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sea

sea

sea Sentence Examples

  • The sea was rough.

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  • "I guess the sea breeze is good for the libido," she continued.

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  • It was so close to the sea that those who lived in it could hear the waves forever beating against the shore.

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  • In fact, he seemed lost in a sea of uncertainty.

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  • above the sea and enjoys a healthy climate.

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  • The sea shore is too far to the east so I fear she'll be remanded to a roadside bier of Kudzu and discarded fast food wrappers.

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  • You must either jump overboard into the sea or be slain with your own sword.

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  • He moved forward until the sound of the sea and the firmness of the sand suggested he was close to the water's edge.

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  • In the open space between the clouds and the black, bubbling sea far beneath, could be seen an occasional strange bird winging its way swiftly through the air.

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  • They told me if Jeff's body wasn't found the first couple of weeks, it had probably washed out to sea and would maybe never be located.

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  • The churning sea below was littered with jagged rocks that looked small from her perch a hundred feet above them.

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  • Take the bodies and throw them into the sea, where no one will find them.

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  • The Sea Mist dated back to the 1930's.

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  • A book of stories of adventure on the sea, which he read over and over again when a boy, had filled him with a longing for a seafaring life.

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  • She rubbed her head and glared at him, watching as he followed his father in the direction where both sky and sea darkened into blackness.

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  • The dry desert heat gave way to cool sea breeze, and a massive apple tree protected her from the sun overhead.

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  • His eyes were white then black then changed from every color in between, his brown hair of medium length and wavy, ruffled by the sea breeze.

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  • She could smell the sea; they were probably somewhere in the destroyed city.

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  • In the sea of faces, she didn't see Alex.

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  • Hundreds of little sail-boats swung to and fro close by, and the sea was calm.

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  • The pterodactyl dropped and caught itself, coasting in the sea breeze.

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  • Below them was a vast space, at the bottom of which was a black sea with rolling billows, through which little tongues of flame constantly shot up.

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  • One summer he went over the sea to Italy; for his name was well known there, and many people wished to hear him sing.

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  • I've chosen the sea shore as the final resting place for my little beauty.

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  • The frozen sea beneath her feet was the color of tar, the black clouds above paused mid-swirl around a pop of blue sky in the storm's center.

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  • The ship's captain belted orders to his sun burnt crew, and Taran turned, his dark hair tossed in the sea breeze.

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  • After what seemed even longer than the Dean's first trip to the mine just two days earlier, they emerged into the basin where the valley floor was a sea of wildflowers.

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  • The heavy scent of fragrant sea swept over him, the chill of the ocean kept out of the city by its thick walls.

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  • The Senegal indeed has what is styled an interior delta, but, with the exception of the marigot named, all the divergent branches rejoin the main stream before the sea is reached.

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  • She had eyes the deepest blue-green of the Celtic Sea and flaxen hair, which although matted and unkempt, promised to shine sun-kissed when groomed.

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  • Somewhere in that sea of people was his family – including his sister and her husband.

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  • Nothing made sense to her numbed mind, aside from the fragrant ocean, the fine sand that slid through her fingers like silk, and the warm-cool sensations caused by a combination of afternoon sun and sea breeze.

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  • From Mafu to the sea, a distance of 215 m., the Senegal is navigable all the year round by vessels drawing not more than to ft.

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  • A stunning man with a large smile dressed in white stood a few feet away, his brown hair ruffled by the sea breeze.

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  • The scent of sea was in the air, a rough circle of lighter darkness before her.

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  • Carmen caught her breath, instinctively searching the sea of faces.

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  • But the smooth sea again suddenly becomes disturbed.

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  • He looked out to sea again.

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  • Above him was a clear blue sky, and the sun's vast orb quivered like a huge hollow, crimson float on the surface of that milky sea of mist.

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  • Pierre pushed forward as fast as he could, and the farther he left Moscow behind and the deeper he plunged into that sea of troops the more was he overcome by restless agitation and a new and joyful feeling he had not experienced before.

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  • The sun pushed aside the shadows as it emerged from the depths of the distant sea until it sat on the horizon, casting long shadows and brilliant bars of light into the walled city.

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  • The world dumped her on top of a pile of sand near the boardwalk with the angry black sea roaring behind her.

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  • The sea breeze seemed to pierce her skull and ruffle through her brain.

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  • She'd even included him-- in his elf-like form-- in one of her paintings depicting a fantastical scene of sea creatures frolicking on a beach.

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  • Flint's, or Sandy Pond, in Lincoln, our greatest lake and inland sea, lies about a mile east of Walden.

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  • The sounds of the ocean and the sea breeze lulled her to sleep last night and gently drew her awake before sunrise.

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  • While the sea of history remains calm the ruler-administrator in his frail bark, holding on with a boat hook to the ship of the people and himself moving, naturally imagines that his efforts move the ship he is holding on to.

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  • She might as well have been swept into the sea like the palace.

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  • To that end, he also served a purpose for her – a person in a sea of strange faces that she could trust.

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  • Far across the sea, he saw the black walls of Hell stretching from water to sky.

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  • The air was balmy, with a tang of the sea in it.

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  • The tang of the untainted, fresh and free sea air was like a cool, quieting thought, and the shells and pebbles and the seaweed with tiny living creatures attached to it never lost their fascination for me.

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  • From all sides, like the roar of the sea, were heard the rattle of wheels, the tramp of feet, and incessant shouts of anger and abuse.

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  • Perhaps the Old Sea God as he lay asleep upon the shore, heard the soft music of growing things--the stir of life in the earth's bosom, and his stormy heart was angry, because he knew that his and Winter's reign was almost at an end.

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  • And then the sea swallowed them.

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  • It looked suspiciously like the warehouse district near the Annapolis port, and she smelled the sea on the air.

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  • It became obvious early on that Dean wouldn't reach his des­tination by 7:00 and in fact the sun was beginning to set when he finally pulled into the crowded parking lot of The Sea Mist restau­rant.

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  • Deep in thought, Darian sat for a long while, until the wind at his back shifted to carry the scent of the sea to him.

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  • It was a detailed map, with the sea painted blue and the land border meticulously drawn.

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  • above St Louis, pierces the dunes at flood time and reaches the sea, 50 m.

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  • At last, however, the sea, as if weary of its new toy, threw me back on the shore, and in another instant I was clasped in my teacher's arms.

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  • With her knees pulled closer to her chest to guard against the sea breeze, the dress crumbled to the creases of her thighs and hip.

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  • She braided her hair to keep the stiff sea breeze from tossing curls in her face and squinted upward again.

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  • The sun peered over the ocean to the north while blooming apple trees sprinkled their flowers into piles in a cool sea breeze.

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  • He is a beneficent and venerable old man of the sea, full of wisdom and skilled in prophecy, but, like Proteus, he will only reveal what he knows under compulsion.

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  • Of these, Thetis and Amphitrite rule the sea according to the legend of different localities; Galatea is a Sicilian figure, who plays with and deludes her rustic lover of the shore, Polyphemus.

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  • When they prayed for all traveling by land and sea, she remembered Prince Andrew, prayed for him, and asked God to forgive her all the wrongs she had done him.

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  • The storm-tossed sea of European history had subsided within its shores and seemed to have become calm.

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  • The sea of history was not driven spasmodically from shore to shore as previously.

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  • Whether all the enemy forces were, as we supposed, six miles away, or whether they were near by in that sea of mist, no one knew till after eight o'clock.

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  • He gazed silently at the hills which seemed to rise out of the sea of mist and on which the Russian troops were moving in the distance, and he listened to the sounds of firing in the valley.

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  • In front, far off on the farther shore of that sea of mist, some wooded hills were discernible, and it was there the enemy probably was, for something could be descried.

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  • On the right the Guards were entering the misty region with a sound of hoofs and wheels and now and then a gleam of bayonets; to the left beyond the village similar masses of cavalry came up and disappeared in the sea of mist.

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  • The object is to allow sufficient water to drain off to the westward for the due irrigation of the land, while the Hillah bed still retains the main volume of the stream, and is navigable to the sea.

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  • The varieties of fish on the sea coast are many and excellent.

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  • As birds migrate to somewhere beyond the sea, so these men with their wives and children streamed to the southeast, to parts where none of them had ever been.

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  • Though the surface of the sea of history seemed motionless, the movement of humanity went on as unceasingly as the flow of time.

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  • Tuna, snapper and sea scallops are all available in a pan seared dish with vegetables, but you may opt for the seafood stew featuring several different types of seafood, vegetables and a spicy tomato based broth.

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  • Pizza is as much a part of the coastal town's culture as the salty sea air and the beach.

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  • She looked as if she had just risen from the foam of the sea, and her loveliness was like a strain of heavenly music.

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  • When told that Jesus walked on the sea to meet His disciples, she said, decidedly, "It does not mean WALKED, it means SWAM."

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  • I met Teacher in the hall, and begged to be taken to the sea at once.

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  • Suddenly we stopped, and I knew, without being told, the Sea was at my feet.

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  • Let our lakes receive as true names at least as the Icarian Sea, where "still the shore" a "brave attempt resounds."

