The gross revenue of all the states is estimated at 24 millions sterling.
Revenue is derived principally from customs duties, direct taxation being light.
The revenue from stamps includes as its chief items the returns from stamped paper, stamps on goods traffic, securities and share certificates and receipts and cheques..
The state revenue is derived mainly from a general property tax, licence taxes levied on various businesses and occupations, a collateral inheritance tax and a capitation tax.
The revenue, £190,000 of which is drawn from the state domains, stands at about £480,000 a year.
The revenue in the Italian financial year 1905-1906 (July I, 1905 to June 30, 1906) was 102,486,108, and the expenditure 99,945,253, or, subtracting the partite di giro, 99,684,121 and 97,143,266, leaving a surplus of 2,54o,855.f The surplus was made up by contributions from every branch of the effective revenue, except the contributions and repayments from local authorities.
Corporations are run by "officers," comprised of multiple "divisions," and set revenue "targets."
The Italian sees (exclusive of Rome and of the suburbicarian sees) have a total annual revenue of 206,000 equal to an average of 800 per see.
The revenue of the republic is derived mainly from customs and excise, and the largest item of expenditure is the service of the public debt.
According to the census of 1871 there were in the city and province of Rome 474 monastic establishments (311 for monks, 163 for nuns), occupied by 4326 monks and 3825 nuns, and possessing a gross revenue of 4,780,89i lire.
The Common wealth is empowered to retain one-fourth of the net revenue from customs and excise, the balance must be handed back to the states.
The following table shows the rapid growth of the state revenue of France during the period 1875-1905, the figures for the specified years representing millions of pounds.
Bills imposing taxation or appropriating revenue must not originate in the Senate, and neither taxation bills nor bills appropriating revenue for the annual service of the government may be amended in the Senate, but the Senate may return such bills to the House of Representatives with a request for their amendment.
The Italian parishes had in 1901 a total gross revenue, including assignments from the public worship endowment fund, of 1,280,000 or an average of 63 per parish; 51% of this gross sum consists of revenue from glebe lands.
The corn-growers and the revenue collectors were ruined by exorbitant imposts or by the iniquitous cancelling of contracts; temples and private houses were robbed of their works of art; and the rights of Roman citizens were disregarded.
The duke of Dorset's reappointment to the lord-lieutenancy in 1751, with his son Lord George Sackville as secretary of state for Ireland, strengthened the primate's position and enabled him to triumph over the popular party on the constitutional question as to the right of the Irish House of Commons to dispose of surplus Irish revenue, which the government maintained was the property of the Crown.
An annuity equal to the ascertained revenue of the suppressed institutions was placed to the credit of the fund in the government 5% consols.
In that year their income, including revenue from capital, was 416,385, and their expenditure 300,232.
Adding to this 1,240,000 of communal and provincial subsidies, the product of the labor of inmates, temporary subscriptions, &c., the net revenue available for charity was, during i88o, 3,860,000.
From the date when Mr Hart took up his duties at Peking, in 1863, he unceasingly devoted the whole of his energies to the work of the department, with the result that the revenue grew from upwards of eight million taels to nearly twenty-seven million, collected at the thirty-two treaty ports, and the customs staff, which in 1864 numbered 200, reached in 1901 a total of 57 0 4.
During his tenancy of office the system adopted at Shanghai was applied to the other treaty ports, so that when on Mr Lay's resignation Mr Hart was appointed inspector-general of foreign customs, he found himself at the head of an organization which collected a revenue of upwards of eight million taels per annum at fourteen treaty ports.
Gaine, general manager of the company, stated before the Select Committee that in the view of the directors the bargain was a hard one, because it gave no consideration in respect of the goodwill of the great business, with its gross income of over £ 2,000,000 per annum and its net revenue of over £750,000, which the company had built up. The company had had to pay for all the experiments and mistakes which are inherent in the launching and development of any new industry.
A further cause has been competition offered by the telephone service, but against this the Post Office has received royalties from telephone companies and revenue from trunk telephone lines.
Expenditure for the year 1902-1903 was 889,858 and revenue 818,674.
Although the financial operations of the Commonwealth and the states are quite distinct, a statement of the total revenue of the Australian Commonwealth and states is not without interest as showing the weight of taxation and the different sources from which revenue is obtained.
His extreme impecuniosity made him from the first subservient to the Polish senate and nobles (szlachta), who deprived him of the control of the mint - then one of the most lucrative sources of revenue of the Polish kings - curtailed his prerogative, and generally endeavoured to reduce him to a subordinate position.
Of all their numerous sources of revenue, the money furnished by Mr Hart was the only certain asset which could be offered as security for Chinese loans.
It contains eighty-two villages and hamlets, has a revenue of about £4000, and a population of about 23,000.
At the same time a settlement of the land revenue on leases for five years was begun, and the police and military systems of the country were placed upon a new footing.
Of the revenue in 1905 (1503/4 million pounds) the four direct taxes produced approximately 20 millions.
In each department an official collector (Trsorier payeur genral) receives the taxes and public revenue collected therein and accounts for them to the central authority in Paris.
The states have a total revenue, from sources apart from the Commonwealth, of £23,820,439, and if to this be added the return of customs duties made by the federal government, the total revenue is £31,206,170.
