Various proposals on the part of Canada for a renewal of the reciprocity were not entertained.
A new statement of the law of reciprocity can be arrived at as follows: Since.
Its most important conclusions were for reciprocity in trade, a continental railway and compulsory arbitration in international complications.
But the ultimate conception of understanding, that of the world of objects, quantitatively determined, and standing in relation of mutual reciprocity to one another, is not a final ground of explanation.
Reciprocity with the United States was in force from 1891 to 1894 and was extremely beneficial to Cuba.
The term of office of the latter was marked by the first tentative efforts to modify the high protective system by which British trade was hampered, especially by the Reciprocity of Duties Act (1823), a modification of the Navigation Acts, by which British and foreign shipping were placed on an equal footing, while the right to impose restrictive duties on ships of powers refusing to reciprocate was retained.
The Alaskan boundary, the Atlantic and inland fisheries, the alien labour law, the bonding privilege, the seal fishery in the Bering Sea and reciprocity of trade in certain products were among the subjects considered by the commission.
The Reciprocity Treaty with the United States, in operation from 1854 to 1866, and the high prices for farm produce due to the American Civil War, brought about an almost hectic prosperity.
Five years later, with unrestricted reciprocity relegated to the background, and with a platform which demanded tariff revision so adjusted as not to endanger established interests, and which opposed the federal measure designed to restore in Manitoba the separate or Roman Catholic schools which the provincial government had abolished, Laurier carried the country, and in July 1896 he was called by Lord Aberdeen, then governor-general, to form a government.
The pressing demand for labour created by the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 with the United States led to great changes in the population of the Hawaiian Islands.
It declared that henceforth the progress of the nations must be through harmony and co-operation, in view of the fast-changing conditions of communication and trade, and it maintained that the time had come for widereaching modifications in the tariff policy of the United States, the method preferred by McKinley being that of commercial reciprocity arrangements with various nations.
Blaine, whom he succeeded as a leader of the Republican party and whose views of reciprocity he formally adopted in his last public address, McKinley had great personal suavity and dignity, and was thoroughly well liked by his party colleagues.
He was criticised, both in England and in Canada, for forwarding, in 1911, in the course of his duties as ambassador, an arrangement for reciprocity between the two North American states; but the general election, which substituted Sir R.
- zn +9 1 -z2.1 -z3....1-z8; and since this expression is unaltered by the interchange of n and B we prove Hermite's Law of Reciprocity, which states that the asyzygetic forms of degree 0 for the /t ie are equinumerous with those of degree n for the The degree of the covariant in the variables is e=nO-2w; consequently we are only concerned with positive terms in the developments and (w, 0, n) - (w - r; 0, n) will be negative unless nO It is convenient to enumerate the seminvariants of degree 0 and order e=n0-2w by a generating function; so, in the first written generating function for seminvariants, write z2 for z and az n for a;.
Shaping the tariff legislation for this policy, Blaine negotiated a large number of reciprocity treaties which augmented the commerce of his country.
If the Hungarian government wished to regulate its relationship to Austria in a more definite form, added the Austrian premier, it must conclude a new agreement before the end of the year 1907, when the reciprocity arrangement of 1899 would lapse.
The law of reciprocity shows that p(s) = zti (m 1te2tmtL3t) t=1 st It 2t 3t viz.: a linear function of symmetric functions symbolized by the k specifications; and that () St =ti ts.
On the 16th of April 1890 he introduced from the Ways and Means committee the tariff measure known commonly as the McKinley Bill, which passed the House on the 21st of May, passed the Senate (in an amended form, with a reciprocity clause, which McKinley had not been able to get through the House) on the 10th of September, was passed as amended, by the House, and was approved by the president on the 1st of October 1890.
In these researches he skilfully took advantage of the well-known property of reciprocity between the centres of suspension and oscillation of an oscillating body, so as to determine experimentally the precise position of the centre of oscillation; the distance between these centres was then the length of the ideal simple pendulum having the same time of oscillation.
The complete reciprocity of the effects of magnetization upon length and of stretching upon magnetization is shown by the following parallel statements: Iron.
The chief features of his administration were the fiscal preference of 333% in favour of goods imported into Canada from Great Britain, the despatch of Canadian contingents to South Africa during the Boer war, the contract with the Grand Trunk railway for the construction of a second transcontinental road from ocean to ocean, the assumption by Canada of the imperial fortresses at Halifax and Esquimault, the appointment of a federal railway commission with power to regulate freight charges, express rates and telephone rates, and the relations between competing companies, the reduction of the postal rate to Great Britain from 5 cents to 2 cents and of the domestic rate from 3 cents to 2 cents, a substantial contribution to the Pacific cable, a practical and courageous policy of settlement and development in the Western territories, the division of the North-West territories into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the enactment of the legislation necessary to give them provincial status, and finally (1910), a tariff arrangement with the United States, which, if not all that Canada might claim in the way of reciprocity, showed how entirely the course of events had changed the balance of commercial interests in North America.
