While fleeing from Aristaeus, she was bitten by a serpent and died.
You serpent! cried several voices.
In the former woman appears as the serpent whose trail is over all; in the latter, written twenty-five years after the event, she is the guardian angel abused and maltreated by men.
This work, generally known as the chronicle of Weihenstephan, gives among other legends a curious history of the emperor's passion for a dead woman, caused by a charm given to Charles by a serpent to whom he had rendered justice.
Yancey expertly caught the head of the serpent between the forks of a stick and bent over to pick it up.
The serpent, too, in mythology is a regular symbol of water.
The prince of this region of darkness is Samael, the evil spirit, the serpent who seduced Eve.
The serpent becomes the inner voice of temptation, and the saying in iii.
The keen-witted, fluently speaking serpent gives rise to fresh riddles.
Selecting the back door key, she finally tore her attention from the serpent and took a step toward the back of the house.
A Serpent was the Egyptian equivalent of Scorpio; the Arrow only of Sagittarius was retained; Capricornus became " Life," or a Mirror as an image of life; Aquarius survived as Water; Taurus, Virgo and Pisces remained unchanged.'
Cunningham, Bhilsa Topes (London, 1854); James Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship (London, 1873); General F.
But it may be noticed here that the phrase "the old serpent" sheds some light on the Pauline phrases "the first man Adam" and "the last Adam" (1 Cor.
As the old serpent deceived man of old, so shall it be again.
Burton (Highlands of Brazil, London, 1869) says that its shape "is that of a huge serpent, whose biggest end is about the Praga....
The scorpion, attacking the genitals of the bull, is sent by Ahriman from the lower world to defeat the purpose of the sacrifice; the dog, springing towards the wound in the bull's side, was venerated by the Persians as the companion of Mithras; the serpent is the symbol of the earth being made fertile by drinking the blood of the sacrificial bull; the raven, towards which Mithras turns his face as if for direction, is the herald of the Sun-god, whose bust is near by, and who has ordered the sacrifice; various plants near the bull, and heads of wheat springing from his tail, symbolize the result of the sacrifice; the cypress is perhaps the tree of immortality.
On his death-bed he is said to have requested a friend to hide his body as soon as life was extinct, and, by putting a serpent in its place, induce his townsmen to suppose that he had been carried up to heaven.
16; presages recovery or death of patients); (4) the pelican (recalls its young to life by its own blood); (5) the owl (or nyktikorax; loves darkness and solitude); (6) the eagle (renews its youth by sunlight and bathing in a fountain); (7) the phoenix (revives from fire); (8) the hoopoe (redeems its parents from the ills of old age); (9) the wild ass (suffers no male besides itself); (1 o) the viper (born at the cost of both its parents' death); (I I) the serpent (sheds its skin; puts aside its venom before drinking; is afraid of man in a state of nudity; hides its head and abandons the rest of its body); (12) the ant (orderly and laborious; prevents stored grain from germinating; distinguishes wheat from barley on the stalk); (13) the sirens and onocentaurs (Isa.
2) the "great dragon," who persecuted the woman "clothed with the sun," is identified with "the old serpent, that is called the Devil and Satan."
Even when caught he would try to escape by assuming all sorts of shapes: now he was a lion, now a serpent, a leopard, a boar, a tree, fire, water.
He died from the bite of a serpent which sprang from the blood of the Gorgon Medusa.
1 it is a crooked and piercing serpent, the dragon of the sea; cf.
The characteristic Chinese mode of dividing the "yellow road " of the sun was, however, by the twelve "cyclical animals " - Rat, Ox, Tiger, Hare, Dragon or Crocodile, Serpent, Horse, Sheep, Monkey, Hen, Dog, Pig.
When Aaron himself is connected with the worship of the golden calf, and when to Moses is attributed a brazen serpent which the reforming king Hezekiah was the first to destroy, it is evident that religious conceptions developed in the course of ages.
The largest of the serpent tribe, however, is the python (Hortulia natalensis), called inhlwati by the natives; its usual haunts are by streams amongst rocky boulders and in jungles, and instances are recorded of its strangling See R.
The sentences which he passes are decisive, not only for the human pair and the serpent, but for their respective races.
She was the daughter of Nereus and Doris, and died from the bite of a serpent when fleeing from Aristaeus, who wished to offer her violence (Virgil, Georgics, iv.
Most of the inhabitants continued heathens until, according to the legend, Salsa, a Christian maiden, threw the head of their serpent idol into the sea, whereupon the enraged populace stoned her to death.
3515) as a goddess of healing, especially skilled to cure serpent bites by charms and the herbs of the Marsian woods.
7.-Faience Figure Of The Goddess, With Serpent Attributes, Cnossus.
The foundation of the system is obviously to be sought in Gnosticism, and more particularly in the older type of that doctrine (known from the serpent symbol as Ophite or Naassene) which obtained in Mesopotamia and Further Asia generally.
24 (where the serpent of Gen.
Of primitive mythological traditions we might mention the primeval serpent, leviathan, behemoth, while to ideas native to or familiar in apocalyptic belong those of the seven archangels, the angelic patrons of the nations (Deut.
He entered the navy in 1846, and served first at sea off Portugal in 1847; afterwards, in 1848, in the Mediterranean, and from 1848 to 1851 as midshipman of the "Reynard" in operations against piracy in Chinese waters; as midshipman and mate of the "Serpent" during the Burmese War of 1852-53; as mate of the "Phoenix" in the Arctic Expedition of 1854; as lieutenant of the "Hastings" in the Baltic during the Russian War, taking part in the attack on Sveaborg.
Angels are not mentioned; but the serpent of Gen.
In architecture the term is given to an ornamental rod with sprouting leaves, or sometimes with a serpent entwined round it (from the Biblical references in Exodus vii.
It is true that the serpent of Eden has mythological affinities.
The Hare (or Rabbit), Monkey, Dog and Serpent reappeared without change; for the Tiger, Crocodile and Hen, unknown in America, the Ocelot, Lizard and Eagle were substituted as analogous.6 The Aztec calendar dated from the 7th century; but the zodiacal tradition embodied by it was doubtless much more ancient.
