916 to the Eastern Recension of the Hebrew Text" (1899, for private circulation).
In the last-mentioned work he seeks to prove that the St Petersburg Codex, for so many years accepted as the genuine text of the Babylonian school, is in reality a Palestinian text carefully altered so as to render it conformable to the Babylonian recension.
The present (priestly) recension of Gen.
There is also an early Arabic recension, but its relation to the Hebrew and to the Arabic 2 Maccabees is still obscure.
But the later recension of Judaean history - our sole source - entirely ignores the elevation of Jehoiachin (2 Kings xxv.
Thus he was for two years together at Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he was overtaken by the Maximinian persecution; here he worked at his recension of the Bible.
Origen worked also at the text of the New Testament, although he produced no recension of his own.
A recension of this code of Recceswinth was made in 681 by King Erwig (680-687), and is known as the Lex Wisigothorum renovata; and, finally, some additamenta were made by Egica (687-702).
Aratus carried out a recension of the Odyssey, and Berossus composed a Babylonian history in Greek; under Antiochus III.
In any case, eventually, Franks fought (451) in the Roman ranks at the great battle of Mauriac (the Catalaunian Fields), which arrested the progress of Attila into Gaul; and in the Vita Lupi, which, though undoubtedly of later date, is a recension of an earlier document, the name of Meroveus appears among the combatants.
than the 12th century, and even the earliest ones (especially those of the Venedotia recension) contain many interpolations.
(belonging to the Dimetia recension) than the 13th century.
This event is related in a Norman-French transcript of an old French chanson de geste, the Chancun de Willame - which only was brought to light in 1901 at the sale of the books of Sir Henry Hope Edwardes - in the Covenant Vivien, a recension of an older French chanson and in Aliscans.
Hartnacke and P. Rasch; Loquifer and Le Moniage Rainouart (12th century); Bovon de Commarchis (13th century), recension of the earlier Siege de Barbastre, by Adenes le rois, ed.
The two Latin versions and a Byzantine recension of the Greek contain i.
The more complete recension bears the title ew,ua 'IvpafXLTov I tXoaocov pr)Ta Eis Ta lrac&uca Tou Kvpiov, and treats of the period from the 7th to the 12th year (Tischendorf, Evangelia Apocryphal, 1876, 140-157).
The more fragmentary recension gives the history of the childhood from the 5th to the 8th year, and is entitled LGyypa j sa roil) e yiov arov76Xov 7rEpi Tijs 7racScKCis avaUTpocbC7s Tou Kvpiov (Tischendorf, op. cit.
is only another recension of Ps.
and III.), containing as it does an Elohistic recension of a psalm occurring in book I.
masterful Rabbula, who was bishop of Edessa from 411-412 to 435, a new version or recension of the Gospels was made and incorporated in the Peshitta or Vulgate, the use of the Diatessaron being henceforth proscribed.
A latter (probably Nestorian) recension is contained in a Paris MS., which was used along with the other by Bruns and Sachau in their exhaustive edition (Syrisch-romisches, Rechtsbuch, Leipzig, 1880).
In Notulae syriacae (privately printed 1887) Wright edited the surviving fragment of a 3rd recension which is preserved in a 13th-century MS. at Cambridge.
- Special mention may be made of `Ananisho` of Hedhaiyabh (middle of 7th century) well known as the author of a new recension of the Paradise of Palladius, and also the author of a volume on philosophical divisions and definitions; Romanus the physician 0-896), who wrote a medical compilation, a commentary on the Book of Hierotheus, a collection of Pytha - gorean maxims and other works; Moses bar Kepha, the voluminous writer above referred to; the famous physician Honain ibn Islhn See O.
Herold at Basel in 1557 (Originum ac Germanicarum antiquitatum libri) from a MS. now lost, is founded on the second recension, but contains additions of considerably later date.
Even the Greek cannot claim to be the original work, but only to be a recension of it; for, whereas Origen states that this apocalypse contained an account of the seven heavens, the existing Greek work describes only five, and the Slavonic only two.
Certainly it won its way to general acceptance in the East as the creed of the church of the imperial city; regarded as an improved recension of the Nicene Faith.
Here the recension in 1 Esdras especially merits attention for its text, literary structure and for its variant traditions.
