in the traffic; and similar statistics pointing to increase of business consequent on reduction of rates were produced in regard to France, Switzerland and Prussia.
Confiscatory tax rates also never work.
Interest was charged at very high rates for overdue loans of this.
In 1890 matters were on the eve of a great change and wages fell, in most cases to a point 20% below the rates of 1885.
Why are dropout rates in some schools lower than demographically matched schools anywhere else in the world?
This was the planting of a colony of communistic per week for which such wages are payable, with the rates for overtime when those hours are exceeded.
It was also used in the calculation of rates of interest.
The Agricultural Rates Act 1896 gave effect to this recommendation.
The toll or message rates are £3, with id.
(5) Church rates can no longer be enforced by suit (31 & 32 Vict.
McPherson, Railroad Freight Rates (New York, 1909); S.
In the practical carrying out of this principle, railways divide all articles of freight into classes, the highest of which are charged two or three, or even four times the rates of the lowest.
It may mean what is ordinarily understood by the word - climate, rainfall, railway rates or anything else except " indestructible powers of the soil."
2 From rates, a raft or flat-bottomed barge.
deep. Railway rates have also been a matter of vital importance in recent years; Boston, like New York, complaining of discriminations in favour of Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans and Galveston.
As instances of " collateral " covenants, we may take a covenant by a lessor to give the lessee a right of pre-emption over a piece of land adjoining the subject of the demise, or in the case of a lease of a beer-shop, not to keep any similar shop within a prescribed distance from the premises demised, or a covenant by a lessee to pay rates on premises not demised.
Leases frequently contain a covenant by the lessee to bear and pay rates, taxes, assessments and other " impositions " or " charges," or " duties " or " outgoings," or " burdens " (except property tax) imposed upon the demised premises during the term.
The words, " rates, taxes, assessments " point to payments of a periodical or recurring character.
It may be added that, if a lessee covenants to pay rates and taxes, no demand by the collector apparently is necessary to constitute a breach of the covenant; where a rate is duly made and published it is the duty of the parties assessed to seek out the collector and pay it.
(v.) Covenants to bear and pay rates and taxes have been discussed above.
as to the use of the produce, the payment of rent, the quiet possession of the subjects demised, and as to the payment of rates and taxes) are similar to those existing under English law.
As most of the Lancashire cotton mills lie far from Manchester, direct importations to that city do not usually dispense with a " handling," and frequently save little or nothing in freight rates, though in some cases the economy derived from direct importation is considerable.
One gain accruing to Lancashire from the Canal, however, is that its competition has brought down railway rates.
He urged the need of adopting a permanent tariff policy, and on Dec. 5 1921 suggested a " flexible tariff " which might provide for the adjustment of rates to meet unusual and changing conditions.
A state railway commission, whose members are elected by the people, has power to enforce its schedule of freight rates except when such rates would not pay the operating expenses of the railway.
A state railroad commission, organized in 1899, has power to regulate railway, steamer, sleepingcar, express, telephone and telegraph rates within the state.
There was ostensible government regulation of rates after 1877, but the roads were guaranteed outright against any loss of revenue, and in fact practically nothing was ever done in the way of reform in the Spanish period.
The rates on these advances have now been generally reduced to 6% with the exception of that on the advances from the lighthouse administration, which refused to allow any reduction below 7%.
The rates at which the series were respectively exchanged against the new unified bonds were £loo series B against £70 unified, £loo series C against £42 unified and £too series C against £37, 10s.
If the ions move at equal rates, the salt which is decomposed to supply the ions liberated must be taken equally from the neighbourhood of the two electrodes.
The government maintains reciprocal rates with most of the private railway lines.
Although the postal rates are high, the service is not self-sustaining, the receipts for 1904 being 7, 01 8,344 milreis, against a total expenditure of 10,099,545 milreis.
Brazil is a member of the Postal Union, and like Argentina exacts higher nominal rates of postage upon outgoing mail than those agreed upon to cover the depreciation in her own currency.
The largest and best equipped of them are located in the federal states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, though the greater part of the raw cotton used comes from the northern states and pays high freight rates.
It was not on legal technicalities, however, but on the broad principle of religious equality, that Campbell supported the abolition of church rates, in which he included the Edinburgh annuity-tax.
Besides these there are several large depots of state stallions, which are hired out or sold at moderate rates; but buyers have to guarantee not to export them without permission of the government.
The earliest rate levied in England was that for poor relief, and of the great variety of rates now existing, the majority are based on the poor rate and levied with it, under the term of precept rates.
Next to the poor rate came that for highways, and other special rates have been authorized from time to time, as for police, education, public lighting, cemeteries, libraries, sanitary purposes, &c. To distinguish the rate the name of the precepting authority is frequently added or the purpose for which it is levied specified, as county rate, watch rate, &c. The valuation list of a parish is the basis on which the poor rate is levied.
The gross estimated rental is the rent at which a property might reasonably be expected to let from year to year, the tenant paying tithes, rates and taxes.
Thus in 1741 in the British navy there were six rates: 1st, loo guns; 2nd, 90; 3rd, 70 to 80; 4th, 50 to 60; 5th, 40; and 6th, 20.
The classification of ships into six rates, and into rated and non-rated ships, continued during the existence of the old sailing fleets, with modifications in detail.
When work restarted after the war, the mine owners offered the Kaffir workmen little more than half the wages paid in 1898; but this effort at economy was abandoned, and the old rates of pay were restored in January 1903.
By this a definite number of tolls, at fixed rates, was substituted for the often arbitrary tolls which had been exacted previously.
In October 1905 a considerable reduction was made in railway rates and in port dues and customs, with the object of re-attracting to the port the transit trade of the interior, and in 1907 a branch of the Rhodesian customs was opened in the town.
The Council may also act in cases of default by the local authorities, or may make representations to the Local Government Board respecting such default, whereupon the Board may direct the Council to withhold payment due to the local authority under the Equalization of Rates Act 1894.
The Port Authority fixes the port rates, which, however, must not in any two consecutive years exceed one-thousandth part of the value of all imports and exports, or a three-thousandth of the value of goods discharged from or taken on board vessels not within the premises of a dock.
Again, with regard to rates, there were in all cases three different rates leviable in each parish-the poor rate, the general rate and the sewers rate-whilst in many parishes in addition there was a separate lighting rate.
Under the act of 1899 all these rates are consolidated into a single rate, called the general rate, which is assessed, made, collected and levied as the poor rate, but the interests of persons previously entitled to exemptions are safeguarded.
There was thus raised in the year1906-1907a sum of £ 1 5,393,95 6 (in1898-1899the amount was £10,401,441); of this £11,012,424 was for central rates, which was subdivided into £7,930,275 for county services and £3,082,149 for local services, leaving a balance of £4,381,532, strictly local rates.
4.4d.; the actual amount raised in rates was equivalent to a rate of 7s.
This grant is in lieu of the grants formerly made out of the exchequer grant in aid of local rates, and amounted in1906-1907to £619,489.
But, in spite of attempts at equalization, rates remain very unequal in London, and varied in 1908 from 6s.
While this capillary movement of water is of great importance in supplying the needs of plants it has its disadvantages, since water may be transferred to the surface of the soil, where it evapo rates into the air and is lost to the land or the crop growing upon it..
The journeymen combined to protect their special interests, notably as regards hours of work and rates of wages, and they fought with the masters over the labour question in all its aspects.
A hundred kinds of date are said to grow at Medina, of which the birni is considered the most wholesome; the halwa and the jalebi are the most delicately flavoured and sell at very high rates; the khulas of El Hasa is also much esteemed.
In spite of shortsighted parsimony in the matter of schools, &c., and increased resources through the allocation to the municipality of a certain percentage of new state and provincial taxation, their anti-Semitic successors have been unable to avoid a deficit, and have been obliged to increase the rates.
Part of the Revolutionary debt was paid in depreciated paper, part was assumed by the United States government, part was paid at various rates of depreciation between 1803 and 1820, and the remainder, $43,971, was repudiated in 1847.
Very low rates of subscription, and almost prohibitory charges for advertising, are chiefly to blame.i The vicissitudes of the enterprise may be gathered from the fact that, whereas 2767 journals and periodicals were started between 1889 and 1894 (inclusive), no less than 2465 ceased publishing.
