That charm was not expressed so much in his relations with him as with all his family and with the household.
Neither Lori nor Alex would have considered it inappropriate to have relations – as long as they weren't engaged to anyone at the time.
looked coldly on the project, and from this time forth the old familiar relations between the republic and the French monarchy were strained to breaking point, though the final rupture did not come till 1682 on the arrival of the Austrian minister, Zerowski, at Warsaw.
The war of Urbino was further marked by a crisis in the relations between pope and cardinals.
He maintained close relations with Poland because of the Turkish advance and the Polish contest with the Teutonic Knights.
But the energy and enterprise of Evagoras soon roused the jealousy of the Great King, and relations between them became strained.
Perceiving further, that in order to understand these relations I should sometimes have to consider them one by one, and sometimes only to bear them in mind or embrace them in the aggregate, I thought that, in order the better to consider them individually, I should view them as subsisting between straight lines, than which I could find no objects more simple, or capable of being more distinctly represented to my imagination and senses; and on the other hand that, in order to retain them in the memory or embrace an aggregate of many, I should express them by certain characters, the briefest possible."
He carefully establishes the necessity of revelation as a source of knowledge, not merely because it aids us in comprehending in a somewhat better way the truths already furnished by reason, as some of the Arabian philosophers and Maimonides had acknowledged, but because it is the absolute source of our knowledge of the mysteries of the Christian faith; and then he lays down the relations to be observed between reason and revelation, between philosophy and theology.
The story of William's relations with King John is interesting, although the details are somewhat obscure.
will give a general idea of the relations of potential gradient to dissipation and ionization.
On the relations between the church and the state in various countries see Vering, Kirchenrecht, §§ 30-53.
He was in Paris in 1789, and entered into relations with Marat, Camille Desmoulins and Robespierre.
The chief subjects of discussion were: the relations of faith and modern thought, the supply and training of the clergy, education, foreign missions, revision and "enrichment" of the Prayer-Book, the relation of the Church to "ministries of healing" (Christian Science, &c.), the questions of marriage and divorce, organization of the Anglican Church, reunion with other Churches.
Hunter states that the Dravidian tribes were driven southwards in Hindustan, and that the grammatical relations of their dialects are " expressed by suffixes," which is true as to the Australian languages.
But, further, every attempt to think clearly what those relations are, what we really mean, if we talk of a fixed order of events, forces upon us the necessity of thinking also that the different things which stand in relations or the different phases which follow each other cannot be merely externally strung together or moved about by some indefinable external power, in the form of some predestination or inexorable fate.
By the following September Helen shows improvement in fulness of construction and more extended relations of thought.
His grip was warm and firm, as it had been the day he prevented her from falling on her face in front of Romas's relations.
He cared for his sisters; they were his blood relations.
Painful relations between father and son, quite apart from the personal antipathies already existing, were therefore inevitable.
His Zwinglian view of the Eucharist disturbed his relations with his Catholic colleagues.
His relations with Cornelius Herz and the baron de Reinach compelled his retirement, however, from the Ribot cabinet at the time of the Panama scandals in December 1892.
It must be observed that the denunciation of a concordat by a nation does not necessarily entail the separation of the church and the state in that country or the rupture of diplomatic relations with Rome.
gave his daughter a scanty dowry and quarrels on this head embittered the relations between the two kingdoms, which the marriage, although accompanied by a treaty of perpetual peace, did nothing to heal.
The relations were now very strained between the reforming princes and Maximilian, who, unable to raise an army, refused to attend the meetings of the council at Nuremberg, while both parties treated for peace with France.
Such are the four points of Cartesian method: (1) Truth requires a clear and distinct conception of its object, excluding all doubt; (2) the objects of knowledge naturally fall into series or groups; (3) in these groups investigation must begin with a simple and indecomposable element, and pass from it to the more complex and relative elements; (4) an exhaustive and immediate grasp of the relations and interconnexion of these elements is necessary for knowledge in the fullest sense of that word.4 " There is no question," he says in anticipation of Locke and Kant, " more important to solve than that of knowing what human knowledge is and how far it extends."
The first book, after a short introduction upon the nature of theology as understood by Aquinas, proceeds in 119 questions to discuss the nature, attributes and relations of God; and this is not done as in a modern work on theology, but the questions raised in the physics of Aristotle find a place alongside of the statements of Scripture, while all subjects in any way related to the central theme are brought into the discourse.
The second book continues the history of his conquests, and the third contains the victory over Porus, the relations with the Brahmins, the letter to Aristotle on the wonders of India, the histories of Candace and the Amazons, the letter to Olympias on the marvels of Farther Asia, and lastly the account of Alexander's death in Babylon.
The relations between the writings of Ezekiel and those of Jeremiah is not clear.
In some districts there is a fixed price of blood; at Argyrokastro, for instance, the compensation paid by the homicide to the relatives of his victim is 1200 piastres (about £10), at Khimara 2000 piastres; once the debt has been acquitted amicable relations are restored.
The history of the relations of the Edomites and Israelites may be briefly summarized.
In addition to the encyclical letter, nineteen resolutions were put forth, and the reports of twelve special committees are appended upon which they are based, the subjects being intemperance, purity, divorce, polygamy, observance of Sunday, socialism, care of emigrants, mutual relations of dioceses of the Anglican Communion, home reunion, Scandinavian Church, Old Catholics, &c., Eastern Churches, standards of doctrine and worship. Perhaps the most important of these is the famous "Lambeth Quadrilateral," which laid down a fourfold basis for home reunion - the Holy Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself and the historic episcopate.
The encyclical letter is accompanied by sixty-three resolutions (which include careful provision for provincial organization and the extension of the title "archbishop" to all metropolitans, a "thankful recognition of the revival of brotherhoods and sisterhoods, and of the office of deaconess," and a desire to promote friendly relations with the Eastern Churches and the various Old Catholic bodies), and the reports of the eleven committees are subjoined.
A notable feature of the conference was the presence of the Swedish bishop of Kalmar, who presented a letter from the archbishop of Upsala, as a tentative advance towards closer relations between the Anglican Church and the Evangelical Church of Sweden.
With regard to the relations between the Church and the civil power, Calvin was opposed to the Zwinglian theory whereby all ecclesiastical power was handed over to the state.
He received the rudiments of his education at the monastery of Caltagirone in Sicily, but was expelled from it for misconduct and disowned by his relations.
He introduced the Thurman Bill, for which he was chiefly responsible, which became law in May 1878, and readjusted the government's relations with the bond-aided Pacific railways.
Cabot, with a large following, entered the Parana and established a settlement just above the mouth of the river Carcaranal, to which he gave the name of San Espiritu, among the Timbu Indians, with whom he formed friendly relations.
Before these alterations the relations between the state and the Roman Catholic communion, by far the largest and most important in France, were chiefly regulated by the provisions of the Concordat of 1801, concluded between the first consul, Bonaparte, and Pope Pius VII.
While raising the taxes both on agricultural products and manufactured goods, this law introduced, between France and all the powers trading with her, relations different from those in the past.
The history of these relations, as recorded by Herodotus (v.
Her medism in 4 91 is to be explained by her commercial relations with the Persian Empire.
For the criticism of Herodotus's account of the relations of Athens and Aegina, Wilamowitz, Aristoteles and Athen, ii.
The Romans knew as little about Istakhr as the Greeks had done about Persepolis - and this in spite of the fact that for four hundred years the Sassanians maintained relations, friendly or hostile, with the empire.
The chief difficulty in deciding their ethnical relations is their remarkable physical difference from the neighbouring peoples.
They have much acuteness of perception for the relations of individual objects, but little power of generalization.
The eighty-one canons which were adopted reflect with considerable fulness the internal life and external relations of the Spanish Church of the 4th century.
Under Augustus, 15 B.C., the relations conquered territory was formed into an imperial with the province, Gallia Belgica, and the frontier line, the Romans.
C. Kervyn de Lettenhove, Relations politiques des Pays-Bas et de l'Angleterre sous le regne de Philippe II.
Hertz himself gave an admirable account of the significance of his discoveries in a lecture on the relations between light and electricity, delivered before the German Society for the Advancement of Natural Science and Medicine at Heidelberg in September 1889.
