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reaction

reaction

reaction Sentence Examples

  • We could tell by his reaction the news wasn't good.

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  • When she saw my reaction, she added.

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  • I was amazed at his reaction to a simple compliment.

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  • Not exactly the reaction she had expected, but certainly not a negative one.

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  • I'd witnessed his reaction the prior night.

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  • He could not deny his foremost reaction was the desire for more.

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  • He could not deny his foremost reaction was the desire for more.

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  • Howie offered little and without seeing his facial reaction, I couldn't tell how he stood.

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  • Interested in the strong reaction, Taran pushed his eye- band up to see her.

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  • Claire's reaction was far different.

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  • Claire's reaction was far different.

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  • Did I feel any guilt in not letting Julie know Howie's reaction to my pronouncement?

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  • If Felipa noticed her reaction, she gave no indication.

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  • Damian sat down on the arm of a leather couch, accustomed to the reaction, and pulled off his boot to drain the water.

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  • Sensing my reaction she added, It's sort of what I do in my job; research things.

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  • He sprinted, geared down, and just lolled along, experimenting with his body's reaction to the various phases and ultimately pleased with its response to his multiple tests.

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  • He sprinted, geared down, and just lolled along, experimenting with his body's reaction to the various phases and ultimately pleased with its response to his multiple tests.

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  • Can you imagine the public reaction to that today: A quarter of a million people killed or wounded in a single day?

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  • Pure reaction but it got you in the door in a hurry.

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  • And worse yet, he felt a strange shiver of discomfit at Cynthia's odd reaction to Jerome Shipton's death.

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  • She could neither control her body's reaction to it nor satiate it.

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  • She could neither control her body's reaction to it nor satiate it.

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  • I've found over reaction produces results, a lesson from my tip-line experiences.

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  • If she needed any reassurance about her appearance, it was immediately supplied by Yancey's reaction when she entered the family room.

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  • He found it both amusing and a bit disconcerting that both Sidwell women's initial reaction was to castrate him.

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  • For once, Yully was grateful for the almost allergic reaction humans had to her.

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  • As he rose to answer it, he couldn't help noticing Edith Shipton's alarmed reaction to the ring.

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  • Her reaction – and what he'd read in her mind – left him unable to deny an uneasy truth.

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  • But Dean's denial of Cynthia's implication appeared well founded given her reaction to the discovery of the body in Norfolk.

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  • His anger surprised her with its intensity, and she judged from Ully's reaction that seeing the lord and master pissed was not something the good-natured mad scientist wanted anything to do with.

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  • She hadn't been able to sleep, she told him, wondering what his reaction would be, if in fact she might be pregnant.

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  • At the mention of the name, there was a noticeable reaction from all members of the Dawkins' clan.

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  • At the mention of the name, there was a noticeable reaction from all members of the Dawkins' clan.

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  • She could summon Darkyn, though she feared his reaction to her leaving more than what these people would do to her.

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  • "What will Fitzgerald do?" was Cynthia first reaction when Dean told her of Lydia's conversation with her boss.

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  • That would have accounted for her reaction in Norfolk.

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  • He'd seen Fitzgerald's reaction at the mention of the vodka.

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  • It was not a reaction the Deans expected when Effie read the sordid confirmation her great aunt was a prostitute and carrying on an adulterous affair.

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  • She tried to question me on Howie's reaction to my phone call, but I remained mum.

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  • He might have questioned why it still embarrassed her, if it hadn't been for the fact that he was busy questioning why her reaction still excited him.

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  • Darian was lean as a whip, his body honed to the point where instinct and reaction were one.

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  • "I can find them," Darian said, watching the Watcher's reaction closely.

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  • Taran knew instinctively what could cause such a reaction from Sirian, and it involved the foolish woman.

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  • A human's reaction to him never ceased to intrigue him.

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  • When Dean saw the flashing lights behind him he was startled until he recognized the white Chevy Blazer, the sheriff's car, and his reaction turned from concern to a smile.

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  • He knew there wasn't a straight man alive who wouldn't have that exact reaction to her.

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  • He knew there wasn't a straight man alive who wouldn't have that exact reaction to her.