A brazen serpent, whose institution was attributed to Moses, had not hitherto been considered out of place in the cult; its destruction was perhaps the king's most notable reform.
On the traces of dragon and serpent myths in the Old Testament and their significance, see Gunkel, Schopfung and Chaos (1895) - a pioneering work of the highest merit - and Ency.
Of Goethe's classic "conceits" which it contains, the stone altar round which a serpent climbs to eat the votive bread upon it, inscribed to the "genius hujus loci," is the most famous.
The drawings in Fergusson's work entitled Tree and Serpent Worship are very unsatisfactory, and his suggestion that the carvings illustrate tree and serpent worship is quite erroneous.
In some circles the serpent was identified with Prunikos.
Legend has it that a giant serpent, similar to the Loch Ness Monster, lives in Sweden's fifth largest lake.
Maybe you'd like a brass serpent or a stone dire tiger to guard your home.
slithering serpent have infiltrated even some places of worship today?
A brass serpent tiller was fixed to the rudder.
Speaking animals are a common feature of folk-lore; the only other case in the Old Testament is the serpent in Eden.
24)to the devil (the serpent of Gen.
Bib., " Serpent," ï¿½ï¿½ 3, 4.
Written as this name is in pictures or rebus, it probably suggested the invention of the well-known legend of a prophecy that the war-god's temple should be built where a prickly pear was found growing on a rock, and perched on it an eagle holding a serpent; this legend is still commemorated on the coins of Mexico.
The cult of the serpent is found in many parts of the Old World; it is also not unknown in America; in Australia, on the other hand, though many species of serpent are found, there does not appear to be any species of cult unless we include the Warramunga cult of the mythical Wollunqua totem animal, whom they seek to placate by rites.
By the conquest of Whydah the Dahomeyans were brought in contact with a people of serpent worshippers, and ended by adopting from them the cult which they at first despised.
At Whydah, the chief centre, there is a serpent temple, tenanted by some fifty snakes; every python of the danh-gbi kind must be treated with respect, and death is the penalty for killing one, even by accident.
In many parts of Africa the serpent is looked upon as the incarnation of deceased relatives; among the Amazulu, as among the Betsileo of Madagascar, certain species are assigned as the abode of certain classes; the Masai, on the other hand, regard each species as the habitat of a particular family of the tribe.
Among the Hopi (Moqui) of Arizona the serpent figures largely in one of the dances.
The tribes of Peru are said to have adored great snakes in the pre-Inca days; and in Chile the Araucanians made a serpent figure in their deluge myth.
Serpent cults were well known in ancient Europe; there does not, it is true, appear to be much ground for supposing that Aesculapius was a serpent-god in spite of his connexion with serpents.
On the other hand, we learn from Herodotus of the great serpent which defended the citadel of Athens; the Roman genius loci took the form of a serpent; a snake was kept and fed with milk in the temple of Potrimpos, an old Slavonic god.
Tradition says that one of the Gnostic sects known as the Ophites caused a tame serpent to coil round the sacramental bread and worshipped it as the representative of the Saviour.
- For a fuller discussion and full references to these and other cults, that of the serpent excepted, see N.
For the serpent, see Ellis, Ewe-speaking Peoples, p. 54; Internat.
239; Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship; Mahly, Die Schlange im Mythus; Staniland Wake, Serpent Worship, &c.; 16th Annual Report of the American Bureau of Ethnology, p. 273, and bibliography, p. 312.
Here again, though to a less extent than in tree cults, the theriomorphic aspect recurs; in the north of Europe, in ancient Greece, in China, the water or river spirit is horse or bull-shaped; the water monster in serpent shape is even more widely found, but it is less strictly the spirit of the water.
It was her nature to take every week the form of a serpent from the waist below.
In the same fragment we read of the ruin of Azidahaka Mazainya, which name Darmesteter interprets in the Persian sources as the demon serpent, the sorcerer (Ormazd et Ahriman, Paris, 18 77, p. 1 57).
The statue of Serapis in the Serapeum of Alexandria was of purely Greek type and workmanship - a Hades or Pluto enthroned with a basket or corn measure on his head, a sceptre in his hand, Cerberus at his feet, and (apparently) a serpent.
124); Donnei des Amanz, the conversation of two lovers, overheard and carefully noted by the poet, of a purely didactic character, in which are included three interesting pieces, the first being an episode of the story of Tristram, the second a fable, L'homme et le serpent, the third a tale, L'homme et l'oiseau, which is the basis of the celebrated Lai de l'oiselet (Rom.
This valley, however, is not only fortunate in possessing a noble artificial lake, but is protected by the massive walls of the Nagpathar range or Serpent rock, which forms a barrier against the sand.
Very careful and artistic representations of the stupa with its daghoba and interesting rail, pillars and sculptures will be found in Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship, and in his History of Indian Architecture (1876).
Olaf lashed his ships side to side, his own - the "Long Serpent," the finest-war-vessel as yet built in the north - being in the middle of the line, where her bows projected beyond the others.
In this way the Norse ships were carried one by one, till the "Long Serpent" alone was left.
Another version is the medieval romance in The Seven Wise Masters of In the edition printed by Wynkyn de Worde it is told by "the first master" - a knight had one son, a greyhound and a falcon; the knight went to a tourney, a snake attacked the son, the falcon roused the hound, which killed the serpent, lay down by the cradle, and was killed by the knight, who discovered his error, like Llewelyn, and similarly repented (Villon Society, British Museum reprint, by Gomme and Wheatley).
From the absence of scales it was held by the Jews to be unclean, and some commentators suppose it to be the serpent of Matt.
(d) Among the later religious books one or two deserve a special mention, such as The Overthrowing of Apophis, the serpent enemy of the sun-god; The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys over their murdered brother Osiris; The Book of Breathings, a favorite book among the later Theban priests.
Apart from the literary characteristics which clearly differentiate this narrative from the preceding accounts of J and E, the following points of variation are worthy of consideration: (I) The people refuse to listen to Moses; (2) Aaron is appointed to be Moses' spokesman, not with the people, but with Pharaoh; (3) one sign is given (not three) and performed before Pharaoh; (4) the rod is turned into a reptile (tannin), not a serpent (n(thash).
Even Moses himself is said to have made a brazen serpent which, down to Hezekiah's time, continued to be worshipped at Jerusalem.