Instead they used every endeavour to establish friendly relations with the rulers of all the neighbouring kingdoms, and before d'Alboquerque returned to India he despatched embassies to China, Siam, and several kingdoms of Sumatra, and sent a small fleet, with orders to assume a highly conciliatory attitude toward all natives, in search of the Moluccas.
It was a popular opinion in the middle ages that extreme unction extinguishes all ties and links with this world, so that he who has received it must, if he recovers, renounce the eating of flesh and matrimonial relations.
He believed that the Union could be saved without a war, and that a policy of delay would prevent the secession of the border states, which in turn would gradually coax their more southern neighbours back into their proper relations with the Federal government.
In the internal administration of the colonies Cromwell interfered very little, maintaining specially friendly relations with the New Englanders, and showing no jealousy of their desire for self-government.
Firth (1902); The Diplomatic Relations between Cromwell and Charles X.
Shaw (1900); The Protestant Interest in Cromwell's Foreign Relations, by J.
In 1602 he made his second visit to the French capital, when his transcendent qualities brought him into the closest relations with the court of Henry IV., and made him the spiritual father of that circle of select souls who centred round Madame Acarie.
The relations between owners and tillers of the soil are still regulated by the ancient forms of agrarian contract, which have remained almost untouched by social and political changes.
The relations between the new emperor and the pope were ill defined; and this proved the source of infinite disasters to Italy and Europe in the sequel.
For some time past the relations between Napoleon and the pope, Pius VII., had been Napoleon severely strained, chiefly because the emperor insisted ~pacj~ on controlling the church, both in France and in the kingdom of Italy, in a way inconsistent with the traditions of the Vatican, but also because the pontiff refused to grant the divorce between Jerome Bonaparte and the former Miss Patterson on which Napoleon early in the year 1806 laid so much stress.
The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.
For Attitude a few weeks the relations between the Curia and the ~ Italian authorities were marked by a conciliatory spirit.
Once in possession of Rome, and guarantor to the Catholic world of the spiritual independence of the pope, the Italian government prepared juridically to regulate its relations to the Holy See.
This portion of the law, designed to reassure foreign Catholics, met with little opposition; but the second portion, regulating the relations between state and church in Italy, was sharply criticized by deputies who, like Sella, recognized the ideal of a free church in a free state to be an impracticable dream.
It had completed national unity, transferred the capital to Rome, overcome the chief obstacles to financial equilibrium, initiated military reform and laid the foundation of the relations between state and church.
The irritation displayed by Bismarck at the Francophil attitude of Italy towards the end of the Franco-German War gave place to a certain show of goodwill when the great chancellor found himself in his turn involved in a struggle against the Vatican and when the policy of Thiers began to strain Franco-Italian relations.
Meanwhile Thiers had given place to Marshal Macmahon, who effected a decided improvement in Franco-Italian relations by recalling from Civitavecchia the cruiser Ornoque, which since 1870 had been stationed in that port at the disposal of the pope in case he should desire to quit Rome.
On more than one occasion Bismarck had maintained direct relations with the chiefs of the Left, and had in I87o worked to prevent a FrancoItalian alliance by encouraging the party of action to press for the occupation of Rome.
Italy, in constant danger from France, needed good relations with Austria and Germany, but could only attain the goodwill of the former by firm treatment of the revolutionary Irredentist agitation, and of the latter by clear demonstration of Italian will and ability to cope with all anti-monarchical forces.
The rivalry between these two officials in Tunisia contributed not a little to strain FrancoItalian relations, but it is doubtful whether France would have precipitated her action had not General Menabrea, Italian ambassador in London, urged his government to purchase the Tunis-Goletta railway from the English company by which it had been constructed.
both army and navy, but advocated cordial relations with Berlin and Vienna as a guarantee against French domineering, and as a pledge that Italy would be vouchsafed time to effect her armaments without disturbing financial equilibrium.
Danger of foreign interference in the relations between Italy and the papacy had never been so great since the Italian occupation of Rome, as when, in the summer of 1881,the disorders during the transfer of the remains of Pius IX.
Italy, indeed, came out of the Eastern crisis with enhanced prestige and with her relations to Austria greatly improved.
Anglo-Italian relations, however, regained their norma I cordiality two years later, and found expression in the support lent by Italy to the British proposal at the London conference on the Egyptian question (July 1884).
Antoneili profited by the situation to obtain Mneleks signature to a treaty fixing the frontiers of the Italian colony and defining Italo-Abyssinian relations.
The sudden fall of Crispi wrought a great change in the character of Italian relations with foreign powers.
On the 24th of June 1887, in view of a possible rupttire of commercial relations with France, the Depretis-Crispi cabinet introduced a new general tariff.
Meanwhile the enthusiastic reception accorded to the young German emperor on the occasion of his visit to Rome in October 1888, and the cordiality shown towards King Humbert and Crispi at Berlin in May 1889, increased the tension of FrancoItalian relations; nor was it until after the fall of Prince Bismarck in March 1890 that Crispi adopted towards the Republic a more friendly attitude by sending an Italian squadron to salute President Carnot at Toulon.
Under the arrangement concluded in 1891 by Rudini with native chiefs in regard to the Italo-Abyssinian frontier districts, relations with Abyssinia had remained comparatively satisfactory.
After being subjected to persecution for nearly two years, Crispis character was substantially vindicated by the report of a parliamentary commission appointed to inquire into his relations with Favilla.
Soon after taking office he completed the negotiations begun by the Rudini administration for a new commercial treaty with France (October 1898), whereby Franco-Italian commercial relations were placed upon a normal footing after a breach which had lasted for more than ten years.
For this reason the Anglo-French convention had caused profound irritation in Italy, and had tended somewhat to diminish the cordiality of Anglo-Italian relations.
Meanwhile, the relations between Church and State began to show signs of change.
The characteristic feature of Italys foreign relations during this period was the weakening of the bonds of the Triple Alliance and the improved relations with France, while the ~
Austrias petty persecutions of her Italian subjects in the irredente provinces, her active propaganda incompatible with Italian interests in the Balkans, and the antiItalian war talk of Austrian military circles, imperilled the relations of the two allies; it was remarked, indeed, that the object of the alliance between Austria and Italy was to prevent war between them.
This national policy, however, could only be pursued, and the minister could only maintain himself in power, by acquiescence in the king's personal relations with the king of France settled by the disgraceful Treaty of Dover in 1670, which included Charles's acceptance of a pension, and bound him to a policy exactly opposite to Danby's, one furthering French and Roman ascendancy.
Though not a number of the Cabal ministry, and in spite of his own denial, Danby must, it would seem, have known of these relations after becoming lord treasurer.
In 1678, on the rupture of relations between Charles and Louis, a splendid opportunity was afforded Louis of paying off old scores by disclosing Danby's participation in the king's demands for French gold.
Portman, Record of the Andamanese (Ii volumes MS. in India Office, London, and Home Department, Calcutta), 18 931898, Andamanese Manual (1887), Notes on the Languages of the South Andaman Group of Tribes (1898), and History of our Relations with the Andamanese (1899); S.
In his Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere (p. 264) he distinctly tells us that the law of growing individuality is " the fundamental thought which goes through all forms and degrees of animal development and all single relations.
His Ganganelli: Papst Clemens XI V., seine Briefe and seine Zeit (Berlin, 1847) is valuable for the relations between this pope and the Jesuits.
It was suggested that the motive of the murder was the brothers' rivalry in the affection of Donna Sancha, wife of Giuffre, the pope's youngest son, while there were yet darker hints at incestuous relations of Cesare and the duke with their sister Lucrezia.
The relations of their bishops, priests or other ministers and lay office-bearers inter se and to their lay folk depend upon contract; and these Y P P contracts will be enforced by the ordinary courts of law.
Throughout the United States, whatever may have been the position in some of them before their independence, the Church has now no position recognized by the State, but is just a body of believers whose relations are governed by contract and with whom ecclesiastical jurisdiction is consensual.
Aurelius Antoninus (1884) contains a general account - life, character, philosophy, relations with Christianity - as well as a bibliography; see also art.
(2) Relations to Christianity: Sir W.
From the primitive uniform Systems. mass of undifferentiated assimilating cells, which we may conceive of as the starting-point of differentiation, though such an undifferentiated body is only actually realized in the thallus of the lower Algae, there is, (1) on the one hand, a specialization of a surface layer regulating the immediate relations of the plant with its surroundings.
The stele of Equisetum is of a very peculiar type whose relations are not completely clear.