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  • He smiled to himself as he climbed the steps, wondering what Jake's reaction would be to a search for ancient bones.

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  • She gave a nervous wave, watching for his reaction and relieved when he offered a warm smile.

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  • We all agreed but I silently wondered what our collective reaction would be if the opposite occurred!

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  • I'm talking about Howie's reaction to witnessing a crime being committed.

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  • Initially fearing her to be brittle by her reaction to the world around her, A'Ran was more assured of her ability to withstand the changes in her life.

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  • Initially fearing her to be brittle by her reaction to the world around her, A'Ran was more assured of her ability to withstand the changes in her life.

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  • Deidre braced herself for his violent reaction or words.

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  • Her strong reaction to the childhood incident surprised him.

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  • In that light, his reaction to her appeared less like that of a moody homicidal maniac and more like one of a jilted lover.

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  • She laughed aloud at his reaction, a little too loudly, quickly covering her mouth as other diners glanced her way.

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  • Dean hadn't thought much about Cynthia Byrne's reaction to the ever growing possibility that her husband might be alive.

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  • True to form, he showed no reaction to the surprise visitor as he casually flipped on the switch, flooding the room in light.

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  • In that light, his reaction to her appeared less like that of a moody homicidal maniac and more like one of a jilted lover.

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  • Dean hadn't thought much about Cynthia Byrne's reaction to the ever growing possibility that her husband might be alive.

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  • As if in reaction against the worsening of their position they were all particularly animated and gay.

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  • Fred's reaction startled Mrs. Lincoln from the sofa.

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  • Fitzgerald's reaction was shock and anger.

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  • His reaction fueled the sense of doom that had been growing since Jade appeared with Iliana.s hand.

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  • His reaction fueled the sense of doom that had been growing since Jade appeared with Iliana.s hand.

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  • He'd expected her original reaction to him to be born of shock, but she wrapped her arms around him once again.

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  • That's not the reaction I thought I'd hear.

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  • That's not the reaction I thought I'd hear.

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  • Unlike most men, he didn't back down from her, a reaction that intrigued her.

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  • Unlike most men, he didn't back down from her, a reaction that intrigued her.

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  • She dropped the picture in his lap and watched his reaction.

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  • The agonizing memories ruptured to the surface at last, forcing a long overdue reaction.

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  • Finally she released him and leaned back to view his reaction.

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  • Bordeaux sat on his horse, looking genuinely surprised at her reaction.

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  • I should have recorded your first reaction.

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  • I wasn't surprised by my wife's quick reaction.

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  • He looked for my reaction.

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  • He held her gaze, gauging her reaction.

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  • Damian studied him, curious about the reaction.

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  • Praying she hadn't missed some term of the deal, she waited for his reaction.

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  • She waited for some sort of reaction.

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  • Cynthia asked, surprised by his reaction.

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  • It was not an uncommon reaction.

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  • I'm sure you miss him, Dean said, fishing for a reaction.

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  • Jennifer Radisson had displayed the same reaction.

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  • At that point, the doctor paused, watching her as though waiting for a reaction.

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  • She actually had no intent of inviting him to the house, but thought it might rouse a reaction.

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  • When she did, Alex stopped and waited for her reaction.

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  • He nodded, studying her face for a reaction.

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  • They seemed to be waiting for her reaction.

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  • "Yes," she said at last, cringing for another bad reaction.

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  • He stared at her, and she flung the plate at him, furious at his lack of reaction.

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  • "You're seeking my permission to speak to the visitors," he summarized, gauging her reaction.

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  • She was about to sneak away when A'Ran's sword lowered, and he turned, alerted by the boy's reaction.

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  • The others looked at him, surprised at the depth of his reaction.

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  • When he hit the master switch that bathed all the cars at once in light, he turned to watch her reaction.

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  • Everything. Opening them while the giver waits to see your reaction.

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  • He backed up slightly, bracing for her reaction.

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  • Lana watched him, at a loss at what to think of his reaction.

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  • He turned his back to her to start walking, and she was grateful he didn't see her reaction.