House rent, provisions, clothing, are all very dear, and more than counterbalance the lowness of rates.
Tithe rent charge attached to a benefice is relieved from payment of one-half of the agricultural rates assessed thereon.
There is no state railway commission, and the farmers of southern Delaware have suffered from excessive freight rates.
The exceptional dependence of Iowa on eastern markets has given more than ordinary prominence to railway legislation, and the conflict of interests between the railways and the shippers has agitated the state for forty years, various attempts being made to regulate freight rates by legal enactment.
In 1888 an elective commission was established with power to fix maximum rates, which has met with general commendation throughout the country.
Rates are based on capital, not annual, value.
The marriage rates in quinquennial periods up to 1905 were 19.6, 18.6, 21.0, 19.8, 15.6, 18.6, 18.6, 18.6, 17.4 and 17.4; the ratio of marriages to the marriageable population was for males (above 16 years) 61.5, for females (above 14) 46.0; the fecundity of marriages seemed to have increased, being about twice as high for foreigners as for natives.
A tariff bill introduced in the House by William Lyne Wilson (1843-1900), of West Virginia, chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means, was so amended in the Senate, through the instrumentality of Senator Arthur Pue Gorman and a coterie of anti-administration democratic senators, that when the bill eventually came before him, although unwilling to veto it, the president signified his dissatisfaction with its too high rates by allowing it to become a law without his signature.
by taking advantage of the different rates of diffusion of the two gases; the solubility of air in water corresponds with the "law of partial pressures," each gas being absorbed in amount proportional to its pressure and coefficient of absorption, and oxygen being much more soluble than nitrogen (in the ratio of 04114 to 02035 at o°); air expelled from water by boiling is always richer in oxygen.
The last asked for returns regarding valuation, taxation, educational and religious statistics, pauperism, crime and the prevailing rates of wages in each municipal division.
Local administration is vested in local elective bodies, such as municipal councils, county councils, road boards, harbour boards, charitable aid boards, and others, with power to levy rates.
This does not quite defray the interest on the cost of their construction and equipment, inasmuch as it barely comes to 31% thereon, but rates and fares are deliberately kept low to encourage settlement and communication.
They raise rather more than a million a year by rates, licence fees and dues.
In 1896 municipal and rural local bodies were allowed to levy rates upon unimproved land values if authorized to do so by a vote of their electors, and by the end of 1901 some sixty bodies, amongst them the city of Wellington, had made use:of this permission.
In 1895 began a marked commercial revival, mainly due to the steady conversion of the colony's waste lands into pasture; the development of frozen meat and dairy exports; the continuous increase of the output of coal; the invention of gold-dredging; the revival and improvement of hemp manufacture; the exploiting of the deposits of kauri gum; the reduction in the rates of interest on mortgage money; a general rise in wages, obtained without strikes, and partially secured by law, which has increased the spending power of the working classes.
It implies that the different parts of a wave move on at different rates, so that its form must change.
The cylindrical form of jet is unstable if its length is more than 7 times its diameter, and usually the irregular disturbances it receives at the orifice go on growing, and ultimately break it up irregularly into drops which go out at different rates.
Custom duties were about the same as in 1898, but railway rates were materially lower and many new lines had been opened.
The colony took part during this month in an inter-state conference which met at Pretoria and Cape Town, and determined to renew the existing, customs convention and to make no alteration in railway rates.
The Government tried to oppose the rise in prices by penal measures, and in public attributed the rise of foreign rates to speculation.
In the same year he took part in supporting the measure for the abolition of compulsory Church rates.
The two clock motions may be geared to a single counting mechanism which records the difference in the rates of going of the two clocks.
Bowring's treaty of 1855, fixing the rates of land revenue, were abrogated in order to facilitate Siamese financial reform.
In the treaty as finally framed duties on most manufactured commodities were reduced to a range of 1 0 or 15 per cent., some iron manufactures, however, being left at slightly higher rates.
All these countries made reductions of duty on French products, while France admitted other products at the rates of the British treaty tariff.
The new rates were supposed to be no more than equivalent to those replaced by them, but in fact were in some cases higher.
'Nevertheless, some provision was made for negotiations with foreign countries by establishing a minimum tariff, with rates lower than those of the general or maximum tariff, the rates of this minimum tariff being applicable to countries which might make concessions to France.
As a rule the minimum tariff has been applied, after negotiation, and thus is the tariff in practical effect; yet its rates are still high, and, most significant of all, agricultural products are granted no reductions whatever as compared with the maximum tariff, there being heavy and unrelaxed duties upon grain, animals, meats and the like.
The trend of the tariff policy of the Zollverein for some time after 1834 was towards protection; partly because the specific duties of 1818 became proportionately heavier as manufactured commodities fell in price, partly because some actual changes in rates were made in response to the demands of the Protectionist states.
The rates of these treaties were extended to a number of other countries having " most favoured nation " relations with Germany.
The nullification movement led in 1833 to the well-known compromise, by which the rates of duty as established by the Act of 1832 were to be gradually reduced, reaching in 1842 a general level of 20 per cent.
legislation, and in the Tariff Act of 1846 established a system of moderate and purely ad valorem duties, in which the protected articles were subjected, as a rule, to a rate of 30 per cent., in some cases to rates of 25 and 20 per cent.
Efforts were made also to reduce the tariff duties, but these naturally came last: they met with strong opposition, and in the end they were almost completely frustrated, thus leaving as the basis of the tariff the rates which had been levied in the course of the war.
This reimposed the Dingley duties upon wool, on most qualities at the precise rates tariff of 1897 .
of 1890, on some qualities at even higher rates.
The tariff system of the United States at the beginning of the 20th century thus remained rigidly and unqualifiedly protective, with rates higher than those of even the most restrictive tariffs of the countries of the European continent.
Disbursements for rent, rates and taxes naturally vary according to the special conditions; in a large number of cases public land is provided free of cost, and in a smaller number of cases the institutions, in view of their useful public functions, are relieved of the ordinary burden of taxation.
In London, where rent, rates and taxes have all to be paid, precisely as if the gardens were a profit-distributing private institution, the annual expenditure under these headings amounts to about £ 2000.
The Peel report recommended that a large reduction in the number of licensed houses should be immediately effected, and that no compensation should be paid from the public rates or taxes, the money for this purpose being raised by an annual licence-rental levied on the rateable value of the licensed premises; it at once became a valuable weapon in the hands of advanced reformers.
The assessment of railway property, and in some measure the regulation of railway rates, are entrusted to a state railway commission.
These may be called the natural rates at the time when and the place where they prevail; and the natural price of a commodity is what is sufficient to pay for the rent of the land, the wages of the labour, and the profit of the stock necessary for bringing the commodity to market.
The national revenues are derived from import and export duties, port dues and other taxes levied on foreign commerce; from excise and stamp taxes and other charges upon internal business transactions; from direct taxes levied in the federal district and national territories, covering a land tax in rural districts, a house tax in the city, commercial and professional licences, water rates, and sundry taxes on bread, pulque, vehicles, saloons, theatres, &c.; from probate dues and registry fees; from a surcharge on all taxes levied by the states, called the " federal contribution," which is paid in federal revenue stamps; from post and telegraph receipts; and from some minor sources of income.
The board is specially directed to prescribe the manner in which the railway corporations shall keep their accounts, to examine these accounts from time to time, to examine the railways at least once a year, to investigate the cause of all accidents and upon the petition of an interested party to fix rates for the transportation of persons and freight.
Throughout the 19th century the rates of growth of the North Central division and that of the eastern half of the South Central division steadily decreased.
The chief duty is to prevent discriminations in freight rates and secret rebates from the published list of charges.
At times also the proceeds of the sales of public lands have formed an important element of the receipts of government, although it has been the accepted policy to sell such lands to actual settlers at rates so low as to be inconsistent with the object or attainment (relatively) of revenue.
Since 1903 the Dominion government has instituted a railway commission of three members with large powers of control over freight and passenger rates and other such matters.
Mining and timber lands are sold or leased at moderate rates.
Of this total wheat acreage, 2,721,079 acres were in Manitoba, 2,117,484 acres in Saskatchewan, and 223,930 acres in Alberta, with average yields per acre at the rates of 20.02 bushels in Manitoba, 23.70 in Saskatchewan and 26.49 in Alberta.