The Nature of the Organization of Ilte Plant, and the Relations of the Cell-Membrane and the Protoplasm.This view of the structure of the plant and this method of investigation lead us to a greatly modified conception of its organization, and afford more completely an explanation of the peculiarities of form found in the vegetable kingdom.
Relations with the exterior are continually changing, and the needs of different regions of the interior are continually varying, from time to time.
Two features which are essentially protoplasmic assume a great importance when we consider these relations.
The whole story of the different sugars existing in the planttheir relations and their several functionsrequires renewed investigation.
The relations of the Alga and the Fungus, which have formed a close associationship in the structure known as the Lichen, were established many years ago.
The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.
It was not until many centuries had passed that the parts began to be regarded from the point of view of their essential nature and of their mutual relations; that is, morphologically instead of organographically.
Joachim Jung, in his Isagoge phytoscopica (1678), recognized that the plant-body consists of certain definite members, root, stem and leaf, and defined them by their different form and by their mutual relations.
The homology of members was based, in the first instance, upon similarity of development and upon similar relations to the other parts of the body, that is, upon ontogeny.
The problem, then, which plantdistribution presents is twofold: it has first to map out the earths surface into regions or areas of vegetation, and secondly to trace the causes which have brought them about and led to their restriction and to their mutual relations.
The flora of the Hawaiian Islands has complicated relations.
He divides geography into The Spherical Part, or that for the study of which mathematics alone is required, and The Topical Part, or the description of the physical relations of parts of the earth's surface, preferring this division to that favoured by the ancient geographers - into general and special.
famous for the attempts of that prince to extend the diplomatic relations of Spain to the remotest parts of the earth.
Nor was the trade to Muscovy and Turkey neglected; while latterly a resolute and successful attempt was made to establish direct commercial relations with India.
The fundamental geographical conceptions are mathematical, the relations of space and form.
The study of the evolution of faunas and the comparison of the faunas of distant regions have furnished a trustworthy instrument of pre-historic geographical research, which enables earlier geographical relations of land and sea to be traced out, and the approximate period, or at least the chronological order of the larger changes, to be estimated.
The first requisites of all human beings are food and protection, in their search for which men are brought into intimate relations with the forms and productions of the earth's surface.
For a long time he had pondered over the confusion in which Spain was, which he attributed to the intimate relations allowed between Christians and infidels for the sake of commerce.
de Morgan's excavations at Susa have thrown a flood of light on the early history of Elam and its relations to Babylon.
He presented a famous report in the Constituent Assembly on the organization of the army, but is better known by his eloquent speech on the 28th of February 1791, at the Jacobin Club, against Mirabeau, whose relations with the court were beginning to be suspected, and who was a personal enemy of Lameth.
But they attest their tribal relations by their appellations, which are commonly drawn from the name of the tribe and not of the town itself.
The relations between the two differed widely in different parts of the island, according to the way in which the Saracens had become possessed of different towns and districts.
The Norman settler in Wales, therefore, did not to any perceptible extent become a Welshman; the existing relations of England and Wales were such that he in the end became an Englishman, but he seems not unnaturally to have been somewhat slower in so doing in Wales than he was in England.
This was justly regarded by him as an important service to his country and one of the triumphs of his career, and he hoped to obtain further successes with the assistance of Germany, but the cordial relations between the cabinets of St Petersburg and Berlin did not subsist much longer.
We are here concerned only to examine the general principles of the school in its internal and external relations as forming a definite philosophic unit.
Generally regarded as the partisan of a pro-English policy, he rendered most valuable service to his country by his able management of the foreign relations of Turkey, and not least by his efficacious settlement of affairs in Syria after the massacres of 1860.
Until the accession to power of President Barclay in 1904 (he was re-elected in 1907), the AmericoLiberian government on the coast had very uncertain relations with the indigenous population, which is well armed and tenacious of local independence.
friendly relations are maintained with Spain, as the Spanish plantations in Fernando Po are to a great extent worked by Liberian labour.
to open diplomatic relations with Abyssinia, but was murdered (1703) in Sennar.
Yet there is no doubt that the rule of Peisistratus was most beneficial to Athens both in her foreign and in her internal relations.
Shortly, his services to Greece and to the world may be summed up under three heads: In foreign policy, he sketched out the plan on which Athens was to act in her external relations.
In some cases their ethnical relations have not yet been completely determined.
with broad plateaus which join those of central Russia, but their orographical relations to other upheavals must be more closely studied before they can be definitely pronounced on.
The laws and relations of the cyclones and anti-cyclones in Russia are not yet thoroughly understood.
Settlements belonging to the Stone age, and manufactories of stone implements, burial-grounds of the Bronze epoch, earthen forts and burial-mounds (kurgans) - of this last four different types are known, the earliest belonging to the Bronze period - are superposed, rendering the task of unravelling their several relations one of great difficulty.
The relations of the Esths and Letts with their landlords are anything but friendly.
In his relations with Moslems, Buddhists and even fetishists the Russian peasant looks rather to conduct than to creed, the latter being in his view simply a matter of nationality.
Instead of conforming to abstract principles of public law and hereditary succession, they strove to enlarge their territories at the expense of their rivals, and to leave them at their death to their sons rather than to their brothers, nephews and more distant relations.
Having thus freed themselves from Tatar control, the Moscow princes continued to carry out energetically their traditional policy of extending and consolidating their dominions at the expense of their less powerful relations.
After a short campaign a peace was concluded and Ivan's daughter was given in marriage to the Lithuanian grandprince, but the matrimonial alliance did not improve the relations between the two countries.
the latter aspired to obtaining a firm footing on the Baltic coast and establishing direct relations, diplomatic and commercial, with the Western Powers.
A ship of an English squadron which was trying First to reach China by the North-East passage, entered the relations northern Dvina, and her captain, Richard Chancellor, with journeyed to Moscow in quest of opportunities for trade.
After a dilatory war of three years he concluded a peace on the ground of free commercial relations, and then he attacked the Livonian Order, on the pretext that the Livonian town of Dorpat had not paid tribute according to ancient treaties.
F o i Notwithstanding the efforts of the Poles and the Military Orders to exclude Russia from the shores of the Baltic and keep her in a state of isolation, she was coming slowly into closer relations with central and western Europe.
the order of succession, was almost an imbecile, the third son, Peter, born of the second marriage, was proclaimed tsar, and his maternal relations became the dominant faction, but their triumph was of very short duration.
Like Alexander in the last period of his reign, Nicholas considered himself the supreme guardian of European order, and was ever on the watch to oppose revolution in all its forms. Hence he was generally in strained relations with France, especially in the time of Louis Philippe, who became king not by the grace of God but by the will of the people.
During this period the relations between the two governments and the two countries became much more cordial.
Stamboloff, pursued systematically an anti-Russian policy, but the cabinet of St Petersburg confined itself officially to breaking off diplomatic relations and making diplomatic protests, and unofficially to giving tacit encouragement to revolutionary agitation.
He strengthened the cordial understanding with France by a formal agreement, the terms of which were not divulged, but he never encouraged the French government in any aggressive designs, and he maintained friendly relations with Germany.
Convinced that the onward march of the Colossus could not be permanently arrested by mere diplomatic conventions, the cabinet of Tokio suddenly broke off diplomatic relations and commenced hostilities (February 8, 1 9 04).
For the relations of Russia with the papacy, see T.
In 1903 he became chairman of the commission on food supply in time of war, and in 1909 of that on trade relations with Canada and the West Indies, receiving in 1911 the G.C.M.G.
There are certain fundamental relations common to all tractive problems, and these are briefly considered in §§ i and 2, after which the article refers particularly to steam locomotives, although §§ 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 have a general application to all modes of traction.
These relations may be illustrated by an example.
Indian affairs, the committee on foreign relations and others, was prominent in the discussion of matters brought before the Senate from these committees, advocated the enlargement of the navy and the reform of the civil service, and opposed the pension veto messages of President Cleveland.
10 foll., 4 " Magic and Social Relations " in Sociological Papers, ii.
For it involved a transition from the simple nomadic relations to those of the agricultural and more highly civilized Canaanite life.
forbade his relations even to visit Rome; but in 1656 he gave them the best-paid civil and ecclesiastical offices, also palaces and princely estates.
The exact period of the beginning of Anne's relations with Henry is not known.