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  • At the same time that we are earnest to explore and learn all things, we require that all things be mysterious and unexplorable, that land and sea be infinitely wild, unsurveyed and unfathomed by us because unfathomable.

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  • England and France, Spain and Portugal, Gold Coast and Slave Coast, all front on this private sea; but no bark from them has ventured out of sight of land, though it is without doubt the direct way to India.

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  • The Tsar's foot, in the narrow pointed boot then fashionable, touched the groin of the bobtailed bay mare he rode, his hand in a white glove gathered up the reins, and he moved off accompanied by an irregularly swaying sea of aides-de-camp.

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  • The fog lay unbroken like a sea down below, but higher up at the village of Schlappanitz where Napoleon stood with his marshals around him, it was quite light.

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  • After I had learned a great many interesting things about the life and habits of the children of the sea--how in the midst of dashing waves the little polyps build the beautiful coral isles of the Pacific, and the foraminifera have made the chalk-hills of many a land--my teacher read me "The Chambered Nautilus," and showed me that the shell-building process of the mollusks is symbolical of the development of the mind.

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  • Like the choice between the devil and the deep blue sea.

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  • Would she end up at the bottom of the sea?

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  • "I'm surprised he let you come," he said, eyes returning to the sea.

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  • The heavy Caribbean air of the Sanctuary was warm and fragrant with the scent of the sea.

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  • His body was warm compared to the chill of the sea.

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  • Darkyn had said to dump them in the sea.

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  • All of them were located in the middle of a sea.

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  • She had long blonde hair like spun silk, a perfectly proportioned figure and blue-green eyes that made you feel you were looking into the sea.

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  • When he could finally focus through the black of the night, he plodded forward, feet wallowing in the soft sand like a boat in a heavy sea.

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  • The sun flooded in through the still-open drapes, announcing that the violent storm of the night before had fled out to sea.

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  • Darian looked out over the sea.

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  • His scent was strong, sweat and man, tainted by the sea.

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  • My father brought me from across the sea.

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  • Memon will roll through here like fog off the sea.

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  • Vara looked out at sea.

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  • My king, if I may ask, why did you kill all those who came with me from across the sea?

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  • They leaned against the railing, Gerry facing the crowd and Jessi facing the sky and sea.

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  • above the sea.

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  • The fifty daughters of Nereus, the Nereids, are personifications of the smiling, quiet sea.

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  • Kayes is the limit of navigability from the sea.

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  • He accompanied Peter to the White Sea (1694-1695); took part in the Azov campaign (1695); and was one of the triumvirate who ruled Russia during Peter's first foreign tour (1697-1698).

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  • above the sea, being thus the loftiest lake of large size in the United Kingdom.

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  • MEDITERRANEAN SEA.

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  • The "Mediterranean region," as a geographical unit, includes all this area; the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora are within its submerged portion, and the climate of the whole is controlled by the oceanic influences of the Mediterranean Sea.

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  • This includes the Aegean and the Black Sea, and its margin skirts the south coast of Asia Minor.

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  • - As already stated, the " Mediterranean region " forms a distinct climatic unit, chiefly due to the form and position of the Mediterranean Sea.

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  • The prevailing winds in this region, which the sea traverses longitudinally, are westerly, but the sea itself causes the formation of bands of low barometric pressure during the winter season, within which cyclonic disturbances frequently develop, while in summer the region comes under the influence of the polar margin of the tropical high pressure belt.

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  • Local winds form an important feature in nearly all the coast climates of the Mediterranean, especially in winter, where they are primarily caused by the rapid change of temperature from the sea to the snow-clad hinterlands.

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  • Evnitzki states that the saltest water of the whole basin occurs in the Aegean Sea.

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  • had much of the churchmanship of Godfrey and Baldwin I.; but he appears most decidedly as an incessant warrior, under whom the Latin domination in the East stretched, as Ibn al-Athir writes, in a long line from Mardin in the North to el-Arish on the Red Sea - a line only broken by the Mahommedan powers of Aleppo, Hamah, Horns and Damascus.

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  • But Zeus descended to her in a shower of gold, and she gave birth to Perseus, whereupon Acrisius placed her and her infant in a wooden box and threw them into the sea.

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  • His station, Philippeville, is close to the shores of the Mediterranean, and sea breezes persisted during the day.

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  • At this station much lower values were found for A with sea breezes than with land breezes.

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  • He perished at sea on board a steamboat which was totally consumed by fire while on a voyage from New York to Boston, on the night of the 13th-14th of January 1840.

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  • He was a born adventurer, going to sea at the age of 17 and serving before the mast as A.B.

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  • His novels, for the most part published first in London, reflect his wild adventurous life, the best known being The Son of the Wolf (1900); The Call of the Wild (1903); Moon Face (1906); Martin Eden (1909); South Sea Tales (1912), and his last, The Little Lady of the Big House (1916).

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  • from the open sea, at the head of Otago harbour, a narrow inlet (averaging 2 m.

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  • The situation was chosen on the consideration of this harbour alone, for the actual site offered many difficulties, steep forest-clad hills rising close to the sea, and rendering reclamation necessary.

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  • The knights strengthened Valletta and its harbour by bastions, curtain-walls, lines and forts, towards the sea, towards the land and on every available point, taking advantage in every particular of the natural rock and of the marvellous advantages of situation, rendering it then almost impregnable.

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  • above the sea, but lying in a basin, skirts both banks of the river Semois which is crossed by two bridges.

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  • Colonel Goddard with a Bengal army marched across the breadth of the peninsula from the valley of the Ganges to the western sea, and achieved almost without a blow the conquest of Gujarat.

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  • by the China Sea.

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  • East of Cape St Jacques the mountains of Annam come down close to the sea; west of that point, as far as the southern headland of Ca-Mau, the coast-line of Cochin-China runs north-east to south-west for about 160 m.

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  • From Cape Ca-Mau to Rach-Gia it runs north for a distance of m., then north-west as far as Ha-Tien, where the boundary line between it and Cambodia meets the sea.

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  • Extensive works have been carried out along the sea front.

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  • Their power extended far into Arabia, particularly along the Red Sea; and Petra was a meeting-place of many nations, though its commerce was diminished by the rise of the Eastern trade-route from Myoshormus to Coptos on the Nile.

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  • above the sea, with an area of nearly 16 sq.

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  • from the sea.

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  • above the sea, and 282 m.

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  • It is noted for the fine boxwood grown in the vicinity, is a port of call for Black Sea coasting steamers and carries on a considerable trade with Constantinople which might be increased were it not for the obstruction of the harbour by a bar.

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  • Sardegna), an island of the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to the kingdom of Italy.

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  • and falls into the sea in the Gulf of Oristano.

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  • long, which rises south of Gennargentu, and runs S.E., falling into the sea a little north of Muravera on the east coast.

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  • of the bridge over it, and so through the Campanian plain, with many windings, into the sea.

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  • Its trade was mainly directed towards Sicily, where Megarian colonies were established at Hybla (Megara Hyblaea) and Selinus, and towards the Black Sea, in which region the Megarians were probably i As we have seen, it was mentioned in 1726 by Valentyn, and a young example' was in 1830 described and figured by Quoy and Gaimard (Voy.

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  • In the Black Sea they exploited the shores of Pontus and Scythia, whose products they exchanged for textiles spun from the wool of their own country.

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  • Their chief colonies in this sea were Astacus and Heraclea in Bithynia, and another Heraclea in the Crimea.

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  • The earth, or other planet, does not actually move round the sun; yet it is carried round the sun in the subtle matter of the great vortex, where it lies in equilibrium, - carried like the passenger in a boat, who may cross the sea and yet not rise from his berth.

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  • 103, owing to the silting up of the Claudian harbour, and the increase of trade, to construct another port further inland - a hexagonal basin enclosing an area of 97 acres with enormous warehouses - communicating with the harbour of Claudius and with the Tiber by means of the channel already constructed by Claudius, this channel being prolonged so as to give also direct access to the sea.

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  • TRACHIS, a city of ancient Greece, situated at the head of the Malian Gulf in a small plain between the rivers Asopus and Melas, and enclosed by the mountain wall of Oeta which here extended close to the sea and by means of the Trachinian Cliffs completely commanded the main road from Thessaly.

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  • Sueca is separated from the Mediterranean Sea (7 m.

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  • On sea the Athenians, after two minor engagements, gained a decisive victory which enabled them to blockade Aegina.

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  • The chief cleruchies of Pericles are: Thracian Chersonese (453-452), Lemnos and Imbros, Andros, Naxos and Eretria (before 447); ' Brea in Thrace (446); Oreus (445); Amisus and Astacus in the Black Sea (after 440); Aegina (431).

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  • Trapezus), a city of Asia Minor, situated on the Black Sea, near its south-eastern angle.

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  • Its importance is due to its command of the point where the chief trade route from Persia and Central Asia to Europe, over the table-land of Armenia by Bayezid and Erzerum, descends to the sea.

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  • On each side, about half-way between the keep and the sea, these ravines are crossed by massive bridges, and on the farther side of the westernmost of these, away from the city, a large tower and other fortifications remain.

