A geological map of the whole continent, on the scale of 50 m.
Life existed at a scale smaller than the eye could see.
Besides, the bathroom scale had reported a two-pound drop that morning.
By such a pile we may hope to scale heaven at last.
Like a TV star that doesn't scale back his expenses after his show is cancelled, these benefits expand, not contract, during periods of economic decline, for two main reasons.
In this way the scale can be viewed by a microscope of much higher magnifying power than can be employed for the photographed spectrum.
The teeth enable the climber to scale a vertical wall by holding to the ice while pulling yourself upward.
Kiki gave him a fiery look but moved to the nearest tree. Kris watched him scale the large tree and disappear beyond the canopy of leaves.
With a power of 460 the scale was a quarter of an inch for every second.
Adopting the centigrade scale, this gives 1390.846 foot-pounds.
Cynthia, in her infinite wisdom, arranged a generous monetary scale of chores-for-bucks that seemed to take care of the problem.
in Westminster Abbey, the public funeral taking place on the 23rd of November, with great ceremony and on the same scale as that of Philip II.
Over time, Amazon has achieved such scale and thus has collected so much data that their suggestions are really useful.
164) described a measuring-machine by Repsolds, in which the micrometermicroscope tilts in the bearings of the chariot on which it moves, so that it can view either a graduated scale or the photographic plate.
Organizations have encouraged "pen pals for peace" exchanges—but such efforts tend to be limited in scale, and if there is one thing Facebook has, it is scale.
Farming will be done on such a scale that thousands of experiments can be happening at any one time, putting a tiny fraction of the produce at risk.
The total number of revolutions is read off by a scale attached to the side of the box, but not seen in the figure.
To him the club entrusted the arrangement of the festival in honor of Bagration, for few men knew so well how to arrange a feast on an open-handed, hospitable scale, and still fewer men would be so well able and willing to make up out of their own resources what might be needed for the success of the fete.
Its fundamental principle is that, by a combination of glass scales with a micrometer screw, " the chief part of the distance to be measured is read off on the scale; the fractional part of the scalespace is not estimated but measured by the screw."
The wall of Herod Agrippa was planned on a grand scale, but its execution was stopped by the Romans, so that it was not completed at the time of the siege of Jerusalem by Titus.
Scale and wind-pressure are also important factors.
In the apparatus of type B as made by Zeiss there are two microscopes attached to a base-plate, one of which views the spectrum-plate (or other object) to be measured, while the other views a scale that moves with the slide on which the spectrumplate is mounted.
The means for changing the length of the tube and the distance of C from the scale are omitted in the figure.
At low temperatures, on the other hand, they find, using an initial pressure of 'coo mm., that the temperatures on the helium scale are measurably higher than on the hydrogen scale, owing to the more perfectly gaseous condition of helium.
Generally defined, nanotechnology is the field concerned with creating machines along the scale of a nanometer, a billionth of a meter.
Being able to scale a sheer wall of rock and ice while lugging this junk requires some advance planning.
In delicate researches two divisions of the scale should always be read, not merely for increased accuracy but to obtain the corrections for " run " from the observations themselves.
As curule aedile in 58, Scaurus celebrated the public games on a scale of magnificence never seen before.
The Temple had already been partially rebuilt by Zedekiah and his companions, but on a scale far inferior to the magnificent building of King Solomon, and Nehemiah devoted his attention to the reconstruction of the walls.
A similar agitation on a smaller scale was organized in southern Albania to resist the territorial concessions awarded by the powers to Greece.
Historically the battle is interesting because it was the last example of an encounter on a great scale between fleets of galleys and also because it was the last crusade.
The Sassanian kings have covered the face of the rocks in this neighbourhood, and in part even the Achaemenian ruins, with their sculptures and inscriptions, and must themselves have built largely here, although never on the same scale of magnificence as their ancient predecessors.
It may be said that exploration on a large scale is now at an end; there remain only the spaces, nowhere very extensive, between the tracks of the old explorers yet to be examined, and these are chiefly in the Northern Territory and in Western Australia north of the tropic of Capricorn.
reseau-square by means of a spider-line micrometer, a glass scale, on the plan shown in fig.
All that I could say, then, with respect to farming on a large scale--I have always cultivated a garden--was, that I had had my seeds ready.
In 1647 the difficulties that had arisen at Utrecht were repeated on a smaller scale at Leiden.
The fact that the Aeginetan scale of coins, weights and measures was one of the two scales in general use in the Greek world is sufficient evidence of the early commercial importance of the island.
Attempts have been made to apply electricity to agriculture on a commercial scale, but the exact measure of success attained remains somewhat doubtful.
Joule inferred from them that the mechanical equivalent of heat is probably about 772 foot-pounds, or, employing the centigrade scale, about 1390 foot-pounds.
7ruppos, flamecoloured, and o-i&17Aos, iron): a scaly-fibrous variety from the same locality is called lepidocrocite (from X€iris, scale, and KpoKcis, fibre).
in Munchen (1905); Klose, "Religiose Anschauungen and Menschenopfer in Togo" in Globus 1902; P. Sprigade, Karte von Togo, scale I :200,000, 12 sheets, also in 2 sheets on the scale I :500,000 (Berlin, 1902-1907).
Ten years later it was rebuilt on an extended scale, and provided with fortifications by the elector John William.
A subject so vast and so incapable of classification cannot be discussed here, but its aesthetic principles may be illustrated by the extreme case of the trumpets and horns, which in classical times had no scale except that of the natural harmonic series.
The higher regions produce cork trees, oaks, pines, chestnuts, &c., but the forests have been largely destroyed by speculators, who burned the trees for charcoal and potash, purchasing them on a large scale from the state.
PITCH The pitch of a musical sound is aurally defined by its absolute position in the scale and by its relative position with regard to other musical sounds.
In 61 Gabinius, then praetor, endeavoured to win the public favour by providing games on a scale of unusual splendour, and in 58 managed to secure the consulship, not without suspicion of bribery.
Laws to secure this object have been passed, but funds are lacking for their execution on a sufficiently large scale.
Two-thirds scale of nature.
If they had appealed to the General Assembly they might have received justice, or possibly the separation might have been on a larger scale.
Enough of the rocky surface is covered with a thin coating of soil to enable the natives to grow yams, taro, bananas, &c., for their support; cotton thrives well, and has even been exported in small quantities, but there is no space available for its cultivation on any considerable scale.
The mining of corundum was begun at Corundum Hill in Macon county in 1871, and from 1880 to 1902 the output was considerable, but with the discovery of the Canadian corundum Scale, 1:2,500,000 English Miles 20 30 4 0 So County Seats e County Boundaries Railitlays Canals Swamps deposits the importance of those of North Carolina greatly declined.
Reconciliation never took place on any large scale, though it is true that, in the course of time, some fitful displays of administrative ability on the part of the Chinese, and the opening of partial means of communication, led to the pacification of a section of the Sheng fan, who thenceforth became known as Pe-pa-hwan (Pepohoan).
His work was repeated on a finer scale by M.
The total saving effected is stated to be equivalent to 3 francs per ton of beetroot worked up. This system is also being tried on a small scale with sugar-cane juice in the West Indies.
The increased freedom of trade with which Ireland was favoured, the introduction of the cotton manufacture by Robert Joy and Thomas M`Cabe in 1777, the establishment in 1791 of shipbuilding on an extensive scale by William Ritchie, an energetic Scotsman, combined with the rope and canvas manufacture already existing, supplied the inhabitants with employments and increased the demand for skilled labour.
The book may be regarded as a general view of early modern history, preparatory to the more detailed treatment of special lines of inquiry carried out in his subsequent works, although Hallam's original intention was to continue the work on the scale on which it had been begun.
Those organisms which possess the latter are a little higher in the scale of life than those which remain unclothed by it, but a comparison of the behaviour of the two quickly enables us to say that the membrane is of but secondary importance, and that for those which possess it, it is nothing more than a protective covering for the living substance.
If we pass a little higher up the scale ot life we meet with forms consisting of two or more cells, each of which contains a similar minute mass of living substance, A study of them shows that each is practically independent of the others; in fact, the connection between them is so slight that they can separate and each becofne free without the slightest disadvantage to another.
Iron ore is found in the state in the coal hills (especially Laurel Hills and Beaver Lick Mountain), but the deposits have not been worked on a large scale.
The members of council, the commanders of the troops, and the commercial residents plundered on a grand scale.