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  • He knew she was on borrowed time given the alcohol's delayed reaction.

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  • She made baby sounds as she nursed – sounds that aroused an instinctive reaction.

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  • He nodded, clearly pleased by her reaction.

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  • She braced herself for their reaction.

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  • Darian wasn't sure what to make of her reaction.

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  • Her stomach roared to life, and even the demon paused at her body's reaction to the food.

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  • Her initial reaction was an urge to crawl under the table.

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  • That said, she was ill prepared for the reaction she got from Alex when he saw the puppy.

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  • Ingrid had the same reaction every morning.

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  • Xander understood; it was the same reaction Ingrid gave him whenever he claimed he could cook.

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  • She focused again on the road, sensing he was waiting for her reaction.

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  • One section of the law expresses the fact that the weights of two substances, not necessarily elements, that are equivalent in one reaction, are often found to be equivalent in a number of other reactions.

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  • They are formed by the action of nitrous fumes on ammoniacal solutions of cobaltous salts, or purpureo-salts, or by the mutual reaction of chlorpurpureosalts and alkaline nitrites.

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  • Much more was this the case when, in the summer, the dangers from the Croats, Serbs and the reaction at Vienna increased.

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  • It forms glancing prisms of neutral reaction slightly soluble in water.

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  • The murder of Kotzebue by Karl Sand, however, shocked him out of his extreme revolutionary views, and from this time he tended, under the influence of the writings of Hamann and Herder, more and more in the direction of conservatism and romanticism, until at last he ended, in a mood almost of pessimism, by attaching himself to the extreme right wing of the forces of reaction.

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  • The addition of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution caused a divided reaction.

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  • The properties of podophyllin resin vary with the reaction of the tissue with which it is in contact; where this is acid the drug is inert, the picro-podophyllin being precipitated.

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  • A similar influence was exerted by him in other branches of the common law; and although, after his retirement, a reaction took place, and he was regarded for a while as one who had corrupted the ancient principles of English law, these prejudices passed rapidly away, and the value of his work in bringing the older law into harmony with the needs of modern society has long been fully recognized.

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  • After the vigorous reaction has ceased and all the sodium has been used up, the mass is thrown into dilute hydrochloric acid, when the soluble sodium salts go into solution, and the insoluble boron remains as a brown powder, which may by filtered off and dried.

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  • When the excitement consequent on the gold finds had subsided, there was a considerable reaction against the claims of Labour, and this was greatly helped by the congested state of the labour market; but the principle of an eight-hours day made progress, and was conceded in several trades.

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  • Enormous numbers of ale-houses were closed - a proceeding which excited intense resentment and was probably no slight cause of the royalist reaction.

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  • These last may be of the nature of " reaction " currents; they are collectively known as the equatorial counter-current.

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  • If the current drive an electromagnetic engine, the reaction of the engine will produce an electromotive force opposing the current.

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  • In the latter case the overturning tendency begins as soon as the load leaves the ground, but ceases as soon as the load again touches the ground and thus relieves the crane of the extra weight, whereas overturning backwards is caused either by the reaction of a chain breaking or by excessive counterweight.

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  • Jovinian thus indicates a natural and vigorous reaction against the exaggerated asceticism of the 4th century, a protest shared by Helvidius and Vigilantius.

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  • Much good work was done by the Republicans during their brief tenure of power,but it soon came to an endowing to the course of events which favored a reaction against France.

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  • The republics set up by the French at Naples, Rome and Milan collapsed as soon as the French troops retired; and a reaction in favor of clerical and Austrian influence set in with great violence.

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  • The reaction, which was dull and heavy in the dominions of the pope and of Victor Emmanuel, systematically harsh in the Austrian states of the north, and comparatively mild in Parma and Tuscany, excited the greatest loathing in southern Italy and Sicily, because there it was directed by a dynasty which had aroused feelings of hatred mingled with contempt.

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  • But although welcomed with enthusiasm Reaction on his return to Turin, he introduced a system of in the reaction which, if less brutal, was no less uncom- Italian promising than that of Austrian archdukes or Bourbon States.