They may originally have had a serpent form, for it is difficult not to regard "seraphim" as originally (as in Num.
Trombones often played with the three lower voices, a practice of high antiquity surviving from a time when there were soprano trombones or cornetti (Zincken, a sort of treble serpent) to play with the sopranos.
The serpent tribe in India is numerous; they swarm in all the gardens, and intrude into the dwellings of the inhabitants, especially in the rainy season.
The commonest of these have the head of a fowl, and the arms and bust of a man, and terminate in the body and tail of a serpent.
SERPENT - WORSHIP. From all parts of the world there is a very considerable body of evidence for the prominence of the serpent in religion, mythology and folk-lore.
Preval- worship still prevails largely in India, and a writer e p ee in in 1896 remarks that the previous census showed in varying the North-West Provinces over 25,000 Naga (serpent) forms. worshippers, 123,000 votaries of the snake-god Gaga, and, in the Punjab, some 35,000 special votaries of the snake godlings.'
The result is instructive when we turn to the numerous serpent myths and legends from the Old World and the New, to the stray notices in old writers, or to the fragmentary scraps of popular superstition everywhere.
a See the elaborately illustrated work of James Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship, or Illustrations of Mythology and Art in India (2nd ed., London, 1873); also M.
Haunting buildings and famous ruins, gliding around pools, walls and trees, mysteriously disappearing below ground, the serpent and all its kind invariably arrested attention through its uncanny distinctiveness from bird or beast.
Sometimes the long life of the serpent and its habit of changing the skin suggested ideas of immortality and resurrection, and it is noteworthy that one Indian snake-festival occurs after or at the sloughing, when the sacred being is thus supposed to become purified.'
or with crowns were familiar in old superstition, and the serpent with a ruby in its mouth was a favourite lovetoken.
According to a common Indian belief a wealthy man who dies without an heir returns to guard his wealth in the form of a serpent, and Italian superstition supposed that to find a serpent's skin brought good luck (Leland) .2 No singular preference for jewels on the part of serpents will explain the belief, and creatures like the jackdaw which have this weakness do not enjoy this prominence in folk-lore.
A rationalistic explanation might be found in the connexion between the chthonic serpent and subterranean sources of wealth.3 Moreover, the serpent is often associated with metallurgy, and to serpent deities have been ascribed the working of metals, gem-cutting and indeed culture in general.
The Babylonian Ea, who sometimes has serpent attributes, introduced - like the American serpent Votan - knowledge and culture.
The Ophites actually identified the serpent with Sophia (" Wisdom "); the old sage Garga, one of the fathers of Indian astronomy, owed his learning to the serpent-god Sesha Naga; and the Phoenician 14pwv 'Ocbiwv wrote the seven tablets of fate which were guarded by Harmonia.
In Babylonian myth a serpent, apparently in a well or pool, deprived Gilgamesh of the plant which rejuvenated old age, and if it was the rightful guardian of the wonderful gift, one is reminded of the Hebrew story, now reshaped in Gen.
iii., where the supernatural serpent is clearly acquainted with the properties of the tree of life.5 1 Fergusson, p. 259.
Oldham, The Sun and the Serpent (London, 1905), p. 54; and, for the serpent's wisdom, F.
A Babylonian cylinder represents two figures (divine?) on either side of a fruit-tree, and behind one of them a serpent coils upwards.
6 In one form or another the healing powers of the serpent are very familiar in 3.
Siegfried bathed in the blood of heals in g g healing the dragon he slew and thus became invulnerable; the blind emperor Theodosius recovered his sight when a grateful serpent laid a precious stone upon his eyes; Cadmus and his wife were turned into serpents to cure human ills.
Not to multiply examples, it must suffice to refer to the old popular idea that medical skill could be gained by eating some part of a serpent: the idea that its valuable qualities would thus be assimilated belongs to one of the fundamental dogmas of primitive mankind (cf.
Among his symbols was a serpent coiled round a staff, and physicians were for long wont to place this at the head of their prescriptions.
He is also represented leaning on a staff while a huge serpent rears itself up behind him, or (on a coin from Gythium),,a serpent seems to come to him from a well.
The god-hero came from Epidaurus to the shrine at Sicyon in the form of a serpent, and the serpent sent from Epidaurus to stay a plague at Rome remained there, and a temple was erected to Aesculapius.
The sanctuary of the deified healer at Cos marked the site where another serpent brought from Epidaurus dived into the earth (Pausanias, ii.
Hygieia, goddess of health, passed for his daughter, and is commonly identified with the woman in Greek art who feeds a serpent out of a saucer.
Even in Upper Egypt a few decades ago, there was a tomb of the Mahommedan sheikh Heridi, who - it is alleged - was transformed into a serpent; in cases of sickness a spotless virgin entered the cave and the serpentoccupant might permit itself to be taken in procession to the patient.
Murison, " The Serpent in the O.T.
128), cites an American-Indian belief in a tree of healing, or rather of knowledge, inhabited by a serpent.
Sayce, " Serpent Worship in Ancient and Modern Egypt," Contemporary Review (Oct.
was an epidemic among children, they were brought to touch a serpent's skin which hung on a pole.
The same ideas underlie the story of the Brazen Serpent which cured the Israelites of the bites of the serpents in the Wilderness (Num.
The object, however, was no temporary device; centuries later, 250 years after the founding of the temple of Jerusalem, the Brazen Serpent was regarded as unorthodox by the reforming king Hezekiah, and the historian who relates its overthrow ascribes its origin to the founder of Israelite national religion (2 Kings xviii.
Here the serpent and its kind are frequently encountered.'
In India the serpent-godlings are very often associated with water, and, even at the digging of a well,worship is paid to the ` ` world serpent," and the Salagrama (spiral ammonite), sacred to Vishnu, is solemnly wedded to the Tulasi or basil plant, representative of the garden which the pool will fertilize.
2 It is often supposed that the Naga (serpent) chiefs rule countries in or under the water, and in Kashmir a submarine serpent-king became a convert and built churches.
Several springs are named after the serpent, and the sacred fountain of Ephca at Palmyra, whose guardian in the early Christian era was appointed by the god Yarlhibol, is still tenanted by a female serpent-demon which can impede its flow.