The image of the star is set updn the intersections of the lines of the central cross, and the positions of the reseau-lines are read off by estimation to - of a division on the glass scale.
Cobalt occurs in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia, and efforts have been made in the former state to treat the ore, the metal having a high commercial value; but the market is small, and no attempt has been made up to 1907 to produce it on any large scale.
alp 1 Dindings Medan Scale, t:R.000,000 English Miles oto 50 too 150 Railways «.*+ British Possessions...-...
But his chief work was of a different kind and done on a different scale.
When the trumpets take it up they make a remarkable change at its iith bar, for no other reason than that one of the notes, though perfectly within their scale, and, indeed, already produced by them in the very same bar, is so harmonized as to suggest the freedom of an instrument with a complete scale.
On the operatic scale established by Wagner such detail is simply lost.
(The mechanical improvements by which horns and trumpets acquired a complete scale have revolutionized the nature of those instruments; and Wagner's orchestration, more than that of any other composer, has profited by this.
In commercial matters, payment in kind was still common, though the contracts usually stipulate for cash, naming the standard expected, that of Babylon, Larsa, Assyria, Carchemish, &c. The Code enacted, however, that a debtor must be allowed to pay in produce according to statutory scale.
I I the edge of the disk serves as the pointer and the scale gives the percentage of slack, or (N - n)/n.
A ray of light from a lamp is thrown on the mirror, whence it is reflected upon a white surface or scale set at a distance of about 3 ft., forming a bright spot on the surface; the slightest angular deflexion of the mirror, owing to its distance from the scale, moves the spot of light a very appreciable distance to the right or left according to the direction of the angular movement.
The scale on the cymometer then shows directly the wave-length and frequency of the oscillations.'
Free intercommunication was established by the agreement between the subscribers of the company and those of the Post Office, and a scale of charges was adopted or arranged to be agreed as binding on both the Post Office and the company.
Liguria is not much adapted for sheep-farming on a large scale; but a number of small flocks come down to thc plain of Tuscany in the winter.
They are to be found mainly in the fertile plains of north Italy, where they enjoy considerable success, removing the cause of labor troubles and strikes, and providing for cultivation on a sufficiently large scale.
There are, however, considerable reductions for distances over 93 m., on a scale increasing in proportion to the distance.
in fact, upon a grand scale what was being slowly and quietly effected in the northern cities.
Apart from resentment against France on account of Tunisia there remained the question of the temporal power of the pope to turn the scale in favor of Austria and Germany.
Mill tried to reconcile criminal law and its punishments with his very hard type of determinism by saying that law was needed in order to weight the scale, and in order to hold out a prospect of penalties which might deter from crime and impel towards good citizenship, so Paley held that virtue was not merely obedience to God but obedience " for 1 Criticism of the scheme, from the point of view of an idealist theism, will be found in John Caird's Introduc to the Phil.
There is an unlimited variety of work for the labouring convicts, and some of the establishments are on a large scale.
For some time sickness and mortality were excessively large, but the reclamation of swamp and clearance of jungle on an extensive scale by Colonel Henry Man when in charge (1868-1870), had a most beneficial effect, and the health of the settlement has since been notable.
The supposition that sensation thus rests on a material process of absorption from external bodies naturally led up to the idea that plants and even inorganic subtances are precipient, and so to an indistinct recognition of organic life as a scale of intelligence.
Organic life presents itself to him as a progressive scale of complexity determined by its final end, namely, man.'
The transition from the 4 Zeller observes that this scale of decreasing perfection is a necessary consequence of the idea of a transcendent deity.
scale from the simple to the complex.
Each monad is an original independent being, and is determined to take this particular point in the universe, this place in the scale of beings.
In his Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, Herder adopts Leibnitz's idea of a graduated scale of beings, at the same time conceiving of the lower stages as the conditions, of the higher.
4 Kant held it probable that other planets besides our earth are inhabited, and that their inhabitants form a scale of beings, their perfection increasing with the distance of the planet which they inhabit from the sun.
The weight of Malpighi's observations therefore fell into the scale of that doctrine which Harvey terms metamorphosis, in contradistinction to epigenesis.
Small fragments, formerly thrown away or used only for varnish, are now utilized on a large scale in the formation of "ambroid" or "pressed amber."
Wren's earlier designs have the exterior of the church arranged with one order of columns; the division of the whole height into two orders was an immense gain in increasing the apparent scale of the whole, and makes the exterior of St Paul's very superior to that of St Peter's in Rome, which is utterly dwarfed by the colossal size of the columns and pilasters of its single order.
White or grey spots may be due to Peronospora, Erysiphe, Cystopus, Entyloma and other Fungi, the mycelium of which will be detected in the discoloured area; or they may be scale insects, or the results of punctures by Red-spider, &c. Yellow spots, and especially bright orange spots, commonly indicate Rust Fungi or other Uredineae; but Phyllosticta, Exoascus, Clasterosporium, Synchytrium, &c., also induce similar symptoms. Certain Aphides, Red-spider, Phylloxera and other insects also betray their presence by such spots.
Frost-cracks, scorching of bark by sun and fire, &c., anc wounds due to plants which entwine, pierce or otherwise materially injure trees, &c., on a large scale.
Drought and consequent defoliation result in the same, and these considerations help us to understand how old-established trees in parks, &c., apparently in good general health, become stag-headed by the necrosis of their upper twigs and smaller branches: the roots have here penetrated into subsoil or other unsuitable medium, or some drainage scheme has deprived them of water, &c., and a dry summer just turns the scale.
When, however, a company desires to construct a line on a commercial scale, to acquire land compulsorily, to divert rivers and streams, to cross roads either on the level or by means of bridges, to pass near houses, to build tunnels or viaducts, and to execute all the other works incidental to a.
At many intermediate stations the same arrangements, on a smaller scale, are made; in all of them there is at least accommodation for the passenger and the goods traffic. The stations for F - FIG.
passenger engine, scale 24.
four-coupled express engine, scale A.
(Leben des Ministers Freiherrn vom Stein (6 vols., 1849-1855); also, in an abridged form, Aus Steins Leben (2 vols., 1856) ° Scale, 1:12,000,000 English Miles p 50 Boundaries of Departments & Provinces Capitals Departments & Prouinces Railways Tumbez Trujillo
What `Ophrah became on a small scale in the days of Gideon, Jerusalem became on a larger scale in the days of David and his successors.
The ministry of Lord North, however, was tottering, and soon after fell; the Board of Trade was abolished by the passing of Burke's bill in 1782, and Gibbon's salary vanished with it - no trifle, for his expenditure had been for three years on a scale somewhat disproportionate to his private fortune.
Experiments in protection on a larger scale, and under more ordinary conditions, have been carried out with equal success by Professor Celli and other Italian authorities.
This may be considered under two heads: (1) individual prophylaxis; (2) administrative prevention on a large scale.
Treating the breeding-ponds with petroleum or similar preparations seems to be hardly applicable on a large scale, and in any case can only be a temporary expedient.
The means of accomplishing the former have been already pointed out, but they are obviously difficult to carry out on a large scale, particularly in native communities.
CHADERTON, LAURENCE (?1536-1640), Puritan divine, was born at Lees Hall, in the parish of Oldham, Lancashire, probably in September 1536, being t41e second son of Edmund Chaderton, Scale, 1:3,350,000 o lo Miles 50 to ...mostly a gentleman of an ancient and wealthy family, and a zealous Catholic. Under the tuition of Laurence Vaux, a priest, he became an able scholar.
The rest of the pro-Roman party were forced or persuaded to join the rebels and prepared for war on a grander scale.
Pernier have brought to light another Minoan palace, much resembling on a somewhat smaller scale that of Cnossus.
The west court and entrance belonging to the earlier building show many analogies with those of Cnossus, and the court was commanded to the north by tiers of stone benches like those of the " theatral area " at Cnossus on a larger scale.
In its structure and general arrangements it bears a general resemblance to the palace of Phaestus and Cnossus on a smaller scale.
'hlatherv i W A WoodVillef w Scale, 1:2,200,000 English Miles 20 30 40 Longitude Nest gi of Greenwich z fishery on the reefs in the Sound, much developed since 1880.
Besides the aphids, other insects, such as scale insects (Coccidae), caterpillars of blue butterflies (Lycaenidae), and numerous beetles, furnish the ants with nutrient secretions.
