The return address on the envelope was Columbia, South America, but it wasn't addressed to anyone.
They want me to make another sales trip — to South America.
Also, South Carolina contacted us regarding water for its residents in Charlotte.
I caught MBTA Silver Line to South Station, for my 11:15 departure.
Give him a week and he'll float in somewhere down south of here if the fish don't eat him first.
Dean turned the car away from town, opened the window to let in the fresh May night, and headed south toward route 309 and Whitney's Motel.
After dressing in double sweaters, wool knickers and stockings, they racked their skis atop their jeep and drove south from town into the mountains.
PHILLIPS BROOKS South Boston, June 8, 1891.
There's an afternoon Amtrak train that makes the trip from South Station in Boston to Philly in less than five hours.
I'd better move my hunt further south when I've cleaned up my business and finished here.
He didn't want her to go because he would be concerned about her safety in South America.
The LeBlanc's house is a tiny cape cod, on a dead end street in south Peabody, a Boston bedroom community.
"South, I think," Lana said vaguely.
The army turned more to the south, along the Ryazan road and nearer to its supplies.
When Andrew Jackson was a little boy he lived with his mother in South Carolina.
"Maybe he thinks we.ll steal his things," Erik, the blond Viking who watched over South America, said with a smile.
We were an hour into our drive south before I broached the subject, asking her about the tete-a-tete.
We tried to help with the South Carolina abduction of a girl taken from her bedroom.
Here in the spring time south, I have no such fear because I'm not stupid as he apparently was.
In Central and South America in 2000 were eighteen million Internet users; today, more than two hundred million.
Pierre proposed going to his estates in the south and there attending to the welfare of his serfs.
She is going south for the winter, and tonight is the only time available.
All the states in the deep south and a few up north; Michigan, Pennsylvania and Indiana.
Look, if it said they were moving to the south, I'd know they were selling their winter stuff.
"He must have driven south, away from Ouray," Cynthia mused.
It was easy enough to remember the last time she cycled — the day Alex left for South America.
She continued up Seventh Street and turned south on Main and drove toward the mountains.
Hey, what would you think about turning one of the south facing bedrooms into a studio for Elisabeth.
The beautiful granite structure of South Station was opened in 1899 and within ten years, was the busiest train station in the United States.
TO MRS. KATE ADAMS KELLER South Boston, April 13, 1893. ...Teacher, Mrs. Pratt and I very unexpectedly decided to take a journey with dear Dr. Bell Mr. Westervelt, a gentleman whom father met in Washington, has a school for the deaf in Rochester.
It's is warm here in the south and I fear I can't keep my tiny trophy in my auto another day.
We were presented corn production figures from Columbia or hafnium levels from New South Wales.
Randolph was the smallest of them, so she'd picked this town to cross the River rather than the larger ones south along the Mississippi.
"Head due west or south and you won't run into any patrols or security," the solider said quietly, his hand resting on the door.
Heading south, near the Massachusetts line.
Storefronts facing south were opening their doors to the summer-warm sun in spite of the temperature still hovering in the twenties.
I drove south toward town on the West Surry Road but instead of following Court Street, turned back north west on the Old Walpole to Howie's home.
He was raised on a South Carolina farm by a red neck father who didn't have two cotton balls to rub together.
Someone sent them south instead of north.
Her gaze fell to the envelope from South Peachtree Mortuary Services.
The vehicle was different but this time he was able to record the South Carolina license plate number.
The city of twenty-five thousand was located in the south western part of the state.
The living room and kitchen, which faced to the south, provided an exquisite view of the surrounding countryside.
VAD occurs mostly in Africa and South East Asia where rice is the staple food.
Not seeing any ducks, he hid his boat on the north or back side of an island in the pond, and then concealed himself in the bushes on the south side, to await them.
They took up camp about a day south of here in Arkansas.
Maybe he was working in the south pasture and decided to come see you.
Clusters of sixties and seventies-style subdivisions had blossomed during the post-war era of rush to the 'burbs. These look-alikes that originally carried names like Camelot or South Pacific were at first scorned by Parkside's gentry but had slowly gained a level of respectability.
Real bikers weren't bothered by a little rain, he tried to tell himself, but the car radio spoke of a storm system moving up from the south, bringing with it high winds and torrential rain.
The restaurant is a perfect place to try out different varieties of dosas (thin rice and lentil crepe), a widely acclaimed dish of South India.
"Down South, we call this energy water," he said.
While she was out doing chores, she had seen several flocks of geese flying overhead, traveling south in chevron flight.
TO MR. JOHN P. SPAULDING South Boston, May 11th, 1892.
We thought it was far south over the woods--we who had run to fires before--barn, shop, or dwelling-house, or all together.
All such concerns flew away likes ducks going south when he returned to the room.
There's also La Cumbre Plaza on South Hope, it has Sears, Macy's and Vons.
At last Charleston, in South Carolina, was taken by the British.
Within an hour, they were riding side-by-side down the south bank of the creek, searching for the blocked area.
A breeze pushed the last of the storm up the valley, moving it south, toward the mountains behind him.
Whatever relationship they had blooming was going south in a hell of a hurry.
Featuring a full bar and take-out service, this casual establishment brings some south of the border flavor to the top of the mountain.
They drove south from town and in less than a quarter mile, turned right onto what was locally known as the Camp Bird Mine Road.
I read somewhere they swipe cars and ship 'em down to South America where the druggies buy 'em. Maybe that's it.
They flew south, and she strained against the harness to see if her own condo was still standing.
Found a few more refugees just south of here.
They rolled past South Fork, and 20 miles later, Del Norte, where the lead cadre of bikers hummed their way toward Monte Vista, 14 miles further, and then the final 17 miles to Alamosa.
"To our allies to the north and south, to the villages," Allin replied.
Once his ship was sailing in the great Pacific Ocean, It was four hundred miles from the coast of South America.
My Dear Miss Riley:--I wish you were here in the warm, sunny south today.
The Fitchburg Railroad touches the pond about a hundred rods south of where I dwell.
Late in the afternoon, as he was resting in the thick woods south of Walden, he heard the voice of the hounds far over toward Fair Haven still pursuing the fox; and on they came, their hounding cry which made all the woods ring sounding nearer and nearer, now from Well Meadow, now from the Baker Farm.
She drove the winding roads from her father's manor through County Clare and south towards the Cliffs of Moher to Doolin, one of her favorite day trips.
Neither spoke, and the chauffeur took them north, instead of south towards home.
By the time he was successful, he was nearly to the park, south of Ouray's hot spring pool.
Unshod horses heading south.
He's already killed a cop who stopped him down south.
I eluded that stupid sheriff's deputy in the south.
The road was rough but not limited to four-wheel drive vehicles like the mountain Jeep roads to the south.
The village of Ouray lay snuggled at the terminus of a long valley, wrapped in a box canyon by the towering San Juans to the east, west and south.
He instinctively ducked his head but the two were paying no heed to a passing biker as they sped south.
Naw. They drove off to the south.
The clouds were breaking up and the wind had switched around to the south.
Flares went up to the east and south.
You and Elise take this one in the south.
I'll pull in someone to go south.
Between bites he answered Fred's questions, filling in the details of the trip south.
He'd take the turnpike extension south.
"Delayed" was posted next to all flights headed south.
He was clearly embarrassed and apologized to Dean on behalf of everyone in the Norfolk Police Department, the City of Norfolk and the entire south.
One stronghold was in the north, in which they stood, and one in the south near the entrance to the desert.
She nodded as Hilden indicated the armies to the south, where Memon was positioned to sever the route to her armies.
We would need to recall the armies from the south to bolster our numbers.
Even so, she didn't know how to pull the armies from the south without drawing Sirian's or Memon's attention.
Most of the army has been in the south and are beyond our ability to recall in time.
We'll see them coming before they arrive, but the forest hides the armies south and north of the city too well.
Sirian moved all our armies too far south to recall them in time to save the city.
Because my armies are down south and my queen ran away.