3 Jerusalem had the stone Zoheleth (possibly " serpent ") by the well En-Rogel (1 Kings i.
A serpent in a lagoon near Gimbo-Amburi in Africa could cure madness; another, which haunted an Algerian well, embodied the soul of a Mahommedan saint and could cure sore eyes.
The serpent of the water is also the serpent of the great sea upon which the earth rested.'
3 and the Babylonian Tiamat, a serpent of the sea; see Baudissin in Hauck's Realency.
In ancient Persia the rainbow was the celestial serpent, and among some African tribes it is the subterranean wealth-conferring serpent, stretching its head to the clouds, and spilling the rain in its greedy thirst.'
An early Indian name of the Milky Way is " the path of the serpent " (Crooke i.
25), and a great dragon or serpent is often the cause of eclipses, so that in India, on the occasion of an eclipse, its attention can be attracted by bathing in a sacred stream, or by a ritual which includes the worship of the image of the snake-god (i.
22 seq.)., Again the serpent is often associated with the lightning (Winternitz, 33).9 Hence, as the reptile's range seems to be boundless, one is prepared for the serpentine deity of the Samoan and Tonga natives which connects heaven and earth (Tylor ii.
13 In the sanctuary of Aesculapius at Epidaurus women were visited in their dreams by a serpent - the reputed father of the child that was born, and elsewhere Sicyon who had such a progenitor was regarded as the son of the divine healer.14 Similar also was the origin of Augustus in a temple of Apollo, the god who had his tame serpents in the grove on Epirus.
In India the serpent origin of kings and rulers is famous.
Aegeus, and Drakon or Cecrops the first king of Athens), the Arabian dynasty of Edessa, the dynasty of Abyssinia, &c.; it is proper, therefore, to notice the serpent-symbol of royalty on the signets of the Rajahs of Chota Nagpur, the fire-spitting serpent which adorned the head of Egyptian Pharaohs, and the dragons which entwine King Arthur as he stands at the tomb of ' Crooke ii.
The Inca hero Yupanqui had as father a divine being with serpent and lion attributes who revealed himself in a well (Hartland ii.
Sometimes the serpent stands at the head of the human race as the mother of a11.2 This, following an old and still well supported interpretation of the name Eve (hawwah), was apparently also the belief of one branch of the Hebrews.3 There are many instances of tribes or clans named after the serpent.
also, to cases where the clan does not bear the serpent name.
In accordance with universal ideas of the reality of the " name," there are tribes who will refrain from mentioning the serpent.
In Kashmir the serpent-tribes became famous for medical skill in general, and they attributed this to the health-giving serpent (Fergusson, 260).
Also at Fernando Po there was an annual ceremony where children born within the year were made to touch the skin of a serpent suspended from a tree in the public square.9 We have next to notice the very general belief that the household snake was an agreeable guest, if not a guardian spirit.
(descent from a serpent involves immunity from its bite, and a serpent is supposed to identify the rightful heirs of a kingdom).
They were the guardianspirits of men and families, and stories are told of the way in which human life depended upon the safety of the reptile.'2 As a chthonic animal the serpent has often been regarded as an embodiment of the soul of the dead.
In Bali near Java, where the Naga-cult flourishes, a serpent is carried at the funeral ceremonies of the Kshatriya caste and burned with the corpse.
3 But it does not appear that every venerated serpent was an incarnation or that every incarnation was reverenced or even tolerated.
At the battle of Salamis the serpent which appeared among the ships was taken to be the hero Cychreus.'
19 Athene (" the Athenian one ") was primarily the guardian spirit of Athens, and at the Erechtheum her sacred serpent (apparently known to the 3rd century A.D.), was fed monthly with honeycakes; when, during the Persian War, it left the food untouched it was taken as a sign that the protectors had forsaken the city20 At Lebadeia in the shrine of Trophonios (to whom serpents were sacred) offerings of honey cakes were made to an oracular serpent.
Deane, Serpent Worship, 245 seq., Fergusson, 23; J.
The serpent was probably regarded as the embodiment of the king Erechtheus; see Frazer, Adonis, 75; A.
So also at Lanuvium, south of Rome, in a grove near the temple of the Argive Hera, sacred maidens descended blindfolded once a year with a barley-cake, and if the serpent took it, it indicated that they were pure and that the husbandmen would be fortunate.
We have seen how closely the serpent is associated with water generally (§ 5 seq.), and since we meet with the belief that sources will dry up when the serpent-occupant is killed (Bechuanas, Zulus), or that they will resent impurities thrown into their springs by causing storms (tribes of the Hindu-Kush), it is not surprising to find elaborate precautions for the propitiation of such powerful beings.
An extremely rich dynasty in the Upper Niger was supposed to owe its wealth to a serpent in a well which received yearly a maiden attired as a bride; the cessation of the practice brought drought and sickness (Hartland iii.
6 See Deane, Serpent Worship, 245 seq.
While Dahomey furnishes this elaborate example of the modern worship of a god in the embodiment of a serpent, elsewhere we find either less organic types, or the persistence and survival of cults whose original form can only be reconstructed by inference.
the story that Atia, the mother of Augustus, when touched by the serpent in the temple of Apollo, was marked with a stain like a painted serpent.
The symbol of the Bacchic orgies was a consecrated serpent, and the snakes kept in the sacred cistae of the cult of Dionysus find a parallel among the sect of the Ophites where, at the sacramental rites, bread was offered to the living serpent and afterwards distributed among the worshippers.
Introduced into Athens about 421 B.C., Aesculapius inherited the older local cult of the serpent " protector " Amynos (Harrison, 346 seq.).
In Laodicea he apparently replaced an older deity with serpent attributes.
Thus Apollo has to fight the oracle serpent of Gaia, and it has been observed that where Apollo prevailed in Greek religion the serpent became a monster to be slain.
6 At Thebes - the Thebans were SerpentigenaeApollo took the place of Cadmus, who, after killing the dragon which guarded a well and freeing the district, had ended by being turned into a serpent.
Aesculapius (§ 13) - much in the same way as Hercules has contests with serpents and dragons, becomes the patron of medicinal springs, and by marrying the serpent Echidna was the ancestor of the snakeworshipping Scythians.
