The second part is the refutation of the doctrines of John XXII.
The next year (1540) he published a refutation of the attacks upon his doctrine with a more elaborate exposition of it, under the title Grosse Confession.
Each of them, the probability (chap. 8), the example (chap. 9), the proof (chap. to), the consideration (chap. 11), the maxim (chap. 12), the sign (chap. 13), the refutation (chap. 14), though very like what it is in the Rhetoric, receives in the Rhetoric to Alexander a definition slightly different from the definition in the Rhetoric, which it must be remembered is also the definition in the Prior Analytics.
Hegel offers a supposed proof that Time and Space, Matter, Nature, are ascertainable and definable 2 This is Kant's positive refutation of Hume's scepticism.
His early friend and school companion, Adelmann, archdeacon of Liege, wrote to him letters of expostulation on the subject of this report in 1046 and 1048; and a bishop, Hugo of Langres, wrote (about 1049) a refutation of the views which he had himself heard Berengar express in conversation.
But it is above all St Augustine who in his refutation of Faustus, as well as in his sermons and elsewhere, clearly defined the true character of the honours paid to the saints: "Non eis templa, non eis altaria, non sacrificia exhibemus.
Their refutation of the Protestant positions seemed needlessly sharp to the emperor, and five drafts were made of it.
The work is professedly a refutation of Hutcheson, but is rather constructive than polemical.
But Reid's actions are better than his words; his real mode of procedure is to redargue Hume's conclusions by a refutation of the premises inherited by him from his predecessors.
Systematical, including Grundprobleme der Erkenntnistheorie; Kategorienlehre; Das sittliche Bewusstsein; Die Philosophie des Schonen; Die Religion des Geistes; Die Philosophie des Unbewussten (3 vols., which now include his, originally anonymous, self-criticism, Das Unbewusste vom Standpunkte der Physiologie and Descendenztheorie, and its refutation, Eng.
His work De Fide has been preserved in connexion with a refutation written by Epiphanius (Haer.
His refutation of Hume's objection to the truth of miracles is perhaps his intellectual chef-d'ceuvre.
Such vagaries require no refutation.
Boyle's Vindication and Bentley's refutation of the authenticity of Phalaris came later.
The opinions of Berengar are to be ascertained from the works written in refutation of them by Adelmann, Lanfranc, Guitmund, &c. from the fragments of the De sacr.
Amongst the articles which he inserted in it were De l'egalite and Refutation de l'eclectisme, which afterwards appeared as separate works.
The most important of these polemical treatises is the Refutation of all Heresies, which has come to be known by the inappropriate title of the Philosophumena.
The task is one of extraordinary difficulty, for the textual problems of the various writings are complex and confused: the Greek original is extant in a few cases only (the Commentary on Daniel, the Refutation, on Antichrist, parts of the Chronicle, and some fragments); for the rest we are dependent on fragments of translations, chiefly Slavonic, all of which are not even published.
For the Refutation we are still dependent on the editions of Miller (Oxford, 1851), Duncker and Schneidewin (GÃ¶ttingen, 1859), and Cruice (Paris, 1860).
Scaliger's refutation, which was to contain an equal number of volumes of the errors in Baronius.
Among other uses and consequences of his treatise, Collier thinks it furnishes an easy refutation of the Romish doctrine of transubstantiation.
But Kant's refutation of subjective idealism and his vindication of the place of the object can be fully understood only.
ZocearLKoL g XEyXoL: Sophistici Elenchi: On sophistic (roccaTLKOS) or eristic syllogism (EpLaTLKOS avXAoytapos), so called from the fallacies used by sophists in refutation (€AEy X os) of their opponents.
He seems to have lived mainly as a hermit outside the city: his time was devoted to study, writing, teaching and the refutation of heresies.
In the opinion of the highest authority, Mark Pattison, "as a refutation of Scioppius it is most complete"; but there are certainly grounds for dissenting, though with diffidence, from this judgment.