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  • It is no ultimate given point of departure; it is due to the reaction of thought upon sensation.

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  • Nagel (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2009), this oxide does not exist, the reaction leading to the formation of an hydroxide according to the equation: Mo 3 C1 4 (OH) 2 + 4KHO 3H 2 O = 3Mo(OH) 3 -l-4KBr+3H.

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  • It sublimes in small rhombic tables or needles, and is slightly soluble in cold water, the solution possessing an acid reaction.

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  • It is a yellow amorphous powder which is soluble in dilute alkalis, the solution on acidification giving an hydroxide, C1 4 Mo 3 (OH) 2, which is soluble in nitric acid, and does not give a reaction with silver nitrate.

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  • The reaction of the cells may be in two directions, moreover.

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  • It gives a characteristic red-brown reaction with iodine solution.

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  • Some of these have a neutral reaction, others react as feeble acids.

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  • Alexander had planned to amalgamate the former rulers of the world with his Macedonians; but his death was followed by a Macedonian reaction.

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  • The special question of the reaction of man on his environment is handled by G.

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  • The oxides of type RO are soluble in water, the solution possessing a strongly alkaline reaction and rapidly absorbing carbon dioxide on exposure; they are basic in character and dissolve readily in acids with the formation of the corresponding salts.

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  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.

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  • The meta-nitrocompound, which is precipitated last, is then reduced, and the amino group so formed is replaced by the hydroxyl group by means of the Sandmeyer reaction.

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  • Since this process is repeated for many days the habitual reaction of the stomach wellnigh exhausts the male.

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  • At first he supported the ministry, but when they began to show signs of reaction he separated from them, and gradually came to be at the head of the constitutional opposition.

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  • His philosophical standpoint may be characterized as a reaction from the pantheistic tendency of Hegel's idealistic rationalism towards a more pronouncedly theistic position.

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  • It is moderately soluble in water, the solution possessing a faintly acid reaction.

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  • Oxidizing agents rapidly attack sulphuretted hydrogen, the primary products of the reaction being water and sulphur.

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  • It is gradually decomposed by water: 2S 2 C1 2 + 3H 2 0 = 4HC1 + 2S + H2S203, the thiosulphuric acid produced in the primary reaction gradually decomposing into water, sulphur and sulphur dioxide.

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  • in water possessing a strongly acid reaction.

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  • The neutral alkaline salts are soluble in water and show an alkaline reaction, the other neutral salts being either insoluble or difficultly soluble in water.

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  • The acid salts have a neutral or slightly acid reaction.

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  • In this latter reaction the deep yellow solution obtained is exposed to air when the calcium polysulphide formed is gradually converted into thiosulphate by oxidation, and the calcium salt thus formed is converted into the sodium salt by sodium carbonate or sulphate.

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  • Much manganese sulphate is formed during the reaction, and H.

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  • Soc., 1902, 81, p. I) showed that this can be almost entirely avoided by replacing the manganese oxide by hydrated ferric oxide, the reaction proceeding according to the equation: 2Fe(OH) 3 3S0 2 = FeS 2 0 6 FeS0 3 3H 2 0.

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  • This cautious compromise sanctioned by the Church does not represent the extremest reaction against nominalism.

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  • An offshoot of the Khlysti is the more celebrated secret sect of the Skoptsi (skopets, a eunuch), which represents an extreme ascetic reaction from the promiscuous immorality of some (by no means all) of the Khlysti.

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  • The new tsar, Alexander III., was an apt pupil of his tutor Pobedonostsev (q.v.), the celebrated procurator of the Holy Synod, for whom the representative system was a modern lie," and his reign covered a period of frank reaction, during which there was not only no question of affected even the stolid and apparently immovable masses of the peasantry.

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  • The of the revolutionary terrorists were countered by the Russian terrorists of the reaction who under the name of People."

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  • The reaction against the medieval theory at the time of the Reformation took the form of a return to what had no doubt been an early belief, - the idea that the Christian sacrifice consists in the offering of a pure heart and of vocal thanksgiving.