And they are sending their armies south but may not arrive before several days.
The walls are made of the demon's magic, and Rissa's armies are too far south to hold the city.
He looked out over the forests to the north, the destruction of the south, and the meadow to the east.
Fires ignited near the south gate as his men attacked groups of Memon's advisors and the warriors that had been invited into the hold for the feast.
Memon's allies attacked from the south.
The forest to the north was afire, the dead strewn around the north and south walls.
The evening was already casting long shadows when he leaned down from the saddle and opened the gate to the south pasture.
I thought that was a South American animal.
They wanted to know if we could go into the south hills tomorrow.
I'm thinking about starting some trails on the south side.
She went to a farm supply store and purchased enough supplies to fence in a large area in the south part of their land.
The men finished the fence and the goats are running in the south hills.
The climate in the south at this time of the year was probably hot, but surely it couldn't hold a candle to the week she had spent in the desert.
Images of him sliding it south, towards the part of her that ached, filled her mind.
from Munich, and at the centre of a network of railways placing it in direct communication with all the principal towns of south Germany.
Stuttgart is the centre of the publishing trade of south Germany, and it has busy industries in everything connected with the production of books.
Although in late Tertiary times widely spread over southern Europe and India, giraffes are now confined to Africa south of the Sahara.
Farther south the frontal horn tends to disappear more or less completely, as in the Angola G.
forests of Mysore, as well as still farther south.
A little south of 12° N.
From the south it is joined by the Faleme, a considerable river which rises in hilly country in about I I° 50' N.
It lies in the Satpura mountains, south of the Nerbudda.
Anlaf Godfreyson returned to Ireland and died in 94194 2 in a raiding expedition in the south of Scotland.
south of Moradabad.
This includes the Aegean and the Black Sea, and its margin skirts the south coast of Asia Minor.
Another bank i ioo fathoms from the surface runs south from the east end of Crete, separating the Pola Deep from the depths of the Levant basin, in which a depth of 1960 fathoms was recorded near Makri on the coast of Asia Minor.
Hence the Mediterranean region is characteristically one of winter rains, the distinctive feature becoming less sharply defined from south to north, and the amount of total annual fall increasing in the same direction.
The salter waters apparently tend to make their way westwards close to the African coast, and at the bottom the highest salinities have been observed south of Crete.
In 1892 he became a member of the British House of Commons as an Irish Nationalist, being elected for South Longford.
by the Scheldt, the Eendracht, the Volkerak and the Hollandsch Diep, which separate it from Zealand and South Holland, N.
by the Merwede and Maas, which separate it from South Holland and Gelderland, and E.
She found the maestro towards the end of 1837 dispirited by a temporary eclipse of popularity and in the first stage of his fatal malady, and carried him off to winter with her in the south.
The town proper occupies an elevated promontory, washed on the north by the Charente and on the south and west by the Anguienne, a small tributary of that river.
Escaping to South America in 1836, he was given letters of marque by the state of Rio Grande do Sul, which had revolted against Brazil.
It is represented in the south-west of North America by other forms that by some writers are deemed species, and in the northern parts of South America by the C. phoeniceus, which would really seem entitled to distinction.
CARMAGNOLE (from Carmagnola, the town in Italy), a word first applied to a Piedmontese peasant costume, well known in the south of France, and brought to Paris by the revolutionaries of Marseilles in 1798.
It is decidedly less at Perpignan and Lisbon than at Potsdam, Kew and Greenwich, but nowhere is the seasonal difference more conspicuous than at Tokyo, which is south of Lisbon.
1 8 South Atlantic 8.1.
Venice, Istria, the Dalmatian coast and South Italy were assigned to the East, while Rome, Ravenna and the Pentapolis were included in the Western realm.
It thus serves as an entrepot for much of the commerce between Atlantic and Pacific ports, and between the interior towns of Central and South America and the cities of Europe and the United States.
The snow-covered summits of the Elbruz are visible to the south.
The extreme length of the state from north to south is about 240 m., the extreme breadth from east to west about 265 m.
The prevailing winds are from south to west.
The Baltimore & Ohio railway leads in trackage: it enters the state with several lines at its northern end; its main line crosses this portion of the state from east to west, striking the Ohio at Parkersburg, and one of its lines (Ohio River railway) extends nearly the length of the state from Wheeling in the north through Parkersburg to Kenova in the south.
On the 27th of April 1486, Waynflete, like Wykeham, made his will at their favourite manor, South or Bishop's Waltham.
On the north, west and south it is surrounded by hills, with a background of mountains amongst which the Puy-de-Dome stands out prominently.
To the south lies the fine promenade known as the Jardin Lecoq.
ARAN ISLANDS, or South Aran, three islands lying across Galway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland, in a south-easterly direction, forming a kind of natural breakwater.
of London, on the South Eastern & Chatham railway.
It lies on the south bank of the Thames and extends up the hills above the shore, many villas having been erected on the higher ground.
His novels, for the most part published first in London, reflect his wild adventurous life, the best known being The Son of the Wolf (1900); The Call of the Wild (1903); Moon Face (1906); Martin Eden (1909); South Sea Tales (1912), and his last, The Little Lady of the Big House (1916).
Salt springs exist in the neighbourhood, and to the south there are two small lakes, Zonar and Rincon, which abound in fish.
The south pavilion of the present house is the original brick building, one and a half storeys high, first occupied by Jefferson in 1770.
The general elevation in the south part of the state is much lower, and large areas bordering the Paraguay are swampy, partially submerged plains which the sluggish rivers are unable to drain.
Angra is built on the south coast of Terceira in 38° 38' N.
in width) on the south-eastern coast of South Island.
Throughout the entire south of the peninsula French influence was predominant.
The rivalry between the English and the French, which had already convulsed the south, did not penetrate to Bengal.
It lies on the south side of the Bukken Fjord, and has a picturesque harbour well sheltered by islands.
Stavanger is the first port of call for northward-bound passenger steamers from Hull and Newcastle, and has regular services from all the Norwegian coast towns, from Hamburg, &c. A railway runs south along the wild and desolate coast of Jaederen, one of the few low and unprotected shores in Norway, the scene of many wrecks.
KIAOCHOW BAY, a large inlet on the south side of the promontory of Shantung, in China.
The town was formerly known as South Stockton, and is still included in the parliamentary borough of Stockton (it is within the Cleveland division of the county), but was incorporated as a separate municipal borough in 1892.
Girgenti), an ancient city on the south coast of Sicily, 21111.
On the north both summits are defended by cliffs; on the south the ground slopes away somewhat abruptly from the eastern summit towards the plateau on which the town stood, while the western summit is separated from this plateau by a valley traversed by a branch of the Hypsas [mod.
Biagio], from which the city took its name and which, though shallower than that of the Hypsas, still affords a sufficient obstacle to attack, and the two unite a little way to the south of the town; at the mouth was the ancient harbour, small and now abandoned.
The most famous remains of the ancient city are the temples, the most important of which form a row along the low cliffs at the south end of the city.
Of that of Hephaestus only two columns remain, while of that of Asclepius, a mile to the south of the town, an anta and two pillars are preserved.
Just outside the south wall is a Roman necropolis, with massive tombs in masonry, and a Christian catacomb, and a little farther south a tomb in two stories, a mixture of Doric and Ionic architecture, belonging probably to the 2nd century B.C., though groundlessly called Dimensions in English feet.
A village of the Byzantine period has been explored at Balatizzo, immediately to the south of the modern town (Notizie degli Scavi, 1900, 511-520).
5 Herschel and South (Phil.
620) he came in contact with Pulakesin II., the greatest of the Chalukya dynasty, who made himself lord of the south, as Harsha was lord of the north.
ALIWAL NORTH, a town of South Africa, on the south bank of the Orange River, 4300 ft.
Aliwal North was so called to distinguish it from Aliwal South, now Mossel Bay, the seaport of the pastoral Grasveld district, on the west side of Mossel Bay.