Similar flows on a smaller scale occur in Manchuria, Korea and northern China.
His qualities and his defects were alike exhibited on a generous scale; and if his greed and arrogance were colossal, so were his administrative capacity and his appetite for work.
They had also much skill in the construction of works for the supply of drinking water on a large scale and for irrigation.
German stamps were introduced from Berlin; the occupied towns were garrisoned by the Landwehr; and requisitions on a large scale were demanded, and paid for in cheques which, at the close of the war, were to be honoured by whichever side should stand in the unpleasant position of the conquered.
They carry on agriculture wheat-growing on a large scale - with the aid of modern agricultural machines, and breed cattle and horses.
Most of the southern part of the county is occupied by Keuper marls and sandstones, the latter yield good building stone; and at Chellaston the gypsum beds in the former are excavated on a large scale.
Galena and other lead ores are abundant in veins in the limestone, but they are now only worked on a large scale at Mill Close, near Winster; calamine, zinc blende, barytes, calcite and fluor-spar are common.
Galena and other lead ores are abundant in veins in the limestone, but they are now only worked on a large scale at Mill Close, near Winster; calamine, zinc, blende, barytes, calcite and fluor-spar are common.
the younger branches are often injured by the pearl oyster scale (Aspidiotus ostreaeformis), which may be removed by washing in winter with soft soap and hot water.
Below the villeins in the social scale came the cottiers possessing smaller holdings, sometimes only a garden, and no oxen.
In the 1899 show, with 311 entries of cattle, and the age limited to three years, no beast reached the weight of a ton, the heaviest animal being a crossbred(Aberdeen-Angus and Shorthorn)which,at three years old, turned the scale at 19 cwt.
Yet these figures are nothing compared to the losses due to scale insects, locusts and other pests.
By far the most destructive insects in warm climates belong to the Hemiptera, especially to the Coccidae or scale insects.
The female lays her eggs beneath the scaly covering, from which hatch out little active six-legged larvae, which wander about and soon begin to form a new scale.
Other scale insects of note are the cosmopolitan mussel scale (Mytilaspis pomorum) and the Australian Icerya purchasi.
- San Jo g Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus).
A, Male scale insect; B, female; C, larva; D, female scale; E, male scale.
This was inevitable in the absence of trustworthy information on an adequate scale, and from the immediately practical aims of the writers.
The first step is to see whether there is a prima facie case for inquiry, for many acts of parliament have been passed which have never come into operation at all, or have been administered only for a short time on too limited a scale to have important or lasting results.
That is, original investigation of special problems has to be carried out on a more gigantic scale than any economist of the historical school ever dreamt of or the world requires, with the certain knowledge that at the end of it all the general theory will not correspond with the facts of life.
The scientific study of practical problems and difficulties is (generally speaking, and with honourable exceptions) far more advanced in almost every civilized country than it is in England, where the limited scale upon which such work is carried on, the indifference of statesmen, officials and business men, and the incapacity of the public to understand the close relation between scientific study and practical success, contrast very unfavourably with the state of affairs in Germany or the United States.
C, Seed-bearing cone and a single scale with seed.
Cones; scale with seeds.
B, Ripe cone scale with seeds, enlarged.
There was evidently oliveand vine-culture on a large scale in Crete at any rate.
After 2000 B.C. all these arts revived, and sculpture, as evidenced by relief work, both on a large and on a small scale, carved stone vessels, metallurgy in gold, silver and bronze, advanced farther.
But it may perhaps be considered improbable that organs like the wings, having once been lost, should have been reacquired on the large scale suggested by the theory just put forward.
Absurd as much that we find both in Albertus Magnus and the Ortus seems to modern eyes, if we go a step lower in the scale and consult the " Bestiaries " or treatises on animals which were common from the 12th to the 14th century we shall meet with many more absurdities.
Between 1803 and 1806 Le Vaillant also published in just the same style two volumes with the title of Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de Paradis et des rolliers, suivie de celle des toucans et des barbus, an assemblage of forms, which, miscellaneous as it is,.was surpassed in incongruity by a fourth work on the same scale, the Histoire naturelle des promerops et des guepiers, des couroucous et des touracos, for herein are found jays, waxwings, the cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola), and what not besides.
to Audubon's great work in two volumes, on the same scale - The New and Hitherto unfigured Species of the Birds of North America, containing life-size figures of all those which had been added to its fauna since the completion of the former.
An ambitious attempt to produce in England a general series of coloured plates on a large scale was Louis Fraser's Zoologia Typica, .
However, to have conceived the idea of executing a work on so grand a scale as this - it forms three folio volumes, and contains one hundred and eighty-five coloured and one hundred and forty-eight uncoloured plates, with references to upwards of two thousand four hundred generic names - was in itself a mark of genius, and it was brought to a successful conclusion in 1849.
It was also within the scope of his plan to have continued on a more extended scale the researches on ossification begun by L'Herminier, and thus M.
On the other hand, the plastic quality of terracotta suggested an abundance of delicate ornamentation on a small scale, which produced its effect by its own individual beauty without broad reference to the general scheme.
Slight remains are to be seen of an abbey of Canons Regular, founded in the middle of the 6th century by St Comgall, and rebuilt, on a scale of magnificence which astonished the Irish, by St Malachy O'Morgair in the first half of the 12th century.
Since then their dilapidation has rapidly advanced; but even in ruin they show the extensive and magnificent scale on which this princely residence was originally designed.
As a commercial product spider-silk has been found to be equal, if not superior, to the best silk spun by lepidopterous larvae; but the cannibalistic propensities of spiders, making it impossible to keep more than one in a single receptacle, coupled with the difficulty of getting them to spin freely in a confined space, have hitherto prevented the silk being used on any extensive scale for textile fabrics.
It is no exaggeration to say that countless thousands of spiders of all families are annually destroyed by these insects, and there is no reason to doubt that destruction on at least as great a scale has been going on for centuries, too many even to guess at.
Cotton is very widely cultivated throughout the world, being grown on a greater or less scale as a commercial crop in almost every country included in the broad belt between latitudes 43° N.
They are used on a very large scale in the vicinity of oil mills in southern cities like Memphis, New Orleans, Houston, and Little Rock, from Soo to s000 cattle being often collected in a single yard for this purpose.
- It is common knowledge that when any plant is cultivated on a large scale various diseases and pests frequently appear.
No certain remedy is known for the destruction on a commercial scale of the boll weevil, but every effort has been made in the United States to check the advance of the insect, to ascertain and encourage its natural enemies, and to propagate races of cotton which resist its attacks.
When selection is being made for several characters at the same time, and also in hybridization experiments, where it is important to have full records of the characters of individual plants and their progeny, " score cards," such as are used in judging stock, with a scale of points, are used.
Spain.-Cotton was formerly grown in southern Spain on an extensive scale, and as recently as during the American Civil War a crop of 8000 to 10,000 bales was obtained.
Cyprus has a soil and climate suited to cotton, which was formerly grown here on a large scale.
The cultivation of cotton on a commercial scale is quite new in Nyasaland, and although general conditions of soil and climate appear favourable the question of transport is serious and labour is not abundant.
1300 that the plant was grown on any considerable scale.
Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia possess suitable climatic conditions, and in the first-named state the cotton has been grown on a commercial scale in past years, the crop in 1897 being about 450 bales.
F.) Marketing And Supply In the days of slave-grown cotton, the American planters, being men of wealth farming on a large scale, consigned the bulk Moving of their produce as a rule direct to the ports.
It is made on a large scale from lime or lemon juice, and also by the fermentation of glucose under the influence of Citromycetes pfefferianus, C. glaber and other ferments.
Several of the citrates are much employed as medicines, the most important being the scale preparations of iron.
Thus was renewed, on a greater scale, that ancient feud of East and West, which has never died.
It refused to throw its weight into the scale, and to strengthen the hands of the king against an over-mighty nobility.
Taking Syria as the strip limited by the sea, the edge of the Hamad, the Taurus and the Sinaitic desert, we have a remarkably homogeneous geographical area with very obvious natural boundaries; but these, for various reasons, have proved very Scale, 1:7.soo.000
- Brain and that are at the base of the scale.
This may consist simply in attaching one end of the wire to an index lever and the other to a fixed support, or the elongation of the wire may cause a rotation in a mirror from which a ray of light is reflected, and the movement of this ray over a scale will then provide the necessary means of indication.