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  • The area of the ancient city is now called the Kaleh, and is inhabited by the Turks; eastward of this is the extensive Christian quarter, and beyond this again a low promontory juts northward into the sea, partly covered with the houses of a well-built suburb, which is the principal centre of commerce.

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  • Though only twenty-two years of age, Alexius was a man of ability and resolute will, and he succeeded without difficulty in making himself master of the greater part of the southern coast of the Black Sea.

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  • The cause of this long duration, and at the same time the secret of its history, is to be found in the isolated position of Trebizond and its district, between the mountains and the sea, which has already been described.

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  • We find them also at war with many of these powers, and with the Genoese, who endeavoured to monopolize the commerce of the Black Sea.

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  • Still more important is the church of Haghia Sophia, which occupies a conspicuous position overlooking the sea, about 2 m.

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  • The mud brought down by it, calculated at 7150 lb an hour at Bagdad, is not deposited in marshes to form alluvium, as in the case of the Euphrates, but although in flood time the river becomes at places an inland sea, rendering navigation extremely difficult and uncertain, the bulk of the mud is deposited in banks, shoals and islands in the bed of the river, and is finally carried out into the Persian Gulf.

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  • Shortly below Kut-el-Amara all traces of ancient canalization on the east side vanish, and it would appear as though much of that region, now largely under water at flood time, constituted an inland sea.

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  • Its harbour was of some importance, but is now silted up, the sea having receded.

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  • The name of Alkmaar, which means "all sea," first occurs in the 10th century, and recalls its former situation in the midst of marshlands and lakes.

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  • A Persian fleet still held the sea, but it effected little, and presently fresh Graeco-Macedonian squadrons began to hold it in check.

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  • It was, however, the need to ensure command of the sea and free all lines of communication behind him that determined Alexander's plan for the next campaign.

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  • The excessive heat of the upper regions compels him to descend, and he next visits the bottom of the sea in a kind of diving-bell.

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  • I Kings vi., vii.), the sacrifices and festivals and the functions of priests and prince are prescribed, a stream issuing from under the temple is to vivify the Dead Sea and fertilize the land (this is meant literally), the land is divided into parallel strips and assigned to the tribes.

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  • to the Nordenskjold Sea, a division of the Arctic, disemboguing S.W.

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  • Zea or Tzia), an island in the Aegean Sea, belonging to the group of the Cyclades and the eparchy of Syra, 14 m.

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  • The district is a deltaic tract, bordering south on the sea and traversed by many tidal creeks.

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  • He was now sent on an important mission to India; he left England in September 1769, but the ship in which he sailed was lost at sea late in 1770 or early in 1771.

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  • south of Cochin, situated on a strip of coast between the sea and one of those backwaters that here form the chief means of inland communication.

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  • out at sea.

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  • The only genuine division of the Albanian race is that of Ghegs and Tosks; the Liaps, who inhabit the district between the Viossa and the sea, and the Tshams or Chams, who occupy the coast-land south of the Kalamas, are subdivisions of the Tosk family.

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  • of the Dead Sea, between the land of Moab and the Gulf of Akaba.

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  • In the early records of the Pentateuch, the country is often referred to by the name of Seir, the general name for the whole range of mountains on the east side of the Jordan-Araba depression south of the Dead Sea.

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  • 7), and Azariah his successor was able to renew the sea trade of the Gulf of Akaba (2 Kings xiv.

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  • above their base, the highest peak, Harney, having an altitude above the sea of 7216 ft.

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  • coast of the Black Sea, 45 m.

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  • from the Strait of Yenikale or Kerch, giving access to the Sea of Azov.

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  • above the sea, about 15 m.

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  • It lies on either side of the formerly natural, now artificial outlet of the river Waveney to the North Sea, while to the west the river forms Oulton Broad and Lothing Lake.

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  • above the sea in the borderland between the fertile and wooded regions of the Sudan on the south and the arid steppes which merge into the Sahara on the north.

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  • At the foot of the hill flows the river See, which at high tide is navigable from the sea.

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  • It is navigable from the heart of Tirol to the sea.

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  • In Roman times it flowed, in its lower course, much farther north than at present, along the base of the Euganean hills, and entered the sea at Brondolo.

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  • ARABIAN SEA (anc. Mare Erythraeum), the name applied to the portion of the Indian Ocean bounded E.

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  • It has two important branches - at the south-west the Gulf of Aden, connecting with the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-elMandeb; and at the north-west the Gulf of Oman, connecting with the Persian Gulf.

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  • An interest and importance belong to this sea as forming part of the chief highway between Europe and India.

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  • The three great rivers that form the La Plata system - the Paraguay, Parana and Uruguay - have their sources in the highlands of Brazil and flow southward through a great continental depression, two of them forming eastern boundary lines, and one of them, the Parana, flowing across the eastern part of the republic. The northern part of Argentina, therefore, drains eastward from the mountains to these rivers, except where some great inland depression gives rise to a drainage having no outlet to the sea, and except, also, in the " mesopotamia " region, where small streams flow westward into the Parana and eastward into the Uruguay.

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  • As far west, therefore, as the Cordillera, there is no evidence that any part of the region was ever beneath the sea in Mesozoic times, and the plant-remains indicate a land connexion with Africa.

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  • This untoward disaster led to the abandonment of the expedition, which forthwith returned to Spain, bringing with them the news of the discovery of a fresh-water sea.

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  • Amidst this sea of financial troubles the government drifted helplessly on, without showing any inclination or capacity to initiate a strong policy of reform in the methods of administration which had done so much to ruin the country.

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  • Seaboard.The shore of the Mediterranean encircling the Gulf of the Lion (Golfe du Lion) from Cape Cerbera to Martigues is lowlying and unbroken, and characterized chiefly by lagoons separated from the sea by sand-dunes.

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  • The coast, constantly encroaching on the sea by reason of the alluvium washed down by the rivers of the Pyrenees and Cvennes, is without important harbours saving that of Cette, itself continually invaded by the sand.

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  • Along the Atlantic coast from the mouth of the Adour to the estuary of the Gironde there stretches a monotonous line of sanddunes bordered by lagoons on the land side, but towards the sea harbourless and unbroken save for the Bay of Arcachon.

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  • North of that river the coast is low-lying and bordered by sand-lunes, to which succeed on the Strait of Dover the cliffs in the neighborhood of the port of Boulogne and the marshes and sand-dunes of Flanders, with the ports of Calais and Dunkirk, the latter the principal French port on the NOrth Sea.

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  • The coasts present a number of maritime inlets, forming inland bays, which communicate with the sea by channels of greater or less width.

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  • The Central Plateau has probably been a land mass ever since this period, but the rest of the country was flooded by the Palaeozoic sea.

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  • The earlier deposits of that sea now rise to the surface in Brittany, the Ardennes, the Montagne Noire and the Cvennes, and in all these regions they arc intensely folded.

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  • Towards the end of the period, however, during the deposition of the Portlandian beds, the sea again retreated, and in the early part of the Cretaceous period was limited (in France) to the catchment basins of the Sane and Rhnein the Paris basin the contemporaneous deposits were chiefly estuarine and were confined to the northern and eastern rim.

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  • Beginning with the Aptian and Albian the sea again gradually spread over the country and attained its maximum in the early part of the Senonian epoch, when once more the ancient massifs of the Central Plateau, Brittany and the Ardennes, alone rose above the waves.

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  • During the later part of the Cretaceous period the sea gradually retreated and left the whole country dry.

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  • During the Tertiary period arms of the sea spread into France in the Paris basin from the north, in the basins of the Loire and the Garonne from the west, and in the Rhne area from the south.

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  • 749,753 Departments from which the adult males emigrate 532,567 regularly either to sea or to seek employment in towns 330,533 tend to fall under the first head, those in which large 188,553 bodies of troops are stationed under the second.

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  • The term sailor is used in a very wide sense and includes all persons earning their living by navigation on the sea, or in the harbours or roadsteads, or on salt lakes or canals within the maritime domain of the state, or on rivers and canals as far as the tide goes up or sea-going ships can pass.

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  • ARCHIPELAGO, a name now applied to any island-studded sea, but originally the distinctive designation of what is now generally known as the Aegean Sea (Aiyaiov 7rEXayos), its ancient name having been revived.

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  • (I) it is a corruption of the ancient name, Egeopelago; (2) it is from the modern Greek, `Ayco iraayo, the Holy Sea; (3) it arose at the time of the Latin empire, and means the Sea of the Kingdom (Arche); (4) it is a translation of the Turkish name, Ak Denghiz, Argon Pelagos, the White Sea; (5) it is simply Archipelagus, Italian, arcipelago, the chief sea.

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  • For the Grecian Archipelago see Aegean Sea.

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  • above the level of the sea.

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  • If their ancestors had been carried out to sea once or twice by a flood and safely drifted as far as the Galapagos Islands" (Wallace), "they must have been numerous on the continent" (Rothschild and Hartert).

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  • To the left of the Turks and the right of the Christians, there was open sea.

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  • In fear lest he should be outflanked by Uluch Ali, he stood out to sea, leaving a gap between himself and the centre.