South of Gennargentu, in the district of the Sarcidano, is the Monte S.
long, which rises south of Gennargentu, and runs S.E., falling into the sea a little north of Muravera on the east coast.
South of Oristano and west of the districts last described, and traversed by the railway from Oristano to Cagliari, is the Campidano (often divided in ordinary nomenclature into the Campidano of Oristano and the Campidano of Cagliari), a low plain, the watershed of which, near S.
To the south of Terranova there is no harbour of any importance on the east coast (the Gulf of Orosei being exposed to the E., and shut in by a precipitous coast) until Tortoli is reached, and beyond that to the Capo Carbonara at the south-east extremity, and again along the south coast, there is no harbour before Cagliari, the most important on the island.
Antioco, joined by a narrow isthmus and a group of bridges to the mainland, forms a good natural harbour to the south of the isthmus, the Golfo di Palmas; while the north portion of the peninsula, with the island of S.
On the mainland, on the south shore of the Golfo dell' Asinara, is the harbour of Porto Torres, the only one of any importance on the north-west coast of Sardinia.
This depression runs nearly from north to south, from the Gulf of Asinara to the Gulf of Cagliari.
It is in the south that the depression remains most distinct and it is there known as the Campidano.
Anthropologists, indeed, have recently observed a large proportion of individuals of exceptionally small stature, not found in Sardinia only, but elsewhere in south Italy also; though in Sardinia they are distributed over the whole island, and especially in the southern half.
1 in., and in that of Sassari 21.99%, the percentage for ten provinces of south Italy being 24.35.
The two main dialects are that of the Logudoro in the north and that of Cagliari in the south of the island.
Sardinia has less convictions for serious crimes than any other compartimento of south Italy.
The entrance almost invariably faces south, and measures, as a rule, 5 or 6 ft.
In 1847 he was appointed governor at the Hague, and commandant in South Holland.
The numerous concordats concluded towards the middle of the 19th century with several of the South American republics either have not come into force or have been denounced and replaced by a more or less pacific modus vivendi.
A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
To the south and west of the city a large district is laid out as a park, where there is a statue to the memory of John Maurice of Nassau-Siegen (1604-1679), who governed Cleves from 1650 to 1679, and in the western part there are mineral wells with a pump room and bathing establishment.
Tuzla), a town of the island of Cyprus, at the head of a bay on the south coast, 2 3 m.
It consists of, first, a strip of mainland along the Bay of Bengal, extending from the An pass, across the main range, to the Ma-i River, and, secondly, the large islands of Ramree and Cheduba, with many others to the south, lying off the coast of Sandoway.
It consists of a generally level strip running north and south at the foot of the Shan Hills, and of a hilly region rising up these hills to the east, and including the Yeyaman tract, which lies between 21° 30' and 21° 40' N.
Except on the south side all the streets debouch on the promenade, which forms a circle round the town on the site of the old ramparts.
Outside this ring are the suburbs Schwetzinger-Vorstadt to the south and Neckar-Vorstadt to the north, others being Lindenhof, Miihlau, Neckarau and Kaferthal.
It stands at the head of the effective navigation on the Rhine, and is not only the largest port on the upper course of that stream, but is the principal emporium for south Germany for such commodities as cereals, coal, petroleum, timber, sugar and tobacco, with a large trade in hops, wine and other south German produce.
To the south of this village, on the Rhine, was the castle of Eicholzheim, which acquired some celebrity as the place of confinement assigned to Pope John XXIII.
There is some reason, however, to suppose that before this the capital of the Monomotapa was situated much farther south, and it may plausibly be identified with the most extensive ruins as yet known, viz.
The most carefully executed part is on the south and south-east, where the wall is decorated by a row of granite monoliths beneath which runs a double line of chevron ornament.
It is the oldest existing European settlement on the South American continent, having been founded by Diego Castellon in 1523 under the name of Nueva Toledo.
To the south of the hospital is Greenwich Park (185 acres), lying high, and commanding extensive views over London, the Thames and the plain of Essex.
South of the park lies the open common of Blackheath, mainly within the borough of Lewisham, and in the east the borough includes the greater part of Woolwich Common.
936, when Hywel Dda, prince of South Wales, enacted a law for their protection.
ASTROPALIA (classical Astypalaea), an island, with good harbours, in the south part of the Aegean, situated in 36.5° N.
MORETON BAY CHESTNUT, a tall tree known botanically as Castanospermum australe (natural order Leguminosae), native of Queensland and New South Wales.
In 1848 and 1849, however, when many clubs had come into existence in the west and south of Scotland (the Willowbank, dating from 1816, is the oldest club in Glasgow), meetings were held in Glasgow for the purpose of promoting a national association.
The Bowling Associations of Victoria and New South Wales were established in 1880, and it was not until 1892 that the Scottish Bowling Association was founded.
The two sources together drain the region south as the Euphrates drains the region north of the Taurus mountains.
south of Mosul, at which point navigation is blocked by two ancient dams, erected, apparently, to control the river for the Assyrian city of Calah, the ruins of which are called Nimrud by the natives after these dams, which they conceive to be the work of that mythical hero.
north of Bagdad, rejoined it below Kut-elAmara, an equal distance to the south.
A little south of Samarra the stony plateau of Mesopotamia ends, and the alluvial plain of Irak, ancient Babylonia, begins.
farther south, on the opposite bank, lies Kal'at-Shergat, the ancient Assur, the original name-place and capital of the Assyrian Empire.
A little south of Samarra are found remains of the Median Wall, which stretched south-west towards the Euphrates near Sahlawych, marking the edge of the Babylonian alluvial plain.
The new city formed a rectangle, enclosed by a colossal mud rampart, the longer sides of which ran north and south.
The palace of the khan, with its gardens and lake, itself formed an inner enclosure fronting the south.
three on the south side, always the formal front with the Tatars, and two on each of the other sides; and the streets ran wide and straight from gate to gate (except, of course, where interrupted by the palace walls), forming an oblong chess-board plan.
The native dynasty (Ming) which supplanted them established their residence at Nan-king ("South Court"), but this proved so inconvenient that Yunglo, the third sovereign of the dynasty, reoccupied Ta-tu, giving it then, for the first time, the name of Pe-king ("North Court").
And this constitutes the modern (so-called) "Tatar city" of Peking, the south front of which is identical with the south front of the city of Kublai.
Curtius places the original Prytaneum south of the Acropolis in the Old Agora, speaks of a second identical with the Tholos in the Cerameicus, and regards that of Pausanius as a building of Roman times (Stadtgeschichte, p. 302).
are also found in the south.
in the north of the department; the Oise, traversing the northwest, with its tributaries the Serre and the Aisne, the latter of which joins it beyond the limits of the department; and the Marne and the Ourcq in the south.
Large tracts of the department are under wood; the chief forests are those of Nouvion and St Michel in the north, Coucy and St Gobain in the centre, and Villers-Cotterets in the south.
The department is served chiefly by the lines of the Northern railway; in addition, the main line of the Eastern railway to Strassburg traverses the extreme south.
Aisne is divided into five arrondissements - St Quentin and Vervins in the north, Laon in the centre, and Soissons and CIA, teau-Thierry in the south - and contains 37 cantons and 841 communes.
I've also moved articles on cities in South Tirol and Kustenland to this category, as well as those on cities in Galicia, Bukovina, Transylvania, and Dalmatia.
Darius fled eastwards into Media and again Alexander waited till he had secured the provinces to the south.
The pursuit had brought Alexander into that region of mountains to the south of the Caspian which connects western Iran with the provinces to the east of the great central desert.
south of Stuttgart by road and 43 m.
ARMADILLO, the Spanish designation for the small mail-clad Central and South American mammals of the order Edentata, constituting the family Dasypodidae.
They are all inhabitants of the open plains or the forests of the tropical and temperate parts of South America, with the exception of a few species which range as far north as Texas.
The exiles dwelt at Tell-abib (" Hill of the flood "), one of the mounds or ruins made by the great floods that devastated the country,1 near the " river " Chebar (Kebar), probably a large canal not far south of the city of Babylon.