Hot-wire ammeters are, however, liable to a shift of zero, and means are always provided by some adjusting screw for slightly altering the sag of the wire and so adjusting the index needle to the zero of the scale.
Hot-wire ammeters are open to the following objections: The scale divisions for equal increments of current are not equal in length, being generally much closer together in the lower parts of the scale.
When a current is passed through the coil the iron tends to move nearer to the coil of the wire where the field is stronger and so displaces the index needle over the scale.
When a current is passed through the wire forming the coil, the fragment of iron is drawn more into the aperture of the coil where the field is stronger and so displaces an index needle over a scale.
The coil carries an index needle moving over a scale, and there is generally an iron core in the interior of the coil but fixed and independent of it.
When a current is passed through the coil it rotates in the field and displaces the index over the scale against the control of a spiral spring like the hairspring of a watch.
It has the disadvantage of not being direct reading when made in the usual form, but can easily be converted into a direct reading instrument by appropriately dividing the scale over which the index of the torsion head moves.
obtained approximately by observing the position of the weight on the scale, or it may be obtained more accurately in the follow FIG.
A steady continuous current is then passed through the ammeter and low resistance, placed in series with one another and adjusted so as to give any required scale reading on the ammeter.
This can be then compared with the observed scale reading and the error of the ammeter noted.'
In the use of ammeters in which the control is the gravity of a weight, such as the Kelvin ampere balances and other instruments, it should be noted that the scale reading or indication of the instrument will vary with the latitude and with the height of the instrument above the mean sea-level.
Traj an's scheme for the "alimentation" of poor children was carried out upon a larger scale under the superintendence of a special official called praefectus alimentorum.
o Scale, I English Miles o 20 30 40.
Same Scale as main map Longitude Nest 84 Greenwich 0 Of the rivers the most important are the St Johns, which flows N.
Scale, 1,r3,000 Yards Metres ?...3° 1 ?
The Scale of Yards o ro so 60 `sg_ Th 2.
' a 'Porto Rico Scale 1:2,200.000 `.
Dar-es-Salaam was laid out by the Germans on an ambitious scale in the expectation that it would prove an important centre of commerce, but trade developed very slowly.
456) has given the formula Cp=6.5--aT, where a is a constant depending on the complexity of the molecule, as an expression for the molecular heat at constant pressure at any temperature T (reckoned on the absolute scale).
The medieval studies which Wagner had begun for his work at the libretto of Tannhauser bore rich fruit in his next opera Lohengrin, in which he also developed his principles on a larger scale and with a riper technique than hitherto.
Two words I wrote to Liszt; his answer was the news that preparations were being made for the performance of the work, on the grandest scale that the limited means of Weimar would permit.
Tannhauser is on a grander scale, but its musical execution is disappointing.
Almost as subtle, and much more directly impressive, is the pathos of the death of Siegfried, which is heightened by an unprecedented appeal to a sense of musical form on the scale of the entire tetralogy.
The most noteworthy waterfalls are - Scale Force (Dano-Norwegian fors, foss), besidesCrummock, Lodore near Derwentwater, Dungeon Gill Force, beside Langdale, Dalegarth Force in Eskdale, Aira near Ullswater, sung by Wordsworth, Stock Gill Force and Rydal Falls near Ambleside.
89, 8), their scale, nature and amount is quite unknown to us.
Iranian troops seem to have been employed on a large scale by the earlier Seleucids.
The experiment of arming the native Egyptians on a large scale does not seem to have been made before the campaign of 217, when Ptolemy IV.
Its manufactures of yarn are on the largest scale, the spinning mills often working night and day for many months together.
Not only the workmen and the large class of idlers attracted to Paris by the system, but rentiers and government officials, whose incomes were paid in assignats on a scale arbitrarily fixed by the government, saw themselves threatened with actual starvation.
MAP, a representation, on a plane and a reduced scale, of part or the whole of the earth's surface.
If specially designed to meet the requirements of seamen it is called a chart, if on an exceptionally large scale a plan.
Maps differ greatly, not only as to the scale on which they are drawn, but also with respect to the fullness or the character of the information which they convey.
Mappa mundi was the medieval Latin for a map of the world which the ancients called Tabula totius orbis descriptionem Topographical maps and plans are drawn on a scale sufficiently large to enable the draughtsman to show most objects on a scale true to nature.
Scale of Maps.
Formerly map makers contented themselves with placing upon their maps a linear scale of miles, deduced from the central meridian or the equator.
The former method, usually called the " natural scale," may be described as " international," for it is quite independent of local measures of length, and depends exclusively upon the size and figure of the earth.
Thus a scale of i,000,000 signifies that each unit of length on the map 2 Close, " The Ideal Topographical Map," Geog.
The second method is still employed in many cases, and we find thus: In cases where the draughtsman has omitted to indicate the scale we can ascertain it by dividing the actual length of a meridian degree by the length of a degree measure upon the map. Thus a degree between 50° and 51° measures 111,226,000 mm.; on the map it is represented by i r r mm.
Hence the scale is r: r,000,000 approximately.
The linear scale of maps can obviously be used only in the case of maps covering a small area, for in the case of maps of greater extension measurements would be vitiated owing to the distortion or exaggeration inherent in all projections, not to mention the expansion or shrinking of the paper in the process of printing.
As an extreme instance of the misleading character of the scale given on maps embracing a wide area we may refer to a map of a hemisphere.
The scale of that map, as determined by the equator or centre meridian, we will suppose to be i: 125,000,000, while the encircling meridian indicates a scale of i: 80,000,000; and a " mean " scale, equal to the square root of the proportion which the area of the map bears to the actual area of a hemisphere, is r: 112,000,000.
The desired effect may be produced by a graduation of the same colour, or by a polychromatic scale - such as white, pale red, pale brown, various shades of green, violet and purple, in ascending order.
Penck on a scale of 1: i,000,000, which has been undertaken by the leading governments of the world, the ground is shown by contours at intervals of ioo metres (to be increased to 200 and Soo metres in mountainous districts); the strata are in graded tints, viz.
The light is supposed to descend vertically upon the country represented, and in a true scale of shade the intensity increases with the inclination from o° to 90°; but as such a scale does not sufficiently differentiate the lesser inclinations which are the most important, the author adopted a conventional scale, representing a slope of 45° or more, supposed to be inaccessible, as absolutely black, the level surfaces, which reflect all the light which falls upon them, as perfectly white, and the intervening slopes by a proportion between black and white, as in fig.
In the case of general maps on a smaller scale, the orographic features must be generalized by a skilful draughtsman and artist.
One of the best modern examples of this kind is Vogel's map of Germany, on a scale of i :500,000.
Distances such as these can be measured only on a topographical map of a fairly large scale, for on general maps many of the details needed for that purpose can no longer be represented.
In that case we need simply cover the map with a network of squares - the area of each of which has been determined with reference to the scale of the map - count the squares, and estimate the contents of those only partially enclosed within the boundary, and the result will give the area desired.
The object, however, can be fully attained only if the scale of the map is sufficiently large, if the horizontal and vertical scales are identical, so that there shall be no exaggeration of the heights, and if regard is had, eventually, to the curvature of the earth's surface.
Relief maps on a small scale necessitate a generalization of the features of the ground, as in the case of ordinary maps, as likewise an exaggeration of the heights.
Thus on a relief on a scale of 1: i,000,000 a mountain like Ben Nevis would only rise to a height of 1.3 mm.
The methods of producing reliefs vary according to the scale and the materials available.
A pantograph armed with cutting-files a which carve the relief out of a block of gypsum, was employed in1893-1900by C. Perron of Geneva, in producing his relief map of Switzerland on a scale of 1: ioo,000.
Photographic processes have been utilized not only in reducing maps to a smaller scale, but also for producing stones and plates from which they may be printed.
The manuscript maps intended to be produced by photographic processes upon stone, zinc or aluminium, are drawn on a scale somewhat larger than the scale on which they are to be printed, thus eliminating all those imperfections which are inherent in a pen-drawing.
Another process, photoor heliogravure, for obtaining an engraved image on a copper plate, was for the first time employed on a large scale for producing a new topographical map of the Austrian Empire in 718 sheets, on a scale of I: 75,000, which was completed in seventeen years (1873-1890).
w The Earth beyond the Ocean where men dwelt before the Flood The Earth beyond the Ocean nearly every case the East occupies the top of the map. Neither parallels nor meridians are indicated, nor is there a scale.