4 She incurred the remonstrances of the privy council and alienated her own friends and relations.
It must be added that the pages on the Slavonic peoples and their relations to the empire are conspicuously insufficient; but it must be taken into account that it was not till many years after Gibbon's death that Slavonic history began to receive due attention, in consequence of the rise of competent scholars among the Sla y s themselves.
Soon after his father became king in 1727 Frederick took up his residence in England and in 1729 was created prince of Wales; but the relations between George II.
The relations between the two were now worse than before.
In the previous year the Tractarian movement had commenced, and Ward's relations with that movement were as original as the rest of his life.
From this time his relations with the government were less friendly, and in 1878 he brought about the rejection of the first Socialist Bill.
Warned, however, that his arrest was imminent, and possibly persuaded by Rory O'Donnell (created earl of Tyrconnel in 1603), whose relations with Spain had endangered his own safety, Tyrone resolved to fly from the country.
In his relations with the Slays the emperor displayed the same conciliatory disposition as in the case of the Magyars; but though he more than once held out hopes that he would be crowned at Prague as king of fiohemia, the project was always abandoned.
Finally (c), in the so-called " post-exilic " period, religion and life were reorganized under the influence of a new spirit; relations with Samaria were broken off, and Judaism took its definite character, perhaps about the middle or close of the 5th century.
2 seq.), and this conception of a new era in Yahweh's relations with the people is associated with the family of Moses and with small groups.
External relations, too, were unsatisfactory.
In the absence of its native records its relations with Palestine are not always clear, but it may be supposed that amid varying political changes it was able to play a double game.
Asa utilized the treasure of the Temple and palace to induce the Syrians to break off their relations with Baasha.
Certain traditions, it is true, indicate that Israel had been at war with the Aramaeans from before 854 to 842, and that Hazael was attacking Gilead at the time when Jehu revolted; but in the midst of these are other traditions of the close and friendly relations between Israel and Damascus !
It is a new source which is here suddenly introduced, belonging apparently to a history of the Temple; it throws no light upon the relations between Judah with its priests and Israel with its prophets, the circumstances of the regency under the priest Jehoiada are ignored, and the Temple reforms occupy the first place in the compiler's interest.
The importance of the historical questions regarding relations between Damascus, Israel and Judah is clear.
For the understanding of these great wars between Syria and Israel (which the traditional chronology spreads over eighty years), for the significance of the crushing defeats and inspiring victories, and for the alternations of despair and hope, a careful study of all the records of relations between Israel and the north is at least instructive, and it is important to remember that, although the present historical outlines are scanty and incomplete, some - if not all - of the analogous descriptions in their present form are certainly later than the second half of the 9th century B.C., the period in which these great events fa11.4 13.
Yahwism presents itself under a variety of aspects, and the history of Israel's relations to the God Yahweh (whose name is not necessarily of Israelite origin) can hardly be disentangled amid the complicated threads of the earlier history.
But the relations between Egypt and Judah were not broken off.
The period under review, with its relations between Judah and Egypt, can be illustrated by prophecies ascribed to a similar situation in the time of Hezekiah.
22), Bagohi (Bagoas), governor of Judah, and Delaiah and Shelemiah sons of Sanballat (408-407 B.C.) They ignore any strained relations between Samaria and Judah, and Delaiah and Bagohi unite in granting permission to the Jewish colony to rebuild their place of worship. If this fixes the date of Sanballat and Nehemiah in the time of the first Artaxerxes, the probability of confusion in the later written sources is enhanced by the recurrence of identical names of kings, priests, &c., in the history.
He convokes, prorogues and dissolves the chamber, sanctions laws, exercises the right of pardon in case of political offences, represents the island in its foreign relations and is chief of its military forces.
In a deposit at Kahun, belonging to Early the XIIth Dynasty, c. 2000 B.C., were already found E relations imported polychrome vases of " Middle Minoan " with fabric. In the same way the important part played by Egypt.
Similar evidence Early of Minoan contact, and indeed of wholesale colonization relations with from the Aegean side, recurs in Cyprus.
Industrial relations with Egypt are also marked by the occurrence of a series of finds of pottery and other objects of Minoan fabric among the remains of the XVIIIth, XIIth and even earlier dynasties, while the same seafaring enterprise brought Egyptian fabrics to Crete from the times of the first Pharaohs.
Indeed, the Cretan system, like that of Sparta, appears to have aimed at training up the young, and controlling them, as well as the citizens of more mature age, in all their habits and relations of life.
The southern section, influenced by its location, by the early settlers from Barbados, and by its trade connexions, was brought into rather more intimate relations with the island colonies and with the mother country.
By reason of this rejection the relations of North Carolina with the other states were severed upon the dissolution of the Confederation, and it took no part in the first election or in the organization of the new government.
In tropical countries ants sometimes make their nests in the hollow thorns of trees or on leaves; species with this habit are believed to make a return to the tree for the shelter that it affords by protecting it from the ravages of other insects, including their own leaf-cutting relations.
Some of the inmates of ants' nests are here for the purpose of preying upon the :ants or their larvae, so that we find all kinds of relations between the owners of the nests and their companions, from mutual benefit to active hostility.
Between the islands of the Malay archipelago from Sumatra to New Guinea, and the neighbouring Asiatic continent, no definite relations appear ever to have existed, and no distinctly marked boundary for Asia has been established by the old geographers in this quarter.
boundaries, from following lines on which the continuity of the land is interrupted, often necessarily indicate important differences in the conditions of adjoining countries, and of their political and physical relations, yet variations of the elevation of the surface above the sea-level frequently produce effects not less marked.
Commercial relations with Arabia remain much as they were in 1875.
Russia, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, India and China have all revised their borders, and with the revision the political relations between these countries have acquired a new and more assured basis.
But this originality cannot be absolute, for, whatever may have been the relations of Babylonia and the Aryans, the latter brought civilization to India from the west, and it is not always clear whether similarity of government and institutions is the result of borrowing or of parallel development.
Any general statement as to the debt owed by early European civilizations to western Asia would at present be premature, for though important discoveries have been made in Crete and Babylonia the best authorities are chary of positive conclusions as to the relations of Cretan civilization to Egypt and Babylonia.
David's friendly relations with the Philistines find a parallel in Isaac's covenant with Abimelech.
To the north-west Israel bordered upon Tyre, with whom its relations were friendly.
But from another source we gain quite a different idea of the relations.
It is on the service that he rendered to science in establishing the relations between electricity and magnetism, and in developing the science of electromagnetism, or, as he called it, electrodynamics, that Ampere's fame mainly rests.
When, however, after President Tyler's accession, the relations between the President and the Whig Party became strained, he retired (September 1841) and was succeeded by Walter Forward (1786-1852).
In these and other Chaetopods the coelom is also put into indirect relations with the outside world by the nephridia and by the gonad ducts.
Among the simpler Chaetopoda the coelom retains the character of a series of paired chambers, showing the above relations to the exterior and to the gonads.
Slight differences in form have been noted between nephridia of different segments; but the Hirudinea do not show the marked differentiation that is to be seen in some other Chaetopods; nor do the nephridia ever acquire any relations to the alimentary canal.
Tricked into a liaison with the Fisher King's daughter Elaine, he becomes the father of Galahad, the Grail winner, and, as a result of the queen's jealous anger at his relations with the lady, goes mad, and remains an exile from the court for some years.
Finally, his relations with Guenevere are revealed to Arthur by the sons of King Lot, Gawain, however, taking no part in the disclosure.
It is a matter of history that both mother and daughter were active agents in fostering that view of the social relations of the sexes which found its most famous expression in the "Courts of Love," and which was responsible for the dictum that love between husband and wife was impossible.
Henry Clay, the speaker, appointed him a member of the Committee on Foreign Relations, of which John C. Calhoun was chairman, and for some forty years these three constituted a great triumvirate in American politics.
When he entered office the relations between the United States and Great Britain were critical.
England's commercial relations with Charles V.'s subjects in the Netherlands put war with the emperor almost out of the question; and cool observers thought that England's obvious policy was to stand by while the two rivals enfeebled each other, and then make her own profit out of their weakness.
But her relations with Henry passed gradually through indifference to hatred.
He first settled in Egypt, hearing the lectures of Didymus, the Origenistic head of the catechetical school at Alexandria, and also cultivating friendly relations with Macarius the elder and other ascetics in the desert.