The district is a deltaic tract, bordering south on the sea and traversed by many tidal creeks.
DELFT, a town of Holland in the province of South Holland, on the Schie, 5 m.
west of the city is the North Alabama Conference College (Methodist Episcopal South), opened in 1897.
A short distance south of the city is Red Mountain, 25 m.
In 1870 the site was a cotton field, where two railways, the South & North, and the Alabama & Chattanooga, now part respectively of the Louisville & Nashville and the Southern System, met.
Of the Sarcopsyllidae the best known species is the "jigger" or "chigoe" (Dermatophilus penetrans), indigenous in tropical South America and introduced into West Africa during the second half of last century.
In Scotland the title of justiciar was borne, under the earlier kings, by two high officials, one having his jurisdiction to the north, the other to the south of the Forth.
south of Cochin, situated on a strip of coast between the sea and one of those backwaters that here form the chief means of inland communication.
South of the Drin is another complex mountain system, including the highlands inhabited by the Mirdites and the Mat tribe; among the principal summits are Deia Mazzuklit, Mal-i Vels, Kraba, Toli and Mnela.
In the extreme south, beyond the basin of the Kalamas, the mountains of Suli and Olyzika form a separate group. The rivers, as a rule, flow from east to west; owing to the rapidity of their descent none are navigable except the Boyana and Arta in their lower courses.
The only genuine division of the Albanian race is that of Ghegs and Tosks; the Liaps, who inhabit the district between the Viossa and the sea, and the Tshams or Chams, who occupy the coast-land south of the Kalamas, are subdivisions of the Tosk family.
In the early records of the Pentateuch, the country is often referred to by the name of Seir, the general name for the whole range of mountains on the east side of the Jordan-Araba depression south of the Dead Sea.
By the constant westward pressure of the eastern Arabs, which (after the restraining force of the great Mesopotamian kingdoms was weakened) assumed irresistible strength, the ancient Edomites were forced across the Jordan-Araba depression, and with their name migrated to the south of western Palestine.
Two miles south is the scene of the battle of Bosworth, in 1485, where Richard III.
from London by the London, Brighton and South Coast railway.
south of Bethshean.
They are drained and in large part enclosed by the North (or Belle Fourche) and South forks of the Cheyenne river (at whose junction a fur-trading post was established about 1830); and are surrounded by semi-arid, alkaline plains lying 3000 to 3500 ft.
26, Economic Resources of the Northern Black Hills, 1904), and of the South Dakota School of Mines (Bulletin No.
In the north and north-east are great plains of black soil, favourable to cotton-growing; in the south and west are successive ranges of low hills, with flat fertile valleys between them.
from north to south and upwards of 300 from east to west.
ENGHIEN, a town in the province of Hainaut, Belgium, lying south of Grammont.
Denver is an important railway centre, being served by nine railways, of which the chief are the Atchison, ' Topeka & Santa Fe; the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy; the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; the Denver & Rio Grande; the Union Pacific; and the Denver, North-Western & Pacific, Denver lies on the South Platte river, at an altitude exactly m.
At Denver the South Platte is joined by Cherry Creek, and here in October 1858 were established on opposite sides of the creek two bitterly rival settlements, St Charles and Auraria; the former was renamed almost immediately Denver, after General J.
Of these eighty churches, twelve were in the United Kingdom, twenty on the continent of Europe, sixteen in North America, three in South America, ten in Asia, nine in Africa, six in Australia, two in New Zealand, one in Jamaica and one in Melanesia.
prospered not only in Ulster but also in the south and west.
In 1864 the two associations or synods of North and South Wales were united in a general assembly.
- The earliest Presbyterian emigration consisted of French Huguenots under the auspices of Admiral Coligny, led to Port Royal, South Carolina, by Jean Ribaut in 1562, and to Florida (near the present St Augustine) by Rene de Laudonniere in 1564, and by Ribaut in 1565.
Huguenot churches were formed on Staten Island, New York, in 1665; in New York City in 1683; at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1686; at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1687; at New Rochelle, New York, in 1688; and at other places.
What is now Dorchester (disambiguation)|Dorchester county, South Carolina, was settled in 1695 by members of a church established in Dorchester, Massachusetts.
From New England, as has been seen, Puritan settlers established Presbyterian churches (or churches which immediately became Presbyterian) in Long Island, on New Jersey, and in South Carolina; but the Puritans who remained in New England usually established Congregational churches.
Ministers and people with few exceptions - the most notable being the Scotch Highlanders who had settled in the valley of the Mohawk in New York and on Cape Fear river in North Carolina - sided with the patriot or Whig party: John Witherspoon was the only clergyman in the Continental Congress of 1776, and was otherwise a prominent leader; John Murray of the Presbytery of the Eastward was an eloquent leader in New England; and in the South the Scotch-Irish were the backbone of the American partisan forces, two of whose leaders, Daniel Morgan and Andrew Pickens, were Presbyterian elders.
The Associate Reformed Synod of the South has the Erskine Theological Seminary (1837) in Due West, South Carolina.
Its strength was increased by the addition: in 1863 of the small Independent Presbyterian Church of South Carolina; in 1865 of the United Synod (New School), which at that time had 120 ministers, 190 churches, and 12,000 communicants; in 1867 of the presbytery of Patapsco; in 1869 of the synod of Kentucky; and in 1874 of the synod of Missouri.
The Associate Reformed Synod of the South had a membership of 13,201.
South Lowestoft arose on the completion of harbour improvements, begun in 1844, when the outlet of the Waveney, reopened in 1827, was deepened.
South Lowestoft has a fine esplanade, a park (Bellevue) and other adjuncts of a watering-place.
From south to north it is traversed by the channel of the Parma, crossed here by three bridges; and from east to west runs the line of the Via Aemilia, by which ancient Parma was connected on the one hand with Ariminum (Rimini), and on the other with Placentia (Piacenza).
On the south side of the façade is a large brick campanile, and the foundations of another may be seen on the north.
above the sea in the borderland between the fertile and wooded regions of the Sudan on the south and the arid steppes which merge into the Sahara on the north.
Two principal groups are distinguished, the Kuri archipelago in the south, and the Buduma in the north.
in the north-west to over 20 in the south, where desiccation is less apparent.
south of Rovereto.
The most considerable towns on its banks (south of Botzen) are Trent and Rovereto, in Tirol, and Verona and Legnago, in Italy.
587 the river broke its banks, and the main stream took its present course, but new streams opened repeatedly to the south, until now the Adige and the Po form conjointly one delta.
The name is generally applied not only to the order of Ku Klux Klan, but to other similar societies that existed at the same time, such as the Knights of the White Camelia, a larger order than the Klan; the White Brotherhood; the White League; Pale Faces; Constitutional Union Guards; Black Cavalry; White Rose; The '76 Association; and hundreds of smaller societies that sprang up in the South after the Civil War.
Its Prescript or constitution, adopted in 1867, and revised in 1868, provided for the following organization: The entire South was the Invisible Empire under a Grand Wizard, General N.
During the Reconstruction the people of the South were divided thus: nearly all native whites (the most prominent of whom were disfranchised) on one side irrespective of former political faith, and on the other side the ex-slaves organized and led by a few native and Northern whites called respectively scalawags and carpet-baggers, who were supported by the United States government and who controlled the Southern state governments.
Brown, Lower South in American History (New York, 1901); J.
ARGENTINA, or the Argentine Republic (officially, Republica Argentina), a country occupying the greater part of the southern extremity of South America.
South of the Bermejo the land is more elevated and drier, though large depressions covered with marshy lagoons are to be found, similar to those farther north.
Still farther south and south-west there are open grassy plains and large areas covered with salt-pans.
The Argentine " mesopotamia," between the Parana and Uruguay rivers, belongs in great measure to this same region, being partly wooded, flat and swampy in the north (Corrientes), but higher and undulating in the south (Entre Rios).
south of Bahia Blanca is the sheltered bay of San Blas, which may become of commercial importance, and between the 42nd and 43rd parallels are the land-locked bays of San Jose and Nueva (Golfo Nuevo) - the first as yet unused; on the latter is Puerto Madryn, 838 m.