The former apply principally to successions, stamps, registrations, mortgages, &c.; the latter to distilleries, breweries, explosives, native sugar and matches, though the customs revenue and octrois upon articles of general consumption, such as corn, wine, spirits, meat, flour, petroleum butter, tea, coffee and sugar, may be considered as belonging to thu class.
Zaminddrs, or government renters, were arrested on mesne process; the sanctity of the zendna, or women's chamber, as dear to Hindus as to Mahommedans, was violated by the sheriff's officer; the deepest feelings of the people and the entire fabric of revenue administration were alike disregarded.
There were thus disestablished in seven or eight years 2075 houses of the regular clergy occupied by 3I,649persons;andtheconfiscated property yielded a revenue of 398,298.
Taxable revenue corresponds to two-thirds of actual income from factories and to three-fourths of actual income from houses; it is ascertained by the agents of the financial administration.
per inhabitant, from indirect taxation £2: 4: 6, and the total revenue from all sources £35,699,782, equal to £8: 16: 2 per inhabitant.
public convenience, with the loss of revenue and cost of repairs, must together decide the question of either making very extensive renewals or even abandoning the whole cable.
The gross revenue derived from the trunk services was £480,658, being an average of 5.82d.
Dupin de Francueil, a farmer-general of the revenue, who married the widow of Count Horn, a natural son of Louis XV., she in her turn being the natural daughter of Maurice de Saxe, the most famous of the many illegitimate children of Augustus the Strong, by the lovely countess of Konigsmarck.
Including the total receipts derived from the customs, the Commonwealth revenue, during the year 1906, was made up as follows: Customs and excise £8,999,485 Posts, telegraphs, &c..
2,824,182 Other revenue 55,676 £11,879,343 The return made to the states was £7,385,731, so that the actual revenue disposed of by the Commonwealth was less by that amount, or £4,493,612.
Cromwell's government seemed now established on the firmer footing of law and national approval, he himself obtaining the powers though not the title of a constitutional monarch, with a permanent revenue of £1,300,000 for the ordinary expenses of the administration, the command of the forces, the right to nominate his successor and, subject to the approval of parliament, the members of the council and of the new second chamber now established, while at the same time the freedom of parliament was guaranteed in its elections.
Excepting the in creases of deficit in 1868 and 1870, the annual deficits tended thence forward to decrease, until in 1875 equilibrium between expendituri and revenue was attained, and was maintained until 1881.
Votes for the appropriation of the revenue shall not pass unless recommended by the governor-general.
The powers of the two houses are equal except that revenue measures must originate in the House of Representatives.
The chief sources of revenue for the state are a corporation tax, a collateral inheritance tax (1904) and a licence tax.
The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.
The number of messages increased from about 6,500,000 in 1869 to nearly io,000,000 in 1871 and to 20,000,000 in 1875, but the expectations as to net revenue were not justified by the results.
But in July 1908 a Surplus Revenue Act was passed which was based on a different interpretation of the constitution.
A part of the revenue of confiscated church lands was allotted to the maintenance of schools, and the question of national education was seriously taken in hand by the Commonwealth.
The revenue was about 3,600,000; after deduction of taxes, interest on debts, expenses of management, &c., 2,080,000.
Nicephorus, who needed large sums to strengthen his military force, set himself with great energy to increase the empire's revenue.
The same body draws up the list of males liable to the poll-tax and of the lands liable to land-tax, these being the chief sources of revenue.
The land tax falls upon land not built upon in proportion to its net yearly revenue.
of the gross revenue.
The report of the committee, which is dated January 1897, was presented to parliament in April 1899, and dealt with the practicability of the project, the route, the cost and the revenue.
After the consolidation of the companies in1889-1890the profits declined, patent rights had expired, material reductions were made in the rates for telephone services, and considerable replacements of plant became necessary, the cost of which was charged to revenue.
The buildings impost has been assessed since 1866 upon the basis of 12.50% of taxable revenue.
Since 1880, while income from the salt and lotto monopolies hai remained almost stationary, and that from land tax and octroi har - diminished, revenue derived from all other sources has notabl)
It will be seen that the revenue is swollen by a large number o taxes which can only be justified by necessity; the reduction and still more, the readjustment of taxation (which now largely falls or articles of primary necessity) is urgently needed.
In 1897 the total provincial revenue was 3,732,253, of which 3,460,000 was obtained from the surtax upon lands and buildings.
Like communal revenue, provincial revenue has considerably increased since 1880, principally on account of the increase in the land and building surtax.
At first the net revenue from the impost was less than 1,100,000; but under Sellas firm administration (1869-1873), and in consequence of improvements gradually introduced by him, the net return ultimately exceeded 3,200,000.
By economies and new taxes Sella had reduced the deficit to less than 2,000,000 in 1871, but for 1872 he found himself confronted with a total expenditure of 8,ooo,ooo in excess of revenue.
On the 23rd of March 1872, however, he succeeded in carrying his programme, which not only provided for the pressing needs of the moment, but laid the foundation of the much-needed equilibrium between expenditure and revenue.
By dint of expedients he gradually overcame the chronic deficit, and, owing to the normal increase of revenue, ended his term of office with the announcement of a surplus of some 720,000.