The food-products from any shippers are received into these cars at the various railway stations at the usual rates, without extra charge for icing or cold-storage service.
In 1867 the postal rates were reduced and unified.
The chief features of his administration were the fiscal preference of 333% in favour of goods imported into Canada from Great Britain, the despatch of Canadian contingents to South Africa during the Boer war, the contract with the Grand Trunk railway for the construction of a second transcontinental road from ocean to ocean, the assumption by Canada of the imperial fortresses at Halifax and Esquimault, the appointment of a federal railway commission with power to regulate freight charges, express rates and telephone rates, and the relations between competing companies, the reduction of the postal rate to Great Britain from 5 cents to 2 cents and of the domestic rate from 3 cents to 2 cents, a substantial contribution to the Pacific cable, a practical and courageous policy of settlement and development in the Western territories, the division of the North-West territories into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the enactment of the legislation necessary to give them provincial status, and finally (1910), a tariff arrangement with the United States, which, if not all that Canada might claim in the way of reciprocity, showed how entirely the course of events had changed the balance of commercial interests in North America.
were based on the assumption that wheat was imported rates duty free.
But freights had come down by 1900 to half the rates predicated by Caird; indeed, during a portion of the interval they ruled very close to zero, as far as steamer freights from America were concerned.
The compilation showing the changes in the rates of charges for the railway and other transportation services issued by the Division of Statistics, Department of Agriculture, U.S.A. (Miscellaneous series, Bulletin No.
From its pages are culled the following facts relating to the changes in the rates of freight up to the year 1897.1 In Table 3 the average rates per ton per mile in cents are shown since 1846.
419 of a cent in 1897, whereas the Erie rates have fallen only from 1.948 in 1852 to.
Putting the rates of the twelve returning railways together, we find the average freight in the two years 1859-1860 was 3 o06 cents per ton per mile, and that in 1896-1897 the average rate had fallen to 797 of a cent per ton per mile.
Coming to the rates on grain, we find (in Table 23) a record for the forty years 1858-1897 of the charge on wheat from Chicago to New York, via all rail from 1858, and via lake and rail since 1868, the authority being the secretary of the Chicago Board of Trade.
These rates in 1897, the last year shown on the table, had fallen to 12.50 and 7.42 respectively.
The rates have been as follows in quinquennial periods, via all rail: Chicago to New York in Cents per Bushel.
38) shows the average rates from Chicago to New York by lakes, canal and river.
71 the cost of transportation is compared year by year with the export price of the two leading cereals in the States as follows: Wheat and Corn-Export Prices and Transportation Rates compared.
As regards the British farmer, it does not appear as if he had improved his position; for he has to send his wheat to greater distances, owing to the collapse of many country millers or their removal to the seaboard, while railway rates have fallen only to a very small extent; again the farmer's wheat is worth only half of what it was formerly; it may be said that the British farmer has to give up one bushel in nine to the railway company for the purpose of transportation, whereas in the 'seventies he gave up one in eighteen only.
per ton in excess of the rate paid by a Yorkshire farmer; this, it will be admitted, does not go very far towards enabling the latter to pay rent, tithes and rates and taxes.
The subject of the rates of ocean carriage at different periods requires consideration if a proper understanding of the working of the foreign grain trade is to be obtained.
Only a very small proportion of the decline in the price of wheat since 1880 is due to cheapened transport rates; for while the mileage rate has been falling, the length of haulage has been extending, until in 1900 the principal wheat fields of America were 2000 m.
The coastwise service is good, though rates are high.
Some of the states have usury laws giving relief to borrowers in cases where circumstances have compelled them to agree to extortionate rates; but other states have no such laws, except that a contract in writing is invariably required in all cases where the "legal rate" is exceeded.
The acts were directed to restrain the lending of money at usurious rates.
Canals are the main source of irrigation in the province, and fall under three heads: (I) Private canals in the various districts, the property of the people and managed on their behalf; (2) the Michni Dilazak and Shabkadar branch in Peshawar, constructed by the district board, which receives water rates; and (3) the Swat and Kabul river canals, which were constructed by and are the property of government, and are managed by the irrigation department.
To raise money offices were systematically sold, and issue after issue of the two kinds of monti-securities, which may be roughly described as government bonds and as life annuities, was marketed at ruinous rates.
Thus when prices have advanced the manufacturer may find it difficult to obtain delivery of the yarn that he *had bought at low rates, for some spinners have a curious, indefensible preference for delivering their higherpriced orders; and, on the other hand, when prices have fallen the manufacturer sometimes ceases to take delivery of the highpriced yarn and actually purchases afresh for his needs.
In addition the district directors levy local rates which must not be greater than the state and county taxes combined.
Acts were passed in 1781, 1792, 1793 and 1794 to facilitate redemption at depreciated rates, and the last bills were called in on the 1st of January 1806.
Qualifications for the general body of electors are full age of twenty-five years, Bavarian citizenship of one year at least, and discharge of all rates and taxes.
Communal franchise is further restricted, however, to those electors who pay a certain sum to the communal rates.
this coarseness and the consequent brittleness are removed, by reheating them much above Ac 3, which also relieves the internal stresses due to the different rates at which different layers cool, and hence contract, during and after solidification.
r, each with its own set of constitutents, and remember that by different rates of cooling from different temperatures we can retain in the cold metal these different sets of constituents in widely varying proportions; and when we further reflect that not only the proportion of each constituent present but also its state of aggregation can be controlled by thermal treatment, we see how vast a field is here opened, how great a variety of different properties can be induced in any individual piece of steel, how enormous the variety of properties thus attainable in the different varieties collectively, especially since for each percentage of carbon an incalculable number of varieties of steel may be made by alloying it with different proportions of such elements as nickel, chromium, &c. As yet there has been only the roughest survey of certain limited areas in this great field, the further exploration of which will enormously increase the usefulness of this wonderful metal.
Because this pipe is due to the difference in the rates of contraction of interior and exterior, it may be lessened by retarding the cooling of the mass as a whole, and it may be prevented from stretching down deep by retarding the solidification of the upper part of the ingot, as, for instance, by preheating the top of the mould, or by covering the ingot with a mass of burning fuel or of molten slag.
The cooling of the thinner, the outer, and in general the more exposed parts of the casting outruns that of the thicker and less exposed parts, with the consequence that, at any given instant, the different parts are contracting at very different rates, i.e.
The inmates earn their board and lodging by piece-work, for which they are paid at the current trade rates, while by a gradually lessening scale of work and pay they are stimulated to obtain situations for themselves and given time to seek for them.
Probably the most successful one has been a rotary engine invented by Mr Arthur Rigg.1 In this engine the stroke, and therefore the amount of water used, can be varied either by hand or by a governor while it is running; the speed can also be varied, very high rates, as much as 600 revolutions a minute, being attainable without the question of shock or vibration becoming troublesome.
The land revenue proper is assessed in grain, the salaries of government officials, pay of soldiers, &c., being disbursed by "barats" or orders for grain at rates fixed by government, usually about 20% above the city market prices.
Commissioners (now the board of agriculture) are appointed to execute the acts; a rent charge on all lands liable to tithes at the time of the passing of the first act is substituted for those tithes, of which the gross amount is ascertained either by voluntary parochial agreement, or, failing that, by compulsory award confirmed by the commissioners; and the value of the tithes is fixed in the latter case by their average value in the particular parish during the seven years preceding Christmas 1835, without deduction for parochial or county and other rates, charges and assessments falling on tithes, the rent charge being liable to all the charges to which tithes were liable.
Tithes on houses or customary payments in lieu of tithes have, by local acts, in some cases been turned into church rates.
Tithe rent charge under these acts is subject to the same liabilities and incidents as tithes, such as parliamentary, parochial, county and other rates, especially the poor rate and highway rate; but the owner of tithe rent charge attached to a benefice has been exempted by an act of 1899 from payment of half the amount of any rate which he would be liable to pay under the Agricultural Rates Act 1896, the other half being borne by the Inland Revenue Commissioners.
The following table gives the approximate rates of duty per English lb during 1907 in places not referred to above:- Austria and91d.