7 But an ethnological tradition appears when Phorbas killed the serpent Ophiusa, freed Rhodes of snakes and obtained supremacy, or when Cychreus slew the dragon of Salamis and took the kingdom.
78) admirably shows how the serpent as a child of earth was 1 Harrison, 109 seq., 120 sqq., and art.
For the serpent in the cult of Sabazius, see Harrison, Prol.
36) mentions a huge serpent at the temple dedicated to Aesculapius.
Indra, the rain-god, slew with a thunderbolt AM or Vitra, who kept back the waters (Oldham, 32 sqq.); the thunder-god of the Iroquois killed the subterranean serpent which fed on human flesh (Hartland iii.
It remains to observe the overthrow or supersession of the serpent in Christian lands.
where worship was divided between the serpent and the Mosaic Law, it is said that the great dragon was burst asunder by the prayers of Christian saints (c. A.D.
This purely secondary aspect of the serpent as the devil cannot be noticed here.
Apart from the more obvious characteristics of the serpent likely to impress all observant minds (§ 1), its essentially chthonic character shows itself markedly when it is associated with the treasures and healing herbs of the earth, the produce of the soil, the source of springs - and thence of all water - and the dust unto which all men return.'
Although much evidence connects the serpent with the dead, especially as a guardian-spirit over the living, any discussion of this aspect of the subject is bound up with the varying beliefs regarding ancestors and death.
It is another stage when only the more conspicuous mortals assume serpent guise, and the deification of heroes involves yet another course of ideas.
For example, when one considers how often milk is used in the tending and propitiation of venerated snakes, it is noteworthy that in Roman cult the truly rustic deities are offered milk (Fowler), and it is no less singular that many of the old goddesses of Greece have serpent attributes (Harrison).'
2 Here one will note the prevalence of the ideas of " mother earth," and also the association in higher religions of chthonic powers with the serpent, so, e.g.
For the serpent (sometimes with anthropomorphic hints) in the Tabellae devotionis, see R.
Ihawwah, Eve, " serpent "), see G.
There is an obvious development from the serpent qua reptile to the deity or the devil, and that the original theriomorphic form is not at once forgotten can be seen in Zeus Meilichios, Aesculapius Amynos, in the Cretan snake-goddesses, or in the Buddhist topes illustrated by Fergusson.
He is represented in works of art in the form of a serpent, or of a young man with a cornucopia and a bowl in one hand, and a poppy and ears of corn in the other.
The most remarkable was the destruction of a brazen serpent, the cult of which was traditionally traced back to the time of Moses (Num.
4, cp. nahash, " serpent") is obscure; see the commentaries.
The bite of a fairly-grown healthy serpent of either of these species is deadly; and it is ascertained that more deaths occur from snake-bite than from all the other wild beasts put together.
He would say sometimes to the people of the house that he was like the serpent which forms a circle with its tail in its mouth, meaning thereby that he had nothing left at the year's end.
Tliraetona) against a fearful serpent (Ind.
Only the evil serpent Azhi Dahaka (Azhdahak) is domiciled by the Avesta in Babylon (Bawri) and depicted on the model of Babylonian gods and demons: he is a king in human form with a serpent growing from either shoulder and feeding on the brains of men.
Weir Mitchell and others have shown that serpent venom consists chiefly of albumoses, and the toxins formed by infective bacilli have a somewhat similar chemical nature.
This toxin-containing broth is injected into a horse in increasing doses, just as in the case of the serpent venom, and after the resistance of the horse has been much increased it is bled into sterilized vessels and the blood is allowed to coagulate.
The next controversialist who appeared on the scene was the famous Dr Stukely (1740) who propounded the theory that Stonehenge, the stone circle at Avebury (Abury), &c., were temples for serpent worship, "Dracontia" as he called them, the serpent worshippers being the Druids.
Here he killed a serpent which was revived by a companion, which laid a certain herb upon it.
On the Canadian side are Serpent river, Spanish river, French river, draining Lake Nipissing, Muskoka river, Severn river, draining lake Simcoe, and Nottawasaga river, all emptying into Georgian bay and North Channel, and Saugeen and Maitland rivers, flowing into the main lake.
These may be divided into three classes: first, the sprig of rue in silver, with sundry emblems attached to it, all of which refer to the worship of Diana, whose shrine at Capua was of considerable importance; secondly, the serpent charms, which formed part of the worship of Aesculapius, and were no doubt derived largely from the ancient eastern ophiolatry; and lastly charms derived from the legends of the Sirens.
AMPHISBAENA (a Greek word, from aborgs, both ways, and /aivECv, to go), a serpent in ancient mythology, beginning or ending at both head and tail alike.
In the solar explanation, the serpent is the darkness driven away by the rays of the sun.
In works of art Hygieia is represented, together with Asclepius, as a maiden of benevolent appearance, wearing the chiton and giving food or drink to a serpent out of a dish.
He is commonly represented standing, dressed in a long cloak, with bare breast; his usual attribute is a club-like staff with a serpent (the symbol of renovation) coiled round it.
Three monuments remain to mark the line of the Spina, around which the chariots whirled; an Egyptian obelisk of Thothmes III., on a pedestal covered with bas-reliefs representing Theodosius I., the empress Galla, and his sons Arcadius and Honorius, presiding at scenes in the Hippodrome; the triple serpent column, which stood originally at Delphi, to commemorate the victory of Plataea 479 B.C.; a lofty pile of masonry, built in the form of an obelisk, and once covered with plates of gilded bronze.
That this episode belongs to J no one need ever forget, since the only parallel in Scripture to the speaking ass is the serpent that spoke in Eden.
It appears with the generic meaning of "serpent" in the older forms of many Teutonic languages, cf.
version of the Scriptures for the devil, the "serpent" of Genesis.
As a creator of aught but romantic incident, indeed, Cooper's claims to renown must rest on the fine figure of the Leatherstocking, and, in a less degree, on that of his friend and companion, the Big Serpent.
The meaning of the name is uncertain; Wellhausen derives it from nan "Eve," or "serpent," in which case the Hivites were originally the snake clan; others explain it from the Arabic hayy, " family," as meaning "dwellers in (Bedouin) encampments."