At Bajo de Velis, in San Luis, the plants belong to the " Glossopteris flora," which is so widely spread in South Africa, India and Australia, and the beds are correlated with the Karharbari series of India (Permian or Permo-Carboniferous).
Farther south, in Patagonia, the prevailing wind is westerly, in which case the Andes again " blanket " an extensive region and deprive it of rain, turning it into an arid desolate steppe.
In the north and on the pampas the north wind is hot and depressing, while the south wind is cool and refreshing.
It is followed by a cold south wind which often lowers the temperature 25°.
The flora of Argentina should be studied according to natural zones corresponding to the physical divisions of the country - the rich tropical and sub-tropical regions of the north, the treeless pampas of the centre, the desert steppes of the south, and the arid plateaus of the north-west.
In the extreme south, where an Arctic vegetation is found, the pastures are rich, and the forests, largely of the Antarctic beech (Fagus antarctica), are vigorous wherever the rainfall is heavy.
The so-called " pampas-grass " (Gynerium argenteum) is not found at all on the dry lands, but in the wet grounds of the south and south-west.
The territories of the Gran Chaco, however, are covered with a characteristic tropical vegetation, in which the palm predominates, but intermingled south of the Bermejo with heavy growths of algarrobo, quebracho-colorado, urunday (Astronium fraxinifolium), lapacho (Tecoma curialis) and palosanto (Guayacum officinalis), all esteemed for hardness and fineness of grain.
Of the indigenous fauna, the tapir of the north and the guanaco of the west and south are the largest of the animals.
The census of 1895 increased this total to 3,954,9 11, exclusive of wild Indians and a percentage for omissions customarily used in South American census returns.
Science and Literature.-Though the university of Cordoba is the oldest but one in South America, it has made no conspicuous contribution to Argentine literature beyond the historical works of its famous rector, Gregorio Funes (1749-1830).
The national lines extend from Buenos Aires north to La Quiaca on the Bolivian frontier (1180 m.), and south to Cape Virgenes (1926 m.), at the entrance to the Straits of Magellan.
of France, and he was obliged to leave the enterprise of South American discoveries to his wealthy nobles.
Finding their comrades did not return, Irala and his companions determined to descend the river, and on their downward journey opposite the mouth of the river Pilcomayo, finding a suitable site for colonizing, they founded (1536) what proved to be the first permanent Spanish settlement in the interior of South America, the future city of Asuncion (15th August 1536).
From 1816, however, the independence of the Argentine Republic was assured, and success attended the South Americans in their contest with the royal armies.
This definition unfortunately ignored the fact that the Andes do not run from north to south in one continuous line, but are separated into cordilleras with valleys between them, and covering in their total breadth a considerable extent of country.
Akers, Argentine, Patagonian and Chilian Sketches (London, 1893), and A History of South America 1854-1904 (New York, 1905); Theodore Child, The Spanish-American Republics (London, 1891); Sir T.
Markham, Central and South America, in Stanford's " Compendium of Geography and Travel " (London, 1901); G.
On the south-eastern frontier the French Alps, which include Mont Blanc (15,800 ft.), and, more to the south, other summits over 11,000 ft.
in height, cover Savoy and most of Dauphin and Provence, that is to say, nearly the whole of France to the south and east of the Rhne.
Farther to the north a number of small rivers, the chief of which is the Svre Niortaise, drain the coast region to the south of the plateau of Gtine.
Some of these are on the south-west coast, in the Landes, as Carcans, Lacanau, Biscarosse, Cazau, Sanguinet; but more are to be found in the south and south-east, in Languedoc and Provence, as Leucate, Sigean, Thau, Vaccars, Berre, &c. Their want of depth prevents them from serving as roadsteads for shipping, and they are useful chiefly for fishing or for the manufacture of bay-salt.
Evergreens predominate in the south, where grow subtropical plants such as the myrtle, arbutus, laurel, holm-oak, olive and fig; varieties of the same kind are also found on the Atlantic coast (as far north as the Cotentin), where the humidity and mildness of the climate favor their growth.
In north and central Franee the chief trees are the oak, the beech, rare south of the Loire, and the hornbeam; less important varieties are the birch, poplar, ash, elm and walnut.
The chestnut covers considerable areas in Prigord, Limousin and Beam; resinotis trees (firs, pines, larches, &c.) form fine forests in the Vosges and The indigenous fauna include the bear, now very rare but still found in the Alps and Pyrenees, the wolf, harbouring chiefly in the Cvennes and Vosges, but in continually decreasing areas; the fox, marten, badger, weasel, otter, the beaver in the extreme south of the Rhne valley, and in the Alps the marmot; the red deer and roe deer are preserved in many of the forests, and the wild boar is found in several districts; the chamois and wild goat survive in the Pyrenees and Alps.
toW., and another chain arose in the south, running from S.W.
During the Tertiary period arms of the sea spread into France in the Paris basin from the north, in the basins of the Loire and the Garonne from the west, and in the Rhne area from the south.
The greatest number of Jews is to be found at Paris, Lyons and Bordeaux, while the departments of the centre and of the south along the range of the Cvennes, where Calvinism flourishes, are the principal Protestant localities, Nimes being the most important centre.
ROTUMAH (Rotuma, Rotuam or Grenville), an island of the South Pacific Ocean, in 12° 30' S., 177° E., about 300 m.
The last years of the reign were troubled by fresh difficulties with Hugh the Great and also by an irruption of the Hungarians into the south of France.
Rashki), a river which rises south of Erzerum, in the Bingeul-dagh, and flows east through the province of Erzerum, across the Pasin plateau, and then through Russian Armenia, passing between Mount Ararat and Erivan, and forming the Russo-Persian frontier.
Iles Loyalty or Loyaute), a group in the South Pacific Ocean belonging to France, about 100 m.
The nearest island to the South American coast lies 580 m.
Past elevations of land, however (and doubtless equally great subsidences) have taken place in South America since the Eocene, and the conclusion that extensive areas of land have subsided in the Indian Ocean has long been based on a somewhat similar distribution of giant tortoises in the Mascarene region.
The two fleets met south of Cape Scropha, both drawn up from north to south, the land being close to the left flank of the Christians, and the right of the Turks.
CINQUE PORTS, the name of an ancient jurisdiction in the south of England, which is still maintained with considerable modifications and diminished authority.
SVENDBORG, a seaport of Denmark, capital of the amt (county) of its name, on the south shore of the island of Fiinen.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to South West England.
Tsaritsyn is the terminus of a railway which begins at Riga and, running south-eastwards, intersects all the main lines which radiate from Moscow to the south.
from London by the London, Brighton & South Coast railway.
It is situated on the seaward slope of the South Downs; the position is sheltered from inclement winds, and the climate is generally mild.
The Guaira river, a branch of the Tuy, traverses the plain from west to east, and flows past the city on the south.
The Didelphyidae are almost exclusively Central and South American, only one or two species ranging into North America.
Existing marsupials may be divided into three main divisions or sub-orders, of which the first, or Polyprotodontia, is common to America and Australasia; the second, or Paucituberculata, is exclusively South American; while the third, or Diprotodonts, is as solely Australasian inclusive of a few in the eastern Austro-Malayan islands.
A separate family, Notoryctidae, is represented by the marsupial mole (Notoryctes typhlops), of the deserts of south Central Australia, a silky, golden-haired, burrowing creature, with a curious leathery muzzle, and a short, naked stumpy tail.
higher, while the Wadi Er Rababi bounds Jerusalem on the west and south, meeting the Valley of Kidron near the lower pool of Siloam.
The latter, which covers an area of about moo acres, has at the present time a fairly uniform surface and slopes gradually from the north to the south and east.
of the Damascus gate, followed a course first south-east and then west of south, and joined the two main valleys of Kidron and Er Rababi at Siloam.
