discovered simultaneously by the above-named chemists and by Sir W.
Michelet's wonderful depiction in his Histoire de France (livres 13 to 17) has never teen surpassed for graphic word-painting, but it is inaccurate in details, and superseded in scholarship. Of the original sources for the reign the Lettres de Louis XI.
restored the fallen fortunes of his family, the Chalukyas were finally superseded by the Rashtrakutas about A.D.
The shalwar pattern, 2 Anglicized as " pyjamas " (in America " pajamas "), the term is used of a form of night-wear for men which has now generally superseded the night-shirt.
It is still not uncommon in Delhi, Agra, Lucknow and at native courts, but is being superseded by the achkan (Plate I.
He was a member of the noble Pawenski family, but his pseudonym of Skarga (from "skarga" a "complaint" or "accusation") speedily superseded his real name.
At an early age he manifested a preference for the study of mathematics, but this was gradually superseded by an interest in natural science, which led him ultimately to the study of medicine.
All former descriptions are now superseded by the magnificent work of Brunnow and Domaszewski, Die Provincia Arabia (1904), who have minutely surveyed the whole site, classified the tombs, and compiled the accounts of earlier investigations; and by the independent researches of Dalman, Petra and seine Felsheiligtiimer (1908), and of Musil, Arabia Petraea (1907-1908).
In 1917, speed of transport of material becoming extremely urgent, it was decided to establish a train-ferry service; it came into operation at the end of that year, and the hoisting of cargoes by cranes into barges was largely superseded.
Sayce, The Religion of the Ancient Babylonians (Hibbert Lectures, London, 1887), now superseded by the same author's Religions of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia (Gifford Lectures.
Wilmot's Monomotapa (London, 1896), which is, however, to a large extent superseded by 'Meal's far richer collection of material.
The provincial governors in whom his father had placed confidence, Mandi superseded by creatures of his own.
He continued to hold the command of the Channel Fleet for the full period of three years, at the end of which time - in 1811 - he was superseded.
It stood near the present entrance to Charing 1 According to some authorities, this is a second Charidemus, the first disappearing from history after being superseded by Chares in the Olynthian war.
Myers (English secretary of Legation at Peking), the French missionaries, and others, were superseded in 1898 by a large and learned volume by the Rev J.
In 1864 he was placed in command of the corps in the Shenandoah Valley, but was defeated by General John C. Breckinridge at Newmarket (15th of May), and was superseded.
Modern scholarship has superseded most of the details in the Voyage, but the author himself did not imagine his book to be a register of accurately ascertained facts; he rather intended to afford to his countrymen, in an interesting form, some knowledge of Greek civilization.
This convention has now been superseded by the revised and amplified edition of it adopted by the second peace conference in 1907.
Roman law, however, was never quite superseded by Germanic law, as appears from the statuts municipaux.
3 In Egypt, he superseded the sage Imhotep at Memphis, and at the temple sacred to Aesculapius and Hygieia at Ptolemais the money-box has been found with the upper part in the form of a great snake .4 Finally among the Phoenicians he was identified with Eshmun, an earlier god of healing, who in turn was already closely associated with Dionysus and with Caelestis-Astarte.'
The former constitution, proclaimed on the 4th of July 1894 and amended on the 10th of December 1896, was superseded on the 30th of March 1905, when a new constitution was promulgated.
In legal history there was a distinct medieval period, when Germanic customs superseded Roman law, that most splendid of Rome's legacies.
They are therefore liable to be modified from time to time, or to be superseded by more convenient or more comprehensive modes of statement.
Considering that the divergence of two alphabets (like the difference of two dialects) requires both time and familiar use, we may gather from these facts that writing was well known in Greece early in the 7th century B.e.2 The rise of prose composition in the 6th century B.C. has been thought to mark the time when memory was practically superseded by writing as a means of preserving literature - the earlier use of letters being confined to short documents, such as lists of names, treaties, laws, &c. This conclusion, however, is by no means necessary.