From papers in the possession of the imperial family he compiled Memoires du prince Eugene (1858-1860) and Refutation des memoires du duc de Raguse (1857), part of which was inserted by authority at the end of volume ix.
Again he works towards the same end in his celebrated refutation of the scholastic theory of real specific essences.
ii.) the following writings: Speech to the Greeks (Oratio); Address to the Greeks (Cohortatio): On the Monarchy of God; Epistle to Diognetus; Fragments on the Resurrection and other Fragments; Exposition of the True Faith; Epistle to Zenas and Serenus; Refutation of certain Doctrines of Aristotle; Questions and Answers to the Orthodox; Questions of Christians to Pagans; Questions of Pagans to Christians.
In 1563 the long-gathering storm of obloquy burst upon the occasion of the publication of his Thirty Dialogues, in one of which his adversaries maintained that he had justified polygamy under colour of a pretended refutation.
Of a scepticism which professes to doubt the validity of every reasoning process and every operation of all our faculties it is, of course, as impossible as it would be absurd to offer any refutation.
But this proof that the true kingdom of God could not be realized in an earthly state, under the limitations of national particularism, was not the final refutation of the Old Testament hope.
His first apologetical work ('AiroXo-ynrtKOs), written probably about 360 or 365, has been entirely recovered from the celebrated refutation of it by Basil, and may be found in J.
A second apology, written before 379 (`Tirp d7roXoylas airoXoyia), exists only in the quotations given from it in a refutation by Gregory of Nyssa.
A hundred bad writers misrepresented him and reviled him; but not one of the hundred could boast of having been thought by him worthy of a refutation, or even of a retort.
In 1 706 he wrote a refutation of Dr Henry Dodwell's views on the immortality of the soul, and this drew him into controversy with Anthony Collins.
escape from this impasse, and among his Socratic contemporaries he seems to have singled out Antisthenes 4 as most in need of refutation.
Parish, Hallucinations and Illusions and Zur Kritik des telepathischen Beweismaterials, and Mrs Sidgwick's refutation in Proc. S.P.R.
This did not suit Philip, who, although he instituted a process in the supreme tribunal of Aragon, speedily abandoned it and caused Perez to be attacked from another side, the charge of heresy being now preferred, arising out of certain reckless and even blasphe On the other hand it is suggested that this story of his being the son of Gomez was only circulated by Ruy Gomez's wife, Ana de Mendoza, as a refutation of the possibility of a supposed amour between her and Perez.
Meanwhile other identifications, earlier or later, were also supported, in whose case the facts are a sufficient refutation.
Besides scattered reminiscences of Romans, I Corinthians and Galatians, enumerated in the article referred to, the section devoted to a refutation of the doctrine of "justification by faith apart from works" undeniably presupposes the Pauline terminology.
Kant, however, protested strongly against this development when it was propounded by Fichte, and held that he had precluded it by his "refutation of idealism": he stood unshakably to the belief in an absolutely real world behind phenomena.
But for him the alternative was between Calvinism and Arminianism, simply because of the historical situation, and in the refutation of Arminianism on the assumptions common to both sides of the controversy, he must be considered completely successful.
The total result, if adequate steps can be taken to counteract the effects of atmospheric change in future, will remain a splendid gain for posterity and a happy refutation of D'Annunzio's despairing poem, the Death of a Masterpiece.
In 1762 and 1764 he published experiments in refutation of the decision of the Florentine Academy, at that time generally accepted, that water is incompressible; and in 1768 he described the preparation, by calcining oyster-shell with sulphur, of the phosphorescent material known as Canton's phosphorus.
The first step in the scientific refutation of the theory of abiogenesis was taken by the Italian Redi, who, in 1668, proved that no maggots were "bred" in meat on which flies were prevented by wire screens from laying their eggs.
The discovery of the microscope carried the refutation further.