North of the Temple enclosure there was a gate, known as the Sheep Gate, which must have opened into the third valley mentioned above, and stood somewhere near what is now the north side of the Haram enclosure, but considerably south of the present north wall of the latter.
At or near the tower Hananeel the wall turned south along the east side of the Tyropoeon valley, and then again westward, crossing the valley at a point probably near the remarkable construction known as Wilson's arch.
Westward of this gate the wall followed the south side of the valley which joined the Tyropoeon from the west as far as the north-western corner of the city at the site of the present Jaffa Gate and the socalled tower of David.
The walls were repaired by her orders, and the line of fortifications appears to have been extended on the south so as to include the pool of Siloam.
South of the city are the Armenian monastery of Mount Zion and Bishop Gobat's school.
This phenomenon of what might have been taken for a piece of Umbrian text appearing in a district remote from Umbria and hemmed in by Latins on the north and Oscan-speaking Samnites on the south is a most curious feature in the geographical distribution of the Italic dialects, and is clearly the result of some complex historical movements.
They are, from south to north, Osci, Aurunci, Hernici, Marruci, Falisci; with these were no doubt associated the original inhabitants of Aricia and of Sidici -num, of Vescia among the Aurunci, and of Labici close to Hernican territory.
The cathedral (1150-1499), a Romanesque building with a beautiful south portal and a Gothic choir, is, next to the cathedral of Upsala, the largest church in Sweden.
The island is diversified in its surface, and is traversed from north to south by an elevated mountain range, the highest point of which is called Atairo (anc. Atabyris or Atabyrium) (4560 ft.).
from north to south.
Round the Australian Bight it continues parallel to the coast, until south of Spencer Gulf (the basal ledge still averaging 8000 ft.
The edge of the abysmal area comes close to the eastern coasts of Tasmania and New South Wales, approaching to within 60 m.
An elongation of the shelf to the south joins Tasmania with the mainland.
m., occupies a position a little to the east of a meridional line bisecting the continent, and south of the 22nd degree, but portions of it stretch upwards to the low-lying country south of the Gulf of Carpentaria.
The same remark may be made of the rest of the sea-board; for, with the exception of Spencer Gulf, the Gulf of St Vincent and Port Phillip on the south, and Moreton Bay, Hervey Bay and Broad Sound on the east, the coast-line is singularly uniform.
The Great Barrier Reef forms the prominent feature off the north-east coast of Australia; its extent from north to south is 1200 m., and it is therefore the greatest of all coral reefs.
In New South Wales, but close to the Victorian border, are found the loftiest peaks of Australia, Mount Kosciusco and Mount Townsend, rising to heights of 7328 and 7260 ft.
An eastern system in South Australia touches at a few points a height of 3000 ft.; and the Stirling Range, belonging to the south-western system of South Australia, reaches to 2340 ft.
Taking them from north to south, the principal rivers are the Richmond, Clarence, Macleay, Hastings, Manning, Hunter, Hawkesbury and Shoalhaven.
The Snowy river has the greater part of its course in New South Wales, but its mouth and the last 120 m.
There are no other rivers of importance in South Australia, but the Torrens and the Gawler may be mentioned.
Westward of South Australia, on the shores of the Australian Bight, there is a stretch of country 300 m.
The South Alligator river, flowing into Van Diemen's Gulf, is also a fine stream, navigable for over 30 m.
Along the portion of the south shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria which belongs to Queensland and the east coast, many large rivers discharge their waters, amongst them the Norman, Flinders, Leichhardt, Albert and Gregory on the southern shore, and the Batavia, Archer, Coleman, Mitchell, Staaten and Gilbert on the eastern shore.
Some of these lake-beds are at or slightly below sea-level, so that a very slight depression of the land to the south of them would connect much of the interior with the Southern Ocean.
It consists in the main of an Archean block or " coign,"which still occupies nearly the whole of the western half of the continent, outcrops in north-eastern Queensland, forms the foundation of southern New South Wales and eastern Victoria, and is exposed in western Victoria, in Tasmania, and in the western flank of the Southern Alps of New Zealand.
But they have been separated by the foundering of the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea, which divided the continent of Australia from the islands of the Australasian festoon; and the foundering of the band across Australia, from the Gulf of Carpentaria, through western Queensland and western New South Wales, to the lower basin of the Murray, has separated the Archean areas of eastern and western Australia.
A narrow Cambrian sea must have extended across central Australia from the Kimberley Goldfield in the north-west, through Tempe Downs and the Macdonnell chain in central Australia, to the South Australian highlands, central Victoria at Mansfield, and northern Tasmania.
Cambrian rocks occur in each of these districts, and they are best developed in the South Australian high= lands, where they include a long belt of contemporary glacial deposits.
This Silurian sea was less extensive than the Ordovician in Victoria; but it appears to have been wider in New South Wales and in Queensland.
The best Silurian sequence is in New South Wales.
Similar granitic intrusions occurred in New South Wales and Queensland, and built up a mountain chain, which ran north and south across the continent; its worn-down stumps now form the east Australian highlands.
The Coal Measures become narrower in the south, until, owing to the eastward projection of the highlands, the Lower Palaeozoic rocks reach the coast.
The mountains both in Victoria and New South Wales were snow-capped, and glaciers flowed down their flanks and laid down Carboniferous glacial deposits, which are still preserved in basins that flank the mountain ranges, such as the famous conglomerates of Bacchus Marsh, Heathcote and the Loddon valley in Victoria, and cf Branxton and other localities in New South Wales.
Kitson's work in Tasmania shows that there also the glacial beds may be correlated with the lower or Greta Coal Measures of New South Wales.
The Permian deposits are best developed in New South Wales and Tasmania, where their characters show the continuation of the Carboniferous conditions.
The Mesozoic begins with a Triassic land period in the mainland of Australia; while the islands of the Australasian festoon contain the Triassic marine limestones, which fringe the whole of the Pacific. The Triassic beds are best known in New South Wales, where round Sydney they include a series of sandstones and shales.
The Cretaceous period was initiated by the subsidence of a large area to the south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, whereby a Lower Cretaceous sea spread southward, across western Queensland, western New South Wales and the north-eastern districts of South Australia.
The sea does not appear to have extended completely across Australia, breaking it into halves, for a projection from the Archean plateau of Western Australia extended as far east as the South Australian highlands, and thence probably continued eastward, till it joined the Victorian highlands.
These movements in the south-east formed the Great Valley of Victoria, which traverses nearly the whole of the state between the Victorian highlands to the north, and the Jurassic sandstones of the Otway Ranges and the hills of south Gippsland.
These rocks were followed by the outpouring of the extensive older basalts in the Great Valley of Victoria and on the highlands of eastern Victoria, and also in New South Wales and Queensland.
The sea extended up the Murray basin into the western plains of New South Wales.
Tasmania and Victoria were separated by the foundering of Bass Strait, and at the same time the formation of the rift valley of Spencer Gulf, and Lake Torrens, isolated the South Australian highlands from the Eyre Peninsula and the Westralian plateau.
Earth movements are still taking place both along Bass Strait and the Great Valley of South Australia, and apparently along the whole length of tht southern coast of Australia.
The first of these wells was opened at Kallara in the west of New South Wales in 1880.
deep. In New South Wales by the 30th of June 1903, the government had put down 101 bores producing 66 flowing wells and 22 sub-artesian wells, with a total discharge of 54,000,000 gallons a day; and there were also 144 successful private wells.
In South Australia there are 38 deep bores, from 20 of which there is a flow of 6,250,000 gallons a day.
No part of Victoria and very little of Queensland and New South Wales lie within this area.
into the continent, and sweeping sometimes across western and southern Queensland to the northern interior of New South Wales.
At Brisbane the fall is 50 in., and portions of the New South Wales coast receive a like quantity, but speaking generally the fall is from 30 in.