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  • In 1727 he gained the prize given by the Academie des Sciences for his paper "On the best manner of forming and distributing the masts of ships"; and two other prizes, one for his dissertation "On the best method of observing the altitude of stars at sea," the other for his paper "On the best method of observing the variation of the compass at sea."

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  • It is also connected by rail with Kalach on the Don, where merchandise from the Sea of Azov is disembarked.

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  • The tendency of the currents in the Channel opposite Brighton is to drive the shingle eastward, and encroachments of the sea were frequent and serious until the erection of a massive sea-wall, begun about 1830, 60 ft.

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  • above sea level, the elevation of the Plaza de Bolivar, its topographical centre, being 3025 ft.

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  • above the level of the Dead Sea.

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  • At this point in the Haram enclosure there is an enormous underground cistern, known as the Great Sea, and this may possibly have been the source of water supply for the Greek garrison.

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  • from the sea a width of nearly 3300 yds.

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  • On the Acropolis of Athens he set up a colossal bronze image of Athena, which was visible far out at sea.

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  • RHODES, the most easterly of the islands of the Aegean Sea, about 10 m.

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  • Beneath these hills the surface of the island falls lower, and several hills in the form of amphitheatres extend their bases as far as the sea.

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  • It rises in an imposing manner from the sea, on a gentle slope in the form of an amphitheatre.

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  • The two harbours are separated by a mole which runs obliquely into the sea.

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  • Australia is bounded by the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and Torres Strait; on the E.

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  • A further gentle rise in the high steppes leads to the mountains of the West Australian coast, and another strip of low-lying coastal land to the sea.

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  • Australia presents a contour wonderfully devoid of inlets from the sea except on its northern shores, where the coast-line is largely indented.

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  • The higher Australian peaks in the south-east look just what they are, the worn and denuded stumps of mountains, standing for untold ages above the sea.

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  • Naked crags, when they do appear, lift themselves from a sea of green, and a tropical vegetation, quite Malaysian in character, covers everything.

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  • The other rivers worth mentioning are the Yarra, entering the sea at Port Phillip, Hopkins and Glenelg.

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  • in length unpierced by any streams, large or small, but west of the bight, towards Cape Leeuwin, some small rivers enter the sea.

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  • from the sea, and small vessels may ascend for another 80 m.

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  • above the sea, but before the waters can reach the ocean they have still to travel about 1000 m.

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  • But from Bourke to the sea, 550 m.

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  • But they have been separated by the foundering of the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea, which divided the continent of Australia from the islands of the Australasian festoon; and the foundering of the band across Australia, from the Gulf of Carpentaria, through western Queensland and western New South Wales, to the lower basin of the Murray, has separated the Archean areas of eastern and western Australia.

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  • A narrow Cambrian sea must have extended across central Australia from the Kimberley Goldfield in the north-west, through Tempe Downs and the Macdonnell chain in central Australia, to the South Australian highlands, central Victoria at Mansfield, and northern Tasmania.

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  • The Silurian system was marked by the retreat of the sea from central Australia; but the sea still covered a band across Victoria, from the coast to the Murray basin, passing to the east of Melbourne.

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  • This Silurian sea was less extensive than the Ordovician in Victoria; but it appears to have been wider in New South Wales and in Queensland.

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  • Silurian rocks are well developed in western Tasmania, and the Silurian sea must have washed the south-western corner of the continent, if the rocks of the Stirling Range be rightly identified as of this age.

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  • The Cretaceous period was initiated by the subsidence of a large area to the south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, whereby a Lower Cretaceous sea spread southward, across western Queensland, western New South Wales and the north-eastern districts of South Australia.

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  • In this sea were laid down the shales of the Rolling Downs formation.

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  • The sea does not appear to have extended completely across Australia, breaking it into halves, for a projection from the Archean plateau of Western Australia extended as far east as the South Australian highlands, and thence probably continued eastward, till it joined the Victorian highlands.

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  • The Cretaceous sea gradually receded and the plains of the Rolling Downs formation formed on its floor were covered by the sub-aerial and lacustrine deposits of the Desert Sandstone.

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  • The sea encroached far on the land from the Great Australian Bight and there formed the limestones of the Nullarbor Plains.

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  • The sea extended up the Murray basin into the western plains of New South Wales.

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  • Farther east the sea was interrupted by the still existing land-connexion between Tasmania and Victoria; but beyond it, the marine deposits are found again, fringing the coasts of eastern Gippsland and Croajingolong.

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  • No doubt eastern Australia then extended far out into the Tasman Sea.

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  • After this marine period was brought to a close the sea retreated.

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  • annual rainfall area, and still nearer the sea are the exceptionally well-watered districts.

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  • The sea produces three different seals, which often ascend rivers from the coast, and can live in lagoons of fresh water; many cetaceans, besides the " right whale " and sperm whale; and the dugong, found on the northern shores, which yields a valuable medicinal oil.

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  • The " leathery turtle," which is herbivorous, and yields abundance of oil, has been caught at sea off the Illawarra coast so large as 9 ft.

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  • In tropical waters a sea snake is found, which, though very poisonous, rarely bites.

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  • Among the sea fish, the schnapper is of great value as an article of food, and its weight comes up to 50 lb.

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  • South Sea Islanders and other coloured races, numbering probably about 15,000, were in 1906 to be found principally in Queensland, but further immigration of Pacific Islanders to Australia is now restricted, and the majority of those in the country in 1906 were deported by the middle of 1907.

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  • that the continent was first inhabited by a Papuan type of man who made his way thither from Flores and Timor, New Guinea and the Coral Sea.

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  • He was furnished with a yacht, the " Heemskirk," and a fly-boat, the " Zeehaen " (or " Sea Hen "), under the command of Captain Jerrit Jansen.

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  • Continuing in a north-easterly direction Oxley struck the Macquarie river at a place he called Wellington, and from this place in the following year he organized a second expedition in hopes of discovering an inland sea.

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  • Oxley now turned aside - led by Mr Evans's report of the country eastward - crossed the Arbuthnot range, and traversing the Liverpool Plains, and ascending the Peel and Cockburn rivers to the Blue Mountains, gained sight of the open sea, which he reached at Port Macquarie.

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  • Yet its result was a disappointment to those who had looked for means of inland navigation by the Macquarie river, and by its supposed issue in a mediterranean sea.

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  • south-east of the town of Adelaide, and finally enters the sea at Encounter Bay in E.

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  • Here, without actually standing on the sea-beach of the northern shore, they met the tidal waters of the sea.

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  • John (afterwards Sir John) Forrest was despatched by the Perth government with general instructions to obtain information regarding the immense tract of country out of which flow the rivers falling into the sea on the northern and western shores of Western Australia.

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  • After a few months' rest it started on the return journey, following Sturt Creek until its termination in Gregory's Salt Sea, and then keeping parallel with the South Australian border as far as Lake Macdonald.

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  • Finance, commerce, the national armaments by sea and land, judicial procedure, church government, education, even art and science - everything, in short - emerged recast from his shaping hand.

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  • These rise generally only a few feet above the level of the sea, and are crowned by a single house standing on an artificial mound and protected by a surrounding dike or embankment.

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  • Black, Heligoland and the Islands of the North Sea (Glasgow, 1888).

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  • This project, differing from others that had been previously presented or that were in opposition to it, provided for a direct communication between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea.

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  • He subsequently encouraged Major Roudaire, who wished to transform the Sahara desert into an inland sea.

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  • This middle kingdom formed a long strip stretching across Europe from the North Sea to Naples, and embraced the whole of the later Netherlands with the exception of the portion on the left bank of the Scheldt, which river was made the boundary of West Francia.

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  • His ambition, however, was boundless, and he set himself to realize the dream of his father - a Burgundian kingdom stretching from the North Sea to the Mediterranean.

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  • sea.

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  • AULUS GABINIUS, Roman statesman and general, and supporter of Pompey, a prominent figure in the later days of the Roman republic. In 67 B.C., when tribune of the people, he brought forward the famous law (Lex Gabinia) conferring upon Pompey the command in the war against the Mediterranean pirates, with extensive powers which gave him absolute control over that sea and the coasts for 50 m.

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  • the Malay Land), a lozenge-shaped strip of land projecting into the China Sea, and forming the most southerly portion of the continent of Asia.

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  • in width, and the distance from sea to sea is further diminished by a large irregular salt-water inlet.

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  • by the China Sea, and on the W.

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  • On the east coast the force of the north-east monsoon, which beats upon the shores of the China Sea annually from November to February, has kept the land for the most part free from mangroves, and the sands, broken here and there by rocky headlands thickly wooded, and fringed by casuarina trees, stretch for miles without interruption.

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  • 33 state above the sea is about I 00 ft.

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  • Along the shore of Lake Champlain are a few species of maritime plants that remain from the time when portions of western Vermont were covered by the sea, and on the upper slopes of some of the higher mountains are a few Alpine species; these, however, are much less numerous on the Green Mountains of Vermont than on the White Mountains of New Hampshire.

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  • The rivers of the province belong to the basins of the Indian Ocean and the Java Sea respectively, the water-parting being formed by the western and eastern ends respectively of the northern and southern lines of mountain peaks.