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  • The book of Judges with its " monotonous tempo - religious declension, oppression, repentance, peace," to which Wellhausen 4 refers as its ever-recurring cycle, makes us familiar with these alternating phases of action and reaction.

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  • The reaction into idolatry and Babylonian star worship in the long reign of Manasseh synchronized and was connected with vassalage 1 There is some danger in too strictly construing the language of the prophets and also the psalmists.

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  • But Ezekiel expressed the strong reaction which had set in against this belief in its older forms. He denies that the individual ever dies for the sins of the father.

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  • The idolatrous reaction in the reign of Manasseh appears to have restored all the evils of the past and added to them.

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  • But the fall in the price of silver led to a reaction, and from 1893 the gold output predominated.

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  • This was followed by a reaction and a general collapse of inflated values until 1873, when the discovery of the Great Bonanza mine brought about a revival of industry and of speculation.

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  • Their effect was supplemented by the division into French and British sympathizers; the Republicans approving the aims and condoning the excesses of the French Revolution, the Federalists siding with British reaction against French democracy.

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  • Like Berthelot, he writes the chemical equation of the reaction, but in addition he considers the chemical formula of each substance to express not only its material composition, but also the (unknown) value of its intrinsic energy.

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  • After the failure of Contarini's attempt at reconciliation with the Protestants (1541) the papacy committed itself to the reaction advocated by Caraffa; the Inquisition and censorship were set up (1542, 1 543), and the extermination of heresy in Italy undertaken with vigour.

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  • When he realized the strength of the national reaction, he allowed the patriotic fascisti free rein to reestablish order and practically exercise many functions of Government, while he assumed an attitude of Olympic calm and posed as being au dessus de la melee, so as to avoid compromising himself with any party.

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  • Nomadic life is recognized by Arabian writers themselves as possessing a relative superiority, and its characteristic purity of manner and its reaction against corruption and luxury are not incompatible with a warlike spirit.

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  • ascended the throne in that year, and though the constitution of 1849 recognized the principle of religious liberty, an era of reaction supervened, especially when " the concordat of 1855 delivered Austria altogether into the hands of the clericals."

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  • As a pastoral writer ("in some respects the best in the world," according to Leigh Hunt) he contributed, at an early stage, to the naturalistic reaction of the 18th century.

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  • In this respect, too, he anticipates the reaction in England which followed securely on the publication of Percy's Reliques.

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  • There was a brief reaction: Henry Stuart Foote (1800-1880), Unionist, was elected governor in 1851 over Davis, the States' Rights candidate, and in the same year a Constitutional Convention had declared almost unanimously that "the asserted right of secession".

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  • However, there was a speedy reaction against the oppositon which had in no small measure been inspired by fear of a requirement that debts be paid in gold and silver.

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  • Most frequently it appears historically, in relation to some definite system of belief, as a reaction of the spirit against the letter.

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  • Sufism (q.v.) appears in the 9th century among the Mahommedans of Persia as a kind of reaction against the rigid monotheism and formalism of Islam.

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  • From the 12th and 13th centuries onward there is observable in the different countries of Europe a widespread reaction against the growing formalism and worldliness of the Church and the scandalous lives of many of the clergy.

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  • Pierre Poiret (1646-1719) exhibits a violent reaction against the mechanical philosophy of Descartes, and especially against its consequences in Spinoza.

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  • Externally, a Slavonic reaction came, and dealt heavy blows to the eastward advance of German civilization.

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  • From the 13th century onward a reaction set in.

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  • She added that all the parties except the Jacobins were full of confidence; and that the nobles now cherished hopes of a reaction, seeing that the reduction of the number of rulers from five to three pointed towards monarchy.

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  • Aulard, Paris pendant la reaction thermidorienne et sous le directoire (5 vols., Paris, 1898-1902); Comte A.

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  • The severity of the disciplinary measures which followed procured a reaction under which Farel and Calvin were banished the city in 1538.

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  • Many esters of malonic acid have been prepared, the most important being the diethyl ester (malonic ester), CH 2 (000C 2 H 5) 2, which is obtained by dissolving monochloracetic acid in water, neutralizing the solution with potassium carbonate, and then adding potassium cyanide and warming the mixture until the reaction begins.