There were two classes of gods - the first immortal, of whom Ndengei is the greatest, said to exist eternally in the form of a serpent, but troubling himself little with human or other affairs, and the others had usually only a local recognition.
There is no reason to doubt his sincerity, but he was coarse and intemperate - Froude roundly calls him a foul-mouthed ruffian - without the wisdom of the serpent or the harmlessness of the dove.
The serpent that appeared at the sacrifice of Aeneas was regarded as possibly a " manifestation " of the soul of Anchises (Aeneid, v.
He has intimate relations in peace and war with a variety of animals whose habits are sometimes explained (like those of the serpent in Genesis) as the result of the curse of Heitsi Eibib.
Ra, the sun, fought the big serpent Apap, as Indra fought Vrittra.
The soma disagreed with Indra; part of it which was not drunk up became Vrittra the serpent, Indra's ' Hibbert Lectures, p. 230.
This serpent was a universal devourer of everything and everybody, like Kwai Hemm, the all-devourer in Bushman mythology.
The gods assume animal forms: Cronus becomes a horse, Rhea a mare; Zeus begets separate families of men in the shape of a bull, an ant, a serpent, a swan.
Why did various royal houses claim descent from the ant, the swan, the she-bear, the serpent, the horse and so forth ?
(1906), who identifies Erechtheus, Erichthonius, Poseidon and Cecrops, all denoting the sacred serpent of Athena, whose cult she first contested, but then amalgamated with her own.
Again, "the gradation of the incident is this: the father has become powerless among the coils of the serpent; the younger son has still strength for resistance but is wounded; the elder has a prospect of escape."
In Babylonian mythology "the old serpent goddess ` the lady Nina' was transformed into the embodiment of all that was hostile to the powers of heaven" (Sayce's Hibbert Lectures, p. 283), and was confounded with the dragon Tiamat, "a terrible monster, reappearing in the Old Testament writings as Rahab and Leviathan, the principle of chaos, the enemy of God and man" (Tennant's The Fall and Original Sin, p. 43), and according to Gunkel (Schopfung and Chaos, p. 383) "the original of the ` old serpent ' of Rev. xii.
In Egyptian mythology the serpent Apap with an army of monsters strives daily to arrest the course of the boat of the luminous gods.
In Hindu mythology the Maruts, Indra, Agni and Vishnu wage war with the serpent Ahi to deliver the celestial cows or spouses, the waters held captive in the caverns of the clouds.
27), is identified with the serpent of Gen.
The Book of the Secrets of Enoch not only identifies Satan with the Serpent, but also describes his revolt against God, and expulsion from heaven.
In the Jewish Targums Sammael, "the highest angel that stands before God's throne, caused the serpent to seduce the woman"; he coalesces with Satan, and has inferior Satans as his servants.
5), identified with the serpent (Rom.
Revela tion describes the war in heaven between God with his angels and Satan or the dragon, the "old serpent," the deceiver of the whole world (xii.
The serpent raised its ugly head, the beady black eyes measuring Megan as its tiny forked tongue flicked in her direction.
The serpent of the ancient alchemists holding its own tail in its jaws.
bruised the serpent 's head.
At the base of the spine is the root chakra, the coiled serpent of sexual energy.
coiled serpent of sexual energy.
The Serpent Rod is also the symbol of Aesculapius, the patron deity of Healing.
entwined by a serpent in gold.
When they wish to represent eternity, they represent it by a serpent with its tail in its mouth.
fiery serpent to destroy you!
Devlin refers to Serpent Lane, which led from the dragon's lair in the hills down to its drinking place at the river.
They each stand on a strange creature, which partly resembles a serpent and partly a crocodile, but has only fore legs.
personifyreek and Roman times Prudence has been personified as a woman holding a serpent and a mirror.
Among these symbols the serpent has appeared throughout Davie's long career, whilst images of crosses and of the ankh are also recurrent.
Some common symbols in Ancient Egyptian religious jewelry include the scarab (beetle ), lotus, serpent, falcon, and the eye.
serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.
The snake is another common subject of sculpture and is often shown as Quetzalcoatl, the plumed serpent.
I have bruised the serpent, I have passed.
In passing sentence on the serpent, he promises, that Eve's descendant will crush the serpent 's head.
venomous serpent, the snake may be safely lifted and carried about.
Here is a sample of the text, " What serpent so venomous as he who calls the pope's authority tyrannous?
This was done; but just as Heraclides was receiving his honour in a crowded assembly, he was seized with apoplexy, while the dishonest priestess perished at the same moment from the bite of a serpent.
2 In the composite work Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah (dating after the post-exilic Levitical legislation) a peculiar interest is taken in the Levites, more particularly in the singers, and certain passages even reveal With this development in Israelite religion, observe that Judaean cult included the worship of a brazen serpent, the institution of which was ascribed to Moses, and that, according to the compiler of Kings, Hezekiah was the first to destroy it when he suppressed idolatrous worship in Judah (2 Kings xviii.
three signs are given: the hand of Moses is stricken with leprosy and restored (the sign for Moses) his rod becomes a serpent (cf.
It differs from the adder in having the head entirely covered with scales, shields being absent, and in having the snout somewhat turned up. The term "Asp" (Ã¡¼â‚¬ÃÆ’Ãâ‚¬ÃŽ¯Ãâ€š) seems to, have been employed by Greek and Roman writers, and by writers generally down to comparatively recent times, to designate more than one species of serpent; thus the asp, by means of which Cleopatra is said to have ended her life, and so avoided the disgrace of entering Rome a captive, is now generally supposed to have been the cerastes, or horned viper (Cerastes cornutus), of northern Africa and Arabia, a snake about 15 in.
27); (29) the frog (either living on land and killed by rain, or in the water without ever seeing the sun); (30) the stag (destroys its enemy the serpent); (31) the salamander (quenches fire); (32) the diamond (powerful against all danger); (33) the swallow (brings forth but once; misreading of Aristotle, Hist.