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  • The two which drain the largest basin are the Chi Manuk and the Chi Tarum, both rising in the eastern end of the province and flowing northeast and north-west respectively to the Java Sea.

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  • The view of the city from the sea is one of great beauty.

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  • above the sea) took their place.

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  • Notre-Dame d'Afrique, a church built (1858-1872) in a mixture of the Roman and Byzantine styles, is conspicuously situated, overlooking the sea, on the shoulder of the Bu Zarea hills, m.

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  • above the level of the sea, on the narrow south-western edge of the extinct crater of Rocca Monfina.

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  • The oak will not bear exposure to the full force of the sea gale, though in ravines and on sheltered slopes oak woods sometimes extend nearly to the shore.

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  • The ilex, also known as the "holm oak" from its resemblance to the holly, abounds in all the Mediterranean countries, showing a partiality for the sea air.

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  • In Britain the evergreen oak is quite hardy in ordinary winters, and is useful to the ornamental planter from its capacity for resisting the sea gales; but it generally remains of small size.

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  • Cromwell was outmanoeuvred and in a perilous situation, completely cut off from England and from his supplies except from the sea.

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  • 2 Port Lloyd, the chief anchorage (situated on Peel Island), is considered by Commodore Perry - who visited the islands in 1853 and strongly urged the establishment of a United States coaling station there - to have been formerly the crater of a volcano from which the surrounding hills were thrown up, the entrance to the harbour being a fissure through which lava used to pour into the sea.

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  • The shores are covered with coral; earthquakes and tidal waves are frequent, the latter not taking the form of bores, but of a sudden steady rise and equally sudden fall in the level of the sea; the climate is rather tropical than temperate, but sickness is almost unknown among the residents.

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  • wide; and (4) the " Norwegian Sea," about 400 m.

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  • This intermediate region, which has Atlantic characteristics down to 300 fathoms, and at greater depths belongs more properly to the Arctic Sea, commonly receives the name of Norwegian Sea.

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  • Before the Antarctic expeditions of 1903-1904 our knowledge of the form of the sea bottom south of 40° S.

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  • long., where it bends northwards to the Caribbean Sea.

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  • The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.

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  • In the North Atlantic the distribution of pressure and resulting wind circulation are very largely modified by the enormous areas of land and frozen sea which surround the ocean on three sides.

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  • " National, " the Danish " Ingolf " expedition, and the minor expeditions of the " Michael Sars," " Jackal," " Research," &c., and since 1902 it has been periodically examined by the International Council for the Study of the Sea.

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  • The Sargasso Sea is bounded, roughly, by the lines of 20°-35° N.

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  • But the Dutch fleet was detained in the Texel for many weeks by unfavourable weather, and before it eventually put to sea in October, only to be crushed by Duncan in the battle of Camperdown, Tone had returned to Paris; and Hoche, the chief hope of the United Irishmen, was dead.

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  • It is situated on the canal from Bruges to Sluys (Ecluse), but in the middle ages a navigable channel or river called the Zwyn gave ships access to it from the North Sea.

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  • from Barmouth, is on a cliff overlooking the sea.

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  • Thence it runs westward to Florence and through the gorge of Golfolina onwards to Empoli and Pisa, receiving various tributaries in its course, and falls into the sea 71 m.

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  • The Serchio (anc. Auser), which joined the Arno at Pisa in ancient times, now flows into the sea independently.

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  • above the sea, about 21 m.

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  • by the Black Sea and the vilayet of Constantinople, S.

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  • by the Sea of Marmora and the Aegean Sea and W.

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  • Towards the Black Sea, the less elevated Istranja Dagh stretches from north-west to south-east; and the entire south coast, which includes the promontory of Gallipoli and the western shore of the Dardanelles, is everywhere hilly or mountainous, except near the estuaries of the Maritza, and of the Mesta, a western frontier stream.

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  • And again- "And if a merchant throve, so that he fared thrice over the wide sea.

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  • The coast is low and sandy and is formed by the detritus deposited by the sea current called Calema.

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  • It is provided with a jetty, is the sea terminus of the railway systems, the residence of the governor, and has churches, schools, hospitals and large business houses.

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  • The Anes are reported to have come from the Gold Coast by sea and to have been wrecked at this place.

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  • above the sea, and commands a superb view towards the Mediterranean, the mountains of Shechem and Mount Hermon.

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  • It lies on the North Sea, 104 m.

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  • above the sea; it soon becomes a considerable stream, collecting in its course the waters of other rivers, and finally discharging itself into the Jumna after a course of 560 m.

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  • - Deep sea type.

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  • The weight of the iron sheath varies greatly according to the depth of the water, the nature of the sea bottom, the prevalence of currents, and so on.

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  • then to the paying-out drum P, from it to the dynamometer D, and finally to the stern pulley, over which it passes into the sea.

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  • Whilst it is being paid out the portion between the surface of the water and the bottom of the sea lies along a straight line, the component of the weight at right angles to its length being supported by the frictional resistance to sinking in the water.

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  • But the cost of effecting a repair still remains a very uncertain quantity, success being dependent on quiet conditions of sea and weather.

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  • Using these buoys to guide the direction of tow, a grapnel, a species of fivepronged anchor, attached to a strong compound rope formed of strands of steel and manila, is lowered to the bottom and dragged at a slow speed, as it were ploughing a furrow in the sea bottom, in a line at right angles to the cable route, until the behaviour of the dynamometer shows that the cable is hooked.

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  • After the " final splice," as it is termed, between these ends has been made, the bight, made fast to a slip rope, is lowered overboard, the slip rope cut, and the cable allowed to sink by its own weight to its resting-place on the sea bed.

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  • The grappling of the cable and raising it to the surface from a depth of 2000 fathoms seldom occupy less than twenty-four hours, and since any extra strain due to the pitching of the vessel must be avoided, it is clear that the state of the sea and weather is the predominating factor in the time necessary for effecting the long series of operations which, in the most favourable circumstances, are required for a repair.

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  • In the same way all the conducting sheets on the other side of the paper are connected together and form the earth-plate of this artificial cable, thus representing the sea.

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  • or similar undertakings, and to obviate this it is necessary to form the " earth " for the cable a few miles out at sea and make connexion thereto by an insulated return wire, which is enclosed in the same sheathing as the core of the main cable.

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  • He and others also suggested the applicability of the method to the inter-communication of ships at sea.

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  • He proposed that one ship should be provided with the means of making an interrupted current in a circuit formed partly of an insulated metallic wire connected with the sea at both ends by plates, and partly of the unlimited ocean.

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  • Canal system of flow lines of current through the sea, and these might be detected by any other ships furnished with two plates dipping into the sea at stem and stern, and connected by a wire having a telephone in its circuit, provided that the two plates were not placed on the same equipotential surface of the original current flow lines.

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  • Each line terminated in an earth plate placed in the sea.

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  • P. Granville put into practice between Alum Bay in the Isle of Wight and the Needles lighthouse a method which depends upon conduction through sea water.

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  • Elec. Eng., 27, p. 938.) It may be explained as follows: - Suppose a battery on shore to have one pole earthed and the other connected to an insulated submarine cable, the distant end of which was also earthed; if now a galvanometer is inserted anywhere in the cable, a current will be found flowing through the cable and returning by various paths through the sea.

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  • away near the shore line of the Fastnet rock, crosses the rock, and is again earthed in the sea at the distant end.

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  • Up to 1895 or 1896 the suggestions for wireless telegraphy which had been publicly announced or tried can thus be classified under three or four divisions, based respectively upon electrical conduction through the soil or sea, magnetic induction through space, combinations of the two foregoing, and lastly, electrostatic induction.

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  • It was found to be peculiarly adapted for communication between ships at sea and between ship and shore, and a system of regular supermarine communication was put into operation by two limited companies, Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company and the Marconi International Marine Communication Company.

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  • It lies partly on a peninsula between the river and the sea, partly on the wooded uplands which enclose the valley and rise gradually to the high moors beneath Heytor.

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  • AEGEAN SEA, a part of the Mediterranean Sea, being the archipelago between Greece on the west and Asia Minor on the east, bounded N.

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  • by European Turkey, and connected by the Dardanelles with the Sea of Marmora, and so with the Black Sea.

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  • The name Archipelago (q.v.) was formerly applied specifically to this sea.

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  • Various derivations are given by the ancient grammarians - one from the town of Aegae; another from Aegea, a queen of the Amazons who perished in this sea; and a third from Aegeus, the father of Theseus, who, supposing his son dead, drowned himself in it.

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  • A third curve, from the south-easternmost promontory of the Peloponnese through Cerigo, Crete, Carpathos and Rhodes, marks off the outer deeps of the open Mediterranean from the shallow seas of the archipelago, but the Cretan Sea, in which depths occur over 1000 fathoms, intervenes, north of the line, between it and the Aegean proper.

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  • The greater part of this trough is over 600 fathoms deep. The profusion of islands and their usually bold elevation give beauty and picturesqueness to the sea, but its navigation is difficult and dangerous, notwithstanding the large number of safe and commodious gulfs and bays.