In connection with suicides, it is interesting to observe that the highest rates prevail in some of the smaller and more prosperous states of the empire for example, in Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and SaxeAltenhurg (on a three years average of figures), while the Roman Catholic country Bavaria, and the impoverished Prussian province of Posen show the most favorable statistics.
Until 1907 no uniform system of passenger rates had been adopted, each state retaining its own faresa condition that led to much confusion.
The above rates include government duty; but the privilege of free luggage (as up to 56 ib) has been withdrawn, and all luggage other than hand baggage taken into the carriages is charged for.
Both branches of administration have undergone a surprising development, especially since the reduction of the postal rates.
The moneys for the purpose are mainly derived from general taxation (poor rates per se being but rarely directly levied), special funds and voluntary contributions.
The result was that the sum to be contributed by the individual states constantly increased, and the amount to be raised by direct taxation, including local rates, threatened to become greater than could conveniently be borne.
In Prussia, by the Lex Huene, from 1885 to 1895, all that sum paid to Prussia, so far as it exceeded 15 million marks, was handed over to the local authorities in relief of rates.
The rates levied on their supporters are devoted exclusively to the separate schools, which also share pro rata in the government grant.
The cantonments are regulated by a municipal ordinance, establishing rates and laying down various regulations for order and sanitation.
In indirect taxation the salt tax had been reduced by 40%, the postal, railway and telegraph rates lowered, octroi duties and bridge and lock dues abolished.
Rates and taxes on land are mostly levied according to a uniform system of assessment, the unit of which is called a Tonde Hartkorn.
Of these deputies one-half are elected in the same way as members of the Folkething, without any property qualification for the voters; the other half of the deputy electors are chosen in the towns by those who during the last preceding year were assessed on a certain minimum of income, or paid at least a certain amount in rates and taxes.
In the rural districts the deputy electors returned by election are supplemented by an equal number of those who have paid the highest amounts in taxes and county rates together.
This control was most often exercised by cancelling their classification as second-class matter entitled to low mailing rates.
Government proposed to distribute this money among local authorities and expend the balance in relief rates, but a clause was inserted in this bill giving burgh and county councils the option of spending the balance on technical education as well as in relief of rates.
It is devoted to objects for which the rates are not applicable.
Glasgow, for example, might found a chair in the University from the Common Good but not from the rates, and Edinburgh maintains from the same source the city observatory and defrays part of the cost of the time-gun.
A Railway and Warehouse Commission has authority to fix freight and passenger rates for each road.
The terms which he finally arranged with the Government, involving an approximate addition of over io,000,000 per annum to the railway expenditure, included a standard week of 48 hours, and a standard wage for that week; for the fixing of the new standard rates of wages negotiations were to be continued.
1920 became 75% - in passenger fares, and more than 50% in goods rates.
The progress in the acquisition of occupancy rights by tenants may be judged from the fact that, whereas in 1877 it was stated of the Champaran district that the cultivator had hardly acquired any permanent interest in the soil, the settlement officer in 1900 reported that 87% of the occupied area was in the possession of tenants with occupancy rights or holding at fixed rates.
The enhancement in the revenue amounted to 52% of the previous demand; but in estates in which the increase was specially large it was decided to introduce the new rates gradually.
The elaborate nature of these inquiries and calculations may be inferred from the fact that as many as thirty-five different rates are sometimes struck for a single district, ranging from 6d.
The rates thus ascertained are fixed for a term of thirty years; but during that period the aggregate rent-roll of a district is liable to be affected by several considerations.
It is not, however, a change in the rates for the land which he already holds, but an inquiry into and record of the changes in his former holding or of any new land which he may wish to take up.
Strachey in 1878, by which the higher rates were reduced and the lower rates raised, with a view to their ultimate equalization over the whole country, effectually abolished this old engine of oppression.
Other sources of revenue are stamps, levied on judicial proceedings and commercial documents; registration of mortgages and other instruments; and provincial rates, chiefly in Bengal and the United Provinces for public works or rural police.
The rates levied at a certain percentage of the land revenue for local purposes are now excluded from the finance accounts.
In1907-1908the gross receipts amounted to: from stamps, £4,259,000, of which more than twothirds was derived from the sale of court fee stamps; from registration, £415,000; and from provincial rates, £526,000.
These are managed mainly in the interests of the surrounding population, and supply grazing or fuel to them at moderate rates, higher charges being levied on consumers who are not inhabitants of the locality.
J Amin And Amaury, And Of Many Other Experimentalists Who Succeeded Regnault, Appeared To Indicate Much Larger Rates Of Increase Than He Had Found, But There Can Be Little Doubt That The Discrepancies Of Their Results, Which Often Exceeded 5%, Were Due To Lack Of Appreciation Of The Difficulties Of Calorimetric Measurements.
In Any Case It May Be Remarked That Formulae Such As Those Of Jamin, Henrichsen, Baumgartner, Winkelmann Or Dieterici, Which Give Far More Rapid Rates Of Increase Than That Of Regnault, Cannot Possibly Be Reconciled With His Observations, Or With Those Of Reynolds And Moorby, Or Callendar And Barnes, And Are Certainly Inapplicable Above Loo° C.
The rates of motion are so slow that many centuries' observations are needed to determine the orbit.
Crime, with the many facilities offered for rapid locomotion to those who committed it, had ceased to be merely local, and the whole state rather than individual communities ought to be taxed; prison charges should be borne by the public exchequer and not by local rates.
A state railway commission controls transportation rates, which are also somewhat checked by the competition of river freights.
In all his writings he displays a strong partiality for everything Norman, and rates the Norman influence on French and English literature as of the very highest moment.
Finally, the rates of change of the components of the angular momen FIG.
referred to G as a moving base, are equal to the rates of change of the corresponding components of angular momentum relative to a fixed base coincident with the instantaneous position of Cr.
In the opposite direction will be noted the case of Ireland, where the rate is abnormally low; and returns more recent than those included in the table show that of late the rates in Sweden and Norway have also fallen to but little above 11 per mille.
Among the lower rates which prevail in western Europe, however, the connexion is not so direct, and a low birth-rate is sometimes found with a relatively higher marriage rate and vice versa, a deviation from the natural course of events which will be discussed presently.
It would conduce, therefore, to further accuracy in the comparison of the rates of different countries if the latter were to be correlated with greater subdivision of the ages amongst wives between 15 and 45.
The crude rates which have been discussed above afford no explanation of this change, nor do they always illustrate its full extent.
The comparison of the rates in France with those of Ireland is an instructive illustration of the point under consideration.
It need not be assumed, however, that because these rates cannot be associated with the comparative degree of prosperity attained by the individual community they are altogether independent of the economic factors mainly contributing to that condition, such as trade, employment and prices.
The rates given at the end of Table VI.
Italy and Scotlandmay be taken as examples of these two influences, and in Germany, too, the rates in Saxony and Bavaria, which are among the highest in Europe, are in part due to the non-registration of marriages sanctioned by religious ceremony only.
The low rates in Ireland, Holland and England are especially noticeable, and in the last named, the decrease between 1870 and 1905 amounted to more than 50%, not, however, entirely due, it is said, to improved morality.
It should be remarked, in passing, that these rates are enormously higher amongst illegitimate children than amongst those born in wedlock, and that the proportion of still-born amongst the former is also in excess of that amongst the latter by some 50%.
The difference in the rates for the various countries must not be taken as a measure of difference in mortality, since, as according to the table, much of it is ascribable to difference in ageconstitution.
At the same time, where the range is very wide, as between the rates in Scandinavia and Australia, and those in southern and eastern Europe, the variation, to a great extent, cannot be accounted for otherwise than by difference in hygienic conditions, more especially in the light thrown by the figures of infantile mortality in the second part of the table.
The relation between the birth and the death rates has been the subject of much analysis and controversy.
Observation has demonstrated that the two rates are generally found to move along parallel lines.
It may be inferred from the above that a high birthrate does not imply a high rate of increase of population, any more than does a decreasing mortality, but the two rates must be considered in their relations to each other.
Here, again, it is not sufficient to rely upon the mere rate of natural growth, or the difference between the two rates, since this may be the same in a community where both the rates are very high as in one where they are relatively low, a distinction of considerable importance.