In 1775 he was superseded in the empress's graces by Zavadovsky; but the relations between Catherine and her former lover continued to be most friendly, and his influence with her was never seriously disturbed by any of her subsequent favourites.
Sivaji's own father had founded a dominion at Tanjore in the extreme south, which, however, never had relations with the central power at Poona.
The relations of this new foundation to the German hospital mentioned in 1143 cannot be traced.
In these two situations he made a close study of local economic conditions, personally supervising the cultivation of his lands, and entering into relations with the principal merchants of Rouen.
Brewster's relations as editor brought.
For twenty years, from 1836 (when his father died) to 1856, Mill had charge of the Company's relations with the native states, and in 1856 he became chief of the office with a salary of £2000.
Four out of the five essays are elaborate and powerful solutions of perplexing technical problems - the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, the precise relations between profits and wages.
The historical relations between philosophy and economics are of great importance in tracing the development of the latter, and have done much to determine its present form.
We cannot suppose that the policy of the Merchant Adventurers' Company had nothing to do with the woollen industry; that the export trade in woollen cloth was quite independent of the foreign exchanges and international trade relations in those times; that the effect on wages of the state of the currency, the influx of new silver, the character of the harvests, and many other influences can be conveniently ignored.
The relations between general theory and special studies conducted on the lines we have indicated have completely changed.
In spite of the vast increase in national wealth, it was found a matter of increasing difficulty to meet a comparatively slight strain without recourse to measures of a highly controversial character; and the search for new sources of revenue (as in 1909) at once raised, in an acute form, questions of national commercial policy and the relations between the United Kingdom and the colonies.
Hadley's Economics: An Account of the Relations between Private Property and Public Welfare (1896).
Subsequently recovering, he turned to the study of mind and the relations between body and mind, giving public lectures on the subjects of which his books treat.
The hostility of Arran and his brother Archbishop Hamilton forced Mary into friendly relations with the lords who favoured the Protestant party.
2, C): the larva therefore resembles Nautilus in the relations of body and shell.
Comparative anatomy and embryology prove that this condition is due, not as formerly supposed to a difference in the relations of the visceral commissure which prevented it from being included in the torsion of the visceral hump, but to an actual detorsion which has taken place in evolution and is repeated to a great extent in individual development.
The kidney has similar relations in both species, and is identical with the organ spoken of by many authors as the triangular gland.
To complete the account of the relations of the organ: the right anterior corner can be seen superficially in the wall of the mantlechamber above the gill.
Cunningham, " On the Structure and Relations of the Kidney in Aplysia," Mitt.
The results of more than twenty years' labour were set forth in his Hexapla and Tetrapla, in which he placed the Hebrew text side by side with the various Greek versions, examined their mutual relations in detail, and tried to find the basis for a more reliable text of the LXX.
It is this combination which has determined the peculiar and varying relations in which theology and the faith of the church have stood to each other since the time of Origen.
He was largely responsible for the Scandinavian Seven Years' War (1562-70), which did so much to exacerbate the relations between Denmark and Sweden.
Then it was, or perhaps at a slightly later date, that he became interested in the relations subsisting between political science and war.
This officer rushed to Paris, breathing out threats of slaughter against all royalists, and entered into close relations with Barras.
His relations to the Directors were most strained.
The reader is referred to the article France (Law and Institutions) for the information respecting the various codes dating from this period, and to the article Concordat for the famous measure whereby Napoleon re-established official relations between the state and the church in France.
The relations between national and local authorities fluctuated considerably during the Directory; and it is noteworthy that the constitution of December 1799 placed local administration merely under the control of ministers at Paris.
In everything which related to the continent of Europe and to the resumption of trade relations between Great Britain and France, Bonaparte had his way; and he abated his demands only in a few questions relating to India and Newfoundland.
Napoleon's refusal to give this, and his complaint that Great Britain had neglected to comply with some of the provisions of the treaty of Amiens, brought Anglo-French relations to an acute phase.
In the case of King Louis, family quarrels embittered the relations between the two brothers; but it is clear from Napoleon's letters of November - December 1809 that he had even then resolved to annex Holland in order to gain complete control of its customs and of its naval resources.
He under stood the relations of the European states, and the interests of Great Britain among them.
The god was probably son and mate of the goddess, and the divine pair represented the genius of Reproductive Fertility in its relations with humanity.
The Cnossian monarch had maritime relations with Egypt, and presently sent his wares all over the S.
reality, is an intelligible ideal reality, a system of thought relations, a spiritual cosmos.
Only by the existence of some "principle which renders all relations possible and is itself determined by none of them"; an eternal self-consciousness which knows in whole what we know in part.
Even apart from the impossibility of conceiving a whole of relations which are relations and nothing else (this objection is perhaps largely verbal), no explanation is given of the fact (obvious in experience) that the spiritual entities of which the Universe is composed appear material.
" Erastianism, as a by-word, is used to denote the doctrine of the supremacy of the state in ecclesiastical causes; but the problem of the relations between church and state is one on which Erastus nowhere enters.
Thus while among his own colleagues he seemed merely a hypocritical and arrogant priest, in his relations with his brother humanists, such as Cosimo de Medici, he appeared as the student of classical antiquities and especially of Greek theological authors.
In the case of the common drone-fly, Eristalis tenax, the individual, from a sedentary maggot living in filth, without any relations of sex, and with only unimportant organs for the ingestion of its foul nutriment, changes to a creature of extreme alertness, with magnificent powers of flight, living on the products of the flowers it frequents, and endowed with highly complex sexual structures.
In the present article it is only possible to treat of the division of the Hexapoda into orders and sub-orders and of the relations of these orders to each other.
The latter's name seems not to be even mentioned by him, but Nitzsch was in Paris in the summer of 1827, and it is almost impossible that he should not have heard of L'Herminier's labours, unless the relations between the followers of Cuvier to whom Nitzsch attached himself, and those of De Blainville, whose pupil L'Herminier was, were such as to forbid anv communication between the rival schools.
These laws, as formulated by him, are that (1) there is a coincidence of form of the anterior palatal and of the cranium in birds of the same order; (2) there is a likeness between the anterior palatal bones in birds of the same order; (3) there are relations of likeness 1 The title of the English translation is Johannes Muller on Certain Variations in the Vocal Organs of the Passeres that have hitherto escaped notice.
Huxley regarded the above scheme as nearly representing the affinities of the various Carinate groups - the great difficulty being to determine the relations to the rest of the Coccygomorphae, Psittacomorphae and Aegithognathae, which he indicated " only in the most doubtful and hypothetic fashion."
Almost simultaneously with this he expounded more particularly before the Zoological Society, in whose Proceedings (1868, pp. 2 94-3 1 9) his results were soon after published, the groups of which he believed the Alectoromorphae to be composed and the relations to them of some outlying forms usually regarded as Gallinaceous, the Turnicidae and Pteroclidae, as well as the singular hoactzin, for all three of which he had to institute new groups - the last forming the sole representative of his Heteromorphae.
359-367; Remusat, Me noires sur les relations politiques des princes chretiens.
But it was inevitable that, when the barbarians, Lombard or Frank, were once established on the mainland of Italy, Venice should be brought first into trading and then into political relations with their near neighbours, who as masters of Italy also put forward a claim to sovereignty in the lagoons.
The Cunard arrangement was the first of various measures that worked for a commercial rapprochement between the New England states and Canada, culminating in the reciprocity treaty of 1854, and Boston's interests are foremost to-day in demanding a return to relations of reciprocity.
Large foreign colonies, like adjoining but unmixing nations, divide among themselves a large part of the city, and give to its life a cosmopolitan colour of varied speech, opinion, habits, traditions, social relations and religions.
The town was so heavily taxed by the Hamdanid princes at Mosul that the Arab tribe of the Banu Habib, although blood relations of the Hamdanids, migrated into Byzantine territory, where they were well received, accepted Christianity, attracted other emigrants from Nisibis, and at last began to avenge themselves by yearly raids upon their old home.
But the modern Land Acts have readjusted the relation between landlords and tenants, while the Land Purchase Acts have aimed at abolishing those relations by enabling the tenant to become the owner of his holding.
Only the question of the legal relations between landlord and tenant can be touched upon.
