In Wales and the south of England the process is conducted in a reverberatory furnace, the sole of which is paved with slags from previous operations, and has a depression in the middle where the metal formed collects to be let off by a tap-hole.
At this stage as a rule some rich slags of a former operation are added and a quantity of quicklime is incorporated, the chief object of which is to diminish the fluidity of the mass in the next stage, which consists in this, that, with closed air-holes, the heat is raised so as to cause the oxide and sulphate on the one hand and the sulphide on the other to reduce each other to metal.
While by the English and Carinthian processes as much lead as possible is extracted in the furnace, with the Silesian method a very low temperature is used, thus taking out about one-half of the lead and leaving very rich slags (50% lead) to be smelted in the blast-furnace, the ultimate result being a very much higher yield than by either of the other processes.
In making up a charge, the ores and fluxes, whose chemical compositions have been determined, are mixed so as to form out of the components, not to be reduced to the metallic or sulphide state, typical slags (silicates of ferrous and calcium oxides, incidentally of aluminium oxide, which have been found to do successful work).
Such slags contain S10 2 =3033%, Fe(Mn)O =27-50%, Ca(Mg, Ba)O =12-28%, and retain less than 1% lead and I oz.
In 1822 Wollaston examined a specimen of those beautiful copper-like crystals which are occasionally met with in iron-furnace slags, and declared them to be metallic titanium.
The Swedish, Norwegian, Ontario and Michigan mines yield ores of this kind; and though none of them can be profitably worked as a source of phosphate, yet on reducing the ore it may be retained in the slags, and thus rendered available for agriculture.
Glaze and Glass.From almost the beginning of the prehistoric age there are glazed pottery beads found in the graves: and glazing on amulets of quartz or other stones begins in the middle of the prehistoric. Apparently then glazing went together with the working of the copper ores, and probably accidental slags in the smelting gave the first idea of using glaze intentionally.
The " Welsh process " closely resembles the English method; the main difference consists in the enrichment of the matte by smelting with the rich copper-bearing slags obtained in subsequent operations.
work from adhering slags.
The door b serves for removing the slags and ashes from the bottom of V, as far as they do not fall through the grate.
Such slags act very prejudicially by impeding the up-draught of the air and the sinking of the fuel; nor can they FIG.
deep. B is the chimney-damper, C the grate, D the door for removing the slags, E the ash-door, F the inlet of the air-blast, G the upper, G 1 the lower outlet for the water-gas which is removed alternately at top and bottom by means of an outside valve, steam being always admitted at the opposite end.
Sefstri m, who found it in the slags of the Taberg iron ores (Pogg.
With reverberatory calciners, however, where the work is done upon a horizontal bed, a considerable amount of hand labour is expended in raking out the charge when finished, and in drawing slags from fusion furnaces; and more particularly in the puddling process of refining iron the amount of manual exertion required is very much greater.
The local salt chemistry creates molten slags which, in turn, cause enhanced scale growth and localized corrosion.
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