It has been suggested by Dr Rubin of Copenhagen, that if the death rate (d) be squared and divided by the birth-rate (b), due influence is allowed to each rate respectively, as well as to the difference in the height of the rates in different countries (Journ.
The great difference between the serial rank occupied in the respective lists by Russia, Servia and Galicia, with remarkably high rates of natural growth, as well as that found in the case of most of the other countries in question, shows that this factor is by no means a trustworthy guide in the estimate of hygienic balance.
The latest rates, for instance, were only 18 per mille per annum in Australia; 11 in Canada and 19 in the United States.
As it overswelled the revenue, in 1832 he vigorously favoured reducing tariff rates on all articles not competing with American products.
His speech in behalf of the measure was for years a protection text-book; but the measure itself reduced the revenue so little and provoked such serious threats of nullification and secession in South Carolina, that, to prevent bloodshed and to forestall a free trade measure from the next Congress, Clay brought forward in 1833 a compromise gradually reducing the tariff rates to an average of 20%.
The high cost of carriage, and the need of encouraging commerce in a community relying on external sources for its food supply, help to explain the comparatively low rates adopted.
The portoria, or customs, received a better organization, though the varying rates for different provinces continued.
The county and the municipal tax rates are limited respectively to 5 and to mills on the dollar.
In these processes, which do not take place at equal rates in different cases, all kinds of survivals remain lodged, and embarrass every attempt to fix the place of specific religions in any general course of development.
for upkeep of kit, and most receive "service" or "proficiency" pay at 3d.-6d a day; and engineers, A.S.C. and R.A.M.C. specialist pay at various rates.
About this time the rate of interest on first-class security in the city of Rome was only about 4%, whilst in the provinces from 25 to s o% were rates often exacted.
The postal rates are low, and newspapers and other periodical publications circulate free, as a means of popular instruction.
during the five years 1901-1905 were as follows: - The principal imports comprise live animals, fish, coffee, mate (Ilex paraguayensis), tea, sugar, wood and its manufactures, structural iron and steel, hardware and machinery, railway and telegraph supplies, lime and cement, glass and earthenware, cotton, woollen and silk manufactures, coal,fpetroleum, paints, &c. Import duties are imposed at the rates of 60, 35, 1 5, 5 and 25%, and certain classes of merchandise are admitted free.
The higher rates are designed chiefly to protect national industries, while wines, liquors, cigars and tobacco are admitted at the lowest rate.
The tariff is nominally ad valorem, but as the rates are imposed on fixed official valuations it is essentially specific. The duties on imports in 1905 amounted to 91,321,860 pesos, and in 1906 to 10 3,5 0 7,55 6 pesos.
At present the oyster is one of the cheapest articles of diet in the United States; and, though it can hardly be expected that the price of American oysters will always remain so low, still, taking into consideration the great wealth of the natural beds along the entire Atlantic coast, it seems certain that a moderate amount of protection would keep the price of seed oysters far below European rates, and that the immense stretches of submerged land especially suited for oyster planting may be utilized and made to produce an abundant harvest at much less cost than that which accompanies the complicated system of culture in vogue in France and Holland.
The chief business of the native sarrafs (money-changers, bankers; &c.) is to discount bills at high rates, hardly ever less than 12%, and remit money from place to place in Persia for a commission amounting to from I to 5, or even 6% on each transaction; and in spite of the European banks giving lower rates of discount and remitting money at par, the majority of the people and mercantile classes still deal with the natives.
The tctal absence of easy means of communication, the high rates of transport, and the scarcity of fuel and water in the mineral districts made profitable operations impossible, and the corporation liquidated in f 894, after having expended a large sum of money.
The nominal value of the copper money was 20 shahis equal to I kran, but in some places the copper money circulated at the rate of 80 shahis to the kran, less than its intrinsic value; at other places the rates varied between 70 and 25 shahis, and the average circulating value in all Persia was over 40.
He sanctioned the calling of an inter-colonial conference, which led to a customs convention including all the British possessions in South Africa, and to united action regarding railway rates and native questions.'
3 The opportunity for testing the strength of the movement for closer union came with the meeting of an inter-colonial conference in May 1908 to consider the thorny questions of tariff and railway rates.
The adjustment of tariff and railway rates gave little trouble when once it was agreed to consider the country as a unit.
rates from 92 to 144 in.
Useful work has been done in the compilation of statistics of the various conditions affecting the science, such as the rates with which the various classes of society in ancient and modern nations have contributed in civic usefulness to the population at various times, the inheritance of ability, the influences which affect marriage, &c.
High prices of materials and of haulage and freight rates added difficulty to the task of rebuilding, which was accomplished with remarkable energy and speed.
In the same way consuls are often exempt from all kinds of rates and taxes, and always from personal taxes.
The churchwardens, who are representative officers of the parishes, are also executive officers of the bishops in all matters touching the decency and order of the churches and of the churchyards, and they are responsible to the bishops for the due discharge of their duties; but the abolition of church rates has relieved the churchwardens of the most onerous part of their duties, which was connected with the stewardship of the church funds of their parishes.
The constitution declares that railways are public highways, that the legislature has authority to regulate rates, and that discrimination in tolls shall not be allowed.
2 The legislature is empowered to appoint a commission to fix transportation rates for railways and express companies.
His speciality was an intimate acquaintance with the problem of railway rates in connexion with the general economic development of the country, and in 1884 he published a work on the subject which attracted some attention in the official world.
A state Board of Railroad Commissioners (three appointed by the governor), created in 1907, became in 1910 a Board of Public Utility Commissioners with jurisdiction over all public utilities (including telephones and telegraphs); its approval is necessary for the issue of stock or bonds, but it has no power to fix rates.
1874), then a Republican member of the Assembly and in1906-1908a state senator, began in 1904; it did much to secure the passage of acts limiting public service franchises to 20 years (unless extended to 40 years by the voters of the municipality concerned), the increase of taxes on railways, the increase of franchise tax rates by 12% each year up to 5%, the adoption of direct primary elections, and the modification of the existing promoters' liability law.
Further acts followed in the same direction, leading to the gradual extinction, by due compensation of the persons interested, of the old system, the maintenance of the roads being vested in " turnpike trusts and highway boards," empowered to levy local rates.
The qualification of a burgess or county elector is substantially the occupation of rated property within the borough or county, residence during a qualifying period of twelve months within the borough or county, and payment of rates for the qualifying property.
The petition is tried in open court at some place within the county, the expenses of the court being provided in the first instance by the Treasury, and repaid out of the county rates, except in so far as the court may order them to be paid by either of the parties.
The sources of revenue of the council are the exchequer contribution, income from property and fees, and rates.
The sums so paid in respect of the duties last above mentioned, and in respect of the estate duty and spirits and beer additional duties, are distributed among the several counties in proportion to the share which the Local Government Board certify to have been received by each county during the financial year ending the 31st March 1888, out of the grants theretofore made out of the exchequer in aid of local rates.
These fees are paid into the county fund, and carried either to " the general county account " or, if they have been received in respect of some matter for which part only of the county is assessed, then to the special account to which the rates levied for that purpose are carried.
The subjects of such transfer include (i.) the making, assessing and levying of county, police, hundred and all rates, and the application and expenditure thereof, and the making of orders for the payment of sums payable out of any such rate, or out of the county stock or county fund, and the preparation and revision of the basis or standard for the county rate.
They can charge water rents which depend upon agreements with consumers, or they may charge water rates assessed on the net annual value of the premises supplied.
Even then the amount of the rate is left to the council, any deficiency in the cost of the water, in so far as it is not defrayed out of water rates or rents, being borne in an urban district by the general district rate, and in a rural district by the separate sanitary rates made for the parish or contributory place supplied.
These special expenses are chargeable to each parish or contributory place, and they are defrayed by means of special sanitary rates, such rates being raised on all property assessed to the relief of the poor, but with the same exemptions of certain properties as have been mentioned under the head of general district rate in urban districts.
Under the Borough Funds Act 1872 the urban district council may, if in their judgment it is expedient, promote or oppose any local and personal bill or bills in parliament, or may Bills In prosecute or defend any legal proceedings necessary for the promotion or protection of the interests of the district, Parlla- and may charge the costs incurred in so doing to the w ent and rates under their control.
Moreover, the expenses must, before they can be charged to the rates, be examined and allowed by some person authorized by a secretary of state or the Local Government Board, as the case may be.