Among countries represented on a larger scale on maps, Palestine not unnaturally occupies a prominent place in this age of pilgrimages and crusades (1095-1291).
Each chart was furnished with a scale of miles.
The Strassburg Ptolemy of 1522 contains Waldseemiiller's maps,' edited on a reduced scale by Laurentius Frisius, together with three additional ones.
Glockedon, the author of an interesting road-map of central Europe (1soi), Sebastian Munster (1489-1552), Elias Camerarius, whose map of the mark of Brandenburg won the praise of Mercator; Wolfgang Latz von Lazius, to whom we are indebted for maps of Austria and Hungary (1561), and Philip Apianus, who made a survey of Bavaria (1553-1563), which was published 1568 on the reduced scale of 1:144,000, and is fairly described as the topographical masterpiece of the 16th century.
Of the Austrian Netherlands, Count Joseph de Ferrari published a chorographic map on the same scale as Cassini's Carte de la France (1777).
Penck proposed to prepare a map of the world, including the oceans, on a scale of 1: 1,000,000, and his scheme was promised the support of a committee which met in London in 1909, and upon which were represented the leading powers of the world.
Maps on that scale of a great part of Africa, Asia and America have been published by British, French, German and United States authorities.
The exaggeration in altitude, on these maps and on those of a later date and on a larger scale, was very considerable.
No such exaggeration exists in the case of reliefs of parts of the Alps, on a large scale, by P. Keil and Pelikan (1890), X.
Fritsche, on a scale of 1: 1,000,000 and without exaggeration of heights (1880-1884).
At first it was merely intended to produce a map sufficiently accurate on a scale of 1 in.
Ireland having been surveyed (1824-1842) on a scale of 6 in.
to a mile (1: 10,560), it was determined in 1840, after the whole of England and Wales, with the exception of Lancashire and Yorkshire, had been completed on one-inch scales, to adopt that scale for the whole of the United Kingdom.
Finally, in 1854, a cadastral survey of the whole of the United Kingdom, only excepting uncultivated districts, was resolved upon, on a scale of 1: 2500, still larger scales (1: 500 or 1: 1000) being adopted for town plans.
Since 1898 the department has also published maps on a smaller scale, viz.
a map of England and Wales, on a scale of 2 m.
to i in., in two editions, both printed in colour, the one with hills stippled in brown, the other coloured on the " layer system " as a strata-relief map; a map of the United Kingdom on a scale of 4 m.
to i in., also in two editions, the one in outline, showing five classes of roads and parish boundaries, the other in colours, with stippled hills; a map on a scale of io m.
to i in., also in two editions, and finally a map of the United Kingdom on a scale of I: 1,000,000.
Bonne in 1808, but owing to the wars then devas tating Europe no steps were taken until 1817, and the Carte de France de l'etat major on a scale of 1: 80,000 was only completed in 1880.
It has served as a basis for a Carte de la France, published by the Service Vicinal on a scale of i: 100,00°, in 59 6 sheets, and of a general map prepared by the ministere des travaux publics on a scale of I: 200,000 in 80 sheets.
These minutes are published on a scale of r: 10,000 or i: 20,000 for mountain districts, while the scale of the general map is 1: 50,000.
A geological map of France on a scale of I: 80,000 is nearly completed, there are also a map (1: 500,000) by Carez and Vasseur, and an official Carte geologique (1: i,000,000; 1906).
By the middle of the 19th century topographical maps of the various German states had been completed, and in several instances surveys of a more exact nature had been completed or begun, when in 1878 the governments of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg agreed to supersede local maps by publishing a map of the empire (Reichskarte) in 674 sheets on a scale of i:roo,000.
The Messtischblatter, called Positionsblatter in Bavaria, are on a scale of 1:25,000.
The map produced on this large scale numbers over 5000 sheets, and is used as a basis for the geological surveys carried on in several of the states of Germany.
A general map of the German Empire (Uebersichtskarte) on a scale of 200,000, in 196 sheets, is in progress since 1893.
The Specialkarte of Austria-Hungary on a scale of r:75,000 (765 sheets), based upon a triangulation and cadastral surveys (1816-1867), was completed in 1889, and published in heliogravure.
At the same time the cadastral plans, reduced to a scale of 1:25,000, are being published in photo-lithography.
1875), is based upon a triangulation (1809-1833) and surveys on a scale of 1:25,000 for the lowlands, r :50,000 for the alpine districts, and was published (1842-1865) on a scale of r:roo,000.
The new survey of Belgium was completed in 1872 and there have been published 527 plane-table sections or planchettes on a scale of 1: 20,000 (1866-1880), a " Carte topographique de la Belgique," in 72 sheets, on a scale of g 1:40,000 (1861-1883), and a more recent map in 26 sheets on a scale of 1:100,000 (1903-1912).
The results have been published on a scale of 1:25,000 (776 sheets, since 1866), 1:50,000 (Topographic and Military Map, 62 sheets, 1850-1864, and a Waterstaatskaart, 1864-1892), and 1:200,000 (Topographical Atlas, 21 sheets, 1868-1871).
These include plane-table sections (Maalebordsblade), 1209 sheets on a scale of 1:20,000, with contours at intervals of 5 to io ft., published since 1830; Atlasblade of Jutland and of De Danske Der, on a scale of I :40,000, the former in 131 sheets, since 1870, the latter, on the same scale, in 94 sheets, since 1890, and still in progress, and a general staff map on a scale of 1: ioo,000, in 68 sheets, since 1890.
The maps issued by this authority include one of southern Sweden, 1:100,000, another of northern Sweden, 1:200,000, and a general map on a scale of 1:1,000,000.
In Norway a geographical survey (Opmaaling) has been in progress since 1783, but the topographical map of the kingdom on a scale of :ioo,000 in 340 sheets, has not yet been completed.
Certain governments-Moscow, Kief, Volhynia, Bessarabia, the Crimea, &c.-have been published on a scale of 1: 24,000, while Finland, as far as 61° N., was re-surveyed in 1870-1895, and a map on a scale of 1:42,000 is approaching completion.
The Siberian departments have published a number of maps on a scale of 1:420,000.
In addition to these the survey for the Trans-Siberian railway has been published on a scale of 1:630,000, as also maps of the Russo-Chinese frontier districts, 1:210,000 and 1:1,168,000.
In Spain a plane-table survey on a scale of 1:20,000 Spain in 1078 sheets on a scale of i: 50,000 only 150 had been issued by the deposito de la guerra up to 1910.
Coello's Atlas de la Espana (1848-1890), the maps of which are on a scale of I: 200,000.
In Italy Tavulette rilevata on a scale of 1: 25,000 or 1: 50,000, with contours, based on surveys made 1862-1890, are being.
There are a Carta idrologica and a Carta geologica on the same scale, and a Carta orografica on a scale of 1: 500,000.
A map of Turkey in Europe, scale 1: 210,000, was published by the Turkish general staff (1899), and another map, scale 1:250,000, by the intelligence division of the British war office is in progress since 1906.
Revenue surveys for land settlement are published on a scale of 1:4000, but the usual scale for topographical maps is 1:63,360.
An Indian Atlas, on a scale of 1: 255,660, includes also Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula, but although begun so long ago as 1827 many of its sheets are unpublished.
There are in addition an official map of India (1:1,000,000), the first edition of which was published in 1903, as also maps of the great provinces of India, including Burma, all on a scale of 1: 2,827,520, and a variety of physical and statistical maps.
The British North Borneo Company published a Map of British North Borneo, on a scale of 1:633,600 (1905).
In the meantime large scale maps prepared by European authorities are to be welcomed, such as maps of Chih-li and Shan-tung (1:200,000), from surveys by Prussian officers, 1901-1905, maps on East China (1:1,000,000) and of Yun-nan by British, German and Indian officers, of the Indo-Chinese frontier (1:200,000, Paris 1908), and of the upper Yangtsze-kiang by S.
The primary triangulation was completed in 1880, a topographical map coloured geologically (1 :200,000) was published 1889-1897, and in addition to this there are being published an agronomical map on a scale of 1:100,000 (since 1887) and others.
A general map of Africa, by Colonel Lannoy de Bissy, on a scale of i: 2,000,000 was first published in 1882-1888, but is carefully revised from time to time.
Whitehouse (1898-1900), and the results have been published on a scale of 1:292,000.
Gallieni in 1896, and the surveys are being published since 1900 on a scale of i:ioo,000.