But it chanced to find as its exponent a poet whose genius established a model for his successors, and definitely fixed the type of later heroic poems. The other early chansons to which reference is made in Roland - Aspremont, Enfances Ogier, Guiteclin, Balan, relating to Charlemagne's wars in Italy and Saxony - are not preserved in their original form, and only the first in an early recension.
This is merely a recension of a work which was composed about 679 by a Briton of Strathclyde.
22, Lucian's recension), bears upon Judah, but the statements are isolated.
1-19) were translated, and of this recension the actual Greek has survived in a multitude of phrases in the Greek Legend.
Of this recension ii.
The later recension of this Vision was used by Jerome, and a more primitive form of the text by the Archontici according to Epiphanius.
The greatest philologist of antiquity was, however, his successor, Aristophanes of Byzantium (195), who reduced accentuation and punctuation to a definite system, and used a variety of critical symbols in his recension of the Iliad and Odyssey.
To Ceriani is due the discovery that the text preserved by codices 19, 82, 93, 108, really represents Lucian's recension; the same conclusion was reached independently by Lagarde, who combined codex 118 with the four mentioned above.
In the view of many authorities this version was first produced at Carthage, but recent writers are inclined to regard Antioch as its birthplace, a view which is supported by the remarkable agreement of its readings with the Lucianic recension and with the early Syriac MSS.
Lagarde's projected edition of the Lucianic recension was unfortunately never completed; the existing volume contains Genesis - 2 Esdras, Esther.
reproduce a single recension.
Some important contributions towards a right critical method of using the material collected have been made - in particular by Lagarde, who has also opened up a valuable line of critical work, along which much remains to be done, by his restoration of the Lucianic recension, one of the three great recensions of the Greek text of the Old Testament which obtained currency at the close of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th centuries A.D.
it is not difficult to recover the recension which with few and unimportant variants they have perpetuated, and which may safely be regarded as differing but slightly from the text current and officially established before the end of the 2nd century A.D.
Its text in the Old Testament is thought by some scholars to show signs of representing the Hesychian recension, but this view seems latterly to have lost favour with students of the Septuagint.
The Alexandrian was clearly a literary recension of it, and WH strove to show that the Western was merely due to the non-literary efforts of scribes in other parts to improve the narrative.
Another group which Bousset has tried to identify is that headed by B, which he connects with the recension of Hesychius, but this theory, though widely accepted in Germany, does not seem to rest on a very solid basis.
Among these we must mention the JudaeoChristian Gnostic Cerinthus, also the Gnostic Ebionites, of whom Epiphanius (Haer.) gives us an account, and whose writings are to be found in a recension in the collected works of the Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions and Homilies; to the same class belong the Elkesaites with their mystical scripture, the Elxai, extracts of which are given by Hippolytus in the Philos.
The collection, in its present form, contains 126 pieces of verse, long and short; that is the number included in the recension of al-Anbari, who had the text from Abu `Ikrima of Dabba, who read it with Ibn al-A`rabi, the stepson and inheritor of the tradition of al-Mufaddal.
It is noticeable that this traditional text, and the accompanying scholia, as represented by al-Anbari's recension, are wholly due to the scholars of Kufa, to which place al-Mufaddal himself belonged.
There is an imperfect copy of the recension of alMarzugi (died 1030), with his commentary, in the Berlin collection.
A very ancient fragment (dated 1080) of al-Anbari's recension, containing five poems in whole or part, is in the Royal Library at Leipzig.
In America there are at Yale University a modern copy of the same recension, taken from the same original as the Cairo copy, and a MS. of Persian origin, dated 1657, presenting a text identical with the Vienna codex.
Numerous and striking discrepancies may be due to the fact that there was more than one edition or recension of it in early times, or to the author leaving his work in such a condition that such discrepancies must inevitably gain currency.
On the question of the recension of Barbour's text, see J.
Following other synchronisms, the Septuagint (Lucian's recension) names Ahaziah of Judah; from 2 Kings i.
Although he has been reproached with arbitrariness and an insufficient knowledge of Greek, in his recension he undoubtedly laid a sound foundation for future criticism.
Here too we have the first sure trace of an expurgated recension, made with the idea of recovering the genuine form assumed, as earlier by Epiphanius, to lie behind an unorthodox recension of Clement's narrative.