13); (34) the tree called peridexion (protects pigeons from the serpent by its shadow); (35) the pigeons (of several colours;: led by one of them, which is of a purple or golden colour); (36) the antelope (or hydrippus; caught by its horns in the thicket); (37) the fireflints (of two sexes; combine to produce fire); (38) the magnet (adheres to iron); (39) the saw-fish (sails in company with ships); (40) the ibis (fishes only along the shore); (41) the ibex (descries a hunter from afar); (42) the diamond again (read "carbuncle"; found only by night); (43) the elephant.(conceives after partaking of mandrake; brings forth in the water; the young protected from the serpent by the father; when fallen is lifted up only by a certain small individual of its own kind); (44) the agate (employed in pearl-fishing); (45) the wild ass and ape (mark the equinox); (46) the Indian stone (relieves patients of the dropsy); (47) the heron (touches no dead body, and keeps to one dwellingplace); (48) the sycamore (or wild fig; grubs living inside the fruit and coming out); (49) the ostrich (devours all sorts of things; forgetful of its own eggs).
The typical bas relief, which is found in great abundance in the museums of Europe, invariably represents Mithras, under the form of a youth with conical cap and flying drapery, slaying the sacred bull, the scorpion attacking the genitals of the animal, the serpent drinking its blood, the dog springing towards the wound in its side, and frequently, in addition, the Sun-god, his messenger the raven, a fig-tree, a lion, a ewer, and torch-bearers.
Teutonic legend does not lightly exaggerate, and what to us seems incredible in it may be easily conceived as credible to those by whom and for whom the tales were told; that Sigmund and his son Sinfiotli turned themselves into wolves would be but a sign of exceptional powers to those who believed in werewolves; Fafnir assuming the form of a serpent would be no more incredible to the barbarous Teuton than the similar transformation of Proteus to the Greek.
And we must affirm that the technical term re' horn (rendered in the English Bible " the deep "), which evidently signifies the enveloping primeval flood, and which closely resembles Tiamat, the name given to the dragon or serpent in the epic (cf.
Bib., " Serpent," Ã¯¿½Ã¯¿½ 3, 4.
As in the Talmud and the Jerusalem Targum, the serpent has even become the devil, i.e.
Then Sophia or Prunikos sent the serpent (as a benefactor) to persuade Adam and Eve to eat the tree of knowledge and so break the commandment of Ialdabaoth, who banished them from paradise to earth.
Thus Gucumatz, " Feathered Serpent " corresponds in name to the Mexican deity Quetzalcoatl; Tulan and the Seven Caves are familiar words in the Aztec migration traditions, and there is even mention of a chief of Toltecat, a name plainly referring to the famed Toltecs.
" Feathered Serpent."
(See Serpent, below.) (v.) One of the most widely found modes of showing respect to animals is known as totemism (see Totem And Totemism), but except in decadent forms there is but little positive worship; in Central Australia, however, the rites of the Wollunqua totem group are directed towards placating this mythical animal, and cannot be termed anything but religious ceremonies.
In Africa the chief centre of serpent worship was Dahomey; but the cult of the python seems to have been of exotic origin, dating back to the first quarter of the 17th century.
Az in the Avestan mythology was the demon serpent who murders Gayomert in the old Persian legend, and an ally of Ahriman, as also are the Pairikas or Penis.
So too the victories of Re over the serpent named Apophis were more or less clearly understood as a simile of the antithetical nature of light and darkness.
4 Not only is the serpent connected with oracles, the beneficent agathodaemon of Phoenicia also symbolized immortality.
The place was the scene of animal sacrifices and a yearly visit of women, and apparently preserved the traces of an old serpent-cult.8 Several practices conform to the idea that " a hair of the dog that bit you " is a sure remedy, and that the serpent was best fitted to overcome other serpents.
309 seq.), and for the part the serpent plays in the traditions of a universal deluge.'o The fok-lore of the Old and New World contains many examples of supernatural conception, an idea which is to be supplemented by the actual living belief (e.g.
12 Leland (132) cites the medieval belief that the household snake (see § 9), if not propitiated, can prevent conception, and in Bombay barrenness is sometimes attributed to a serpent which has been killed by the man or his wife in a former state of their existence.
The Babylonian story of Ea (see § 2) and the deluge finds an Indian parallel in the fish (or, otherwise a manifestation of Vishnu the many-headed serpent) which warned Manu.
Among the Austrian gipsies the serpent is supposed to be able to swallow up prolonged rains, and it may be conjectured that the stories associating the commencement or conclusion of great floods with chasms (e.g.
5 The snake-tribes of the Punjab clothe and bury a dead serpent, and elsewhere in India when one is killed in the village a copper coin is placed in its mouth and the body ceremonially burned to avert ev11.5 These snake-tribes claim to be free from snake-bite, as also the ancient Psylli of Africa and the Ophiogenes (" serpent born ") of Cyprus who were supposed to be able to cure others.
Similarly Orestes in serpent-form would slay Clytaemnestra (Aeschylus, Choephori) : the serpent is thus the avenging spirit of the deceased, the embodiment of Vengeance (cf.
Moreover, the serpent or dragon may have an opponent like the eagle (see Goblet d'Alviella, 17), or a cosmical antagonist - the lightning, thunder or rain-god.
1 Ã‚° Or the victor is the sun: the Egyptian sun-god Re had his fire-spitting serpent to oppose his enemies, of which one was the cloud and storm serpent Apophis, while in Greek myth the sanctuary of Helios (the sun) sheltered the young Orpheus from the snake.
At the Phrygian Hierapolis the serpent Echidna was expelled by the Apostles Philip and John."
the worship of the brazen serpent, xxi.
They furnish what must have been a satisfactory origin of the names Edom, Moab and Ammon, Mahanaim and Succoth, Bethel, Beersheba, &c. They explain why Shechem, Bethel and Beersheba were ancient sanctuaries (see further below); why the serpent writhes along the ground (iii.
' The notion of an Eve (hawwah, " serpent") as the first woman may be conjecturally associated with (a) the frequent traditions of the serpent-origin of clans, and (b) with evidence which seems to connect the Levites and allied families with some kind of serpentcult (see Meyer, op. cit.
He says: "The younger son struggles and is powerless, and is alarmed; the father struggles ineffectively, indeed his efforts only increase the opposition; the elder son is least of all injured, he feels neither anguish nor pain, but he is horrified at what he sees happening to his father, and he screams while he pushes the coils of the serpent off from his legs.