Blaine, who opposed many of the "protective" features of the Bill) reciprocity treaties were made with Germany, France, Italy, and Belgium, which secured a market in those countries for American pork.
At the opening of 1904 he was officially invited by Mr Deakin, the prime minister of the Commonwealth, to pay a visit to Australia, in order to expound his scheme, being promised an enthusiastic welcome "as the harbinger of commercial reciprocity between the mother country and her colonies."
The demands of the Liberals were as in 1868; those for personal and property rights were much more definitely stated, and among explicit reforms demanded were the separation of civil and military power, general recognition of administrative responsibility under a colonial autonomous constitutional regime; also among economic matters, customs reforms and reciprocity with the United States were demanded.
In December 1873 he was called to the Canadian senate, and in 1874 was appointed by the imperial government joint plenipotentiary with Sir Edward Thornton to negotiate a reciprocity treaty between Canada and the United States.
Among the more important legislative changes with which he was principally connected were a reform of the Navigation Acts, admitting other nations to a full equality and reciprocity of shipping duties; the repeal of the labour laws; the introduction of a new sinking fund; the reduction of the duties on manufactures and on the importation of foreign goods, and the repeal of the quarantine duties.
According to Lotze, the connexion required by reciprocity requires also that the whole of every reciprocal action should take place within one substance; the immaterial elements act on one another merely, as the modifications of that substance interacting within itself; and that one substance is God, who thus becomes not merely the primary but the sole cause, in scholastic language a causa immanens, or agent of acts remaining within the agent's being.
This position he held until 1911, when the Laurier Administration was defeated on the TaftFielding Reciprocity Compact with the United States; he was then called upon to form in Oct.
Encouraged from Berlin, Kalnky agreed to the reciprocal territorial guarantee, but declined reciprocity in support of special interests.
Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
The Cunard arrangement was the first of various measures that worked for a commercial rapprochement between the New England states and Canada, culminating in the reciprocity treaty of 1854, and Boston's interests are foremost to-day in demanding a return to relations of reciprocity.
But from the first he won great popularity even in the English-speaking provinces, and showed unusual capacity for leadership. His party was beaten in the first general election held after he became leader (1891), but even with its policy of unrestricted reciprocity with the United States, and with Sir John Macdonald still at the head of the Conservative party, it was beaten by only a small majority.
Thus the reciprocity of the various organs, maintained throughout the divisions of physiological labour, is not merely a mechanical stability; it is also a mutual equilibration in functions incessantly at work on chemical levels, and on those levels of still higher complexity which seem to rise as far beyond chemistry as chemistry beyond physics.
A protective tariff was imposed in early colonial times and protection was generally approved in the state until toward the close of the 19th century, when a strong demand became apparent for reciprocity with Canada and for tariff reductions on the raw materials (notably hides) of Massachusetts manufactures.
The struggle for religious freedom has suffered no intermission since the beginning of the Reformation; and the result is that to-day its recognition is considered one of the most precious trophies won in the evolution of modern civilization; nor can these changes be reversed, for they stand in the closest connexion and reciprocity one with another, and represent the fruits of centuries of co-operation on the part of the European peoples.
Some provisions for reciprocity arrangements with other countries, opening the way for possible reductions of duty by treaty arrangements, were also incorporated in the act of 1897, though with limitations which made it improbable that any considerable changes would ensue from this policy.
'of' - Already in 1783 the Conde de Aranda had suggested to the Spanish king the scheme of setting up three SpanishAmerican kingdoms bound to Spain by perpetual treaties of alliance and reciprocity and by frequent royal intermarriages, and with the king of Spain as overlord.
In 1854 Lord Elgin negotiated a reciprocity treaty with the United States which gave Canadian natural products free entrance to the American market.
To Legendre is due the theorem known as the law of quadratic reciprocity, the most important general result in the science of numbers which has been discovered since the time of P. de Fermat, and which was called by Gauss the " gem of arithmetic."
In United retaliation for the supposed sympathy of Canadians with the South in this struggle the victorious North took steps to abrogate in 1866 the reciprocity treaty of 18J4, which had conferred such great advantages on both countries.
The cultivation of the cane was greatly encouraged by the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875, which established practically free trade between the islands and the United States, and since 1879 it has been widely extended by means of irrigation, the water being obtained both by pumping from numerous artesian wells and by conducting surface water through canals and ditches.
As a consequence there has been a tendency towards the formation of two opposing elements within the dominant party; the more radical seeking the promotion of what since 1902 has been known as the "Iowa Idea," which in substance is to further the expansion of the trade of the United States with the rest of the world through the more extended application of tariff reciprocity, and at the same time to revise the tariff so as to prevent it from "affording a shelter to monopoly."
It was important to take a long time to establish reciprocity in communication.
From the election of 1887 the Riel agitation ceased to seriously influence politics, but the fiscal controversy continued under new forms. Between 1887 and 1891 a vigorous agitation was kept up under Liberal auspices in favour of closer trade relations with the United States, at first under the name of Commercial Union and later under that of Unrestricted Reciprocity.