Mr Hooker has shown with reference to the wheat market how close is the correlation between prices in different places,' and the same has been observed of the cotton market, though the Conceivably some indication of the working of " futures " might be gleaned from observation of the relations of near and distant " futures " to one another and of both to spot."
The complete explanation of changes 1n these relations is still a mystery .
Some examples of the diverse relations to be found, even when all the " futures" fall in the same crop year, may be quoted here-quotations running into the new crop year are obviously affected by anticipations of the new crop.
Concluding cautiously, we may admit the probability of the relations between near and distant "futures" and "spot" (even in respect of "futures" running out in the same crop year) indicating sometimes at least the intentional or unintentional "bulling" or "bearing" or "spot" by "futures."
" The Jesus Christ presented to us in the New Testament would become a very different person if the miracles were removed " (Temple's Relations between Religion and Science).
The twelve years' truce on the 9th of April 1609 brought to an end the cordial relations between Maurice and Oldenbarneveldt.
This, the longest of his works, added much to existing knowledge, especially as to the relations between England and the continent, but it lacked something of the freshness of his earlier books; he was over seventy when it was completed, and he was never quite at home in dealing with the parliamentary foundations of English public life.
Similarly it is necessary, in view of the hydrostatical relations of water and mineral oils, and the volatile character of the latter, that the porous stratum should be protected from water and air by an overlying shale or other impervious deposit.
It remained to determine the future government of Jerusalem; and here the eternal problem of the relations of Church and State emerged.
On points of chronology, and on the relations between the crusaders and their Mahommedan neighbours, W.
Of the political relations of Syria in the most ancient times we know but little.
Something about the ancient political and geographical relations of Syria can be gleaned from Egyptian sources, especially in connexion with the campaigns of Tethmosis (Thothmes) III.
It need only be said here that this people bulked most largely in the relations of Egypt with Syria from the 16th to the 14th centuries.
19) it was due to the emperor's relations with Terentia.
His relations with the emperor William II.
In a scientific definition the compounds of fatty acids with basic metallic oxides, lime, magnesia, lead oxide, &c., should also be included under soap; but, as these compounds are insoluble in water, while the very essence of a soap in its industrial relations is solubility, it is better to speak of the insoluble compounds as " plasters, " limiting the name " soap " as the compounds of fatty acids with soda and potash.
It is impossible here to describe in detail his relations to Napoleon, and the part which he played in the drawing up of the Civil Code, later on called the Code Napoleon.
Conceived in the Hildebrandine spirit, his reforms led by a natural sequence to strained relations between Church and State; the equilibrium which he established was unstable, and depended too much upon his personal influence with the Conqueror.
BAAL, a Semitic word, which primarily signifies lord, owner or inhabitant,' and then, in accordance with the Semitic way of looking at family and religious relations, is specially appropriated to express the relation of a husband to his wife and of the deity to his worshipper.
Commercial warfare failed, the Embargo was repealed, and Jefferson, having entangled foreign relations and brought the country to the verge of civil war, retired to private life, leaving to his successor Madison, and to Gallatin, the task of extricating the nation from its difficulties.
But the chancellor, although preserving friendly relations with his old patron, subordinated the interests of the Church to those of his new master.
These disputes involved questions of principle which had long occupied Henry's attention, and Becket's defiant attitude was answered by the famous Constitutions of Clarendon, in which the king defined, professedly according to ancient use and custom, the relations of Church and State.
He entered into relations with the Eastern Empire, exchanging ambassadors with the emperor Constantine Copronymus.
For the moment it tended;to impair the good relations which had subsisted between Athens and Sparta since the first days of the Persian peril.
Long before the tidings of the death of Napoleon at St Helena reached her she was living in intimate relations with Neipperg at Parma, and bore a son to him not long after that event.
As soon as he had learnt the elements of reading and writing, he was sent as a page to the court of Ferdinand and Isabella; afterwards, until his twenty-sixth year, he took service with Antonio Maurique, duke of Nagera, and followed the career of arms. He was free in his relations with women, gambled and fought; but he also gave indications of that courage, constancy and prudence which marked his after life.
In revenge the hermit brought up the former accusations concerning the relations to the Inquisition, and proclaimed Ignatius and his friends to be false, designing men and no better than concealed heretics.
His book on Die modernen Theorien der Chemie, which was first published in Breslau in 1864, contains a discussion of relations between the atomic weights and the properties of the elements.
It was Orduin who first abolished the onerous system of tolls on exports and imports, and established a combination of native merchants for promoting direct commercial relations between Sweden and Russia.
This section is restricted to an account of the relations existing between physical properties and chemical composition.
But the difference between these two classes of elements is one of degree only, and they gradually merge into each other; moreover the electric relations of elements are not absolute, but vary according to the state of combination in which they exist, so that it is just as impossible to divide the elements into two classes according to this property as it is to separate them into two distinct classes of metals and non-metals.
the secondary and tertiary alcohols; and with inestimable perspicacity he proved intimate relations between compounds previously held to be quite distinct.
The structural relations of these compounds are here shown: R C0.
Noetling (Ber., 1885, 18, p. 2657), who investigated the nitro-, amino-, and oxy-xylenes in their relations to the three xylenes or dimethyl benzenes.
In the investigation of these relations, the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition is one of the most important ramifications of physical chemistry.
In any attempts to gain an insight into the relations between the physical properties and chemical composition of substances, the fact must never be ignored that a comparison can only be made when the particular property under consideration is determined under strictly comparable conditions, in other words, when the molecular states of the substances experimented upon are identical.
If we denote the critical volume, pressure and temperature by Vk, Pk and Tk, then it may be shown, either by considering the characteristic equation as a perfect cube in v or by using the relations that dp/dv=o, d 2 p/dv 2 =o at the critical point, that Vk = 3b, Pk= a/27b2, T ic = 8a/27b.
Eliminating a and b between these relations, we derive P k V k /Tk= 8R, a relation which should hold between the critical constants of any substance.
The critical volume provides data which may be tested for additive relations.
The most direct manner in which to test any property for additive relations is to determine the property for a number of elements, and then investigate whether these values hold for the elements in combination.
Kopp, begun in 1842, on the molecular volumes, the volume occupied by one gramme molecular weight of a substance, of liquids measured at their boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, brought to light a series of additive relations which, in the case of carbon compounds, render it possible to predict, in some measure, the cornposition of the substance.
Schroeder the silver salts of the fatty acids exhibit additive relations; an increase in the molecule of CH2 causes an increase in the molecular volume of about 15'3.
Specific Heat and Composition.-The nature and experimental determination of specific heats are discussed in the article Calorimetry; here will be discussed the relations existing between the heat capacities of elements and compounds.
These relations may be readily tested, for the ratio C p /C„ is capable of easy experimental determination.
Dulong to investigate relations (if any) existing between specific heats and the atomic weight.
7V k / R, and since Vk is proportional to the volume at absolute zero, the ratio T k /P k should exhibit additive relations.
These relations have been more thoroughly tested in the case of organic compounds, and the results obtained agree in some measure with the deductions from molecular volumes.
While certain additive relations hold between some homologous series, yet differences occur which must be referred to the constitution of the molecule.
it must remain constant for the same substance at any temperature and in any form) that quantitative relations between refractivity and chemical composition can be derived.
He introduced the idea of comparing the refractivity of equimolecular quantities of different substances by multiplying the function (n-1)/d by the molecular weight (M) of the substance, and investigated the relations of chemical grouping to refractivity.
Although establishing certain general relations between atomic and molecular refractions, the results were somewhat vitiated by the inadequacy of the empirical function which he employed, since it was by no means a constant which depended only on the actual composition of the substance and was independent of its physical condition.
Briihl, have investigated the relations existing between the refractive power and composition.
This is shown in the following table (the values are for Ha) Additive relations undoubtedly exist, but many discrepancies occur which may be assigned, as in the case of molecular volumes, to differences in constitution.
It is doubtful indeed whether any general conclusions can yet be drawn as to the relations between crystal structure and scalar properties and the relative stability of polymorphs.
For a detailed comparison of the isomorphous relations of the elements the reader is referred to P. von Groth, Chemical Crystallography.
Ethical and operatic points of view are similarly confused when it is asserted that the Flying Dutchman can be saved by a faithful woman, though it appears from the relations between Senta and Erik that so long as the woman is faithful to the Dutchman it does not matter that she jilts some one else.