It must be noted, however, that this disproof relates only to known existing organisms. All these are composed of a definite substance, known as protoplasm, and the modern refutation of abiogenesis applies only to the organic forms in which protoplasm now exists.
The refutation of abiogenesis has no further bearing on this possibility than to make it probable that if protoplasm ultimately be formed in the laboratory, it will be by a series of stages, the earlier steps being the formation of some substance, or substances, now unknown, which are not protoplasm.
Such intermediate stages may have existed in the past, and the modern refutation of abiogenesis has no application to the possibility of these having been formed from inorganic matter at some past time.
The material is so vast in extent, and in so chaotic a condition, that the construction of any such theory is only calculated to invite refutation and discredit.
Aristotle had already been led to attempt a refutation of the Socratic identification of virtue with knowledge; but his attempt had only shown the profound difficulty of attacking the paradox, so long as it was admitted that no one could of deliberate purpose act contrary to what seemed to him best.
Thus, though incidentally there is much to be learned from Nietzsche, especially from his criticism of the ethics of pessimism, or from the strictures he passes upon the negative morality of extreme asceticism or quietism, his system inevitably provides its own refutation.
Thus, several French writers - notably, Tannery and Noel - regard them as dilemmas advanced, with some measure of success, in refutation of specific doctrines attributed to the Pythagoreans.
Having invented four arguments all immeasurably subtle and profound, the grossness of subsequent philosophers pronounced him to be a mere ingenious juggler, and his arguments to be one and all sophisms. After two thousand years of continual refutation, these sophisms were reinstated, and made the foundation of a mathematical renaissance, by a German professor, who probably never dreamed of any connexion between himself and Zeno.
The former should be regarded as asserting that the whole is, not temporally, but logically, subsequent to the part, and that therefore there is an infinite regress in the notion of a whole which is infinitely divisible - a view which at any rate demands a serious refutation.
Finally, the last paradox may be interpreted as a valid refutation of the doctrine that space and time are not infinitely divisible.
The chief work of Irenaeus, written about 180, is his "Refutation and Overthrow of Gnosis, falsely so called" (usually in- dicated by the name Against the Heresies).
He brought with him, for the refutation of calumnious reports circulated by his enemies, a written certificate from Cardinal Bellarmin, to the effect that no abjuration had been required of or penance imposed upon him.
This contention was again upheld, in the form of a violent polemic against the papacy, by the Centuriators of Magdeburg (Ecclesiastica historia, Basel, 1559-1574); the attempt at refutation by the Jesuit Torres (Adversus Centur.
Life is constant probing and testing, conjecture and refutation.
administer the oath without the prior refutation of the PCC.
The detection loophole in the refutation of the family of Local Realistic Theories will thereby be closed.
refutation of the hypothesis.
refutation of theories.
refutation of claims that seem to be exaggerated.
refutation of the doctrine of the multiplicity of souls, ascribed to Plato by Thomas Aquinas.
refutation of the argument in terms of innocents.
refutation of opportunist errors.
Wittgenstein, in his appeal to ordinary language, is supposed to offer a refutation of skepticism.
To me all that is such a disconnection from sense the asylum run by the lunatics as to need no refutation.
The opinion of some that it means the wind, is too frigid to require refutation.
Dante gives a refutation of the doctrine of the multiplicity of souls, ascribed to Plato by Thomas Aquinas.
Yet we will provide additional refutation of Zawadi's desperate distortions of biblical teaching as we move along.
What is needed in science is to test the knowledge by attempted refutation.
Here are just a few points, not in any way an attempt at a complete refutation of the article.
Perhaps a good refutation of that type of argument is provided by the British case.
But the most thorough refutation of the claim that Muhammad is the Comforter is found in this chapter in a larger book.
The only hurt they do not suffer is comprehensive refutation.
General purpose inference systems, such as Prolog's resolution refutation can be used to solve problems stated in logic.
He has certainly not indulged in a careful reading or point-by-point refutation of Luther, or indeed of any classic Protestant writer on justification.