In this work he introduced the use of linear functions in place of the ordinary co-ordinates; he also made the fullest use of the principles of collineation and reciprocity.
their permanence, succession or coexistence, and the principles are respectively those of substance, causality and reciprocity.
These notions are not directly applicable to experience, nor do we find in experience anything corresponding to the pure intellectual notions of substance, cause and reciprocity.
So with coexistence and reciprocity.
Second, there is no reciprocity in the WWW: a link is usually only one-way.
The third quatrain plays on the reciprocity of mirroring.
We have a certain biological reciprocity with plants, don't we?
Bringing LM stuff and social capital together also suggests another point: could generalized reciprocity be applied in the economic sphere?
Strictly speaking, it is true that the GATS does not require reciprocity.
reciprocity in a simple model society.
A local exchange trading system facilitates indirect reciprocity within a community by providing a virtual currency to measure people's contributions.
In negative reciprocity, bad reputation may lead to the avoidance of aggressive agents even without personal experience of the aggressor.
reciprocity failure on long exposures.
One section of the school even maintained it to be a cardinal doctrine of utilitarianism that a man always gains his own greatest happiness by promoting that of others; another section, represented by John Austin, apparently returned to Paley's position, and treated utilitarian morality 3 as a code of divine legislation; others, with Grote, are content to abate the severity of the claims made by "general happiness " on the individual, and to consider utilitarian duty as practically limited by reciprocity; while on the opposite side an unqualified subordination of private to general happiness was advocated by J.
We use this approach to evaluate several different models of reciprocity in a simple model society.
reciprocity agreements were made, there are few more steps.
reciprocity relationship or symmetrical coupling between all energy modes.
reciprocity law in detail.
reciprocity strategies is that they tend to spread interaction requests randomly across the population, to keep relations in balance.
reciprocity theorems relate different states occurring within the same domain.
Ofcom have opened a consultation into a dispute over a geographic call termination reciprocity agreement between BT and Telewest.
= o, we find a particular law of reciprocity given by Cayley and Betti, (1m1) t(1(1 n1 2) Ã¯¿½2 (1.3)Ã¯¿½3...
Gairal (Le Protectorat international) distinguishes suzerainty from protectorate in these respects: (a) suzerainty proceeds from a concession on the part of the suzerain (p. 112); (b) the vassal state is bound to perform specific services; and (c) the vassal state has larger powers of action than those belonging to a protected state; (d) there is reciprocity of obligation.
In the same year he secured the negotiation of the Gadsden Treaty (see Gadsden, James), by which the boundary dispute between Mexico and the United States was adjusted and a large area was added to the Federal domain; and in June 1854 he concluded with Lord Elgin, governor-general of Canada, acting for the British Government, a treaty designed to settle the fisheries question and providing for tariff reciprocity (as regards certain enumerated commodities) between Canada and the United States.
We have a certain biological reciprocity with plants, do n't we?
A local exchange trading system facilitates indirect reciprocity within a community by providing a virtual currency to measure people 's contributions.
The main problem with film is reciprocity failure on long exposures.
However, for Commercial companies established in countries with which reciprocity agreements were made, there are few more steps.
It is also consistent with Onsager 's reciprocity relationship or symmetrical coupling between all energy modes.
It explains the cohomological definition of the local reciprocity law in detail.
The problem with stricter reciprocity strategies is that they tend to spread interaction requests randomly across the population, to keep relations in balance.
Reciprocity theorems relate different states occurring within the same domain.
With older cameras, photographers had to deal with something called "reciprocity failure" associated with longer exposures.
In many ways, then, childhood peer relations serve as training grounds for future interpersonal relations, providing children with opportunities to learn about reciprocity and intimacy.
Key features of close friendships are reciprocity and similarity, mutual intimacy, and social support.
Some practice in states where there is no reciprocity for the license they already have.
There is reciprocity with trust, we believe that we know how the other person will react and they know how we will react to learning about their vulnerabilities.
Remember to ask whether the zoo participates in any reciprocity program with other zoos like the one Reid Park Zoo offers, which means you can receive discounts at other zoos with your Arizona zoo membership.
Free or discounted admission reciprocity with membership to other zoos nationwide.
A zoo membership will provide benefits such as free parking and reciprocity with other zoos and aquariums throughout the country.
An important part of linking is reciprocity: if you link to a site and then ask them to link to you they will be more likely to do it than they would if you didn't link to them first.
The great attraction he sees in this is that it involves reciprocity.
The principle of ' less than full reciprocity ' is being ignored.
Thus if a ` third party ' should join the dyad the form changes and we do not perceive such immediate reciprocity.
Use this & Gauss ' law of quadratic reciprocity, to show that 75 is a primitive root modulo 65537.
Building cultural reciprocity with families: Case studies in special education.
Here, the behavior is governed by moral reciprocity.
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