They remain, however, the rating authority so far as regards the poor rate and nearly all other rates, the exceptions being the general district rate in an urban district and the borough rate in a borough, made by the town council.
There may be in a parish a collector of rates appointed by the guardians.
In that event, an assistant overseer cannot be appointed to perform the duties of collector of rates, but, on the other hand, the parish council may invest the collector with any of the powers of an overseer.
Prior to the opening (in August woo) of the railway between Skagway and White Horse, Canada (110 m.), by way of the White Pass, all transportation to the interior was effected by men and pack-animals (and for a time by a system of telpherage) over these passes and the Chilkat or Dalton trail; the building of the railway reduced carriage rates to less than a tenth of their former value, and the Chilkat and Chilkoot Passes were no longer used.
Even higher rates prevailed in the copper country in 1902.
It is the same with rates.
They are of large amount, even at the lowest rates of I to 4 per cent.
The principal portion of this taxation consists of rates, that is, a direct charge upon the income or rental of real property, such as lands, houses, railways and mines, but mainly lands and houses.
Rates are even a more important factor in direct taxation than the income tax, and they have given rise to even greater complaints and discussion.
In 1896 a special royal commission was appointed, under the chairmanship of Lord Balfour of Burleigh, to consider the problems of the rates; it made several elaborate reports, the final one appearing in 1901.
Rates were originally imposed, there is little question, when the intention was to tax all local incomes equally, and this is still the intention in the local taxation of the United States as well as the United Kingdom.
Rates were imposed, therefore, on all kinds of property and the income arising from them, just as they are imposed in the United States on the capital of the property itself.
Next there has been misconception, arising from the same cause, in the constant attempt to charge the occupier of lands and houses with rates, although the real effect of the rates must be, as a rule, to diminish the value of the property affected like an old-established land tax, so that rates, properly speaking, do not fall upon either owner or occupier.
It would be hard, however, to persuade the mass of occupiers in England that they do not pay the rates, so that the expedient of dividing the rates between owner and occupier, though it cannot affect their real incidence to a substantial extent, constantly finds favour.
The confusion has been further increased of late years by attempts, as far as towns are concerned, to find a new subject of taxation in what are called site values, as if rates themselves were not in reality an appropriation by the state of a portion of the whole value of the property, subject to which all the other interests exist.
It would be impossible here even to state all the questions that have arisen about rates; but the essential confusion caused by the neglect of practical men to study the natural history of taxation, as it may be called, must be obvious to every student.
The moment rates are brought into question it is seen at once how impossible it would be to establish equality among tax-payers, when.
In 1907 the amount of freight carried from the mouth of the Missouri to Sioux City, Iowa, was 843,863 tons, and river rates were about 60% of railway rates.
A Board of Railroad and Warehouse Commissioners, elected by the people, was established in 1875, under a provision of the constitution requiring the General Assembly to establish maximum rates and provide against discriminations.4 The homestead of a housekeeper or head of a family, together with the rents and products of the same, is exempt from levy and attachment except to satisfy its liabilities at the time he acquired it.
A widower is entitled to a share in his wife's personal estate equal to the share of a child, and if there are 4 In 1907, in Missouri, as in various other states, passenger rates were reduced by law to 2 cents per mile; but this law was declared unconstitutional in 1909.
The new customs tariff, which came into force at the same time, was an increase of 70% on the rates of 1904, and provided that the duties should be paid in gold, or in paper at the current rate of exchange.
Rarike rates the literary qualities of Sarpi's work very highly.
They have to maintain all roads in the division; can nominate field cornets (magistrates); may borrow money on the security of the rates for public works; and return three members yearly to the district licensing court.
The receipts from municipal rates and taxes rose from £520,587 in 1901 to 700,103 in 1905; the total municipal receipts in the same period from £978,867 to £1,752,105.
These rates were fixed by the Cape government at 2d.
Sometimes the object is to weigh out parcels of goods, of unknown weight, as in ordinary retail dealing, and to give the exact value of each parcel at different rates per lb.
On the outer surface of the drum are printed the weight of the goods in lb and oz., and the money value of the goods corresponding to the different rates per lb.
The side of the casing which is next to the seller is pierced centrally by two slots, one a vertical slot through which the weight is read on the drum, and the other a horizontal slot, half of it on each side of the vertical slot, through which the money values of the goods, corresponding to the different rates per lb, are read.
The weight of the goods is recorded by means of an index pointer fixed to the casing on one side of the vertical slot, and the money values are opposite the figures defining the rates per lb, which are marked on the edge of the casing below the hori zontal slot.
The two outer arcs of the chart are occupied by the scales for the weight of the goods in lb and oz., and the rest of the chart is occupied by a series of 25 concentric arcs which show the money values of the goods for 25 rates per lb.
The rates per lb are inscribed on the index arm at points corre - sponding to the values on the concentric arcs of the chart, and the [[[Automatic]] values are indicated on the chart by the toothed edge of the index arm.
To meet this burden church rates were levied.
A representative list includes: - the Charity Organization Society, the primary object of which is to organize the work of the others; the Baltimore Association for the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor, which seeks to discourage indiscriminate alms-giving; the Bay View asylum or city poorhouse; the Children's Aid Society; the Thomas Wilson Fuel-Saving Society, for furnishing coal at low rates; the Woman's Industrial Exchange, for assisting women in need to support themselves; Johns Hopkins hospital, noted for the excellence of its equipment especially for heating and ventilating; Saint Joseph's general hospital; hospital for the women of Maryland of Baltimore city; nursery and child's hospital; Baltimore eye, ear and throat charity hospital; Maryland hospital for the - insane; the Sheppard asylum, intended especially for the cure of the insane; the Sheppard and Enoch Pratt hospital; the Baltimore orphan asylum; Saint Vincent's infant asylum; the Thomas Wilson sanatorium for children, intended for children under three years of age, who are suffering from disease, during the warm summer months; the Free Summer Excursion Society, for affording a change of air to the indigent sick; home for the incurables; homes for the aged; homes for friendless children; institutions for the blind; and institutions for the deaf and dumb.
for expressing rates in the pound; thus 15% denotes the process of taking 3s.
Rate in the £: Discount, dividend, rates, taxes.
Text-books on arithmetic usually contain explanations of the chief commercial transactions in which arithmetical calculations arise; it will be sufficient in the present article to deal with interest and discount, and to give some notes on percentages and rates in the £.
Percentages and Rates in the £.
- In dealing with percentages and rates it is important to notice whether the sum which is expressed as a percentage of a rate on another sum is a part of or an addition to that sum, or whether they are independent of one another.
Income tax, for instance, is calculated on income, and is in the nature of a deduction from the income; but local rates are calculated in proportion to certain other payments, actual or potential, and could without absurdity exceed 20s.
Discount may be allowed twice in succession off quoted prices; in such cases the second discount is off the reduced price, and therefore it is not correct to add the two rates of discount together.
Finding most of its valuable rates hypothecated to the meeting of old debts, the municipality of Palermo has embarked upon municipal ownership and trading in various directions.
In 1909 a law was passed for state regulation of fire insurance rates (except in the case of farmers' mutuals insuring farm property only) and forbidding local discrimination of rates within the state.
The landless laborers, who might have been hired to supply the deficiency, were so reduced in numbers that they could command, if free competition prevailed, double and triple rates of payment, compared with their earnings in the days before the plague.
The landless men formed combinations, disputed with the landlords, and asked and often got twice as much as the old rates, despite of the murmurings of the employer.
Statute of Laborers of 135f, which fixed rates for all wages practically identical with those of the times before the Black Death.
He himself advocated with some force that it would be wiser and more popular to fix the county franchise at 20 and the borough franchise at 6 rateable value; and he contended that such a settlement could be defended on the old principle that taxation and representation should go together, for 20 was the minimum rent at which the house tax commenced, and a rateabie value of 6 was the point at which the householder could not compound to pay his rates through his landlord.
The dual vote was abandoned, direct payment of rates was surrendered, the county franchise was extended to f12 householders, and the redistribution of seats was largely increased.
For other than school purposes rates must not exceed 2% of the assessed valuation of the taxable property in the town.