Depretis, for his part, was compelled to declare impracticable the immediate abolition of the grist tax, and to frame a bill for the increase of revenue, acts which caused the secession of some sixty Radicals and Republicans from the ministerial majority, and gave the signal for an agitation against the premier similar to that which he himself had formerly undertaken against the Right.
Notwithstanding this prospective loss of revenue, parliament showed great reluctance to vote any new impost, although hardly a year previously it had sanctioned (3oth June 1879) Depretiss scheme for spending during the next eighteen years 43,200,000 in building 5000 kilometres of railway, an expenditure not wholly justified by the importance of the lines, and useful principally as a source of electoral sops for the constituents of ministerial deputies.
course of construction, guaranteed interest on the bonds of the companies and arranged for the division of revenue between the companies, the reserve fund and the state.
Unfortunately, the calculation of probable railway revenue on The railwhich the conventions had been based proved to be way C0fl enormously exaggerated.
From 1876, when equilibrium between expenditure and revenue had first been attained, taxation yielded steady annual surpluses, which in 1881 reached the satisfactory level of 2,120,000.
The policy of fiscal transformation inaugurated by the Left increased revenue from indirect taxation from 17,000,000 in 1876 to more than 24,000,000 in 1887, by substituting heavy corn duties for the grist tax, and by raising the sugar and petroleum duties to unprecedented levels.
While engagements contracted by Depretis in regard to public works had more than ~n1anciaj neutralized the normal increase of revenue from taxation, the whole credit of the state had been affected by the severe economic and financial crises of the years 1889-1893.
Drastic measures were necessary to limit expenditure and to provide new sources of revenue.
When the Crispi cabinet fell in March 1896 Sonnino had the satisfaction of seeing revenue increased by ~3, 400,000, expenditure diminished by 2,800,000, the gold premium reduced from 16 to 5%, consolidated stock at 95 instead of 72, and, notwithstanding the expenditure necessitated by the Abyssinian War, financial equilibrium practically restored.
made the royal courts of law a lucrative source of revenue, but he gave protection to suitors.
This custom, which owes its origin to Henry II., meant a loss of revenue to the lords, whose victory in this matter, however, was a step backwards.
Each bishop is assisted by at least two officers with judicial or quasi-judicial powers, the " archimandrite " who adjudicates upon causes of revenue and the archdeacon who adjudicates on questions between deacons (op. cit.
The university of Orihuela, founded in 1568 by the archbishop of Valencia, was closed in 1835, part of the revenue being applied to the support of a college affiliated to the university of Valencia.
- Of the national revenue nearly half is derived from customs duties, taxes being levied also on real estate, licences, tobacco, stamped paper and in other ways.
The country was at this period conducted practically as if it were the private estate of the president, and no accounts of revenue or expenditure were vouchsafed to the public. In 1894 the Colorados nominated Senor Idiarte Borda for the presidency.
The approximate revenue for 1906 was £65,000, and the expenditure about £60,000, but some of the revenue was still collected in paper of uncertain value.
The revenue is obtained chiefly from land and forests, the latter being leased to the British government.
From the mines of Thrace, and perhaps from the harbour dues and from the mines of Laurium, he derived a large revenue; under his encouragement, Miltiades had planted an Athenian colony on the shores of the Thracian Chersonese; he had even made friends with Thessaly and Macedonia, as is evidenced by the hospitality extended by them to Hippias on his final expulsion.
The ordinary revenue of the empire is in excess of the ordinary expenditure, but the extraordinary expenditure not only swallows up this surplus, but necessitates the raising of fresh F loans every year.
But since 1894 all extraordinary items of expenditure, with the exception of those for the construction of new lines of railway, have been defrayed out of ordinary revenue.
The only sources of extraordinary revenue still remaining under that head are the money derived from loans and the perpetual deposits in the Imperial Bank.
Other noteworthy sources of revenue are trade licences, direct taxes on lands and forests, stamp duties, posts and telegraphs, indirect taxes on tobacco, sugar and other commodities, the crown forests, and land redemption payable annually by the peasants since 1861.
Taking the Lake Aral and Siberian river fisheries into account, it is estimated that altogether the fishing industries yield a revenue to the state of £330,000 annually.'
The population of the province has been estimated at 750,000 and the yearly revenue it pays to the state amounts to about £150,000.
revenue it must be laid out with due consideration of the traffic.
Other things being equal, that route is best which will serve the district most conveniently and secure the highest revenue; and the most favourable combination of curves and gradients is that by which the annual cost of conveying the traffic which the line will be called on to carry, added to the annual interest on the capital expended in construction, will be made a minimum.
a mile or less, and the money obtained from third-class travellers forms by far the most important item in the revenue from passenger traffic. Since the Midland railway's action in 1875 several other English companies have abandoned second-class carriages either completely or in part, and in Scotland they are entirely unknown.
The estimated gross revenue is £27,189; the tribute, £1460.
The colony is self-supporting, the revenue being largely derived from the drink duties, and there is no public debt.
Practically all the revenue is derived from the taxation of real and personal property.
Early in 1881 he was appointed assistant prosecuting attorney of Hamilton (disambiguation)|Hamilton county (in which Cincinnati is situated), but resigned in 1882 on being appointed collector of internal revenue of the United States for the first district of Ohio.