The above-mentioned nucleus, combined with other chapters of more recent origin, is found in the papyri of the XVIIIthXXth Dynasties, and forms the so-called Theban recension, which has been edited by Naville man important work.
Hence it is by no means improbable that the final recension of these chapters had not been completed when the Alexandrine version was made.
As for the date of composition, it is evident, from the conflicting statements in the different MSS., that there must have been an earlier and a later recension, the former belonging to 587-589 A.H., and dedicated to the prince of Mosul, `Izz-uddin Mas`ud, the latter made for the atabeg Nusrat-uddin Abu Bakr of Azerbaijan after 593 A.H., since we find in it a mention of Nizaml's last romance Haft Paikar, or the "Seven Beauties," which comprises seven tales related by the seven favourite wives of the Sassanian king Bahramgur.
The task of filling up gaps, smoothing away inconsistencies, rounding off the tale, was accomplished by Giles Tschudi, whose recension was adopted, with a few alterations, by Johannes von Muller in his History of the Confederation (1780).
In the final recension of Tschudi's Chronicle (1734-36), which, however, differs in many particulars from the original draft still preserved at Zurich, we are told how Albert of Austria, with the view of depriving the Forest lands of their ancient freedom, sent bailiffs (among them Gessler) to Uri and Schwyz, who committed many tyrannical acts, so that finally on 8th November 1307, at the Riitli, Werner von Stauffacher of Schwyz, Walter Fiirst of Uri, Arnold von Melchthal in Unterwalden, each with ten companions, among whom was William Tell, resolved on a rising to expel the oppressors, which was fixed for New Year's Day 1308.
In particular, while in his first draft he speaks of the bailiff as Gryssler - the usual name up to his time, except in the White Book and in Stumpff's Chronicle of 1548 - in his final recension he calls him Gessler, knowing that this was a real name.
63 &c.) and the Christian recension of the two first Sibylline books were written.
4 To this time possibly belongs also a recension of the Coptic apocalypse of Elijah, edited by Steindorff (Texte and Untersuchungen, N.
An independent authority concludes that " the co-existing likeness and differences argue for an independent recension of ancient custom deeply influenced by Babylonian law."
A reading supported by only one recension he considered as having only one witness in its favour; those readings which were supported by all the three recensions, or even by two of them, especially if these two were the Alexandrian and the Western, he unhesitatingly accepted as genuine.
which were greatly valued as containing his recension.
We have a very interesting colophon to the speeches against Rullus, in which Statilius Maximus states that he had corrected the text by the help of a MS. giving the recension of Tiro, which he had collated with five other ancient copies .° It is interesting to notice that Servatus Lupus did similar work in the 9th century.
Already in The Church in the Roman Empire (1893) he held that the Codex Bezae rested on a recension made in Asia Minor (somewhere between Ephesus and S.
Aristotle is said himself to have made a recension for the use of Alexander the Great.
Moreover, a recension could not be reproduced without new errors soon creeping in.
Didymus (contemporary of Cicero) on the recension of Aristarchus, Aristonicus (fl.
the Babylonian recension of the Talmud adds seven treatises, which are of later origin and are regarded as more or less extra-canonical.
Meanwhile the persecutions of Constantine and Constantius brought about the decay of the Palestinian schools, and, probably in the 5th century, their recension of the Talmud was essentially complete.
Rab Abina (died 499), heads of the academy of Sura, the Babylonian recension became practically complete.
- The Palestinian recension of the Mishnah and Gemara is called " the Talmud of the Land of Israel," or " T.
Talmud did not attain the eminence of the sister recension, and survives in a very incomplete form, although it was perhaps once fuller.
Greek was well understood in cultured Palestine; hence the latter recension uses many Greek terms which it does not explain; whereas in the Bab.
The Palestinian Talmud, although used by the Qaraites in their controversies, fell into neglect, and the Babylonian recension became, what it has since been, the authoritative guide.
Talmud by the Qaraites in their controversies with the Rabbis we owe the preservation of this recension, incomplete though it is.
From these works the contents of the Marcionite Gospel, and also the text of Paul's epistles in Marcion's recension, can be settled with tolerable accuracy.