Other radical legislation, especially in regard to railways, has included: the Porter Law, regulating rates, which was enacted in 1874 during the "Granger Movement," was modified from time to time, and was displaced by a law of 1905 (in 1908 declared constitutional so long as stockholders receive a "reasonable compensation" on investments) creating a state railway commission, and providing for the physical valuation of railways on an ad valorem basis for taxation; a law (1907) making 2 cents a mile the maximum fare; an antitipping law (1905); a law forbidding the sale of cigarettes; an act (1907) forbidding insurance companies to do both participating and non-participating business; and an eight-hour labour law in effect on the 1st of January 1908.
At the legislative session which followed, the Potter law, one of the first attempts to regulate railway rates, was passed.
The export of cattle and other animals, however, is the most important part of this trade and details of this appear in the following table: The value of the animals exported in 1905 was estimated (at certain standard rates) at about £14,000,000.
The commissioners, though differing on several points, were practically agreed on the following five conclusions: (1) that Great Britain and Ireland must, for the purposes of a financial inquiry, be considered as separate entities; (2) that the Act of Union imposed upon Ireland a burden which, as events showed, she was unable to bear; (3) that the increase of taxation laid upon Ireland between 1853 and 1860 was not justified by the then existing circumstances; (4) that identity of rates of taxation did not necessarily involve equality of burden; (5) that, while the actual tax revenue of Ireland was about one-eleventh of that of Great Britain, the relative taxable capacity of Ireland was very much smaller, and was not estimated by any of the commissioners as exceeding one-twentieth.
As a complement to the Land Act and Arrears Act, boards of guardians were this year empowered to build labourers' cottages with money borrowed on the security of the rates and repayable out of them.
The new county councils were generally induced to further attempts at technical instruction and to assist them out of the rates, but progress in this direction was necessarily slow in a country where organized industries have hitherto been so few.
In July 1897 the French tariff was applied and increased rates levied on foreign goods, notably cottons.
The influence of the railways has been very great, and a constant drag on just taxation and other legislative reforms. In 1885, 1887 and 1897 the legislature created a Board of Transportation consisting of existing state executive officers or their secretaries, but this could do little except gather statistics, investigate alleged abuses, and advise the legislature, upon which the regulation of rates remained mandatory by the constitution.
In 1893 a maximum freight-rate Act was passed, but the rates thus fixed were declared by the United States Supreme Court to conflict with the Fourteenth Amendment, being " unreasonable."
The right of the state to fix " reasonable " rates remained unquestioned, but American experience has not found such laws efficacious.
In 1906 all political parties conducted campaigns on promises of radical legislation on railway rates, passenger and freight; and a constitutional amendment creating a railway commission was adopted in the manner above described.
The rates are assessed on an assumed annual value, which in 1900 was £1,417,547, corresponding to a capital value of, upwards of £28,000,000.
The bulk of the revenue of the local government bodies is obtained from rates.
The sources of revenue in 1905 were: government endowment, £5355; local rates, £71,920; and other sources, £83,187.
After the abolition of compulsory church rates in 1868 the old ecclesiastical parish ceased to be of importance as an instrument of local government.
The freemen, now appearing as the ratepayers, elected the "parish officers," as the churchwardens and way-wardens, the assessors, the overseers, and (if required) paid assistantoverseers, a secretary or vestry-clerk, and a collector of rates if the guardians applied for his appointment.
quoad civilia et sacra) and parishes quoad sacra - civilia being such matters as church rates, education, poor law and sanitary purposes, and sacra being such as concern the administration of church ordinances, and fall under the cognizance of the church courts.
High rates of illness and worker absenteeism are expected, and these will contribute to social and economic disruption.
abstinence rates to the study by Lando.
sediment accumulation rates vary considerably through this period, with vey rapid sedimentation in the last 200 years.
The University consistently achieves graduate employment rates higher than the national average.
Some systems using ISDN2 provide the facility for using additional B channels to allow faster data transfer rates.
adherence rates are still below 100 percent in many units, and in some units considerably below.
Well, long-term interest rates are being kept down by foreigners who simply adore US Treasury bonds.
Near the nozzle tip, the surface strain rates are very large, so the surfactant adsorption is very small.
Again this also has potentially adverse implications for repayment rates.
The higher rates in London and the South East reflect the relative affluence of the area compared with the rest of the county.
led an agitation for the repeal of church rates 1832.
agitation for the repeal of church rates 1832.
Quality hotels at Heathrow, the UK's busiest airport, all at cheaper rates.
Rates among children have risen at an equally alarming rate.
the T allele was associated with higher excretion rates than the C allele.
A customer may at any time upgrade their account or pay for more bandwidth allocation at the current rates on the Burton Hosting site.
amenorrhea rates, endometrial histology and thickness, pain and blood loss scores, and surgical parameters.
Studies have confirmed that muscle protein synthesis rates are stimulated as long as blood amino acid concentrations remain high  .
With interest rates now at 1.25 %, they don't have much ammo left with monetary policy.
Diffusion rates vary between nutrients (nitrate ammonium phosphate ).
A recent review has indicated that sulfate salts tend to have lower penetration rates than other common anions.
Some of this is returned to future annuitants in the form of higher annuity rates.
annuity rates have worsened by about 21% .
arcuate uterus is associated with a slightly better but still impaired pregnancy outcome with term delivery rates of ~65% .
argues that Ã¢it is all about availability of loans and interest rates.
Using complimentary refresh rates film to video motion artifacts can also be removed.
assailing force of breaking waves and thus slowly decelerate coastline recession rates.
assumed catalyst failure rates of 5% per year.
ate insurers in business at current premium rates is an open question.
The Kocher's incision often promotes pulmonary atelectasis and had a significant dehiscence rates.
economic autarky would bring about higher interest rates, too, which could impact on the growing national debt across the Atlantic.
On unrestricted German autobahns, death rates are continuing to fall, despite gradually increasing speeds.
He began working camp automobile liability rates a weekly.
Labor turnover rates in the Tees Valley are a third of the national average.
Some observational studies have shown increased rates of long term backache and headache.
Any checked baggage in excess of 25 kg will be charged at Excess Baggage rates.
bandwidth allocation at the current rates on the Burton Hosting site.
A variety of options to reduce the data rates to within the RGS telemetry bandwidth limits are available.
New Labor is not worried about unelected bankers setting our interest rates.
basketball players ' heart rates were above 85% of max for at least 75% of court time.
The input and output baud rates are stored in the termios structure.
bed occupancy rates for the spread of superbugs.
using benzodiazepines, prescribed or not appears to lead to higher rates of risk behavior.
In their current format long term fixed rates do not fit the bill.
biochemistry graduates have one of the lowest unemployment rates of any degree graduate.
On interest rates, limits were agreed at $ 200,000 per currency bloc in delta terms.
bloodstream infection rates is now compulsory, this is in fact a poor indicator of MRSA infection rates overall.
I even wrote a small book in 1970 advocating floating rates.
boston mass timing was perfect to offer better rates here several.
breast feeding rates are among the lowest in Europe.
We are looking for a foreman and experienced bricklayers for high profile build Good Rates of Pay.
Even at commercial rates, any new bunkhouse would have to rely on other custom, which would mostly be taken from existing bunkhouses.
Workers in McDonald's make profit through their ability to cook burgers at very low pay rates.
busyality hotels at Heathrow, the UK's busiest airport, all at cheaper rates.
For first time buyers, the UK price of around £ 50-55 depending on the exchange rates puts it above the impulse buy category.
calcification rates will decrease as much as 60 percent within the 21st century.
calcifyed subscription rates for journals in the field of calcified tissues.
You can perform foreign exchange rate calculations, using live, up-to-the-minute mid market currency rates.
calculator mortgage better rates, doesn't occur lots of time.
calculator advance interest rates you're having.
capitation rates during the early programs were quite.
We also fit choice capitation rates during the early programs were quite.
Effectsthe first difference system health insurance plan choice capitation rates more common for.
casualty insurance co rates are computed coverage in excess.
If protein turnover rates are measured in growing meat animals, the half-life for protein synthesis is shorter than the half-life for protein catabolism.
The leaders in premium revenue for rates or steep convinced causey says.
central bank cannot see a time when I would want a central European bank setting our interst rates.