Archelaus received the lion's share: for ten years he was ethnarch of Idumaea, Judaea and Samaria, with a yearly revenue of 600 talents.
Antipas became tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, with a revenue of 200 talents.
(379-395) the internal affairs of the Jews were formally committed to the patriarchs, and Honorius (404) authorized the collection of the patriarch's tax (aurum coronarium), by which a revenue was raised from the Jews of the diaspora.
The Jews had been expelled from England by Edward I., after a sojourn in the country of rather more than two centuries, during which they had been the licensed and oppressed money-lenders of the realm, and had - through the special exchequer of the Jews - been used by the sovereign as a means of extorting a revenue from his subjects.
The estimated revenue and expenditure for 1906 were as follows: Revenue.
The mode of election to the assembly was altered, the number of its members reduced, and the customs revenue, which had hitherto been shared with the island, was appropriated by the Turkish treasury.
It meets in regular session quadrennially, in special sessions in the middle of the interval to pass the appropriation and revenue bills, and in extraordinary session whenever the governor sees fit to call it.
Revenue measures may originate in either house, but a three-fifths vote in each is necessary to their enactment.
The revenue derived from the sales and leases of this land constitutes an endowment fund upon which the state as trustee pays 6% interest.
The chief sources of revenue are taxes on realty, personalty and corporations, a poll-tax, and licences.
He derived a revenue from taxes which he was empowered to exact.
The estimated revenue of the state is £250,000, and the state pays a subsidy of £13,000 for the Bhopal battalion.
This was on the 29th of December 1829, and after Senator Benton of Missouri had denounced the resolution as one inspired by hatred of the East for the West, Hayne, on the 19th of January 1830, made a vigorous attack on New England, and declared his opposition to a permanent revenue from the public lands or any other source on the ground that it would promote corruption and the consolidation of the government and "be fatal to the sovereignty and independence of the states."
South Carolina, however, insisted that its doctrine was sound, and in November 1832 passed an ordinance declaring the revenue laws of the United States null and void.
President Jackson responded with a proclamation denying the right of nullification, and asked Congress for authority to collect the revenue in South Carolina by force if necessary.
They are sometimes in the position of landlords, but often they are the assignees of the land revenue, which they are entitled under special grants to collect for themselves instead of for government, paying merely a small sum to Government by way of quit-rent.
But his proposal to substitute for all aides and customs duties a single capitation tax of a tenth of the revenue of all property was naturally opposed by the farmers of taxes and found little support.
The province has a population of about ioo,000 and pays a yearly revenue of about 30,000.
The commissioner of the revenue is appointed for a term of four years by the judge of the corporation court.
In spite of the vast increase in national wealth, it was found a matter of increasing difficulty to meet a comparatively slight strain without recourse to measures of a highly controversial character; and the search for new sources of revenue (as in 1909) at once raised, in an acute form, questions of national commercial policy and the relations between the United Kingdom and the colonies.
to the north of Venice, was a great source of revenue to the republic. Glass drinking cups and ornamental vessels, some decorated with enamel painting, and "silvered" mirrors were produced in great quantities from the 14th century downwards, and exported.
The revenues of the state are classified into four funds; the general revenue fund, the sinking fund, the state common school fund and the university fund.
The chief sources of the general revenue fund are taxes on real and personal property, on liquors and cigarettes, on corporations and on inheritances; in 1909 the net receipts for this fund were $8,043,257, the disbursements $9,103,301, and the cash balance at the end of the fiscal year $3,428,705.
When the war was over and these cessions had been made a great number of war veterans wished an opportunity to repair their broken fortunes in the West, and Congress, hopeful of receiving a large revenue from the sale of lands here, passed an ordinance on the 20th of May 1785 by which the present national system of land-surveys into townships 6 In.
During the four years that followed he was collector of internal revenue for Iowa, leaving that post in 1869 to become secretary of war.
m.; estimated income, £40,000; permanent land revenue, £9000.
About a third of its revenue goes for such uses or for Suffolk county expenditures over which it has but limited control.
It is true that the king had a revenue, collected by the vicomte and paid into the secretum or treasury - a revenue composed of tolls on the caravans and customs from the ports, of the profits of monopolies and the proceeds of justice, of poll-taxes on Jews and Mahommedans, and of the tributes paid by Mahommedan powers.
Revenue is obtained from a hut tax of £1 per hut; the sale of licences to trade; customs and post office receipts.
Seven-eighths of the revenue comes from the hut tax and customs. The average annual revenue for the five years 1901-1905 was £96,880; the average annual expenditure £69,559.
on soft soap, the revenue yielded was a little over £400,000; in 1815 it was almost 750,000; in 1835, when the duty was levied at 12d.
respectively (and when a drawback was allowed for soap used in manufactures), the revenue was almost £1,000,000; and in 1852, the last year in which the duty was levied, it amounted to £1,126,046, with a drawback on exportation amounting to £271,000.
This policy, coupled with certain administrative and revenue reforms, and some private attempts in behalf of public education, made the last seven years of his rule, from 1827 to 1834, the most prosperous in the Spanish regime.