Of the Congo State we have an official map on a scale of 1:1,000,000, published in 1907.
In Victoria the so-called geodetic survey was begun in 1858; the maps are published on a scale of 1:126,730.
There exists also a general map, on a scale of 1:506,930.
Maps on the same scale are available of New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania, on a scale of 1:560,000 for Western Australia, on a scale of 1:253,460 for Queensland.
The map of British New Guinea is on a scale of 1:330,200 (1898).
New Zealand has a good general map on a scale of 1:633,700.
The " Lands Department " of the Fiji Islands has published a map on a scale of 1:380,000 (1008).
apart, and connected with the United States lake and coast surveys, the details being filled in by plane-table surveys on a scale of i:31,680.
He is responsible likewise for maps of Yukon and of Labrador, supplied by the geological survey, the former on a scale of 1:380,200, the latter of 1:1,584,000.
Maps of Newfoundland, orographical as well as geological, scale I: 1, 584, 200, have been published.
The maps of the more densely peopled parts of the Union are published on a scale of 1: 62,500, and those of the remainder of the country on half or a quarter of that scale.
A " reconnaissance " map of Alaska (on a scale of 1: 250,000) was published in 1908.
In Mexico the surveys are in charge of a comision geograficaexploradora attached to the secretaria de Fomento, but only about 140 sheets of a Carta general on a scale of I : 100,000 have been published.
A useful map of Central America has been published by the topographical section of the British general staff on a scale of i: 170,300.
In South America, in proportion to the area of the country, only few surveys of a thoroughly scientific nature have been made, and it is therefore satisfactory that the service geographique of the French army should be publishing, since 1900, a map of the entire continent on a scale of 1: 1,000,000.
de Beaurepaire-Rohan (1876) to prepare a map of Brazil on a scale of I: 200,000 has never been acted upon, and in the meantime we are dependent upon works like the Atlas do imperio do Brazil by Mendes de Almeida (1868) or the maps in our general atlases.
The order of procedure at the early field trials was similar to what it is to-day, only the awards were given in accordance with a scale of points as follows: nose, 40; pace and range, 30; temperament, 10; staunchness before, 10; behind, 10.
His father was a taxcollector and money-lender on a small scale; his mother was the sister of a senator.
For the various protectorates, (I) British - the annual reports issued by the Colonial Office, London; Official History of the Operations in Somaliland, 1901-1904 (2 vols., London, 1907); War Office maps on the scale of I :1,000,000, also sketch map 1:3,000,000 (1907).
In some passages, however, the divergence is on a larger scale.
p. 43) In music he held that the notes of the scale are to be judged, not as the Pythagoreans held, by mathematical ratio, but by the ear.
Buff e ï¿½ 1 h; t Scale. :8.000.000 English Miles loo paradise.
Externally uneventful as his life henceforth necessarily was, it was marked chiefly by the reception of distinguished personages and of numerous pilgrimages, often on a large scale, from all parts of the world, and by the issue of encyclical letters.
It is in proportion as a sedentary life prevails, and agricultural exploitation is practised on a larger scale, whilst warlike habits continue to exist, that the labour of slaves is increasingly introduced to provide food for the master, and at the same time save him from irksome toil.
Besides the coloni there were on a great estate - and those of the 4th century were on a specially large scale - a number of praedial slaves, who worked collectively under overseers on the part of the property which the owner himself cultivated.
The problem of inland waterways has always been a most important one in northern, eastern and southern Louisiana, where there are systems of improved bayous, lakes and canals which, with the levees, make this region something like Holland, on a greater scale.
Eyde, which is being worked on a large scale at Notodden, Norway.
Whatever be the historical worth of this story, it may safely be said that it cannot be disproved by deductive reasoning from the premisses of abstract logic. The most we can do is to assert that a universe in which such things are liable to happen on a large scale is unfitted for the practical application of the theory of cardinal numbers.
Cotton cultivation was now attempted on a large scale.
The construction of carriage-roads, wholly neglected by the Turks, was carried, out on a large scale by the Austrians.
Polygamy is almost unknown, possibly because many of the "Turks" are descended from the austere Bogomils, who were, in most cases, converted to Islam, but more probably because the "Turks" are as a rule too poor to provide for more than one wife on the scale required by Islamic law.
Plevly o Scale, I:3,450,000 40 00 120 Railways - ?..
For its privileges the regie has to pay a rent of £T750,000 per annum to the government (assigned to bondholders), " even if it has no revenues at all," and after the payment of a dividend of 8% to its shareholders, and certain other deductions, it has to share profits with the government and the bondholders according to a sliding scale agreed upon between the three parties.
A different scale is established for emiriye with moukataa (rent paid for emiriye with mulk property established upon it).
On the northern frontier border raids on a large scale were frequent.
The Egyptian fleet and disciplined army were now thrown into the scale; and from the moment when Ibrahim Pasha landed at Modon (Feb.
But here too the weather and the state of the roads operated adversely, for Ney came up too late, while Davout, in the full tide of his victorious advance, was checked by the arrival of Lestocq, whose corps Ney had failed to intercept, Campaign Of 1807 In Poland And Prussia Scale.
Till about midday he followed the course of the action with his usual alertness; then he appears to have been overcome by a / Merezhk Grodno Niel Minsk Pultusk Modlin Memel Dunaburg Vilkomir Vilna Oka Ostrolenka Scale.
Campaign of 1814 Scale.
The preparations were made on an unprecedented scale.
Sometimes, in the months of June, July and August, when the sherki or south wind is blowing, the thermometer at break of day is known to stand at 112° F., while at noon it rises to 1 19° and a little before two o'clock to 122°, standing at sunset at 114°, but this scale of temperature is exceptional.
Leonardo, making use of fractions of the sexagesimal scale, gives X = I° 221 7 42" i 33 iv 4v 40 vi, after having demonstrated, by a discussion founded on the 10th book of Euclid, that a solution by square roots is impossible.
Franz Josef Fjord, with its branch King Oscar Fjord, communicating with Davy's Sound, forms a system of fjords on a similar scale.
In 1920 a very influential movement began, in England, for the despatch of a new " Challenger " expedition on a great scale, but it was suspended in 1921 for lack of funds.
(Similar effects can be seen on a small scale, even in our own times, as the result of exceptionally big tides.) Severe winters were experienced and the Baltic was frequently frozen over so that there was solid ice communication between Sweden and Denmark across the Belts and Sound: this happened in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries but not in the 16th.
Coral reefs remove calcium from solution in the sea on a vast scale.
Henceforth he resisted all proposals for joint operations, on any large scale, with Spanish armies not under his own direct command.
The city, however, soon rose from its ashes, the churches were rebuilt and new streets laid out on a scale of considerable magnificence.
Ever since plantations of Hevea have been made on an increasing scale in the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States and in Ceylon, and at the present time rubber plantations form the principal industry in these colonies.
It may therefore be said that caoutchouc has been already artificially or synthetically prepared, and the possibility of producing synthetic rubber cheaply on a commercial scale remains the only problem.
The question as to whether synthetic rubber will ever be produced cheaply on a commerical scale is therefore the important one for those who are largely interested in the rubber-planting industry.
_ .?, Niliols +?'?khu r i Ay?, N ?0° n 9 L j Khailar Scale, r :25,000,000 English Miles o iao 0 ' N,kgt hydrographical network is very imperfectly known, especially in the uninhabited hilly tracts.'
Two such folds maybe distinguished, corresponding on a smaller scale to the belt of alpine tracts which fringe the plateau on the north-west.
On the other hand, free colonization has been more successful and has been undertaken on a much larger scale.
1074) to institute astronomical observations on a larger scale, and to aid him in his great enterprise of a thorough reform of the calendar.
60° E., and the structure is complicated by overthrusting on an extensive scale.
No purely astronomical enterprise was ever carried out on so Transits of P large a scale or at so great an expenditure of money and labour as was devoted to the observations of these transits, and for several years before their occurrence the astronomers of every leading nation were busy in discussing methods of observation and working out the multifarious details necessary to their successful application.
The scheme of observations was organized on an extended scale.
Advantage was taken of the occasion to make photographic measures for parallax at various points of the earth on a very large scale.
Deflections of the suspended needle are indicated by the movement of a narrow beam of light which the mirror reflects from a lamp and focusses upon a graduated cardboard scale placed at a distance of a few feet; the angular deflection of the beam of light is, of course, twice that of the needle.