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  • When the reaction has finished, the whole is evaporated and heated to about 130 0 -140° C. and then allowed to cool.

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  • In Venice the result of this menace was a decided reaction towards Byzantium.

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  • Most of the state institutions secured Federal charters after the establishments of the national banking system (1863-1864), but the high price of government bonds and the large amount of capital required led to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the reduction of the minimum capital to $25,000 under the currency act of the 14th of March 1900.

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  • Many concessions were made to the popular will, but during the subsequent reaction these were withdrawn, and the period between 1850 and 1871, when Karl Friedrich Reinhard, Freiherr von Dalwigk (1802-1880), was chiefly responsible for the government of HesseDarmstadt, was one of repression, although some benefits were conferred upon the people.

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  • And this being the case, the complete conditioning causes of the miracle will be found in God and nature together, and in that eternal action and reaction between them which perhaps, although not ordered simply according to general laws, is not void of regulative principles.

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  • The sweeping character of his victory was due less to his own personal strength or to the weakness of Cox than to the national reaction against the Democratic party and the popular feeling against President Wilson.

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  • From this point of view, the Crusades appear as a reaction of the West against the pressure of the East - a reaction which carried the West into the East, and founded a Latin and Christian kingdom on the shores of Asia.

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  • The year iIto is additionally important by reason of the accession of Maudud al Mosul, which marks the beginning of a Moslem reaction.

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  • But a Mahommedan reaction came, thanks in large measure to the zeal of Timur; and central Asia was lost to Christianity.

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  • Hence the consequent fusion with Aphrodite, Artemis, Diana, Juno and Venus, and the action and reaction of one upon the other in myth and legend.

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  • Soaps give an alkaline reaction and have a decided acrid taste; in a pure condition - a state never reached in practice - they have neither smell nor colour.

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  • The reaction, however, is very complicated.

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  • The earliest certain reaction against Baalism is ascribed to the reign of Ahab, whose marriage with Jezebel gave the impulse to the introduction of a particular form of the cult.

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  • After a second political reaction, the prospect of a second Persian war, and the naval superiority of Aegina led to the assumption of a bolder policy.

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  • Ruthenium sulphate, Ru(S04)2, as obtained by oxidizing the sulphide, is an orange-yellow mass which is deliquescent and dissolves in water, the solution possessing a strongly acid reaction.

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  • Her rule in Parma, conjointly with Neipperg, was characterized by a clemency and moderation which were lacking in the other Italian states in that time of reaction.

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  • A reaction in his favour was beginning in his later days, but he died defeated and deserted at Seville, leaving a will by which he endeavoured to exclude Sancho and a heritage of civil war.

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  • 2 The theory of Berthollet was essentially mechanical, and he attempted to prove that the course of a reaction depended not on affinities alone but also on the masses of the reacting components.

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  • Elements which readily enter into reaction with each other, and which develop a large amount of heat on combination, are said to have a powerful affinity for each other.

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  • The combination, as it is ordinarily termed, of chlorine with hydrogen, and the displacement of iodine in potassium iodide by the action of chlorine, may be cited as examples; if these reactions are represented, as such reactions very commonly are, by equations which merely express the relative weights of the bodies which enter into reaction, and of the products, thus Cl = HC1 Hydrogen.

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  • they appear to differ in character; but if they are correctly represented by molecular equations, or equations which express the relative number of molecules which enter into reaction and which result from the reaction, it will be obvious that the character of the reaction is substantially the same in both cases, and that both are instances of the occurrence of what is ordinarily termed double decomposition H2 + C12 = 2HC1 Hydrogen.

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  • In all cases of chemical change energy in the form of heat is either developed or absorbed, and the amount of heat developed or absorbed in a given reaction is as definite as are the weights of the substance engaged in the reaction.

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  • We may suppose that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric acid from gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation H2 +C1 2 = HCI+HC1, a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended in separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the two elements upon each other is the development of heat, - the amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary molecules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of chlorine and hydrogen.