The most recent and best recension of the De Re Rustica is that of Keil (Leipzig, 1884).
This was the Life of the Apostle of God, which is now lost and is known to us only in the recension of Ibn Hisham.
1--20) and one for Rome (i.-xi., xv.), or who, like Lightfoot (Biblical Essays), see a double recension, the original draft having been meant for Rome (i.-xvi.
of the first decade, some thirty in number, are with one exception derived, more or less directly, from a single archetype, viz., the recension made in the 4th century by the two Nicomachi, Flavianus and Dexter, and by Victorianus.
Of all these descendants of the Nicomachean recension, the oldest is the Codex Parisinus of the 10th century, and the best the Codex Mediceus or Florentinus of the i ith.
Livianae, 2nd ed., 18 77, p. 37), it is derived, not from the Nicomachean recension, but from an older archetype common to both.
The work exists in a longer and a shorter recension, the former in a Syriac version (published with English translation by Cureton, 1861), the latter in the original Greek attached to the Church History in most MSS.
are found both in 4 and In these poems there are constant divergences, and appears to give the better recension.
" Recension," however, is a bad term; it implies that the two texts which undeniably exist were the result of revising and editing according to definite critical principles.
Finally, we read the full story in the original draft of Giles Tschudi's chronicle, where the hero is described as "a man of Unterwalden, of the Winkelried family," this being expanded in the final recension of the chronicle (1564) into "a man of Unterwalden, Arnold von Winckelried by name, a brave knight," while he is entered (in the same book, on the authority of the "Anniversary Book" of Stans, now lost) on the list of those who fell at Sempach at the head of the Nidwalden (or Stans) men as "Herr Arnold von Winckelriet, Ritter," this being in the first draft "Arnold Winckelriet."
It was long ago noticed that PseudoClement bears a very close resemblance to Pseudo-Ignatius, the interpolator of the Ignatian Epistles in the longer Greek recension.
This was largely due to the Tullis press, which produced about the beginning of the 19th century editions of Virgil, Horace and other classical writers, under the recension of Professor John Hunter of St Andrews, which were highly esteemed for the accuracy of their typography.
The works of the three great dramatists had been thus protected, about 340 B.C., by a standard Attic recension.
Editions of Demosthenes based on a critical recension, and called 'ATTLKCava (avriypac/a), came to be distinguished from the vulgates, or.
Both here and in the preceding chapters the Septuagint has several variations and omissions, due either to an (unsuccessful) attempt to simplify the present difficulties, or to the use of another recension.
Moreover, P in its turn shows elsewhere definite indications of different periods and standpoints, and the fluid state of the book at a late age is shown by the presence of Deuteronomic elements in Joshua xx., not found in the Septuagint, and by the numerous and often striking readings which the latter recension presents.
Besides minor works, such as a recension of the Prayer-Book (Siddur), the Pardes and ha-Orah, Rashi wrote two great commentaries on which his fame securely rests.
None of the books of Maccabees are contained in the Vatican (B); all of them are found in a Syriac recension.
8) a recension of the Pauline epistles (Eus., Hist.
There is no trace of a recension of the text that can be looked on as standing nearer to the Hezar Afsane.
The origin of the H text must be regarded as unquestionably Egyptian, in view of the fact that it was used by all the Egyptian Church writers after the end of the 3rd century, and von Soden adopts the well-known hypothesis, first made popular by Bousset, that it represents the recension of Hesychius.
I is, according to von Soden, a Palestinian recension connected with Eusebius, Pamphilus and Origen.
To this view Zarncke was so far converted that in the 1887 edition of his Nibelungenlied he admitted that C shows signs of recension and that the B group is purer in certain details.
The poem was first written down by a wandering minstrel about 971 to 991, was remodelled about 1140 by Konrad,' who introduced interpolations in the spirit of chivalry and was perhaps responsible for the metre; during the wars and miseries of the next fifty years manners and taste became barbarized and the fine traditions of the old popular poetry were obscured, and it was under this influence that, about 1190, a jongleur (Spielmann) revised the poem, this recension being represented by group B.
recension of the book.
The conjecture that א represents the recension of Pierius is in no way incompatible with the view that B represents that of Hesychius.