Certainly genuine are the refutation ('Avarpori 7) of Cyril's twelve a.vaOENcarcamoi of Nestorius, and the 'EpavirTns, or IIoXu,uopcos, (written about 446), consisting of three dialogues, entitled respectively "Arpsirros, 'A r yxvros, and 'Aira01, in which the monophysitism of Cyril is opposed, and its Apollinarian character insisted on.
In 1588, in refutation of the views of the seigneur de Malestroit, comptroller of the mint, who maintained that there had been no rise of prices in France during the three preceding centuries, he published his Responsio ad Paradoxa Malestretti (Reponse aux paradoxes de M.
For Ignoratio Elenchi (ignorance of the refutation) see Fallacy.
It is only possible to allude briefly here to the different conclusions that he has attained in treating the various problems, as for example in Aesthetic, the unity of art and language, of intuition and expression, the negation of particular arts, the refutation of literary and artistic classes, the criticism of rhetoric, of grammar and so forth; and in the Philosophy of the Practical or of Practice, the conciliation of the antitheses of utilitarianism and moralism, the critique of precepts, of laws and of casuistry, the new conception of judgments of value, the constitution of a philosophic economy side by side with the science of Economy, the resolution of the Philosophy of rights in the Philosophy of economic, and so forth.
A few fragments and numerous quotations in his principal book form our only knowledge of the Kitab al-Tashwir (" Book of Refutation") a controversial work in four parts, in which Rabbi Jonah successfully repelled the attacks of the opponents of his first treatise.
This is the refutation of pessimism, which ultimately agrees with optimism in making pleasure the standard of value.
28.2), but met with such overwhelming refutation at the hands of Hippolytus (see Gwynn, Hermathena, vi.
To meet these difficulties and give back to us the assurance of the substantiality of the world without us it has therefore been thought necessary to maintain two propositions which are taken to be the refutation of idealism.
For the Refutation we are still dependent on the editions of Miller (Oxford, 1851), Duncker and Schneidewin (GÃƒ¶ttingen, 1859), and Cruice (Paris, 1860).
The famous manifesto of the Pleiade, the Deffence et illustration de la langue fran40yse (1549), was at once a complement and a refutation of Sibilet's treatise.
In refutation of Duchesne(Van der Eycke), he showed that the ratio was 3-, %-, and thence made the exceedingly lucky step of taking a mean between the two by the quite unjustifiable process of halving the sum of the two numerators for a new numerator and halving the sum of the two denominators for a new denominator, thus arriving at the now well-known approximation 3 6 3 - or ??
7 f.) - the author first points his readers to its refutation from experience, and then to the fact that the Christian's "altar" or sacrifice (i.e.
The opinion that immediately after the first outbreak of Vesuvius a torrent of lava was ejected over Herculaneum was refuted by the scholars of the 18th century, and their refutation is confirmed by Beule (Le Drame du Vesuve, p. 240 seq.).
He created their formal logic and contributed much that was of value to their psychology and epistemology; but in the main his work was to new-label and new-arrange in every department, and to lavish most care and attention on the least important parts - the logical terminology and the refutation of fallacies, or, as his opponents declared, the excogitation of fallacies which even he could not refute.
And similar criticism is actually passed by Posidonius: " This is not the end, but only its necessary concomitant; such a mode of expression may be useful for the refutation of objections put forward by the Sophists " (Carneades and the New Academy ?), " but it contains nothing of morality or well-being " (Galen, De Plac. et Plat.
To Calvin this notion appeared so pernicious that he composed a treatise in refutation of it, under the title of Psychopannychia.
HOWEVER a failure to obtain statistically significant findings is a refutation of the hypothesis.
Kuhn pointed out that the history of science does not support Popper 's view that science advances by the systematic refutation of theories.
First some refutation of claims that seem to be exaggerated.
Nor is there a hope of a quick refutation of the argument in terms of innocents.