These new probabilities open up considerable possibilities in research with regard to the relations of the early Minoans and other Aegeans with Syria and Egypt and the undoubted fact of the resemblances of Minoan on the one hand to Syrian and Egyptian religions and funerary practices, and on the other hand to those of the Etruscans.
She also had relations with William Hastings, and may perhaps have been the intermediary between him and the Woodvilles.
The story of Alexander's relations with Savonarola is narrated under the latter heading; it is sufficient to say here that the pope's hostility was due to the friar's outspoken invectives against papal corruption and to his appeals for a General Council.
The next ten years were spent in France, where he was connected with Georges de la Tremoille, and afterwards entered the household of Pierre de Breze, at that time seneschal of Poitou, by whom he was employed on missions to the duke of Burgundy, in an attempt to establish better relations between Charles VII.
The correct relations in the length of degrees of latitude and longitude are maintained in the first case along the latitude of Thule and the equator, in the second along the parallel of Agisymba, the equator and the parallels of Meroe, Syene and Thule.
The relations of the above authorities are too complicated to be treated of here in detail, but they are represented on the subjoined diagram.
His hope that his support of the British government in Ireland would be followed by the establishment of formal diplomatic relations between the court of St James's and the Vatican was disappointed.
In the Lithuanian provinces the relations of the masters and serfs were regulated in the time of Nicholas by what were called inventories.
Her relations with the new empress were not of a cordial nature, though she continued devotedly loyal.
In April 1799 a warrant was issued for his arrest, but was not executed; and in 1800 and the following year he travelled on the continent of Europe, where he entered into relations with the leaders of the United Irishmen, exiled since the rebellion of 1798, who were planning a fresh outbreak in Ireland in expectation of support from France.
I was born in the territory of the said monastery, and at the age of seven I was, by the care of my relations, given to the reverend Abbot Benedict (Biscop), and afterwards to Ceolfrid, to 'be educated.
He advocated the creation of a permanent deliberative imperial council, and favoured preferential trade relations between the United Kingdom and the other members of the empire; and in later years he took an active part in advocating the cause of tariff reform and colonial preference.
The social unification produced by the conquests of Alexander brought the Jews into intimate relations with Greek thought.
English law has largely moulded, for example, criminal and commercial law and the law of evidence; the development of the law of corporations, damages, prohibitions and such extraordinary remedies as the mandamus has been very similar to that in other states; while in the fusion of law and equity, and the law of successions, family relations, &c., the civil law of Spain and France has been unaffected.
Documentary materials on the greater " Louisiana " between the Gulf of Mexico and Canada will be found in the Jesuit Relations, edited by R.
As a matter of fact their chief service to the administration lies in keeping up good relations with the maires of the communes in their arrondissement, and thus acquiring a certain amount of influence over them.
He sanctions, promulgates and executes the laws, and supplements them (partly co-ordinately with congress) by administrative regulations in harmony with their ends; holds a veto power and pardoning power; controls with the senate political appointments and removals; and conducts foreign relations, submitting treaties to the senate for ratification.
In the determination of the relations that should subsist between the new republic and the United States certain definite conditions known as the Platt Amendment were finally imposed by the United States, and accepted by Cuba (12th of June 1901) as a part of her constitution.
The status thus created is very exceptional in the history of international relations.
Government was maintained under the Cuban flag, - the diplomatic and consular relations with even the United States remaining in outward forms unchanged; and the regular forms of the constitution were scrupulously maintained so far as possible.
Callahan, Cuba and International Relations (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1898), which supplement each other.
Henceforth the relations of the maharajas with the British government were increasingly cordial.
This position he founded on the law of wages formulated by Ricardo, and accepted by all the leading economists, that wages are controlled by the ordinary relations of supply and demand, that a rise in wages leads to an increase in the labouring population, which, by increasing the supply of labour, is followed by a corresponding fall of wages.
Also, as the Cartesian geometry shows, all the relations between points are expressible in terms of geometric quantities.
The proof of the six premisses requires an elaborate investigation into the general properties of classes and relations which can be deduced by the strictest reasoning from our ultimate logical principles.
Two relations R and R' are said to be ordinally similar, if a one-one relation holds between the members of the two fields of R and R', such that if x and y are any two members of the field of R, such that x has the relation R to y, and if x' and y are the correlates in the field of R' of x and y, then in all such cases x has the relation R' to y', and conversely, interchanging the dashes on the letters, i.e.
R and R', x and x', &c. It is evident that the ordinal similarity of two relations implies the cardinal similarity of their fields, but not conversely.
Also, two relations need not be serial in order to be ordinally similar; but if one is serial, so is the other.
The relation-number of a relation is the class whose members are all those relations which are ordinally similar to it.
The addition and multiplication of two relation-numbers is defined by taking two relations R and S, such that (I) their fields have no Cf.
terms in common; (2) their relation-numbers are the two relationnumbers in question, and then by defining by reference to R and S two other suitable relations whose relation-numbers are defined to be respectively the sum and product of the relation-numbers in question.
Now if n be any finite cardinal number, it can be proved that the class of those serial relations, which have a field whose cardinal number is n, is a relation-number.
Here also it can be seen that the science of the finite ordinals is a particular subdivision of the general theory of classes and relations.
Similarly, a class of serial relations, called well-ordered serial relations, can be defined, such that their corresponding relation-numbers include the ordinary finite ordinals, but also include relation-numbers which have many properties like those of the finite ordinals, though the fields of the relations belonging to them are not finite.
It has now become apparent that the traditional field of mathematics in the province of discrete and continuous number can only be separated from the general abstract theory of classes and relations by a wavering and indeterminate line.
of classes and relations from the ultimate logical premisses.
An analogous contradiction can be found for relations.
It follows that a careful scrutiny of the very idea of classes and relations is required.
Note that classes are here required in extension, so that the class of human beings and the class of rational featherless bipeds are identical; similarly for relations, which are to be determined by the entities related.
3 All the contradictions can be avoided, and yet the use of classes and relations can be preserved as required by mathematics, and indeed by common sense, by a theory which denies to a class - or relation - existence or being in any sense in which the entities composing it - or related by it - exist.
A similar theory holds for relations which arise from the consideration of propositional functions with two or more variable arguments.
It is then possible to define by a parallel elaboration what is meant by classes of classes, classes of relations, relations between classes, and so on.
Accordingly, the number of a class of relations can be defined, or of a class of classes, and so on.
This theory' is in effect a theory of the use of classes and relations, and does not decide the philosophic question as to the sense (if any) in which a class in extension is one entity.
Functions, operations, transformations, substitutions, correspondences, are but names for various types of relations.
A group is a class of relations possessing a special property.
2 For the commercial and political relations of Ragusa and Bosnia, see L.
Owing principally to the fact that the system of the caliph Omar came to be treated as an immutable dogma which was clearly not intended by its originator, and to the peculiar relations which developed therefrom between the Mussulman Turkish conquerors and the peoples (principally Christian) which fell under their sway, no such thing as an Ottoman nation has ever been created.
Special instructions and regulations determined the latitude left to each department in the distribution of the credits accorded to it among its various heads of expenditure, the degree of responsibility of the functionaries within each department and the relations regarding finance and accounts between each department and its dependencies.
Murad maintained a show of friendly relations with the emperor John Palaeologus, while capturing his cities.
Friendly relations had subsisted between Suleiman and Ferdinand during the expedition to Persia; but on the death of Zapolya in 1539 Ferdinand claimed Hungary and besieged Budapest with a large force.
The codes of law were by him revised and improved, and he was the first sultan to enter into relations with foreign states.
At this juncture a fresh crisis in the relations with Austria arose.
In spite of frequent causes of friction, good relations were maintained with Venice, through the influence of the sultana Safie, and the capitulations with the republic of St Mark were renewed in 1589.
1 In the following year permanent diplomatic relations were established by England with the Porte by the despatch of William Harebone as ambassador, Queen Elizabeth urging as her special claim to the sultan's friendship their common mission to fight " idolators."
It freed Austria from the humiliating tribute to which the treaty of 1547 had subjected her, and established relations between the two monarchs on a footing of equality.
Meanwhile relations with Russia continued strained.
Throughout all the vicissitudes of the Revolution the relations between the two states had wit remained unimpaired, and Turkey had been one with France.
But France's influence, backed by the strong personality of her ambassador, General Sebastiani, was sufficient to enable the sultan to withstand these arguments, and the British ambassador broke off relations and withdrew to the fleet at Tenedos (February 1807).