The commentaries of Barnes, Clarke and Ernesti are practically superseded; but Heyne's Iliad (Leipzig, 1802) and Nitzsch's commentary on the Odyssey (books i.-xii., Hanover, 1826-1840) are still useful.
inaugurated, that the old order of society was about to be superseded.
At the close of the century the knowledge of Greece and Rome had been reappropriated and placed beyond the possibility of destruction; the chasm between the old and new world had been bridged; medieval modes of thinking and discussing had been superseded; the staple of education, the common culture which has brought all Europe into intellectual agreement, was already in existence.
Grein in his Bibliothek der angelsachsischen Poesie (1857) are superseded, so far as the text is concerned, by R.
Formerly Wakefield was the great emporium of the cloth manufacture in Yorkshire, but in the 19th century it was superseded in this respect by Leeds.
The Palaeographia graeca (1708), illustrating the whole history of Greek writing and the variations of the characters, has not yet been superseded; in its own field it is as original as the De re diplomatica of Mabillon.
In 1713 Montfaucon edited Hexaplorum origenis quae supersunt, not superseded till the work of Field (1875); and between 1718 and 1738 he completed his edition of Joannis Chrysostomi opera omnia.
In a country in which newspapers had at best only a local circulation, and where communication was still slow and difficult, the knowledge that Washington favoured anything superseded, with very many men, both argument and the necessity of information.
Sparks's edition (12 vols., Boston, 1837) has in the main been superseded, though it contains some papers not included by Ford, and the Life, which comprises vol.
The public school system of Colorado dates from 1861, when a school law was passed by the Territorial legislation; this law was superseded by that of 1876, which with subsequent amendments is still in force.
It represents the Koppa of the earliest Greek alphabets surviving in that form of the Ionic alphabet, which ultimately superseded all others, merely as the numerical symbol for 90.
His first instrument, the open-test apparatus, was prescribed by the act of 1868, but, being found to possess certain defects, it was superseded in 1879 by the Abel close-test instrument (see Petroleum).
Latterly it appears to have become aristocratic, and most of the power was concentrated in the hands of the first archon or Proteuon, who in time was superseded by the strategus sent out from Byzantium.
More exactly they may be classified under three heads: (A) Writings originally intended to form parts of the Instauratio, but which were afterwards superseded or thrown aside; (B) Works connected with the Instauratio, but not directly included in its plan; (C) Writings which actually formed part of the Instauratio Magna.
This superseded the edition of G.
The courts in existence at the time of the occupation were superseded by the following, constituted by an order in council dated the 30th of November 1882: - (I) a supreme court of criminal and civil appeal; (2) six assize courts; (3) six district courts; (4) six magistrates' courts; and (5) village courts.
Iron, which occurs rarely, and almost exclusively for ornaments, in a few tombs at Enkomi, suddenly superseded bronze for tools and weapons, and its introduction was accompanied, as in the Aegean, by economic, and probably by political changes, which broke up the high civilization of the Mycenaean colonies, and reduced them to poverty, 1 Myres, Journ.
The perfecting machine has had a great vogue, and has been much improved from time to time, especially in America, though the two-revolution machine in recent years superseded it, whether temporarily or not being still uncertain.
Two-revolution machines, which, although with but one cylinder, have largely superseded perfecting machines, as their output has been increased and the quality of their work compares favourably with that of the average two-cylinder.
although both the stop-cylinder and the two-revolution press have to some extent superseded it.
Process engraving has practically superseded wood engraving, and the new processes have brought new conditions, requiring a different making-ready, paper and ink.
Formerly the greater bulk of composition was done on the piece-work system, but as machine composition has largely superseded hand labour for the more ordinary class of work, piece-work is declining, and there is a greater tendency to have the work done on " establishment " (" 'stab "), i.e.
These are superseded by the recent translations made by A.
Hand rabbling in fixed furnaces has been largely superseded by mechanical rabbling.
This was superseded by another in 1683 under which the governing body was to consist of a mayor and six aldermen.
The Swedes, irritated by his misrule, superseded him by his nephew, Albert of Mecklenburg (1365).
In every part of the empire they gradually superseded the Seljuk princes, and the minor dynasties above mentioned all owed their existence to the ambition of the Turkish regents or atabegs.