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  • Many of the islands are of volcanic formation; and a well-defined volcanic chain bounds the Cretan Sea on the north, including Milo and Kimolos, Santorin (Thera) and Therasia, and extends to Nisyros.

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  • ITALY (Italia), the name1 applied both in ancient and in modern times to the great peninsula that projects from the mass of central Europe far to the south into the Mediterranean Sea, where the island of Sicily may be considered as a continuation of he continental promontory.

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  • The portion of the Mediterranean commonly termed the Tyrrhenian Sea forms its limit on the W.

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  • Ancient geographers appear to have generally regarded the remarkable headland which descends from the Maritime Alps to the sea between Nice and Monaco as the limit of Italy in that direction, and in a purely geographical point of view it is probably the best point that could be selected.

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  • above the sea; and after a course of less than 20 m.

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  • from the sea, was formerly much farther inland, more than 10 m.

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  • The river Marecchia, which enters the sea immediately north of Rimini, may be considered as the natural limit of Northern Italy.

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  • The narrow strip of coast-land between the Maritime Alps, the Apennines and the sea—called in ancient times Liguria, and now known as the Riviera of Genoa—is throughout its extent, from Nice to Genoa on the one side, and from Genoa to Spezia on the other, almost wholly mountainous.

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  • From the proximity of the mountains to the sea none of the rivers in this part of Italy has a long course, and they are generally mere mountain torrents, rapid and swollen in winter and spring, and almost dry in summer.

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  • The most considerable of them are—the Roja, which rises in the Col di Tenda and descends to Ventimiglia; the Taggia, between San Remo and Oneglia; and the Centa, which enters the sea at Albenga.

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  • The Lavagna, which enters the sea at Chiavari, is the only stream of any importance between Genoa and the Gulf of Spezia.

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  • from the Adriatic, while about double that distance separates it from the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west.

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  • But the Apennines of Central Italy, instead of presenting, like the Alps and the northern Apennines, a definite central ridge, with transverse valleys leading down from it on both sides, in reality constitute a mountain mass of very considerable breadth, composed of a number of minor ranges and groups of mountains, which preserve a generally parallel direction, and are separated by upland valleys, some of them of considerable extent as well as considerable elevation above the sea.

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  • In this part the Apennines are separated from the sea, distant about 30 m.

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  • The Arno, which has its source in the Monte Falterona, one of the most elevated summits of the main chain of the Tuscan Apennines, flows nearly south till in the neighborhood of Arezzo it turns abruptly north-west, and pursues that course as far as Pontassieve, where it again makes a sudden bend to the west, and pursues a westerly course thence to the sea, passing through Florence and Pisa.

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  • The Elsa and the Era, which join it on its left bank, descending from the hills near Siena and Volterra, are inconsiderable streams; and the Serchio, which flows from the territory of Lucca and the Alpi Apuani, and formerly joined the Arno a few miles from its mouth, now enters the sea by a separate channel.

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  • The most considerable rivers of Tuscany south of the Arno are the Cecina, which flows through the plain below Volterra, and the Ombrone, which rises in the hills near Siena, and enters the sea about 12 m.

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  • The central range here approaches much nearer to the sea, and hence, with few exceptions, the rivers that flow from it have short courses and are of comparatively little importance.

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  • On the east side in like manner the Monte Gargano (3465 ft.), a detached limestone mass which projects in a bold spur-like promontory into the Adriatic, forming the only break in the otherwise uniform coast-line of Italy on that sea, though separated from the great body of the Apennines by a considerable interval of low country, may be considered as merely an outlier from the central mass.

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  • east of the city of that name, brings down a considerable body of water; as does also the Volturno, which rises in the mountains between Castel di Sangro and Agnone, flows past Isernia, Venafro and Capua, and enters the sea about 15 m.

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  • Below this the watershed of the Apennines is too near to the sea on that side to allow the formation of any large streams. Hence the rivers that flow in the opposite direction into the Adriatic and the Gulf of Taranto have much longer courses, though all partake of the character of mountain torrents, rushing down with great violence in winter and after storms, but dwindling in the summer into scanty streams, which hold a winding and sluggish course through the great plains of Apulia.

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  • The so-called lakes on the coast of the Adriatic north and south of the promontory of Gargano are brackish lagoons communicating with the sea.

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  • The islands farther south in the Tyrrhenian Sea are of an entirely different character.

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  • The Roman district, the largest of the four, extends from the hills of Albano to the frontier of Tuscany, and from the lower slopes of the Apennines to the Tyrrhenian Sea.

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  • It is a great depression—the continuation of the Adriatic Sea—filled up by deposits brought down by the rivers from the mountains.

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  • But the strip of coast between the Apennines and the sea, known as the Riviera of Genoa, is not only extremely favourable to the growth of olives, but produces oranges and lemons in abundance, while even the aloe, the cactus and the palm flourish in many places.

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  • The shores, especially on the Tyrthenian Sea, present almost a continued grove of olive, orange, lemon and citron trees, which attain a size unknown in the north of Italy.

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  • Southern Italy indeed has in general a very different climate from the northern portion of the kingdom; and, though large tracts are still occupied by rugged mountains of sufficient elevation to retain the snow for a considerable part of the year, the districts adjoining the sea enjoy a climate similar to that of Greece and the southern provinces of Spain.

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  • The sea mammals include the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis).

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  • Tortoiseshell, an important article of commerce, is derived from the Thalassochelys caretta, a sea turtle.

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  • It predominates along the Ligurian Riviera from Bordighera to Spezia, and on the Adriatic, near San Benedetto del Tronto and Gargano, and, crossing the Italian shore of the Ioian Sea, prevails in some regions of Calabria, and terminates around the gulfs of Salerno, Sorrento and Naples.

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  • He holds supreme command by land and sea, appoints ministers and officials, promulgates the laws, coins money, bestows honors, has the right of pardoning, and summons and dissolves the parliament.

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  • Rome is plotected by a circle of forts from a coup de main from the sea, the coast, only 12 m.

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  • B~t in the time of that historian, as well as of Thucydides, the names of Oenotria and Italia, which appear to have been at that period regarded as synonymous, had been extended to include the shore of the Tarentine Gulf as far as Metapontum and from thence across to the gulfs of Laus and Posidonia on the Tyrrhenian Sea.

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  • The seventh region consisted of Etruria, which preserved its ancient limits, extending from the Tiber to the Tyrrhenian Sea, and separated from Liguria on the north by the river Macra.

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  • During their season of ascendancy Pisa was enslaved, and Florence gained the access to the sea.

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  • On the 25th of April General Roman Oudinot landed with 8000 men at Civitavecchia, and Republl4 on the 3oth attempted to capture Rome by suprise, but was completely defeated by Garibaldi, who might have driven the French into the sea, had Mazzini allowed him to leave the city.

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  • By the end of May the city was blockaded by land and sea, and in July the bombardment began.

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  • pal ~dom On the 13th of February the fortress surrendered, sol Francis and his family having departed by sea for lasi al territory.

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  • Austria undertook to guard the Adriatic on land and sea, and to help Germany by checkmating Russia on land.

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  • commerce at Genoa had urged the Lanza cabinet to establish a commercial depot on the Red Sea.

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  • On the 20th of September 1881 Beheran formally accepted Italian protection, and in the following February an Anglo-Italian convention established the Italian title to Assab on condition that Italy should formally recognise the suzerainty of the Porte and of the khedive over the Red Sea coast, and should prevent the transport of arms and munitions of war through the territory of Assab.

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  • About the same time Mancini was informed by the Italian agent in Cairo that Great Britain would be well disposed towards an extension of Italian influence on the Red Sea coast.

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  • The occupation, effected on the 5th of February, was accelerated by fear lest Italy might be forestalled by France or Russia, both of which powers were suspected of desiring to establish themselves firmly on the Red Sea and to exercise a protectorate over Abyssinia.

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  • above the sea, in a fertile but somewhat marshy district, which in the middle ages was very malarious.

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  • Between the Andamans and Cape Negrais intervene two small groups, Preparis and Cocos; between the Andamans and Sumatra lie the Nicobar Islands, the whole group stretching in a curve, to which the meridian forms a tangent between Cape Negrais and Sumatra; and though this curved line measures 700 m., the widest sea space is about 91 m.

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  • out of the sea, 71 m.

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  • of the Andamans are the dangerous Western Banks and Dalrymple Bank, rising to within a few fathoms of the surface of the sea and forming, with the two Sentinel Islands �, the tops of a line of submarine hills parallel to the Andamans.

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  • Barren Island was last in eruption in 1803, but there is still a thin column of steam from a sulphur bed at the top and a variable hot spring at the point where the last outburst of lava flowed into the sea.

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  • The religion consists of fear of the spirits of the wood, the sea, disease and ancestors, and of avoidance of acts traditionally displeasing to them.

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  • Two able officers, Colebrooke of the Bengal Engineers, and Blair of the sea service, were sent to survey and report.

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  • To establish the exact relationship it is necessary not only to breed but to rear the medusa, which cannot always be done in 1 In some cases hydroids have been reared in aquaria from ova of medusae, but these hydroids have not yet been found in the sea (Browne [Io a]).