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  • Thus, chlorine enters into reaction with hydrogen, and removes hydrogen from hydrogenized bodies, far more readily than bromine; and hydrochloric acid is a far more stable substance than hydrobromic acid, hydriodic acid being greatly inferior even to hydrobromic acid in stability.

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  • When two substances which by their action upon each other develop much heat enter into reaction, the reaction is usually complete without the employment of an excess of either; for example, when a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, in the proportions to form water 2E12+0, =20H2, is exploded, it is entirely converted into water.

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  • Theoretically the reaction takes place in the case of ferric nitrate in the manner represented by the equation Fe(NOs) 3 + 3KCNS = Fe(CNS) 3 + 3KNOs; Ferric nitrate.

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  • The amines also exhibit striking differences: in the aliphatic series these compounds may be directly formed from the alkyl haloids and ammonia, but in the benzene series this reaction is quite impossible unless the haloid atom be weakened by the presence of other substituents, e.g.

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  • Certain a-diketones condense to form benzenoid quinones, two molecules of the diketone taking part in the reaction; thus diacetyl, CH 3 CO CO CH 3, yields p-xyloquinone, C 6 H 2 (CH 3) 2 0 2 (Ber., 1888, 21, p. 1411), and acetylpropionyl, CH 3 CO CO C 2 H 5, yields duroquinone, or tetramethylquinone, C 6 (CH 3) 4 0 2, Oxymethylene compounds, characterized by the grouping > C:CH(OH), also give benzene derivatives by hydrolytic condensation between three molecules; thus oxymethylene acetone, or formyl acetone, CH 3 CO.

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  • The methods of chemical analysis may be classified according to the type of reaction: (I) dry or blowpipe analysis, which consists in an examination of the substance in the dry condition; this includes such tests as ignition in a tube, ignition on charcoal in the blowpipe flame, fusion with borax, microcosmic salt or fluxes, and flame colorations (in quantitative work the dry methods are sometimes termed " dry assaying "); (2) wet analysis, in which a solution of the substance is treated with reagents which produce specific reactions when certain elements or groups of elements are present.

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  • In quantitative analysis the methods can be subdivided into: (a) gravimetric, in which the constituent is precipitated either as a definite insoluble compound by the addition of certain reagents, or electrolytically, by the passage of an electric current; (b) volumetric, in which the volume of a reagent of a known strength which produces a certain definite reaction is measured; (c) colorimetric, in which the solution has a particular tint, which can be compared with solutions of known strengths.

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  • Of the principal workers in this field we may notice Friedrich Hoffmann, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (who detected iron by its reaction with potassium ferrocyanide, and potassium and sodium by their flame colorations), and especially Carl Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman.

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  • Another type of dry reaction, namely, the flame coloration, had been the subject of isolated notices, as, for example, the violet flame of potassium and the orange flame of sodium observed by Marggraf and Scheele, but a systematic account was wanting until Cartmell took the subject up. His results (Phil.

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  • If it possesses an alkaline or acid reaction, it must be tested in the first case for ammonia, and in the second case for a volatile acid, such as sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, &c.

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  • Sulphur dioxide, recognized by its smell and acid reaction, results from the ignition of certain sulphites, sulphates, or a mixture of a sulphate with a sulphide.

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  • Ammonia, recognizable by its odour and alkaline reaction, indicates ammoniacal salts or cyanides containing water.

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  • This method is made up of three operations: - (1) preparation of a standard solution.; (2) preparation of a solution of the substance; (3) titration, or the determination of what volume of the standard solution will occasion a known and definite reaction with a known volume of the test solution.

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  • Various artifices are employed to denote the end of the reaction.

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  • In the first group, we have to notice the titration of a cyanide with silver nitrate, when a milkiness shows how far the reaction has gone; the titration of iron with permanganate, when the faint pink colour shows that all the iron is oxidized.

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  • In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.

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  • The elaborate choral writing sometimes rises to almost Hellenic regions of dramatic art; and there is no crudeness in the passages that carry on the story quietly in reaction from the climaxes - a test far too severe for Tannhauser and rather severe for even the mature works of Gluck and Weber.