In 1878 the old Monks Ferry station on the Great Western system was superseded by the opening of the Woodside passenger station, and a few years later the Birkenhead town station was opened.
But the influence of the court of Rome has gradually gone much beyond this, and has superseded almost all the local "uses."
The ruins of the ancient town, which superseded Cyrene and Barca as chief place in the province after the 3rd century A.D., are now nearly buried in the sand.
Formerly groundnuts were largely cultivated, but this industry has been superseded by exports from India.
By Barbara Villiers, Mrs Palmer, afterwards countess of Castlemaine and duchess of Cleveland, mistress en titre till she was superseded by the duchess of Portsmouth, he had Charles Fitzroy, duke of Southampton and Cleveland, Henry Fitzroy, duke of Grafton, George Fitzroy, duke of Northumberland, Anne, countess of Sussex, Charlotte, countess of Lichfield, and Barbara, a nun; by Louise de Keroualle, duchess of Portsmouth, Charles Lennox, duke of Richmond; by Lucy Walter, James, duke of Monmouth and Buccleuch, and a daughter; by Nell Gwyn, Charles Beauclerk, duke of St Albans, and James Beauclerk; by Catherine Peg, Charles Fitz Charles, earl of Plymouth; by Lady Shannon, Charlotte, countess of Yarmouth; by Mary Davis, Mary Tudor, countess of Derwentwater.
9 of the Criminal Procedure Act 1853: and ad deliberandum et recipias, to authorize the transfer from one custody to another for purposes of trial, which is in practice superseded by the provisions of the Prison Acts 1865, 1871 and 1898, and the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1867 (supra).
But Hindu and Mahommedan interests were found to be so closely interwoven that this policy became impracticable, and it was superseded when D.
Philological studies were pursued with ardour and many valuable publications have to be recorded, among them Bluteau's Vocabulario Portuguez, the Reflexoes sobre a lingoa portugueza and an Arte poetica by Francisco Jose Freire, the Exercicios and Espirito da lingoa e eloquencia of Pereira de Figueiredo, translator of the Vulgate, and Viterbo's Elucidario, a dictionary of old terms and phrases which has not been superseded.
have superseded an earlier and shorter account of the fulfilment of the commands in Exod.
43-45, it is highly probable that they have superseded similar legislation belonging to H.
She appears to have been a woman of great beauty and considerable intelligence, and after the death of Otto the Great in 973 gradually superseded his widow Adelaide as the chief adviser of the new emperor, whom she accompanied on several military expeditions.
The temple was of Doric style, with six columns at the front and back and thirteen at the sides; it was built early in the 4th century B.e.; little if any traces have been found of the earlier building which it superseded.
Lucullus in the government of Cilicia and the command of the war against Mithradates, but as he did absolutely nothing and was unable to control the soldiery, he was in turn superseded by Pompey according to the provisions of the Manilian law.
presently tired of his counsels and he was superseded by Van Maanen.
In May 1919 he superseded Champ Clark (Democrat) as Speaker of the House, and in 1920 was a delegate-at-large to the Republican National Convention.
The bustle of the modern commercial city has superseded the austere dignity of the old Prussian capital.
It was superseded, however, in its turn by a new broad and deep canal opened in 1906, lying from 3 to 4 m.
The Westminster Directory which superseded the Book of Common Order also enjoins interment "without any ceremony," such being stigmatized as "no way beneficial to the dead and many ways hurtful to the living."
The valuable collection of historical documents entitled Fontes Rerum Bohemicarum, published at Prague in the latter part of the 19th century, has superseded earlier ones such as Freherus (Marquard Freher), Rerum Bohemicarum Antiqui Scriptores.
Similarly, the earlier historical works of Pubitschka, Pelzl and De Florgy are superseded by Frantisek Palacky's Geschichte von Bohmen (Prague, 1844-1867), which, however, ends with the year 1526.
To a great extent, however, his work is now superseded.
of Macedon, and in 349 he superseded Chares as commander in the Olynthian War.