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  • pelagic organisms, floating on the surface of the open sea, propelling themselves feebly by the pumping movements of the umbrella produced by contraction of the sub-umbral musculature, and capturing their prey with their tentacles.

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  • (After quickly and are either Hertwig.) set free in a mature condition or remain in the shelter of the polypcolony, protected from risks of a free life in the open sea.

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  • Numerous medusae are budded successively within the gonotheca and set free; they swim off and mature in the open sea (Allman [1], p. 48, figs.

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  • " Deep Sea Medusae," in Reports of the Challenger Expedition, Zool.

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  • C. Mereschkowsky, " On a new Genus of Hydroids (Monobrachium) from the White Sea, with a short description of other new Hydroids," Ann.

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  • It has direct communication with the sea by a ship-canal, greatly enlarged and deepened since 1895, which connects the Grand Basin, stretching along the north side of the city, with a spacious harbour excavated at Terneuzen on the Scheldt, 212 m.

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  • by the North Sea and the mouth of the Ems with the Dollart, and on the S.E.

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  • To the Windward Islands belong Tapamanu or Majaiti (Wallis's Sir Charles Saunders's Island and Spanish Pelada); Moorea or Eimeo (Wallis's Duke of York Island and Spanish San Domingo); Tahiti - Cook's Otaheite (probably Quiros's Sagittaria; Wallis's King George's Island, Bougainville's Nouvelle Cythere and Spanish Isla d'Amat); Tetuaroa - "The Distant Sea" (?

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  • A mountain, usually with very steep peaks, forms the centre, if not the whole island; on all sides steep ridges descend to the sea, or, as is oftener the case, to a considerable belt of flat land.

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  • Maitea, which rises from the sea as an exceedingly abrupt cone, and Tapamanu, appear to be the only islands without almost completely encircling barrier-reefs.

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  • Rolled pieces of amber, usually small but occasionally of very large size, may be picked up on the east coast of England, having probably been washed up from deposits under the North Sea.

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  • On the other side of the North Sea, amber is found at various localities on the coast of Holland and Denmark.

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  • Some of the amber districts of the Baltic and North Sea were known in prehistoric times, and led to early trade with the south of Europe.

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  • Amber was carried to Olbia on the Black Sea, Massilia on the Mediterranean, and Hatria at the head of the Adriatic; and from these centres it was distributed over the Hellenic world.

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  • It occurs in Miocene deposits and is also found washed up by the sea near Catania.

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  • LENKORAN, a town in Russian Transcaucasia, in the government of Baku, stands on the Caspian Sea, at the mouth of a small stream of its own name, and close to a large lagoon.

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  • While geographical knowledge of the west was still scanty and the secrets of the tin-trade were still successfully guarded by the seamen of Gades and others who dealt in the metal, the Greeks knew only that tin came to them by sea from the far west, and the idea of tin-producing islands easily arose.

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  • The forests of these subtropical and warm temperate regions are situated near the sea or in mountainous regions, and (as already stated) are characterized by winter rains.

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  • Epiphanes, who at the end of his reign restored once more the authority of the empire in Babylonia, Susiana and Persis; perhaps a battle, in which the satrap Numenius of Mesene (southern Babylonia) defeated the Persians on the shore of Carmania on sea and land (Plin.

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  • From the periplus of the Erythraean Sea 33-37 we learn that their authority extended over the shores of Carmania and the opposite coasts of Arabia.

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  • It is common round the British and Irish coasts, and generally distributed along the shores of the North Sea, extending across the Atlantic to the coast of North America.

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  • He systematized the form of the land within the ring of ocean - the habitable world - by recognizing two continents: Europe to the north, and Asia to the south of the midland sea.

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  • His argument as to the narrowness of the sea between West Africa and East Asia, from the occurrence of elephants at both extremities, is difficult to understand, although it shows that he looked on the distribution of animals as a problem of geography.

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  • It was natural, if not strictly logical, that the ocean river should be extended from a narrow stream to a world-embracing sea, and here again Greek theory, or rather fancy, gave its modern name to the greatest feature of the globe.

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  • He formed a comprehensive theory of the variations of climate with latitude and season, and was convinced of the necessity of a circulation of water between the sea and rivers, though, like Plato, he held that this took place by water rising from the sea through crevices in the rocks, losing it .s dissolved salts in the process.

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  • The apparent opposition of the observed fact to the assigned theory he overcame by looking upon the forms of the land and the arrangement of land and sea as instruments of Divine Providence for guiding the destiny as well as for supplying the requirements of man.

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  • They traded also on the Red sea, and opened up regular traffic with India as well as with the ports of the south and west, so that it was natural for Solomon to employ the merchant navies of Tyre in his oversea trade.

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  • nicians sailing the Red sea.

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  • Herodotus (himself a notable traveller in the 5th century B.C.) relates that the Egyptian king Necho of the XXVIth Dynasty (c. 600 B.C.) built a fleet on the Red Sea, and confided it to Phoenician sailors with the orders to sail southward and return to Egypt by the Pillars of Hercules and the Mediterranean sea.

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  • The world was henceforth viewed as a very large place stretching far on every side beyond the Midland or Mediterranean Sea, and the land journey of Alexander resulted in a voyage of discovery in the outer ocean from the mouth of the Indus to that of the Tigris, thus opening direct intercourse between Grecian and Hindu civilization.

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  • The conqueror also intended to open up trade by sea between Europe and India, and the narrative of his general Nearchus records this famous voyage of discovery, the detailed accounts of the chief pilot Onesicritus being lost.

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  • The second Euergetes and his successor Ptolemy Ptolemies Lathyrus (118-115 B.C.) furnished Eudoxus with a fleet to explore the Arabian sea.

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  • The Ptolemies continued to send fleets annually from their Red Sea ports of Berenice and Myos Hormus to Arabia, as well as to ports on the coasts of Africa and India.

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  • 79 Hippalus took advantage of the regular alternation of the monsoons to make the voyage from the Red Sea to India across the open ocean out of sight of land.

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  • Even though this sea-route was known, the author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, published after the time of Pliny, recites the old itinerary around the coast of the Arabian Gulf.

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  • A few years afterwards, a Fleming named Rubruquis was sent on a similar mission, and had the merit of being the first traveller of this era who gave a correct account of the Caspian Sea.

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  • After exploring Persia, and again residing for some time at Mecca, he made a voyage down the Red sea to Yemen, and travelled through that country to Aden.

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  • He crossed Arabia from Bahrein to Jidda, traversed the Red sea and the desert to Syene, and descended the Nile to Cairo.

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  • After this he revisited Syria and Asia Minor, and crossed the Black sea, the desert from Astrakhan to Bokhara, and the Hindu Kush.

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  • Among them was Nicolo Conti, who passed through Persia, sailed along the coast of Malabar, visited Sumatra, Java and the south of China, returned by the Red sea, and got home to Venice in 1444 after an absence of twenty-five years.

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  • Until then the Venetians held the carrying trade of India, which was brought by the Persian Gulf and Red sea into Syria and Egypt, the Venetians receiving the products of the East at Alexandria and Beirut and distributing them over Europe.

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  • This was one of the greatest calamities that could have happened to South America; for the discoverer of the South sea was on the point of sailing with a little fleet into his unknown ocean, and a humane and judicious man would probably have been the conqueror of Peru, instead of the cruel and ignorant Pizarro.

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  • In April 1520 Vasco da Gama, as viceroy of the Indies, took a fleet into the Red sea, and landed an embassy consisting of Dom Rodriguez de Lima and Father Francisco Alvarez, a priest whose detailed narrative is the earliest and not the least interesting account we possess of Abyssinia.

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  • In Further India and the Malay Archipelago the Portuguese acquired predominating influence at sea, establishing factories on the Malabar coast, in the Persian Gulf, at Malacca, and in the Spice Islands, and extending their commercial enterprises from the Red sea to China.

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  • He reached the White Sea, performed the journey overland to Moscow, where he was well received, and may be said to have been the founder of the trade between Russia and England.

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  • On a second voyage, in 1556, Chancellor was drowned; and three subsequent voyages, led by Stephen Burrough, Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman, in small craft of 50 tons and under, carried on an examination of the straits which lead into the Kara sea.

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  • The reign of Elizabeth is famous for the gallant enterprises that were undertaken by sea and land to discover and bring to light the unknown parts of the earth.

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  • Thomas Cavendish, emulous of Drake's example, fitted out three vessels for an expedition to the South sea in 1586.

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  • The Observations of Sir Richard Hawkins in his Voyage into the South Sea, published in 1622, are very valuable.

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  • The voyage of Drake across the Pacific was preceded by that of Alvaro de Mendana, who was despatched from Peru in 1567 to discover the great Antarctic continent which was believed to extend far northward into the South sea, the search In Pacific. for which now became one of the leading motives of Pacific. exploration.

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  • He sailed from Callao in October 1579, and made a careful survey of the Strait of Magellan, with the object of fortifying that entrance to the South sea.

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  • Fathers Mendez and Lobo traversed the deserts between the coast of the Red sea and the mountains, became acquainted with Lake Tsana, and discovered the sources of the Blue Nile in 1624-1633.