The island now has free trade with the United States, and receives into its general revenue fund all customs duties and internal taxes collected in the island.
The revenue derived from the tax in the first year of its levy amounted to £1,200,000.
The tax contributed £1,856,000 to the imperial revenue the year before its repeal.
In France there is still a tax on doors and windows, and this forms an appreciable amount of the revenue.
In addition to the common treasury, supported by the general taxes and charged with the ordinary expenditure, there was a special reserve fund, also in the temple of Saturn, the aerarium sanctum (or sanctius), probably originally consisting _of the spoils of war, afterwards maintained chiefly by a 5% tax on the value of all manumitted slaves, this source of revenue being established by a lex Manlia in 357.
As the immediate result of this change the offices of heads of departments in Berar, except the j udicial commissionership and the conservatorship of forests, were amalgamated with the corresponding appointments in the Central Provinces, and Berar is now treated as one of the divisions of that province for purposes of revenue administration, with a divisional commissioner as its immediate head.
The expenditure on relief alone was about a million sterling; and the total cost of the famine, including loss of revenue, amounted to nearly twice that amount.
The ordinary revenue and expenditure amount each to about £4,000,000 annually, the chief taxes being an income-tax, succession duties and stamp tax.
The royal domains, again, and royal monopolies, such as salt-mines, were a source of revenue.
Revenue surveys for land settlement are published on a scale of 1:4000, but the usual scale for topographical maps is 1:63,360.
In his own kingdom Charles took some steps to reform the financial and judicial administration and so to increase his revenue; but he was soon occupied once more with foreign entanglements, and in July 1362, in alliance with Peter the Cruel, king of Castile, he invaded Aragon, deserting his new ally soon afterwards for Peter IV., king of Aragon.
Ten years later it became one of the wards of Trinidad, under a warden and magistrate; its revenue, expenditure and debt were merged into those of the united colony, and Trinidadian law, with very few exceptions, was made binding in Tobago.
Legislative power is in the hands of the commissioner, and revenue is obtained largely from customs. The revenue, £22,000 in 1900-1901, was £30,000 in 1908-1909, while the expenditure, £51,000 in the first-named year, was £134,000 in 1908-1909.
Responsible government after the British model is followed, and the revenue is chiefly derived from grants from the Dominion government.
About 4000 were thus annually imported, and an ad valorem duty was levied by the sultan, which produced about 4800 of annual revenue.
He was in very straitened circumstances, the revenue of his see being only 02 in good years.
He wrote Essai politique sur le revenue des peuples de l'antiquite, du moyen age, &c. (1808); Des systemes d'economie politique (1809); Theorie d'economie politique (1815); Dictionnaire analytique de l'economie politique (1826).
Milner returned to England in 1892, and was appointed chairman of the Board of Inland Revenue, being made C.B.
Sir Alfred Milner remained at the Board of Inland Revenue until 1897.
Harcourt while at the Inland Revenue, marked him out as one in whom all parties might have confidence.
He provided a steady revenue by the levying of a tax of 10% on the annual net produce of the gold mines, and devoted special attention to the repatriation of the Boers, land settlement by British colonists, education, justice, the constabulary, and the development of railways.
The state leases the beds at a low annual rental in tracts (limited for each person, firm or corporation to 1000 acres), and draws from them a considerable revenue.
Revenue or appropriation bills originate in the House of Representatives, but may be amended by the Senate.
There was ostensible government regulation of rates after 1877, but the roads were guaranteed outright against any loss of revenue, and in fact practically nothing was ever done in the way of reform in the Spanish period.
Both provinces and municipalities are forbidden by the constitution to contract debts without a coincident provision of permanent revenue for their settlement.
More than half of the revenue was derived from customs duties (two-thirds of the total being collected at Havana).
The revenue receipts under the Republic have increased especially over those of the old regime in the item of customs duties; and the expenditure is very differently distributed.
Lotteries which were an important source of revenue under Spain were abolished under the Republic. The debt resting on the colony in 1895 (a large part of it as a result of the war of 1868-1878, the entire cost of which was laid upon the island, but a part as the result of Spain's war adventures in Mexico and San Domingo, home loans, &c.) was officially stated at $168,500,000.
The revenue is £141,000.
revenue and expenditure may be set down at about f75,000, expenditure somewhat exceeding revenue.
m.; pop. (1901) 720,877, showing an increase of 11% on the previous decade; estimated gross revenue, £146,700; there is no tribute.
The benefits of canal irrigation were introduced in the 'seventies, and the revenue thus doubled.
The patriarch of Constantinople is the nominal head of the Orthodox priesthood; but by an arrangement concluded in 1879, his authority was delegated to the Austrian emperor, in exchange for a revenue equal to the tribute previously paid by the clergy of the provinces; and his nominations for the metropolitanate of Serajevo, and the bishoprics of Dolnja Tuzla, Banjaluka and Mostar require the imperial assent.
Its general progress may be seen in the increase of the fishery revenue - derived from duties, permits, &c. - of the public debt administration.
The budget of Eyubi Effendi is particularly interesting as giving the statement of revenue and expenditure for an average year, whereas the budget of Ainy-Ali was a budget of expenditure only, and even in this respect the budget of Eyubi Effendi is far more detailed and complete.