The cylinder, however, seems to have been generally superseded in Egypt by the engraved scarab, or beetle-shaped object, which, it may be assumed, was used at an early time, as it certainly was in later Egyptian history, for sealing purposes, although its proper function was that of an amulet.
Phoenician names are found cut both on cylinder matrices and on scarabs by the Phoenician engravers employed in Assyria and Egypt; and, when the cone-shaped matrix superseded the cylinder in Western Asia, the Phoenicians conformed to the change.
(1603-1610), and the official account, A True and Perfect Relation of the Whole Proceedings against the late most Barbarous Traitors (1606), a neither true nor complete narrative however, now superseded as an authority, reprinted as The Gunpowder Treason .
In 66 Lucullus was superseded by Pompey.
above highwater mark, erected in 1831 on the second cliff to the westward, in o° 10' 18" E., 5 0 ° 43' 30" N., has been superseded by a new lighthouse built in the sea at the foot of the head itself.
The court leet began to decline in the 14th century, being superseded by the more modern courts of the justices, but in many cases courts leet were kept up until nearly the middle of the 19th century.
De Sade's Life of the poet (Amsterdam, 1764-1767) marks an epoch in the history of his numerous biographies; but this is in many important points untrustworthy, and it has been superseded by Gustav Koerting's exhaustive volume on Petrarcas Leben and Werke (Leipzig, 1878).
It was not until two centuries later that the historikos, the reciter of stories, superseded the historeon (to-Top&w), the seeker after knowledge.
The story of the pagan past slipped out of mind, and in its place was set, by the genius of Eusebius, the story of the world force which had superseded it, Christianity, and of that small fraction of antiquity from which it sprang, - the Jews.
The introduction of cotton caused the woollen manufactures on the western side to be superseded by the working up of the imported raw material; but woollen manufactures, themselves carried on now almost entirely with imported raw material, have continued to employ the energies of the inhabitants of the east.
The ancient counties were superseded for most practical purposes by the administrative counties created by the Local Government Act of 1888.
These acts will be mentioned later in connexion with the powers of parish councils, for in general they are adopted for a parish, part of a parish or combination of parishes, and are administered by a burial board, except where that body has been superseded by a parish council or joint committee.
It may be useful to mention here that for purposes of the administration of the poor law, overseers no longer act, their duties in that respect having been superseded by the guardians.
If the area under a burial board in 1894 was partly in a rural parish and partly in an urban district, the burial board was superseded, and the powers of the board are exercised bya joint committeeappointed partly by the urban district council and partly by the parish council, or parish meeting, as the case may be.
It will be seen that the scheme, as at present existing, has for its object the simplification of local government by the abolition of unnecessary independent authorities, and that this has been carried out almost completely, the principal exception being that in some cases burial boards still exist which have not been superseded either by urban district councils or by parish councils or parish meetings.
His regency was greatly troubled by the ambition of Olympias, mother of Alexander, and he was nominally superseded by Craterus.
Captain James Cook in 1778 made surveys from which the first approximately accurate chart of the coast was published; but it was reserved for Vancouver in 1793-1794 to make the first charts in the modern sense of the intricate south-eastern coast, which only in recent years have been superseded by new surveys.
A chapel in a cave was superseded about 1146 by a wooden church, replaced about 1180 by a stone church, which was pulled down in 1793 to erect the present building.
But in educated Europe such ideas had long been superseded by the influence of theology and philosophy, with which they seemed too incompatible.
Danish peat-mosses again show the existence of man at a time when the Scotch fir was abundant; at a later period the firs were succeeded by oaks, which have again been almost superseded by beeches, a succession of changes which indicate a considerable lapse of time.
Apparently Morgan suggested to Greene (who had superseded Gates) that general's plan of battle at Guilford Court House on the 15th of March.
This new coinage gradually superseded the older currency.
The expedition was eventually diverted to Portugal, and Rivers, finding himself superseded before anything was accomplished, returned to England, where Marlborough procured for him a command in the cavalry.