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  • Their importance will never be comparable to that of his music; but, just as the reaction against Ruskin's ascendancy as an art-critic has coincided with an increased respect for his ethical and sociological thought, so the rebellious forces that are compelling Wagnerism to grant music a constitution coincide with a growing admiration of his general mental powers.

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  • This has followed the somewhat stronger reaction in favour of Colossians.

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  • Such increase would give rise to excessive reaction, which, in tissues already weakened, might actually produce.

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  • Zinc dust and hydrochloric acid reduce pyrrol to pyrrolin (dihydropyrrol), C 4 H 6 NH, a liquid which boils at 90° C. (748 mm.); it is soluble in water and has strongly basic properties and an alkaline reaction.

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  • When boiled with calcium chloride and ammonia, salicylic acid gives a precipitate of insoluble basic calcium salicylate, C 6 H 4 ‹ 0 2 i Ca, a reaction which serves to distinguish it from the isomeric metaand para-hydroxybenzoic acids.

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  • But a reaction against Charles soon set in, for all the powers were alarmed at his success, and on the 31st of March a league between the pope, the emperor, Venice, Lodovico it Moro and Ferdinand of Spain was formed, ostensibly against the Turks, but in reality to expel the French from Italy.

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  • They represent a protest against the contemporary Canaanite civilization and a reaction towards the simplicity of life which was felt more strongly in Judah or to the east of the Jordan than in the northern kingdom of Israel.

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  • All the more powerful was the reaction.

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  • The first symptoms of a reaction appear in the reign of Paul (1796-1801).1801).

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  • There Arianism was formulated and there Athanasius, the great opponent of both heresy and pagan reaction, worked and triumphed.

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  • If a brief definition of instinct, from the purely biological point of view be required, that given in the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology may be accepted: "An inherited reaction of the sensori-motor type, relatively complex 3'p 3' p and markedly adaptive in character, and common to a group of individuals."

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  • For many years there has been a reaction against the all-cotton farming system.

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  • It behaves as a powerful reducing agent, and on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydroxylamine, together with some formic acid and ammonia, the amount of each product formed varying with temperature, time of reaction, amount of water present, &c. This latter reaction is probably due to some of the oxime existing in the form of the isomeric formamide HCO NH 2.

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  • Scholl, Ber., 1896, 29, p. 87), the reaction probably being: RR:C(NO 2)NO-)RR: C: ([[Nhoh) 2 -)Rr: C: Noh+Nh20h]].

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  • Wallach (Ann., 1900, 312, p. 171) has shown that the saturated cyclic ketones yield oximes which by an application of the Beckmann reaction are converted into isoximes, and these latter on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids are transformed into acyclic amino-acids; thus from cyclohexanone, e-amidocaproic acid (e-leucine) may be obtained: CH2" C NOH C CH 2 CH 2 7: ?12?CH2 CH2 NH /CH2 CH2 C02H CH2', An ingenious application of the fact that oximes easily lose the elements of water and form nitriles was used by A.

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  • Hantzsch (Ber., 1891, 24, p. 13) has made use of the Beckmann reaction, whereby they are converted into acid-amides.

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  • The first product of the reaction is nitric oxide, which on cooling with the residual gases produces nitrogen peroxide.

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  • The best temperature for the first reaction is between 80°C. and 130°C. and for the second between 40° C. and 60° C. In another process, which originated with C. Kaiser (Abst.

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  • Glauber in 1648 as a product of the reaction between nitric acid and arsenious oxide.

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  • Bromine oxidizes it to nitric acid, but the reaction is not quantitative.

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  • It may be recognized by the blue colour it gives with diphenylamine sulphate and by its reaction with potassium iodide-starch paper.

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  • It is somewhat volatile at ordinary temperature, and its aqueous solution possesses a strongly acid reaction.

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  • In Egypt, however, monophysitism was as strong as ever, and soon at Constantinople the arrogance of Rome caused a reaction, led by Theodora, the wife of the new emperor Justinian (527565).

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  • But Abd-ul-Hamid had issued a free pardon to the mutineers, and the committee had now decided that the new regime would never be secure while the sovereign favoured reaction.

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