The angle B is indicated by the position of the spot of light upon the scale, and the horizontal intensity of the earth's field H E is known; thus we can at once determine the value of H P, from which the magnetization I of the body under test may be calculated.
If the cardboard scale upon which the beam of light is reflected by the magnetometer mirror is a flat one, the deflections as indicated by the movement of the spot of light are related to the actual deflections of the needle in the ratio of tan 20 to 0.
If the distance of the mirror from the scale is equal to n scale divisions, and if a deflection 0 of the needle causes, the reflected spot of light to move over s scale divisions, we shall have s/n = tan 20 exactly, s/2n = tan 0 approximately.
The cardboard scale SS is placed above a wooden screen, having in it a narrow vertical slit which permits a beam of light from the lamp L to reach the mirror of the magnetometer M, whence it is reflected upon the scale.
From the former we deduce Ho, and from the latter the corresponding value of I, using the formulae Ho = 47rin/l and I - X s, (d (-- 11)2n7rr 2 i where s is the deflection in scale-divisions, n the distance in scaledivisions between the scale and the mirror, and r the radius of the wire.
In practice it is usual to standardize or " calibrate " the galvanometer by causing a known change of induction to take place within a standard coil connected with it, and noting the corresponding deflection on the galvanometer scale.
The deflection is indicated by a pointer upon a graduated scale, the readings being interpreted by comparison with two standard specimens supplied with the instrument.
Curves of magnetization (which express the relation of I to H) have a close resemblance to those of induction; and, indeed, since B = H+47r1, and 47rI (except in extreme fields) greatly exceeds H in numerical value, we may generally, without serious error, put I = B /47r, and transform curves of induction into curves of magnetization by merely altering the scale to which the ordinates are referred.
A scale for the approximate transformation for the curves in fig.
During the first stage, when the magnetizing force is small, the magnetization (or the induction) increases rather slowly with increasing force; this is well shown by the nickel curve in the diagram, but the effect would be no less conspicuous in the iron curve if the abscissae were plotted to a larger scale.
W is a weight capable of sliding from end to end of the yoke along a graduated scale.
The weight W is moved along the scale until the yoke just tilts over upon the stop S; the distance of W from its zero position is then, as can easily be shown, proportional to F, and therefore to B 2, and approximately to I 2.
The scale is graduated in such a manner that by multiplying the reading by a simple factor (generally 10 or 2) the absolute value of the magnetization is obtained.
1898, 27, 526), the value of the magnetic induction corresponding to a single stated magnetizing force is directly read off on a divided scale.
To take a reading the torsion-head is turned until an aluminium pointer attached to the coil is brought to the zero position on a small scale; the strength of the field is then proportional to the angular torsion.
In Ponape the remains are of a somewhat similar character, but on a much larger scale, and with this difference, that while those of Lele all stand on the land, those of Ponape are built in the water.
In 1855, ignorant of what Wailer had done ten years previously, he succeeded in obtaining metallic aluminium, and ultimately he devised a method by which the metal could be prepared on a large scale by the aid of sodium, the manufacture of which he also developed.
The simplicity and smallness of the Mithraic temples are to be accounted for by structural and financial reasons; an underground temple was difficult to construct on a large scale, and the worshippers of Mithras were usually from the humbler classes.
9 eneZd He .aop elo P-or o Alegre VP P'S Continuatio Southward ul (Same Scale) G 46° na, Sao own Para Blumenau 4d
They projected a scheme of conquest and colonization upon a large scale.
Besides the ministry which had come with the regent, Reorgan- the council of state, and the departments of the four ization on ministries of home, finances, war and marine then Portu- existing, there were created in the course of one year a supreme court of justice, a board of patronage and administration of the property of the church and military orders, an inferior court of appeal, the court of exchequer and royal treasury, the royal mint, bank of Brazil, royal printing-office, powder-mills on a large scale, and a supreme military court.
He protests in favour of Lord Monteagle's motion for inquiry into the sliding scale of corn duties; of Lord Normanby's motion on the queen's speech in 1843, for inquiry into the state of Ireland (then wholly under military occupation); of Lord Radnor's bill to define the constitutional powers of the home secretary, when Sir James Graham opened Mazzini's letters.
As a rule denudation, which has acted on a magnificent scale, has removed all but a few hundred feet of the basement beds.
des Mittelalters; Karl Werner, Die Scholastik des spateren Mittelalters; and, on a smaller scale, de Wulf's Histoire de la phil.
Platinum itself he discovered how to work on a practical scale, and he is said to have made a fortune from the secret, which, however, he disclosed in a posthumous paper (1829); and he was the first to detect the metals palladium (1804)(1804) and rhodium (1805) in crude platinum.
Among his other papers may be mentioned those dealing with the formation of fairy rings (1807), a synoptic scale of chemical equivalents (1814), sounds inaudible to ordinary ears (1820), the physiology of vision (1824), the apparent direction of the eyes in a portrait (1824) and the comparison of the light of the sun with that of the moon and fixed stars (1829).
The largest of the studs is that at Mezohegyes (founded 1785) in the county of Csanad, the most extensive and remarkable of those " economies," model farms on a gigantic scale, which the government has established on its domains.'
The wines of Hungary were already renowned throughout Europe, and cattle breeding was conducted on a great scale.
(iii.) Scales of Notation lead, by considering, e.g., how to express in the scale of to a number whose expression in the scale of 8 is 2222222, to (iv.) Geometrical Progressions.
- It should be observed that the radix of the scale is exactly the same thing as the root mentioned under (ii.) above; and it is better to use the term " root " throughout.
Denoting the root by a, and the number 2222222 in this scale by N, we have N = 2222222.
When, by practice with logarithms, we become familiar with the correspondence between additions of length on the logarithmic scale (on a slide-rule) and multiplication of numbers in the natural scale (including fractional numbers), A /5 acquires a definite meaning as the number corresponding to the extremity of a length x, on the logarithmic scale, such that 5 corresponds to the extremity of 2X.
He also celebrated the ludi Romani on a scale of unexampled magnificence.
It abolished the conception of life s an entity above and beyond the common properties of matter, and led to the conviction that the marvellous and exceptional qualities of that which we call " living " matter are nothing more nor less than an exceptionally complicated development of those chemical and physical properties which we recognize in a gradually ascending scale of evolution in the carbon compounds, containing nitrogen as well as oxygen, sulphur and hydrogen as constituent atoms of their enormous molecules.
The species of Linnaeus were supposed to represent a series of steps in a scale of ascending complexity, and it was thought possible thus to arrange the animal kingdom in a single series - the orders within the classes succeeding one another in regular gradation, and the classes succeeding one another in a similar rectilinear progression.
If the wave-length remains unchanged, similar effects are produced by an increase in the scale of the aperture.
Foucault, who employed a scale of equal bright and dark alternate parts; it was found to be proportional to the aperture and independent of the focal length.
The experiment is easily made on a laboratory scale, with a small source of light, the rays from which, in their course towards a rather distant screen, are disturbed by the neighbourhood of a heated body.
at the edge of the shadow, I 2 =1; when V = 00, I 2 = 2, on the scale adopted.
Neuserre of the Vth Dynasty appears to have been in the shape of a stumpy obelisk on a vast scale, only the base now remains, but hieroglyphic pictures, indicate this form.
No one of these works is now known to be in existence; the only example we possess of Zarlino's compositions on a grand scale is a MS. mass for four voices, in the library of the Philharmonic Lyceum at Bologna.
So persistently does the human ear rebel against the division of the tetrachord into two greater tones and a leimma or hemitone, as represented by the fractions 9, 9, 26, that, centuries before the possibility of reconciling the demands of the ear with those of exact science was satisfactorily demonstrated, the Aristoxenian school advocated the use of an empirical scale, sounding pleasant to the sense, in preference to an unpleasing tonality founded upon immutable proportions.
Didymus, writing in the year 60, made the first step towards establishing this pleasant-sounding scale upon a mathematical basis, by the discovery of the lesser tone; but unhappily he placed it in a false position below the greater tone.
Claudius Ptolemy (130) rectified this error, and in the so-called syntonous or intense diatonic scale reduced the proportions of his tetrachord to s, iii, f, -i.
the greater tone, lesser tone, and diatonic semitone of modern music. 2 Ptolemy set forth this system as one of eight possible forms of the diatonic scale.