The remainder of the south 4 and west coast from 124° E.
rainfall band circles across the continent through the middle of the Northern Territory, embraces the entire centre and south-west of Queensland, with the exception of the extreme south-western angle of the state, and includes the whole of the interior of New South Wales to a line about 200 m.
from the coast, as well as the western and northern portions of Victoria and South Australia south of the Murray.
per annum, and along a strip of country south from Cape Melville to Rockingham Bay the average rainfall exceeds 70 in.
per annum, but in the west and south, more remote than from 250 to 300 m., there is a rainfall of less than 20 in.
Climatically, New South Wales is divided into three marked divisions.
The coastal region has an average summer temperature ranging from 78° in the north to 67° in the south, with a winter temperature of from 59° to 52°.
The rainfall of New South Wales ranges from an annual average of 64 in.
The climate of Victoria does not differ greatly from that of New South Wales.
Much accumulated evidence, biological and geological, has pointed to a southern extension of India, an eastern extension of South Africa, and a western extension of Australia into the Indian Ocean.
The comparative richness of proteaceous plants in Western Australia and South Africa first suggested a common source for these primitive types.
Forbes drew attention to a certain community amongst birds and other vertebrates, invertebrates, and amongst plants, on all the lands stretching towards the south pole.
The supposed continent extended across the south pole, practically joining Australia and South America.
From an area corresponding to what is now South America there entered a fauna and flora, which, after undergoing modification, passed by way of Tasmania to Australia.
The discovery as fossil, in South America, of primitive or ancestral forms of marsupials has given it much support.
The birds of Australia in their number and variety of species may be deemed some compensation for its poverty of mammals; yet it will not stand comparison in this respect with regions of Africa and South America in the same latitudes.
The emu corresponds with the African and Arabian ostrich, the rhea of South America, and the cassowary of the Moluccas and New Guinea.
The ornithology of New South Wales and Queensland is more varied and interesting than that of the other provinces.
There is also the Moloch horridus of South and Western Australia, covered with tubercles bearing large spines, which give it a very strange aspect.
Whiting, mullet, gar-fish, rock cod and many others known by local names, are in the lists of edible fishes belonging to New South Wales and Victoria.
This element was introduced via Torres Strait, and spread down the Queensland coast to portions of the New South Wales littoral, and also round the Gulf of Carpentaria, but has never been able to obtain a hold in the more arid interior.
As a step towards such hypothesis it has been noted that the Antarctic, the South African, and the Australian floras have many types in common.
At the census of 1901, 48,248 aborigines were enumerated, of whom 7434 were in New South Wales, 652 in Victoria, 27,123 in South Australia, and 6212 in Western Australia.
In South Australia and the Northern Territory a large number are outside the bounds of settlement, and it is probable that they are as numerous there as in Queensland.
Chinese, numbering about 30,000, are chiefly found in New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, and the Northern Territory.
South Sea Islanders and other coloured races, numbering probably about 15,000, were in 1906 to be found principally in Queensland, but further immigration of Pacific Islanders to Australia is now restricted, and the majority of those in the country in 1906 were deported by the middle of 1907.
The distribution of population at the close of 1906 (4,118,000) was New South Wales 1,530,000, Victoria 1,223,000, Queensland 534,000, South Australia 381,000, Western Australia 270,000, Tasmania 180,000.
The rate of increase since the previous census was 1.5% per annum, varying from 0.31 in Victoria to 2 06 in New South Wales and 6.9 in Western Australia.
The principal cities and towns are Sydney (pop. 530,000), Newcastle, Broken Hill, Parramatta, Goulburn, Maitland, Bathurst, Orange, Lithgow, Tamworth, Grafton, Wagga and Albury, in New South Wales; Melbourne (pop. 511,900), Ballarat, Bendigo, Geelong, Eaglehawk, Warrnambool, Castlemaine, and Stawell in Victoria; Brisbane (pop. 128,000), Rockhampton, Maryborough, Townsville, Gympie, Ipswich, and Toowoomba in Queensland; Adelaide (pop. about 175,000), Port Adelaide and Port Pirie in South Australia; Perth (pop. 56,000), Fremantle, and Kalgoorlie in Western Australia; and Hobart (pop. 35,500) and Launceston in Tasmania.
The statutory ages differ in the various states; in New South Wales and Western Australia it is from 6 to 13 years inclusive, in Victoria 6 to 12 years, in Queensland 6 to II years, and in South Australia 7 to 12 years inclusive.
Practically the whole of the territory between the 145° meridian and the Great Dividing Range, as well as extensive tracts in the south and west, are a natural sheep pasture with climatic conditions and indigenous vegetation pre - eminently adapted for the growth of wool of the highest quality.
The chief wheat lands are in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales; the yield averages about 9 bushels to the acre; this low average is due to the endeavour of settlers on new lands to cultivate larger areas than their resources can effectively deal with; the introduction of scientific farming should almost double the yield.
Maize and sugar-cane are grown in New South Wales and Queensland..
The vine is cultivated in all the states, but chiefly in South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales.
Tobacco thrives well in New South Wales and Victoria, but kinds suitable for exportation are not largely grown.
In Western Australia, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland there are many hundreds of well-equipped saw-mills affording employment to about 5000 men.
Trout may now be taken in many of the mountain streams. At one time whaling was an important industry on the coasts of New South Wales and Tasmania, and afterwards on the Western Australian coasts.
In New South Wales the greatest production was in 1852, soon after the first discovery of the precious metal, when the output was valued at £2,660,946; the production in 1905 was about 270,000 oz., valued at £1,150,000.
For many years Western Australia was considered to be destitute of mineral deposits of any value, but it is now known that a rich belt of mineral country extends from north to south.
a year, valued at £300,000; South Australia produces about 30,000 oz.
has been reached in the South Star mine.
So far this form of winning is chiefly carried on in New South Wales, where there are about fifty gold-dredging plants in successful operation.
The leading silver mines are in New South Wales, the returns from the other states being comparatively insignificant.
The fields of New South Wales have proved to be of immense value, the yield of silver and lead during 1905 being £2,500,000, and the total output to the end of the year named over £40,000,000.
It is situated beyond the river Darling, and close to the boundary between New South Wales and South Australia.
Copper is known to exist in all the states, and has been mined extensively in South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland and.
The satisfactory price obtained during recent years has enabled renewed attention to be paid to copper mining in South Australia, and the production of the metal in 1905 was valued at £470,324.
The principal deposits of copper in New South Wales are found in the central part of the state between the Macquarie, Darling and Bogan rivers.
Very rich lodes of the metal have been found in the Northampton, Murchison and Champion Bay districts, and also in the country to the south of these districts on the Irwin river.
The total value of copper produced in Australia up to the end of 1905 was £42,500,000 sterling, £24,500,000 having been obtained in South Australia, £7,500,000 in New South Wales, £6,400,000 in Tasmania and over £3,500,000 in Queensland.
The most important tin-mines in Queensland are in the Herberton district, south-west of Cairns; at Cooktown, on the Annan and Bloomfield rivers; and at Stanthorpe, on the border of New South Wales.
In New South Wales lode tin occurs principally in the granite and stream tin under the basaltic country in the extreme north of the state, at Tenterfield, Emmaville, Tingha, and in other districts of New England.
In South Australia tin-mining is unimportant.
The total value of tin produced in Australia is nearly a million sterling per annum, and the total production to the end of 1905 was £22,500,000, of which Tasmania produced about 40%, New South Wales one-third, Queensland a little more than a fourth.
In New South Wales there are, together with coal and limestone Iron.
Magnetite, or magnetic iron, the richest of all iron ores, is found in abundance near Wallerawang in New South Wales.
Goethite, limonite and haematite are found in New South Wales, at the junction of the Hawkesbury sandstone formation and the Wianamatta shale, near Nattai, and are enhanced in their value by their proximity to coal-beds.
In New South Wales the principal centre of this industry is Hillgrove, near Armidale, where Other the Eleanora Mine, one of the richest in the state, is minerals.
New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania.
The principal mine in New South Wales is situated at Kingsgate, in the New England district, where the mineral is generally associated with molybdenum and gold.