When I first read the three constituent novels (this was before Waugh undertook the recension) I found them wayward and puzzling.
Naturally he first explains his purpose in doing the recension.
This secondary Greek recension was not due to a purely Greek revision of the book, it depends upon a secondary Hebrew recension.
For the celebration of January 14th 1752 they printed a new recension of the song on a folio sheet.
The False So-Called " Syrian text recension " of 250 and 350 A.D. Refuted.
The pseudo-Callisthenes, in a recension which has not been preserved, was translated into Latin by Julius Valerius about the end of the 3rd century, and an epitome of this translation, also in Latin, was made some time before the 9th century, and is introduced by Vincent de Beauvais into his Speculum historiale.
Of books of this period which are known to have existed in Hebrew or Aramaic up to the time of Jerome (and even later) we now possess most of the original Hebrew text of Ben Sira (Ecclesiasticus) in a somewhat corrupt form, and fragments of an Aramaic text of a recension of theTestaments of theTwelve Patriarchs,both discovered within recent years.
The Oriental point of view for the 13th century appears in Jelaleddin's history of the Ayyubite sultans of Egypt, written towards the end of the 13th century; in Maqrizi's history of Egypt, written in the middle of the 15th century; and in the compendium of the history of the human race by Abulfeda (f1332); while the omniscient Abulfaragius (whom Rey calls the Eastern St Thomas) wrote, in the latter half of the 13th century, a chronicle of universal history in Syriac, which he also issued, in an Arabic recension, as a Compendious History of the Dynasties.
Indications that this tradition was not unassailable were not Iacking before the discovery of the Chanqun de Willame, which, although preserved in a very corrupt form, represents the earliest recension we have of the story, dating at least from the beginning of the 12th century.
The recension (see Driver, Notes on the Hebrew Text of Me Books of Samuel, p. 52) is characterized by the substitution of synonyms for the words originally used by the Septuagint, and by the frequent occurrence of double renderings, but its chief claim to critical importance rests on the fact that " it embodies renderings not found in other MSS.
Winstedt, " The Double Recension in the Poems of Prudentius," The Classical Review, vol.
In the Saite period a sort of standard edition was drawn up, consisting of 165 chapters in a fixed order and with a common title the book of going forth in the day; this recension was published by Lepsius in 1842 from a Turin papyrus Like the Pyramid texts, the Book of the Dead served a funerary purpose, but its contents are far more heterogeneous; besides chapters enabling the dead man to assume what shape he will, or to issue triumphant from the last judgment, there are lists of gates to be passed and demons to be encountered in the nether world, formulae such as are inscribed on sepulchral figures and amulets, and even hymns to the sun-god.
We have a very interesting colophon to the speeches against Rullus, in which Statilius Maximus states that he had corrected the text by the help of a MS. giving the recension of Tiro, which he had collated with five other ancient copies .Ã‚° It is interesting to notice that Servatus Lupus did similar work in the 9th century.
recension, in the Haggadoth ha-Talmud (Constantinople, 1511) and in Jacob ibn Habib's `En (eye, well of) Jacob (Salonika, 1516); and (b) from the Pal., by Samuel Yapheh (Venice, 1589), and in the Yalkut Shimeoni (see Midrash, § 5, 9).
Carmoly edited and translated a fuller recension which he had found in a MS. from the library of Eliezer Ben Hasan, forwarded to him by David Zabach of Morocco (see Relation d'Eldad le Danite, Paris, 1838).
They used the Aramaic recension of the Gospel according to Matthew, which they called the Gospel to the Hebrews, but, while adhering as far as possible to the Mosaic economy as regarded circumcision, sabbaths, foods and the like, they did not refuse to recognize the apostolicity of Paul or the rights of heathen Christians (Jer., Comm.
The second of these, as will be seen, is a Pharisaic recension of the book.
A: Muslim Claims for the Qur'an: Uthmanic recension unchanged for 1,400 years Collated in 650.
The False So-Called " Syrian Text Recension " of 250 and 350 A.D. Refuted.
5, where Lucian's recension and the Septuagint respectively add the Samaritans!), in view of the circumstances of Gedaliah's appointment (Jer.
50 into Greek, and this translation was used by the scholar who rendered the second Hebrew recension into Greek.
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