Reform of this system, and, further, very necessary reforms of the methods of collection of the wines and spirits revenue (which is protection turned upside down, the home-growers being far more heavily taxed than importers), and of the customs (in which almost every possible administrative sin was exemplified), were also undertaken.
The only exception made to this rule was in the case of revenues showing a yearly increase, such as Post Office revenue, tobacco, salt, for which were taken the figures of 1323 (1907) increased by a certain average."
The principal items of revenue and expenditure are as follows, the figures being taken from the published budget above-mentioned.
The estimated revenue from this source is £T1, 289,612.
Allowing for these, the estimated revenue is £T553,938.
The first revenue specified among these in the budget is that accruing from the wine and spirit duties, which is again among those assigned to the Public Debt, £T283,079.
By far the most important " indirect " revenue is that produced by the customs, consisting of import, export and transit duties, and various unspecified receipts.
Since then the import duties have been collected at the rate of 11% ad valorem under the supervision of the Public Debt Administration, the bondholders having certain rights, under the decree of Muharem, described below, over any increase of revenue arising from modification of the commercial treaties.
By the provisions of the " Annex Decree," also described below, three-quarters of the additional revenue is assigned to the Turkish government, and one-quarter to the Public Debt Administration to swell the sinking-fund.
of the budget, and include in the first place the salt revenue (£T1, 227,750), which is assigned to the Public Debt Administration, and tobacco revenues of which the larger part, £ T86 5,737, is assigned to the same administration, the total (including share of Tumbeki profit) producing £T965,754; the remaining monopolies are: fixed payment from the Tumbeki Company, £T40,000; explosives, £T106,323; seignorage (Mint), £T10,466; and posts and telegraphs, £T912,129.
The " Monopolies " thus render a total revenue of £T3,262,424.
Apart from the sources of revenue specified above, of which the amounts actually transferred from the civil list are not stated, Section VI.
Section VII., formed of the tributes of dependencies of which the two principal are the Egyptian, ET765,000, and that of Cyprus, T102,590 (assigned to the public, debt) comprises a total revenue of T871,316.
No other items in the budget call for special remark, but in order that the information given may be complete, each head of expenditure is shown separately below, and the budget for 1910-1911, as first placed before the Turkish parliament, presents the following picture, from which it may be observed that the public debt absorbs 26% of the revenue, war service 38% and civil services 36%.
The figures were as follows: Ordinary expenditure, £ T 3 2, 997, 000; extraordinary expenditure, £T2,696,000; revenue £T26,015,000, leaving a deficit of £T9,678,000, which was brought up to over £T10,500,000 by special credits for the pension fund, the payment of debts incurred by Abdul-Hamid and indemnities to officials.
On the other hand, the minister of finance reckoned that the revenue would probably show an increase of £TI,Soo,000, while about £T2,000,000 of expenditure would remain undisbursed, which, with a reserve of £T2,000,000 from 1909, would reduce the deficit to roughly £T5,000,000.
As before stated reorganization was quickly followed by a marked increase of revenue, and it seemed probable that the forecast of the minister of finance that within a comparatively short time that increase would amount to £T5,000,000 Was not excessive.
They were therefore naturally open to bribery and corruption, with the result that, while the rich often got off almost scot free, the poor were unduly taxed, and often cruelly oppressed by the tax collectors and farmers of revenue.
In all departments there ensued, thus, an alarming leakage of revenue, amounting, it was credibly estimated, to quite 40%.
In consequence of the piling up of the exterior public debt as described above, it amounted after the issue of " general debt " in 1875 to £T1 9 o,750,000, and swallowed up annually upwards of Tio,000,000, or nearly half the revenue of the empire as it was then constituted.
To this council, with these extended powers, was handed over the absolute administration, collection and control of the " six indirect contributions " above enumerated, for the benefit of the bondholders, and in addition, it was to encash for the same purpose bills on the customs, to be drawn half-yearly in its favour by the minister of finance, amounting annually to £T180,000, representing the tax on Tumbeki (£TSo,000) and the surplus revenue of Cyprus (£T130,000); and the Eastern Rumelian annuity, originally fixed at £T245,000, but gradually reduced by force of circumstances, until after frequent suspensions of payment it reached in 1897 the level of £T114,000, and has, since the declaration of Bulgarian independence, been definitely stopped.
As pointed out by Sir Adam Block, the representative of the British and Dutch bondholders, in his report for 1908-1909, the above arrangement would have been prejudicial to the bondholders had the public debt not been " unified " (as described below) since, however, as a result of that unification, the ceded revenues now produced a sum more than sufficient for the service of the debt, it was only the surplus of revenue reverting to the government which was affected.
Any surplus of revenue beyond that necessary to provide 4% interest and I% sinking fund was to be handed over to the government.
These efforts have been rewarded by the increase of the salt revenue from £T635,000 in 1881-1882, the year preceding the establishment of the council, to £T1,075,880 in 1907-1908.
As a result some 60,000,000 mulberry trees were planted in Turkey during 1890-1910, involving the plantation of about 130,000 acres, and new magnaneries and spinning factories sprang up in every direction; while the revenue (silk tithe) increased in the regions administered by the council from £T17,000 in1881-1882to LT125,000 in 1906-1907, the value of the silk crop in those regions having thus advanced by over £Tr,000,000.