We offer a first class chauffeur driven service at competitive rates.
checked baggage in excess of 25 kg will be charged at Excess Baggage rates.
does male circumcision have any effect on rates of HIV transmission?
cirrhosis mortality rates are now among the highest in western Europe.
He says Britain used to be renowned for its low rates of liver cirrhosis.
Therefore, thicker clumps have much higher damping rates of waves  which support clumps against collapse along the large-scale magnetic field.
coinsurance rates were per contract for.
commissioned research on how the UK could ' develop a market for long-term fixed rates ' .
How do I get details of overseas exchange rates for use in tax computations?
Fifty per cent of under-18 conceptions occur in the 20% of wards with the highest rates.
condemnation rates are given in section 2.3 under prevalence.
Fed funds set to top at 5% - April bfinance rates and FX consensus It was widely expected, and it finally happened.
All these ecological factors lead to severe constraints and increase famine vulnerability at alarming rates.
contextual clues to further speed up reading rates.
corporation tax rates are much lower than income tax rates.
The pattern strongly correlates with death rates from stroke in Europe.
CPU for other tasks, such as producing higher frame rates, so your games can run faster.
create effective error rates suitable for MPEG-2 and other digital video compression schemes.
crystallite growth rates and hence both crystal morphology and polymorphic form (Catlow ).
The new HE-VA TOP TILLER stubble cultivator is the tool for the large arable farmer requiring high daily work rates.
currency exchange rates on the Exchange Rates website.
cyclamen seed ripens in July, regardless of the species, and the best germination rates are achieved from fresh seed.
The suitability of different measures of standardized hospital death rates.
The number of local authority areas where premature death rates are above the national average has risen by 40 per cent since 1991.
Although no comprehensive national statistics have been compiled on annual death rates due to unsafe abortions, the picture is grim.
In both the UK and the USA better access to GPs has been shown to be associated with lower death rates.
death rates in the world due to HIV and AIDS.
decelerate by these G Forces, the global economy is at risk of decelerating growth rates while oil markets become more volatile.
Conclusion and Discussion 5.1 Across crime deciles there is a discernible pattern of a reduction in response rates as the property crime rate increases.
In bonds, they bet that interest rates will remain low, inflation benign and borrower default levels at unusually low rates.
defection rates in the mobile telecoms sector stand at 33.4% in 2005, compared to 15.5% in 2003.
customer defection rates in the mobile telecoms sector stand at 33.4% in 2005, compared to 15.5% in 2003.
defer purchasing an annuity at times when annuity rates are unfavorable.
However, rates cannot be provided as population denominators are not available for illnesses ascribed to these other jobs.
Scheduled departure broke terminal to board rates began to.
Interest rates also have to be held down to secure a currency depreciation.
Rates of childhood depression, suicide and school criminality have soared since the 1920's.
desperate to regain rates of profit which match their non-European competitors.
In summary, despite their more favorable position with respect to socioeconomic determinants of health, males have higher mortality rates.
difficile rates are monitored nationally and our rates are not a cause for concern.
dilution rates or have an email address for the suppliers of Murphy garden products.
discount hotel rates on.
discount rates used vary from 4 per cent to 22 per cent.
The customers simply in California rates auto discounters houston insurance we could start public understanding of.
discount rates of what is available at Westland hotel London and our discount hotel rates are listed below.
discouragement rates in the LFS than in the CHS which supports our conjecture.
disparity& Housing Bring forward comprehensive strategic plans to eliminate racial disparities in health rates.
Once established, the rates and routes for subsequent dispersal of introduced species are of particular interest for limiting or mitigating impacts.
The EP's decision makers want to prevent even wider divergences in the VAT rates of the member states.
double-digit rates for the UN Millenium Targets for poverty relief to be met.
downlink data rates of up to 14 Mbps -- dramatically more than the 384Kbps typical of today's 3G networks.
downside risk I see in the global economy is the Fed has cut interest rates well below the natural rate of interest.
drawback of these methods is the slow rates at which they heat up the boards.
To encourage export of package tea duty drawback at that rates on FOB value will be provided on import of packing materials.
However, they are not the age group with the highest rates of drink driving.
Nocturnal intake rates were higher than diurnal intake rates owing to the consumption of more large earthworms at night.
These issues included: poor weather during summer holidays 2004, an early Easter in 2005, rise in interest rates.
employeeclass="ex">Disgruntled employe can refused to recognize rates on account.
It is calculated using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by reporting date.
This is extremely encouraging, however the completion rates are still much lower.
Treatment of mild endometriosis confers no improvement in pregnancy rates.
Marginal new york group health insurance tax rates even higher levels impute medicaid enrollment.
enzyme kinetics is on the advanced rates of reaction page.
equity loans with the lowest interest rates in years.
Online lenders are offering home equity loans with the lowest interest rates in years.
Littoral drift rates and volumes should be estimated using details of cliff, and shoreface erosion inputs and beach volume changes.
IS Claim rates are calculated using the people aged 16-59 from the 2003 Mid-Year population estimates.
Isotropic etchants attack the material equally in all directions and anisotropic etchants attack the material at different rates in different directions.
HighSpeed internet was free in the Club Lounge and available at various resonable rates for in-room Ethernet hookup.
euro BBA LIBOR is expected to become the predominant international benchmark for euro denominated cash rates from one week to one year.
The weak euro is to blame, but UK interest rates at twice those of Euroland don't help.
Further east, Russia and Romania have opted for even lower tax rates to combat mass evasion.
For exchange rates, Bank of England monthly average spot exchange rates, Bank of England monthly average spot exchange rate.
You can convert them to your own currency at today's exchange rates.
exchange rates listed above.
They exist at the moment with varying rates of vehicle excise duty.
Monetary and fiscal policy has been highly expansionary both times, with periods of negative real interest rates.
explanation given for why growth rates are suddenly of no interest.
There are no hidden extras and the rates represent extremely good value for money.
Excessively low rates can push up asset prices to ridiculous extremes and create bubbles.
failure rates are in the region of 6 per hundred women years.
This was effected largely through declining fertility, particularly due to a rising age at marriage and an extraordinary decline in marriage rates.
These include false positive rates, and method of termination of an affected fetus.
Now today, the modern method is to call the fire brigade out, which all comes out of the rates.
By Hali Edison & Ronald MacDonald Recently proposals for introducing greater exchange rate fixity into the behavior of key exchange rates have become fashionable.
This would give rise to differential flexure and expansion of the instrument as its various parts cooled at different rates during the following night.
Differential localized changes in proliferative rates of populations of cells could play a crucial role in the patterning of the developing forebrain.
The kaiser family foundation purchase rates for eligible for medicaid.
The MCC also examines developments in ocean freight rates on the basis of a report by a sub-committee of freight experts.
frontage of 14 ft and an area of 84 sq ft. The weekly rent is £ 40.68 including rates.
Therefore a Standing Committee will be formed for rationalizing the existing rates of value addition for all commodities including readymade garments.
gender-specific rates are standardized by age using person-based standards, in order to highlight differences across gender.
get-out rates in October 1999.
gravitate Stoke-on-Trent has played ' catch-up ' over recent times with its birth and death rates gravitating toward the national average.
Regionally, only brown hairstreak, pearl-bordered fritillary, high brown fritillary and marsh fritillary show higher rates of decline over the same period.
hardship relief, please contact the Business Rates Section for further information.
The line-of-site hardware is capable of transmitting at rates Industries slovakia calls of up to 1.25 Gbps at distances of up to 8 miles.
hatchling success rates.
Once in the UK, foreign hauliers offer services back to the continent at haulage rates which UK hauliers have difficulty in matching.
This is because last year he misread an article about faster refresh rates curing headaches.
This in turn will put upward pressure on inflation and may make the MPC more hesitant to cut interest rates.
highest rates of interest.
Students will examine: taxonomy of holoplankton and meroplankton specieis; the measurement of holoplankton grazing rates on a range of plytoplankton species.
And sadly these rates of child homicide have remained at the same level for 25 years.
HighSpeed internet was free in the Club Lounge and available at various resonable rates for in-room ethernet hookup.
Full details of what is available at Westland hotel London and our discount hotel rates are listed below.
hygiene hypothesis ' a dangerous idea that could lead to increased infection rates from food poisoning?
hypotonic fluids at greater than maintenance rates.
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