At this point General Havelock was joined by Sir James Outram, who;would have superseded him in the command had not Outram himself, with unequalled generosity, proposed to accompany Havelock only in his civil capacity as chief commissioner of Oudh and to serve under him as a volunteer.
The Normans, in their turn, gradually superseded all powers, whether Greek, Lombard or republican, which had previously divided the south of Italy, and furthermore checked the Saracens in the advances they were making through Apulia.
The first statement may frequently turn out to have been merely provisionally or relatively true; it is then superseded by, or rather inevitably merges itself in, a less abstract account.
It is hardly an exaggeration to say that, in the English school since Hume, psychology superseded properly philosophical inquiry.
Burnet, while Zeller's view of Plato may be said to have been superseded by the later researches of Lewis Campbell, H.
Sheridan (1785), John Nichols (1801, 1804, 1808), Scott (1814 and 1821) and Roscoe (2 vols., 1849) have been in most respects superseded by the edition in Bohn's Standard Library in fourteen volumes (including the two subsequently issued volumes of Poems) (1897-1910); arranged as follows: L Biog.
In a supplement to the systematic work of Engler and Prantl the well-known name Welwitschia, instituted by Hooker in 1864 in honour of Welwitsch, the discoverer of the plant, is superseded by that of Tumboa, originally suggested by Welwitsch.
Later, the sophronistae were superseded by a single official called cosmetes, elected for a year by the people, who appointed the instructors.
On the eve of an aggressive movement, which he was at last about to make, he was superseded by Burnside (Nov.
In October 1861 Stanton, secretary of war, ordered him north to raise troops for the expedition against Vicksburg; and early in January 1864, at Milliken's Bend, McClernand, who had been placed in command of one of the four corps of Grant's army, superseded Sherman as the leader of the force that was to move down the Mississippi.
The bombardon is used in the military bands of Austria, but in those of Germany it has been superseded by a bass tuba differing slightly in form and construction from the bombardons and bass tubas used in England, France, Belgium and Austria.
Subsequently cocoa was cultivated extensively, and from about 1890 vanilla largely superseded the other crops; in 1899 the vanilla exported was valued at over £roo,000 out of a total export of £140,000, and from 1896 to 1903 the crop represented more than half the total value of the exports.
The frail wooden ploughs with a lance-headed share that only scratched the surface soil, were then superseded by iron ploughs; steam threshers replaced the oxen which trod out the corn, and modern implements were widely adopted.
173, 1907), are superseded by a photographic treatment of the problem by W.
afterwards superseded his own work by treating in the same way the three minor planets Victoria, Iris and Sappho - the last was observed by W.
The measures were made with the Cape heliometer and have never been superseded, for the latest results with the minor planet Eros exactly confirm Gill's result-8.80" - while they decidedly diminish the associated probable error.
It arose out of and superseded the board of public examiners (which had been constituted in 1858), was established in 1874 and was granted a royal charter in 1877.
For several reasons this method is ineffective, and, where possible, is now superseded by underground drainage by means of pipe-tiles.
But all these works were to be superseded by the Decretum of Gratian.
In Khandesh the indigenous plant from which one of the lowest classes of cotton in the Bombay market takes its name has been almost entirely superseded by the superior Hinganghat variety.
in 1292, which in turn was superseded in 1535 by the valuation, made by commissioners appointed by Henry VIII., known as the King's Books, which was confirmed on the accession of Elizabeth and is still that by which the clergy are rated.
This work, valuable at a time when the study of Greek history was in its infancy, and translated into French and German, was written from a strong Whig bias, and is now entirely superseded (see Greece: Ancient History, " Authorities").
Indiana is governed under a constitution adopted in 185r, which superseded the original state constitution of 1816.
These circular hearths persisted into the Canaanite period, but were ultimately superseded by the Semitic developments.
The lofty Early English style had now completely superseded the more heavy and Lit~rat~,,e sombre Norman, and it was precisely during the years of the maladministration of Henry III.
the hands of the old feudal council of tenants-in-chief, while the Confirmatio gave it to the assembly, far more national and representative, which had now superseded the Great Council as the mouthpiece of the whole people o~ the realm.