But the sultan refused to ratify these articles, and the relations between Russia and Turkey were therefore determined by the patent treaty only, which positively stipulated for the evacuation by the Russians of every spot occupied by them on Turkish soil in Asia.
The execution of the patriarch Gregorios, as technically responsible for the revolt, was an outrage to all Christendom; and it led at once to a breach of diplomatic relations with Russia.
By the patent articles of the treaty the powers agreed to secure the autonomy of Greece under the suzerainty of the sultan, but without any breach of friendly relations with Turkey.
Greekce and Dardanelles confirmed, and the districts of first sultan who entered into regular relations with foreign powers, and employed permanent ambassadors; the practice was discontinued at the time of the Greek revolution and the consequent rupture with the powers.
Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz's journey to Europe and the return visits paid by foreign princes strengthened Turkey's relations with foreign states.
was the every direction; the finances and the army were reorganized, military instructors being procured from Europe; the administration was gradually centralized, and good relations were cultivated with the powers, the only serious international controversy arising in1848-1849over the refusal.
The Cretan insurrection rose to a formidable height in 1868-69, and the active support given to the movement by Greece brought about a rupture of relations between that country and Turkey.
respecting the rupture of diplomatic relations between Turkey and Greece, &c.," in State Papers, lix.
Unsettled claims by French citizens led to a breaking off of relations and the occupation of Mitylene by France in November 1901; the rupture was of short duration and Turkey soon gave way, according complete satisfaction both in this matter and on certain other French demands.
More intimate relations with western Europe and a pretty general study of the French language and literature, together with the steady progress of the reforming tendency fairly started under Mahmud II., resulted in the birth of the new or modern school, whose objects are truth and simplicity.
the notification of adhesion to a treaty, of the re-establishment of diplomatic relations after a war, &c. Sometimes, by agreement, a mere exchange of notes has the force of a convention.
There was not a little scandal about her relations with Narbonne; and this Mickleham sojourn (the details of which are known from, among other sources, the letters of Fanny Burney) has never been altogether satisfactorily accounted for.
The intimacy of their relations could escape no one at Coppet, but the fact of the marriage (which seems to have been happy enough) was not certainly known till after her death.
While still practising medicine he entered into relations with another master of Paris, the philosopher John of Jandun, who collaborated with him in the composition of the famous Defensor pacis (1324), one of the most extraordinary political and religious works which appeared during the 14th century.
Count Litzow in The Life and Times of Master John Hus (London and New York, 1909), pp. 5-9, gives a good abstract of the Defensor pacis and the relations of Marsilius to other precursors of the Reformation.
A considerable trade is carried on in the export of horses, buffaloes, goats, dinding (dried flesh), skins, birds' nests, wax, rice, katyang, sappanwood, &c. Sumbawa entered into treaty relations with the Dutch East India Company in 1674.
As the proboscis-gut appears to have undoubtedly skeletal properties, and as it also has topographical relations with the mouth, it has been designated in English by the non-committal term stomochord.
The imperial government, however, intervened, and in 1712 the " Great Recess " established durable good relations between the Rath and the commonalty.
Under the long peace which followed the close of the Napoleonic wars, its trade gradually revived, fostered by the declaration of independence of South and Central America, with both of which it energetically opened close commercial relations, and by the introduction of steam navigation.
Similar relations were found to hold and the amounts of chemical change to be the same for the same electric transfer as in the case of solutions.
Two relations are suggested by Arrhenius' theory.
The dissociation theory was originally suggested by the osmotic pressure relations.
The ions are associated with very large electric charges, and, whatever their exact relations with those charges may be, it is certain that the energy of a system in such a state must be different from its energy when unelectrified.
Moreover, a study of the chemical relations of electrolytes indicates that it is always the electrolytic ions that are concerned in their reactions.
Our views of the nature of the ions of electrolytes have been extended by the application of the ideas of the relations between matter and electricity obtained by the study of electric conduction through gases.
In 1791 he married Frederica Wilhelmina, daughter of Frederick William II., king of Prussia, thus cementing very closely the relations between the houses of Orange-Nassau and Hohenzollern.
The taurobolium was probably a sacred drama symbolizing the relations of the Mother and Attis (q.v.).
The rivers and lakes of Siberia abound in fish; but little is known of their relations with the species of neighbouring regions.'
Pinckney, like many other South Carolina revolutionary leaders, was of aristocratic birth and politics, closely connected with England by ties of blood, education and business relations.
This sinus is continued round the oesophagus as the peri-oesophageal sinus, and thus the whole complex of the small arm-sinus has the relations of the so-called vascular system of a Sipunculid.
Most of the questions with which he had to deal related to the relations between the United States and Canada, and in this connexion he paid several visits to Canada to confer with the governor-general and his ministers.
He could boast that he left the relations between the United States and Canada on an excellent footing.
For since A 11 A 22 -Ar 2 =,,a 33, with similar relations, we have a number of relations similar to A 11 A 22 =AM 2, and either Ars = +11 (A rr A ss) or - (A r .A ss) for all different values of r and s.
We can eliminate the quantities S l, E2, ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ In and obtain n relations AbXi = (2B 11 - Ab)'ï¿½k1 +2B21x2+2B31x3+ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, AbX2 = 2B12x1+ (2B22 - Ab) x2 +2B32x3+..., and from these another equivalent set Abx1 = (2B11 - X1 +2B12X2+2B13X3+ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, Abx2 = 2B21X1+(2B22 - Ab)X2+2B23X3+ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½, and now writing 2Bii - Ab 2Bik - aii, Ob = aik, Ob we have a transformation which is orthogonal, because EX 2 = Ex2 and the elements aii, a ik are functions of the 2n(n- I) independent quantities b.
We can verify the relations s 30 -a310 -3a 20 a 10 + a30, S 21 - 02100 01 -a 2C a 01 -0 11 0 10 021 The formula actually gives the expression of q) by means of separations of (10P01'), which is one of the partitions of (pq).
From these formulae we derive two important relations, dp4 = or the function F, on the right which multiplies r, is said to be a simultaneous invariant or covariant of the system of quantics.
As between the original and transformed quantic we have the umbral relations A1 = A1a1 d-A2a2, A2 = /21a1+/22a2, and for a second form B1 =A 1 b 1+ A 2 b 2, B 2 =/21bl +ï¿½2b2ï¿½ The original forms are ax, bi, and we may regard them either as different forms or as equivalent representations of the same form.
It is easy to find the relations u2 =2(f u3 = ((f, f')2,f") 114=2(f,f') 4 ï¿½f 2 41(1,f')212, and so on.
Between these forms various relations exist (cf.
iv.) was the first to remark that the study of covariants may be reduced to the study of their leading coefficients, and that from any relations connecting the latter are immediately derivable the relations connecting the former.
At the same time, however, it forms a number of compounds in which it is most decidedly tetravalent; and thus it shows relations to carbon, silicon, germanium and tin.
Nevertheless when Guillaume seeks help from Louis the emperor he finds all his relations in Laon, in accordance with his historic Frankish origin.
He had there collected twenty-six relations or stories of the same description as that of the drum, in order to establish, by a series of facts, the opinion which he had expressed in his Philosophical Considerations.
But on the 19th of May 1841 he preached at Boston a sermon on "the transient and permanent in Christianity," which presented in embryo the main principles and ideas of his final theological position, and the preaching of which determined his subsequent relations to the churches with which he was connected and to the whole ecclesiastical world.
The personal character of Michaelis can be read between the lines 1 By a strange fortune of war it was the occupation of Gottingen by the French in the Seven Years' War, and the friendly relations he formed with the officers, that procured him the Paris MS. from which he edited Abulfeda's description of Egypt.
Miscellaneous Effects of Magnetization: Electric Conductivity - Hall Effect - Electro-Thermal Relations - Thermoelectric Quality - Elasticity - Chemical and Voltaic Effects.
A more precise definition is the following: When the magnet is placed in a uniform field, the parallel forces acting on the positive poles of the constituent filaments, whether the filaments ' For the relations between magnetism and light see Magnetooptics.
Curves of Permeability and Susceptibility.-The relations of µ (= B/H) to B, and of to I may be instructively exhibited by means of curves, a method first employed by H.
The relations of torsion to magnetization were first carefully studied by G.