But Zarlino uncompromisingly declared that the syntonous or intense diatonic scale was the only form that could reasonably be sung; and in proof of its perfection he exhibited the exact arrangement of its various diatonic intervals, to the fifth inclusive, in every part of the diapason or octave.
Eight of them, it is true, fell into disuse; but the medieval Ionian and Hypo-ionian modes are absolutely identical with the modern natural scale of C; and the Aeolian and Hypoaeolian modes differ from our minor scale, not in constitution, but in treatment only.
His numerical table, therefore, differs from all others made before or since, prophetically assigning the place of honour to the one ancient scale now recognized as the foundation of the modern tonal system.
The sine table, however, was afterwards published on this scale under the name of Thesaurus Mathematicus (Frankfort, 1613) by B.
RAINBOW, formerly known as the iris, the coloured rings seen in the heavens when the light from the sun or moon shines on falling rain; on a smaller scale they may be observed when sunshine falls on the spray of a waterfall or fountain.
Till the beginning of Scale, 1:72,000 English Mile o;: Contours at intervals of10 metres 32~8 feet Railways C.S.Pancgla Bay of Thapsus Tern A rec h usa ascon of.
Again, a like spirit dictated the use of the physical or "natural" methods on a larger scale in the field of prevention.
By the modification of physical conditions on a national scale a prodigious advance was made in the art of preventing disease.
At Les Daces (which he sold in 1765) he had become a householder on no small scale; at Ferney (which he increased by other purchases and leases) he became a complete country gentleman, and was henceforward known to all Europe as squire of Ferney.
co oehampt Scale, 1: 105,000 A Royal Arsenal C (W Shooter's ?
In the vicinity, also, is the fine building of the Imperial Institute, founded in 1887 as an exhibition to illustrate the resources of all parts of the Empire, as well as an institution for the furtherance of imperial intercourse; though not developed on the scale originally intended.
The amending acts, while not interfering with the operation of the principal act, authorize the creation of highway districts on a larger scale.
On the other hand, in the case of less regular deposits, including most metalliferous veins, and especially those of the precious metals, the uncertainty is often very great, and it is sometimes necessary to work on a small scale for months before any considerable expenditure of money is justified.
In extreme cases the results from boring are likely to be untrustworthy and misleading unless the work is done on such a scale that the cost becomes prohibitory.
The mistake is often made of sinking large and expensive shafts, or driving costly tunnels, before it is fully proved that the deposit can be worked on a scale to warrant such developments, and, indeed, too often before it is known that the deposit can be worked at all; and in too many cases large amounts of money are thus unnecessarily lost by over-sanguine mine managers.
This method originated in the Pennsylvania anthracite mines in 1887, but has been employed in recent years on a large scale in Silesia, Westphalia and other European coalfields.
On a smaller scale hoisting is also necessary for sinking shafts and winzes and for various underground services.
scale work or temporary service, such as raising the material blasted in sinking shafts.
In mining operations explosives are used on a large scale and the powder gases contain large quantities of the very poisonous gas, carbon monoxide, a small percentage of which may cause death, and even a minute percentage of which in the air will seriously affect the health.
In order to determine the probable profit and life of the mine a definite scale of operations must be assumed, the money required for development and plant and for working capital must be estimated, the methods of mining and treating the ore determined, and their probable cost estimated.
That day was also the last on which any hope remained of the Sari Bair offensive accomplishing its purpose, and on which help from Suvla might conceivably even at the eleventh hour have turned the scale.
Electrical furnaces have not as yet been employed for ordinary glass-making on a commercial scale, but the electrical plants which have been erected for melting and moulding quartz suggest the possibility of electric heating being employed for the manufacture of glass.
The electromotive force thus generated is measured by a galvanometer, the scale of which is divided and figured so that the temperature may be-directly read.
The men who manipulate the stirring bars are therefore changed at short intervals, while the bars themselves have also to be changed at somewhat longer intervals, as they rapidly become oxidized, and accumulated scale would tend to fall off them, thus contaminating the glass below.
The potash-lead glass, which was first used on a commercial scale in England for the manufacture of table-ware, and which is known as " flint " glass or " crystal," is also largely used in France, Germany and the United States.
In the manufacture of a wine-glass the ductility of glass is illustrated on a small scale by the process of pulling out the, leg.
The glass is taken from the furnace in large iron ladles, which are carried upon slings running on overhead rails; from the ladle the glass is thrown upon the cast-iron bed of a rolling-table, and is rolled into sheet by an iron roller, the process being similar to that employed in making plate-glass, but on a smaller scale.
It would appear not improbable that the former was the case, for it must be remembered that articles formed of glass were in the later days of Roman civilization in constant daily use, and that the making of glass was carried on, not as now in large establishments, but by artisans working on a small scale.
Pliny states that glass was made in Gaul, and there is reason to believe that it was made in many parts of the country and on a considerable scale.
The progress of science has, in fact, been accompanied by the discovery of some 70 elements, which may be arranged in order of their "metallic" properties as above indicated, and it is found that while the end members of the scale are most distinctly metallic (or non-metallic), certain central members, e.g.
(9) c 2 Ci If the shot is moving as if fired from a gun of calibre d inches, in which the rifling makes one turn in a pitch of n calibres or nd inches, so that the angle S of the rifling is given by tan S = ird/nd = 2 d p/u, (10) '°If a denotes the density of the metal, and if the shell has a cavity homothetic with the external ellipsoidal shape, a fraction f of the linear scale; then the volume of a round shot being sird 3, and sird 3 x of a shot x calibres long W =*ird 3 x(I -f 3)v, (20) 2 Wki 2= 61rd 3 xo(I-f 5)Q, (21) Wk22=67rd3x 2 2+0 2(I - f5)Q.
Another German expedition, on a large scale, was despatched by the Orientgesellschaft in 1899 with the object of exploring the ruins of Babylon; the palace of Nebuchadrezzar and the great processional road were laid bare, and Dr W.
Some of his statues, now in the Louvre, are carved out of Sinaitic dolerite, and on the lap of one of them (statue E) is the plan of his palace, with the scale of measurement attached.
The scale of judicial fines is given in the denarius (" which makes so many solidi"), and it is known that the monetary system of the solidus did not appear until the Merovingian period.
consist of a scale of compositions; but, although the fines are calculated, not on the unit of 15 solidi, as in the Salic Law, .but on that of 18 solidi, it is clear that this part is already influenced by the Salic Law.
In Australia, Demerara, Cuba, Java and Peru double crushing and maceration (first used on a commercial scale in Demerara by the late Hon.
long, on which the scale has already been loosened by the aid of boiling with dilute muriatic acid or a weak solution of caustic soda in water, than it is to clean either the inside or the outside of horizontal tubes more than double the length.
scale as the heat most proper to be used and applied in order to secure and preserve the colour and crystallizability of the sugars, and most easily to be obtained with precision and uniformity by means of the water bath and steam bath, yet when circumstances or choice may render the same desirable I do make use of higher temperatures, although less beneficial."
Very similar kinds of sugar are also produced for local consumption in Central America and in Mexico, under the names of " Panela " and " Chancaca," but in those countries the sugar is generally boiled in pans placed over special fire-places, and the factories making it are on a comparatively small scale, whereas in the Straits Settlements the " basket sugar " factories are of considerable importance, and are fitted with the most approved machinery.
At Gunde-Shapur in this region " sugar was prepared with art " about the time of the Arab conquest, 3 and manufacture on a large scale was carried on at Shuster, Sus and Askar-Mokram throughout the middle ages.4 It has been plausibly conjectured that the art of sugar refining, which the farther East learned from the Arabs, was developed by the famous physicians of this region, in whose pharmacopoeia sugar had an important place.
The industries of Elberfeld are on a scale of great magnitude.
This was first done on a large scale in 1803, when by a recess of the imperial diet many of the smaller fiefs were mediatized, in order to compensate those German princes who had been forced to cede their territories on the left bank of the Rhine to France.
- Tobacco is grown for local use in many parts of India, but the principal centres of its cultivation on a commercial scale are Bombay, Madras and the Punjab.
In Australia tobacco is produced on a small scale in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
In the West Indies tobacco is grown on a small scale in many of the British colonies, but only in Jamaica is there a definite industry.
The cigars, when dry, are carefully sorted according to strength, which is estimated by their colour, and classed in a scale of increasing strength as claro, colorado claro, maduro and oscuro.