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  • Five years later he accepted an offer from the government to command an expedition into the interior of Africa, the plan being to cross from the Gambia to the Niger and descend the latter river to the sea.

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  • In November 1769 Samuel Hearne was sent by the Hudson Bay Company to discover the sea on the north side of America, but was obliged to return.

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  • With the same object Alexander Mackenzie, with a party of Canadians, set out from Fort Chippewyan on the 3rd of June 1789, and descending the great river which now bears the explorer's name reached the Arctic sea.

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  • Several attempts were also made to navigate the sea from the Lena to the Kolyma.

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  • Actual or projected routes for telegraph cables across the deep sea have also been sounded with extreme accuracy in many cases; but beyond these lines of sounding the vast spaces of the ocean remain unplumbed save for the rare researches of scientific expeditions, such as those of the " Challenger," the " Valdivia," the " Albatross " and the " Scotia."

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  • above sea-level, the mean depth Areas or of the sea 11,500 ft.

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  • If the continuous, unbroken, horizontal extent of land in a continent is termed its trunk,' and the portions cut up by inlets or channels of the sea into islands and peninsulas the limbs, it is possible to compare the continents in an instructive manner.

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  • A further subdivision depends on the character of the inter-relation of land and sea along the shore producing such types as a fjord-coast, ria-coast or lagoon-coast.

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  • been made to arrive at a definite international agreement on this subject, and certain terms suggested by a committee were adopted by the Eighth International Geographical Congress at New York in 1904.4 The forms of the ocean floor include the " shelf," or shallow sea margin, the " depression," a general term applied to all submarine hollows, and the " elevation."

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  • It is on the windward faces of the highest ground, or just beyond the summit of less dominant heights upon the leeward side, that most rain falls, and all that does not evaporate or percolate into the ground is conducted back to the sea by a route which depends only on the form of the land.

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  • The slope of the river bed diminishes until the plain compels the river to move slowly, swinging in meanders proportioned to its size, and gradually, controlled by the flattening land, ceasing to transport material, but raising its banks and silting up its bed by the dropped sediment, until, split up and shoaled, its distributaries struggle across its delta to the sea.

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  • This is the typical river of which there are infinite varieties, yet every variety would, if time were given, and the land remained unchanged in level relatively to the sea, ultimately approach to the type.

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  • Thus, for example, in a mountain range at right angles to a prevailing sea-wind, it is the land forms which determine that one side of the range shall be richly watered and deeply dissected by a complete system of valleys, while the other side is dry, indefinite in its valley systems, and sends none of its scanty drainage to the sea.

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  • In the case of a large hollow in a very dry climate the rate of g evaporation may be sufficient to prevent the water from ever rising to the lip, so that there is no outflow to the sea, and a basin of internal drainage is the result.

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  • This is the case, for instance, in the Caspian sea, the Aral and Balkhash lakes, the Tarim basin, the Sahara, inner Australia, the great basin of the United States and the Titicaca basin.

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  • The percentages of the land surface draining to the different oceans are approximately - Atlantic, 34'3%; Arctic sea, 26.5%; Pacific, 14.4%; Indian Ocean, 12.8%.'

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  • The direct geographical elements are the arrangement of land and sea (continents and islands standing in sharp contrast) and the vertical relief of the globe, which interposes barriers of a less absolute kind between portions of the same land area or oceanic depression.

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  • The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.

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  • In the case of land and fresh-water organisms the sea is the chief barrier; in the case of marine organisms, the land.

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  • A snow-capped mountain ridge or an arid desert forms a barrier between different forms of life which is often more effective than an equal breadth of sea.

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  • The study of the evolution of faunas and the comparison of the faunas of distant regions have furnished a trustworthy instrument of pre-historic geographical research, which enables earlier geographical relations of land and sea to be traced out, and the approximate period, or at least the chronological order of the larger changes, to be estimated.

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  • The distribution of fossils frequently makes it possible to map out approximately the general features of land and sea in long-past geological periods, and so to enable the history of crustal relief to be traced.'

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  • Vegetation of all sorts acts in a similar way, either in forming soil and assisting in breaking up rocks, in filling up shallow lakes, and even, like the mangrove, in reclaiming wide stretches of land from the sea.

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  • While highly civilized communities are able to evade many of the restrictions of environment, to overcome the barriers to intercommunication interposed by land or sea, to counteract the adverse 1 See particularly A.

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  • On the seashore fishing naturally became a means of livelihood, and dwellers by the sea, in virtue of the dangers to which they are exposed from storm and unseaworthy craft, are stimulated to a higher degree of foresight, quicker observation, prompter decision and more energetic action in emergencies than those who live inland.

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  • The highlander and viking, products of the valleys raised high amid the mountains or half-drowned in the sea, are everywhere of kindred spirit.

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  • It is noticeable that the patriotic spirit is strongest in those places where people are brought most intimately into relation with the land; dwellers in the mountain or by the sea, and, above all, the people of rugged coasts and mountainous archipelagoes, have always been renowned for love of country, while the inhabitants of fertile plains and trading communities are frequently less strongly attached to their own land.

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  • The sea is the most effective of all, and an island state is recognized as the most stable.

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  • The transport concerns land routes and sea routes, the latter being the more important.

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  • From the bottom of this sea they have been raised to form the dry lands along the shores of Suffolk, whence they are now extracted as articles of commercial value, being ground to powder in the mills of Mr [afterwards Sir John] Lawes, at Deptford, to supply our farms with a valuable substitute for guano, under the accepted name of coprolite manure."

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  • above the sea, and its west end Bramhall Hill, 15 ft.

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  • 250 genera and species, extend to almost every part of the region, yet only one species of Ptilotis oversteps its limits, crossing the sea from Lombok to Bali.

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  • The most important were the Ulai or Eulaeus (Kuran) with its tributary the Pasitigris, the Choaspes (Kerkhah), the Coprates (river of Diz called in the inscriptions), the Hedyphon or Hedypnus (Jerrahi), and the Croatis (Hindyan), besides the monumental Surappi and Ukni, perhaps to be identified with the Hedyphon and Oroatis, which fell into the sea in the marshy region at the mouth of the Tigris.

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  • Pisgah or Mt Nebo (the name suggests a foreign god), to the north-east of the Dead Sea became the scene of the death of Moses; his burial-place was never known (Deut.

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  • Being ordered to co-operate with Sherman in North Carolina, Schofield moved his corps by rail and sea to Fort Fisher, North Carolina, in seventeen days, occupied Wilmington on the 22nd of February 1865, fought the action at Kinston on the 8 - 10th of March, and on the 23rd joined Sherman at Goldsboro.

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  • above the sea, several isolated snow-clad peaks reaching i i, 000 to 14,000 ft.

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  • above that sea.

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  • The length of the Euphrates from its source at Diadin to the sea is about 1800 m., and its fall during the last 1 zoo m.

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  • Chesney was sent out at the head of an expedition with instructions to transport two steamers from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and, after putting them together at Birejik, to attempt the descent of the river to the sea.

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  • BUTRINTO, a seaport and fortified town of southern Albania, Turkey, in the vilayet of Iannina; directly opposite the island of Corfu (Corcyra), and on a small stream which issues from Lake Vatzindro or Vivari, into the Bay of Butrinto, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea.

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  • In the first, the Periplus of the Outer Sea, in two books, in which he proposed to give a complete description of the coasts of the eastern and western oceans, his chief authority is Ptolemy; the distances from one point to another are given in stades, with the object of rendering the work easier for the ordinary student.

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  • The second, the Periplus of the Inner Sea (the Mediterranean), is a meagre epitome of a similar work by Menippus of Pergamum, who lived during the times of Augustus and Tiberius.

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  • (i) Narbonensis, that is, the land between Alps, sea and Cevennes, extending up the Rhone to Vienne, was as Augustus found it, distinct in many ways from the rest of Gaul.

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  • above the sea, 6 m.

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  • from the Mediterranean Sea, on the Murcia-Elche railway.

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  • A Log Book is a marine or sea journal, containing, in the British navy, the speed, course, leeway, direction and force of the wind, state of the weather, and barometric and thermometric observations.

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  • BLACK SEA (Russ.

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  • coast of the Black Sea from Novorossiysk to the vicinity of Pitsunda, between the sea and the crest of the main range of the Caucasus.

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  • It is penetrated by numerous spurs of this range, which strike the sea abruptly at right angles to the coast, and in many cases plunge down into it sheer.

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  • It is divided into three districtsNovorossiysk, with the town (pop. in 1897, 16,208) of the same name, which acts as the capital of the Black Sea district; Velyaminovsk; and Sochi.

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  • In return for Russia's service in preventing the aid of Austria from being given to France, Gorchakov looked to Bismarck for diplomatic support in the Eastern Question, and he received an instalment of the expected support when he successfully denounced the Black Sea clauses of the treaty of Paris.

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  • above the sea, of which doubtless it was at one time an arm.

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  • It stretched from sea to sea and consisted of a wall and a rampart.

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  • The Gabun, in reality an estuary of the sea, lies immediately north of the equator.

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