Let us take the next, more mature, work by Kautsky, which was also largely devoted to a refutation of opportunist errors.
Yet we will provide additional refutation of Zawadi 's desperate distortions of biblical teaching as we move along.
General purpose inference systems, such as Prolog 's resolution refutation can be used to solve problems stated in logic.
It excited the suspicion of the Church, and a Jesuit, by name Baltus, published a ponderous refutation of it; but the peace-loving disposition of its author impelled him to leave his opponent unanswered.
SuIdas (s.v.), who mentions the second work, confounds the older Scylax with a much later author, who wrote a refutation of the history of Polybius, and is presumably identical with Scylax of Halicarnassus, a statesman and astrologer, the friend of Panaetius spoken of by Cicero (De div.
Of his many works, the earliest, published in 1810, entitled Versuch 'fiber die maltesische Sprache, was a successful refutation of the widely current opinion that the modern Maltese was of Punic origin.
His Apologeticus, a defence of the papal claims against the Empire, written - as is supposed - in refutation of Piero della Vigna's argument in favour of the independence of the Empire, has been lost.
The best known are the Annales Ecclesiastici, written by Cardinal Baronius as a rejoinder to and refutation of the Historia ecclesiastica or "Centuries" of the Protestant theologians of Magdeburg (12 vols., published at Rome from 1788 to 1793; Baronius's work stops at the year 1197).
Hence both science and religion must come to recognize as the" most certain of all facts that the Power which the Universe manifests to us is utterly inscrutable."Thus to be buried side by side in the Unknowable constitutes their final reconciliation, as it is the refutation of irreligion which consists of" a lurking doubt whether the Incomprehensible is really incomprehensible."Such are the foundations of Spencer's metaphysic of the Unknowable, to which he resorts in all the fundamental difficulties which he subsequently encounters.
Burke wrote his Vindication of Natural Society in imitation of Bolingbroke's style, but in refutation of his principles; and in the Reflections on the French Revolution he exclaims, "Who now reads Bolingbroke, who ever read him through?"
A misunderstanding as to the manner in which these should be dealt with was the immediate occasion of the publication by Hutchinson in 1724 of Moses's Principia, part i., in which Woodward's Natural History was bitterly ridiculed, his conduct with regard to the mineralogical specimens not obscurely characterized, and a refutation of the Newtonian doctrine of gravitation seriously attempted.
He was burnt simply because he could not change his religion with the law and would not pretend that he could; and his execution is a complete refutation of the idea that Mary only persecuted heretics because and when they were traitors.
No doubt, rational evidences had appeared in books of rhetoric, as we see from Plato's Phaedrus, 266-267,where we find proofs,probabilities, refutation and maxim, but mixed up with other evidences.
28, § 5) in his refutation of the Kabbalistic heresy of the Ophites, we find Tobias figuring as a prophet, on the same level as Haggai.
His vacillating autobiography, Exemplar Humanae Vitae, was published with a "refutation" by Limborch in 1687, and republished in 1847.
C. Clemen's refutation in Die Einheitlichkeit der paulin.
to draw up, in concert with twenty other theologians, the refutation of the Protestant Confession, but was obliged to rewrite it five times before it suited the emperor.
Nor does he even attempt a refutation of the crucial point, which Scioppius had proved, as far as a negative can be proved - namely, that William, the last prince of Verona, had no son Nicholas, the alleged grandfather of Julius, nor indeed any son who could have been such grandfather.
Various experiments by Schwann, Helmholtz, Schultz, Schroeder, Dusch and others led to the refutation, step by step, of the belief that the more minute organisms, and particularly bacteria, arose de novo in the special cases quoted.
The inference is not expressly drawn, though it becomes perfectly clear from his refutation of William Whiston's curious counter theory that there were in the original Hebrew scriptures prophecies which were literally fulfilled in the New Testament, but had been expunged at an early date by Jewish scribes.
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