49, "a serpent speaking with the words of transgressors, words of deceit to pervert wisdom."
Soc., 1879, pp. 6-9) that, instead of moulting in the way that birds ordinarily do, penguins, at least in passing from the immature to the adult dress, cast off the short scale-like feathers from their wings in a manner that he compares to "the shedding of the skin in a serpent."
Among these symbols the serpent has appeared throughout Davie 's long career, whilst images of crosses and of the ankh are also recurrent.
Some common symbols in Ancient Egyptian religious jewelry include the scarab (beetle), lotus, serpent, falcon, and the eye.
And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.
In passing sentence on the serpent, he promises, that Eve 's descendant will crush the serpent 's head.
Legend has it that a giant serpent, similar to the Loch Ness Monster, lives in Sweden 's fifth largest lake.
It is also the legendary birthplace of QuetzalcÃ³atl, the Aztec serpent god.
Maybe you 'd like a brass serpent or a stone dire tiger to guard your home.
Where the serpent 's tooth is, shun the tree.
In The High History of the Holy Grail the Castle of the Whale episode tells of the whale with a serpent 's head.
March 27th The serpent in the wilderness, published in Weekly visitor.
This was only because the White Serpent was stunned by the sudden blow of the Red Serpent 's strange power and rage.
How sharper than a serpent 's tooth is a thankless child.
The soldiers just thrust the sword directly between the enemies ' rib cage, and this is known as a serpent 's thrust.
Elsewhere and also earlier, the serpent twines round three heads.
Here is a sample of the text, What serpent so venomous as he who calls the pope 's authority tyrannous?
They replied it was an immense Serpent, which the Manitou, the Great Spirit, was vomiting forth.
They were enticed into disobedience to God by the wiles of the serpent, the prehistoric ancestor of the Christian Satan.
The Sky Serpent is a group of small rotors that individually catches the flow of the air and wind.
These are super sleek and embellished with a jeweled serpent for a lot of extra pizzazz.
For example, "The Serpent" allows you to poison others, but at the cost of some of your character's health.
Serpent and cat rings with ruby eyes and butterfly engagement rings with ruby wings are also popular.
The serpent has long been recognized as a creature of "knowing", and these natives are often very intelligent.
Depict your dragon flying, as a sea serpent, breathing fire or standing guard in a cave to show your elemental affiliation.
Each of these angels possesses three pairs of wings, has four faces, and resembles a serpent.
Nagini the Snake - Voldemort's wicked serpent was slain by Neville Longbottom wielding the Sword of Gryffindor, enabling Harry to end Voldemort's last horcruxes.
From the standpoint of the popular religion, the removal of the local altars, like Hezekiah's destruction of the brazen serpent, would be an act of desecration, an iconoclasm which can be partly appreciated from the sentiments of 2 Kings xviii.
He is also the author of the Brazen Serpent (1831), the Doctrine of Election (1839), several "Introductory Essays" to editions of Christian Authors, and a posthumous work entitled Spiritual Order and Other Papers (1871).
Bib., " Behemoth," " Dragon," " Rahab," " Serpent."
He was a descendant of Udaeus, one of the men who had sprung up from the serpent's teeth sown by Cadmus.
For no beast however mighty, no bird however graceful, was a fit companion for God's masterpiece, and, apart from the serpent, the animals had no faculty of speech.
Is he a pale form of the Babylonian chaos-dragon, or of the serpent of Iranian mythology who sprang from heaven to earth to blight the" good creation "?
To the phrase" ye shall be as gods "a later writer may have added" knowing good and evil,"but" to be as gods "originally meant" to live the life of gods - wise, powerful, happy."The serpent was in the main right, but there is one point which he did not mention, viz.
2 The serpent too (whose unique form preoccupied the early men) shall be humiliated, as a perpetual warning to man - who is henceforth his enemy - of the danger of reasoning on and disobeying the will of God.
ii., or to the story of the rib, or to that of the serpent.
The honour paid by them to the serpent is connected with the old mythologies of Babylon and Egypt as well as with the popular cults of Greece and the Orient.
It was particularly offensive to Christians as tending to dishonour the Creator who is set over against the serpent as bad against good.
From this contact came Ialdabaoth the Demiurgos, who in turn produced six powers and with them created the seven heavens and from the dregs of matter the Nous of serpent form, from whom are spirit and soul, evil and death.
Not to multiply examples further, it may suffice to refer to (a) the apparent belief that the serpent tempted Eve to unchastity (2 Cor.
He was the offspring of Loki and the giantess Angurboda, who bore two other children, Midgard the serpent, and Hel the goddess of death.
rat, bull, tiger, hare, dragon, serpent, horse, goat, ape, cock, dog, pig, which may possibly be an imitation of the ordinary Babylonian-Greek zodiac familiar to ourselves.
Alone were the Creator, the Former, the Ruler, the Feathered Serpent, they who give being and whose name is Gucumatz.
You would have thought the poor kid had been bitten by a serpent.
This is to believe on the Son of God lifted up; which is compared with looking to the brazen serpent.
When the hook is slid underneath the body of a venomous serpent, the snake may be safely lifted and carried about.
From that snake a poisonous snake will be born, a fiery serpent to destroy you!
Note the Leonine head appearing above the bindings of the cosmic serpent.
The Romans were directed by the priests of Epidaurus to build a temple in Rome, and were presented with a sacred serpent.
In the passage of the fiery snakes, Moses is instructed by God to make a bronze serpent and set it on a standard.
Your child will get to help Ariel rescue the King of the sea from the evil clutches of Electra the sea serpent.
serpent's tooth is, shun the tree.
serpent in the wilderness, published in Weekly visitor.
stunned by the sudden blow of the Red Serpent's strange power and rage.
The soldiers just thrust the sword directly between the enemies ' rib cage, and this is known as a serpent's thrust the sword directly between the enemies ' rib cage, and this is known as a serpent's thrust.
The serpent is generally accepted as the predecessor of the modern bass tuba.
- The serpent has gone the right way to work; he comprehends woman's nature better than Adam comprehends that of the serpent.
By degrees, he obtains a full confession - not from the serpent, whose speech might not have been edifying, but from Adam and Eve.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.