Manganese probably exists in all the states, deposits having been found in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia, the richest specimens being found in New South Wales.
Platinum and the allied compound metal iridosmine have been found in New South Wales, but so far in inconsiderable quantities.
The rare element tellurium has been discovered in New South Wales at Bingara and other parts of the northern districts, as well as at Tarana, on the western line, though at present in such minute quantities as would not repay the cost of working.
The association of this metal with silver in the Broken Hill mines of New South Wales adds very greatly to the value of the product.
Mercury is found in New South Wales and Queensland.
In New South Wales, in the form of cinnabar, it has been discovered on the Cudgegong river, near Rylstone, and it also occurs at Bingara, Solferino, Yulgilbar and Cooma.
Wolfram (tungstate of iron and manganese) occurs in some of the states, notably in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland.
Molybdenum, in the form of molybdenite (sulphide of molybdenum), is found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, associated in the parent state with tin and bismuth in quartz reefs.
Zinc ores, in the several varieties of carbonates, silicates, oxide, sulphide and sulphate of zinc, have been found in several of the Australian states, but have attracted little attention except in New South Wales, where special efforts are being made successfully to produce a high-grade zinc concentrate from the sulphide ores.
Cobalt occurs in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia, and efforts have been made in the former state to treat the ore, the metal having a high commercial value; but the market is small, and no attempt has been made up to 1907 to produce it on any large scale.
The manganese ores of the Bathurst district of New South Wales often contain a small percentage of cobalt - sufficient, indeed, to warrant further attempts to work them.
In New South Wales chromium is found in the northern portion of the state, in the Clarence and Tamworth districts and also near Gundagai.
Arsenic, in its well-known and beautiful forms, orpiment and realgar, is found in New South Wales and Victoria.
Black coal forms one of the principal resources of New South Wales; and in the other states the deposits of this valuable mineral are being rapidly developed.
The most important discovery of coal in the state, so far, is that made in the bed of the Collie river, near Bunbury, to the south of Perth.
The coal-fields of New South Wales are situated in three distinct regions - the northern, southern and western districts.
The first of these comprises chiefly the mines of the Hunter river districts; the second includes the Illawarra district, and, generally, the coastal regions to the south of Sydney, together with Berrima, on the tableland; and the third consists of the mountainous regions on the Great Western railway and extends as far as Dubbo.
The coal mines of New South Wales give employment to 14,000 persons, and the annual production is over 6,600,000 tons.
In South Australia, at Leigh's Creek, north of Port Augusta, coalbeds have been discovered.
Kerosene shale (torbanite) is found in several parts of New South Wales.
from Port Stephens, New South Wales.
Marble is found in many parts of New South Wales and South Australia.
Kaolin, or porcelain clay, although capable of application to commercial purposes, has not as yet been utilized to any extent, although found in several places in New South Wales and in Western Australia.
Asbestos has been found in New South Wales in the Gundagai Bathurst and Broken Hill districts - in the last-mentioned district in considerable quantities.
Diamonds are found in all the states; but only in New South Wales have any attempts been made to work the diamond drifts.
The best of the New South Wales diamonds are harder and much whiter than the South African diamonds, and are classified as on a par with the best Brazilian gems, but no large specimens have yet been found.
The finest opal known is obtained in the Upper Cretaceous formation at White Cliffs, near Wilcannia, New South Wales, and at these mines about 700 men find constant employment.
The oriental topaz has been found in New South Wales.
Oriental amethysts also have been found in that state, and the ruby has been found in Queensland, as well as in New South Wales.
Chrysoberyls have been found in New South Wales; spinel rubies in New South Wales and Victoria; and white topaz in all the states.
Chalcedony, carnelian, onyx and cat's eyes are found in New South Wales; and it is probable that they are also to be met with in the other states, particularly in Queensland.
prevailing only in New South Wales; in Victoria the gauge is 5 ft.
3 in., in South Australia 5 ft.
In several of the states, New South Wales and South Australia proper, the railways yield more than the interest paid by the government on the money borrowed for their construction.
How did the Tasmanians with their Papuan affinities get so far south on a continent inhabited by a race so differing from Papuans?
If before, why were they only found in the south?
That in days so remote as to be undateable, a Dravidian people driven from their primitive home in the hills of the Indian Deccan made their way south via Ceylon (where they may to-day be regarded as represented by the Veddahs) and eventually sailed and drifted in their bark boats to the western and north-western shores of Australia.
He states that Bishop Caldwell,' whom he calls " the great missionary scholar of the Dravidian tongue," showed that the south and western Australian tribes use almost the same words for " I, thou, he, we, you, as the Dravidian fishermen on the Madras coast."
south of Prince Regent's river, are representations of human heads and bodies, apparently of females clothed to the armpits, but all the faces are without any indication of mouths.
Sometimes in the south during the cold season they wear a cloak of skin or matting, fastened 'with a skewer, but open on the right-hand side.
In South Australia boys had to undergo three stages of initiation in a place which women were forbidden to approach.
In New South Wales the body is often burned and the ashes buried.
This ship entered the Gulf of Carpentaria, and sailed south as far as Cape Keerweer, or Turn-again.
Resuming his voyage in an easterly direction, Tasman sighted the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand on the 13th of December of the same year, and describes the coast-line as consisting of " high mountainous country."
After successfully observing the transit from the island of Tahiti, or Otaheite, as Cook wrote it, the " Endeavour's " head was turned south, and then north-west, beating about the Pacific in search of the eastern coast of the great continent whose western shores had been so long known to the Dutch.
Before quitting the bay the ceremony was performed of hoisting the Union Jack, first on the south shore, and then near the north head, formal possession of the territory being thus taken for the British crown.
Cook having completed the survey of the east coast, to which he gave the name of New South Wales, sighted and named Cape York, the northernmost point of Australia, and took final possession of his discoveries northward from 38° S.
from Sydney and about a like distance to the south and shut in to the west by the Blue Mountain range, forming a narrow strip not more than 50 m.
On his return journey Oxley again crossed the Lachlan about 160 m., measured along the river, below the point where he left it on his journey south.
Messrs Hamilton Hume and Hovell set out from Lake George, crossed the Murrumbidgee, and, after following the river for a short distance, struck south, skirting the foothills of what are now known as the Australian Alps until they reached a fine river, which was called the Hume after the leader's father.
In 1827 and the two following years, Cunningham prosecuted instructive explorations on both sides of the Liverpool range, between the upper waters of the Hunter and those of the Peel and other tributaries of the Brisbane north of New South Wales.
This river, flowing from north-east to south-west, drains the marshes in which the Macquarie and other streams from the south appeared to be lost.
This stream, the Murray, in the upper part of its course runs in a north-westerly direction, but afterwards turning southwards, almost at a right angle, expands into Lake Alexandrina on the south coast, about 60 m.
A military station having been fixed by the British government at Port Victoria, on the coast of Arnheim Land, for the protection of shipwrecked mariners on the north coast, it was thought desirable to find an overland route between this settlement and Moreton Bay, in what then was the northern portion of New South Wales, now called Queensland.
The first of his tours independently performed, in 1858 and 1859, were around the South Australian lakes, namely, Lake Torrens, Lake Eyre and Lake Gairdner.
A reward of £io,000 having been offered by the legislature of South Australia to the first man who should traverse the whole continent from south to north, starting from the city of Adelaide, Mr Stuart resolved to make the attempt.
By these means, the unknown region of Mid Australia was simultaneously entered from the north, south, east and west, and important additions were made to geographical knowledge.
Landsborough crossed the entire continent from north to south, Leichhardt.
between February and June 1862; and McKinlay, from south to north, before the end of August in that year.
The interior of New South Wales and Queensland, all that lies east of the r40th degree of longitude, was examined.
The Barcoo or Cooper's Creek and its tributary streams were traced from the Queensland mountains, holding a south-westerly course to Lake Eyre in South Australia; the Flinders, the Gilbert, the Gregory, and other northern rivers watering the country towards the Gulf of Carpentaria were also explored.
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