It came into force on the 13th of July 1907, and produced during the remainder of the financial year U544,987; 2 5% of this revenue is ceded to the public debt; the remainder reverts to the government.
The following table shows the movement of the revenue of the regie from the year1887-1888to1908-1909inclusive: - * There was a heavy fall in the receipts in the four years1895-1896to1898-1899inclusive.
The climax was reached in1897-1898when the net revenue amounted to only £63,975 as compared with T352,000 in 1894-1895, and it did not revert to its previous level until 1902-1903.
In 1888 it was proposed by the public debt administration to undertake the collection of specified revenues to be set aside for the provision of railway guarantees, the principle to be followed being, generally, that such revenues should consist of the tithes of the districts through which the railways would pass, and that the public debt should hand over to guaranteed railway companies the amounts of their guarantees before transmitting to the imperial government any of the proceeds of the revenue so collected.
The bonds are secured on the surplus of the revenues assigned to the guarantee of the Anatolian railway collected by the Public Debt Administration, on the excess revenue, after certain deductions, accruing to the government under the " Annex-Decree to the Decree of Muharrem " above described, on the sheep tax of the vilayets of Koniah, Adana and Aleppo, and on the railway itself.
(3) Vakuf is " all property dedicated to God, of which the revenue is consecrated to His poor "; or " property of which the usufruct, such as tithe, taxes and rents, is attributed to a work of charity and of public interest."
Any estate with a revenue exceeding 100,000 aspres was a khas, and was conferred on a prince or on a high dignitary as long as he held his post; for each 5000 aspres of revenue one armed warrior had to be furnished in war.
Fiefs with a revenue of from 20,000 to 100,000 aspres were called ziamets and were conferred on similar terms on inferior officers, usually for life or during good behaviour.
Fiefs with a revenue of from 3000 to 20,000 aspres were timars, furnishing one armed warrior for every 3000 aspres' revenue; the grant of a fief was conditional on obligatory residence.
The Danish mission in Greenland has a yearly grant of £ 2000 from the trading revenue of the colony, besides a contribution of £880 from the state.
The following is a summary of the local budget of Cambodia The chief sources of revenue are the direct taxes, including the poll-tax and the taxes on the products of the soil, which together amounted to £172,636 in 1904.
All bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of Representatives, but the senate may propose and concur with amendments as on other bills.
2 That part of the papal revenue which consisted of first-fruits (primitiae or annates) and tenths (decimae) must have been theoretically simoniacal in its origin.
In England this revenue was annexed to the crown by Henry VIII.
The alake exercises little authority apart from his council, the form of government being largely democratic. Revenue is chiefly derived from tolls or import duties.
In each of the years 1903-1909 the expenditure exceeded the revenue (about $70,000 in 1909-1910), deficits being made good by grants from the British parliament.
In 1820 he secured the appointment of a committee to report on the expense of collecting the revenue.
The Bishnupur raj was one of the largest estates in Bengal in the end of the 18th century, but it was sold for arrears of revenue shortly after the conclusion of the permanent settlement in 1793.
The estimated gross revenue is 38,000 and the tribute £3000.
The estimated gross revenue is 126,322.
While, however, he was theoretically paid by the king, he seems to have been himself one of the sources of the royal revenue.
The exchange of domestic products between the states is greatly restricted through lack of cheap transportation facilities, and by the suicidal imposition of import and export duties by the states, either for revenue or for the protection of home industries.
The national revenue is derived largely from the duties on imports, the duties on exports having been surrendered to the states when the republic was organized.
per milreis (the official valuation adopted in 1906), the budget for 1907 provided for a revenue of 353,590,593 milreis and an expenditure of 409,482,284 milreis, showing a deficit of 55,891,691 milreis.
President Campos Salles entered upon his tenure of office on the 15th of November 1898, and at once proceeded to initiate fiscal legislation for the purpose of reducing expenditure and increasing the revenue.
1 In these are especially interesting the painted covers of the books of the bicchierna and gabella, or revenue and tax offices.
Suraj Mall raised the Jat power to its highest point; and Colonel Dow, in 1770, estimated the raja's revenue (perhaps extravagantly) at £2,000,000 and his military force at 60,000 or 70,000 men.
The state came under British management, and the administration was improved, the revenue increased, a system of irrigation developed, new tanks and wells constructed and an excellent system of roads and public buildings organized.
The estimated revenue is £180,000.
Revenue is derived chiefly from customs and excise, railways, land sales, posts and telegraphs and a capitation tax.
j In 1846, the first year of Natal's separate existence, the revenue was £3073 and the expenditure £6905.
In 1852 the revenue was £27,158 and the expenditure £ 24,296, and in 1862 the corresponding figures were £98,799 and £85,928.
In 1872 revenue had risen to £ 180, 499 anci expenditure to £132,978.
Ten years later the figures were, revenue £657,738, expenditure £659,031.
In 1888 the revenue for the first time exceeded a million, the figures for that year being, revenue £1,130,614, expenditure £781,326; in1898-1899the figures were £2,081,349 and £1,914,725.
The Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) caused both revenue and expenditure to rise abnormally, while the depression in trade which followed the war adversely affected the exchequer.
In 1903-1904 there was a slight credit balance, the figures being, revenue £4,160,145, expenditure £4,071,439.
For the next four years there were deficits, but in1908-1909a surplus was realized, the revenue being £3,569,275 and the expenditure £3,530,576.
For 1909-1910, the last year of Natal's existence as a colony, the revenue, £4,035,000, again exceeded the expenditure.
During the years1891-1895the annual revenue was £42,100,000 and the expenditure £39,000,000; in 1900 the revenue and expenditure balanced themselves at £45,400,000.
The following figures in later years are typical Revenue.
57, 8 9 6, 8 45 57,894,923 The ordinary revenue of the state is derived from direct and indirect taxation, monopolies, stamp dues, &c. In 1904 direct taxes amounted to £9,048,000, and the chief heads of direct taxes yielded as follows: ground tax, £2,317,000; trade tax, £1,879,000; income tax, £1,400,000; house tax, £1,000,000.
Two-thirds of the revenue of the county went into the royal treasury, the remaining third the lord-lieutenant retained for administrative purposes.
The financial authority estimates what additional amount beyond revenue is required for the expenses of administration, and levies a rate to meet it.
In 1883, before the Rand gold mines had been found revenue and expenditure were about £150,000; in 1887, when the mines were beginning to be developed, the receipts were £668,000 and the expenditure £721,000; in 1889 the receipts had risen to £1,577,000 and the expenditure to £1,226,000.
In 1894 the receipts first exceeded two millions, the figures for that year being: revenue £2,247,000, expenditure £1,734,000.
The chief sources of revenue are customs, mining royalties, railways, native revenue (poll tax and passes), posts and telegraphs, stamp and transfer duties, land revenue and taxes on trades and professions.
The inter-colonial council received and spent in the four years1903-1907over £21,500,000, including some £3,500,000 paid in from revenue by the Transvaal and Orange River colonies to make good deficits.
Fully two-thirds of the revenue and ' Besides this £5,000,000 an additional sum of £9,500,000 was spent by the imperial government in relieving the necessities of those who had suffered during the war, but of this £9,500,000 the sum of £2,500,000 was in payment for goods received.
The Transvaal revenue (apart from railway receipts) in 1908-1909 was £5,735,000, the corresponding expenditure £4,524,000.
The budget figures for1909-1910were: revenue £5,943,000; expenditure £5,231,000.
The diamond revenue yielded £235,000 and the gold profits tax £965,000.
The revenue for 1869 was stated as £31,511; the expenditure at 30,836.
The revenue of the state went up by leaps and bounds.
the revenue, and who were anxious to join him as citizens, with the rights of citizenship. He chose a course diametrically opposite.
They are still deprived of all political rights, they are denied any voice in the government of the country, they are taxed far above the requirements of the country, the revenue of which is misapplied and devoted to objects which keep alive a continuous and wellfounded feeling of irritation, without in any way advancing the general interest of the state.
The consequent small gold output meant a serious decrease of revenue, which was not compensated for by the heavy tax levied on the output of the Premier diamond mine, where operations began in 1903.
Milner, anxious above everything else to obtain sufficient revenue to carry on his work of reconstruction, gave his consent to the experiment.
Successive civil wars prevented their recovery, and these great plains which ought to be one of the chief sources of meat supply for the world are comparatively destitute of stock, and the only source of revenue from this industry is the small number of animals shipped to the West Indies.
From 60 to 70% of the revenue is derived from the custom-house, and the next largest source is the transit tax.
As revenue flowed in from the gold-mines on the Rand many fine buildings were erected in the capital, which was placed in railway communication with Cape Town in 1893 and with Lourenco Marques and Durban in 1895.
The Indian government formerly maintained a large preventive establishment for the preservation of the revenue, but it was withdrawn in 1898.
Many of the riparian potentates derived the bulk of their revenue from this source, and it is calculated that in the 18th century the Rhine yielded a total revenue of X200,000, in spite of the comparatively insignificant amount of the shipping.
Matsukata showed the government the danger of the situation, and urged that the issue of further paper currency should be stopped at once, the expenses of administration curtailed, and the resulting surplus of revenue used in the redemption of the paper currency and in the creation of a specie reserve.
Estimated revenue £9422.
(2) The Metropolitan Hospital Sunday Fund, founded in 1873, draws the greater part of its revenue from collections in churches on stated occasions.
There are, besides, a chief secretary, revenue secretary, secretary and two under-secretaries, a public works department secretary with two assistants.
The revenue administration of the province is superintended by a financial commissioner, assisted by two secretaries, and a director of land records and agriculture, with a land records departmental staff.
There are four commissioners of revenue and circuit, and nineteen deputy commissioners in Lower Burma, and four commissioners and seventeen deputy commissioners in Upper Burma.
The commissioners of division are ex officio sessions judges in their several divisions, and also have civil powers, and powers as revenue officers.
Subordinate to the deputy commissioners are assistant commissioners, extra-assistant commissioners and myooks, who are invested with various magisterial, civil and revenue powers, and hold charge of the townships, as the units of regular civil and revenue jurisdiction are called, and the sub-divisions of districts, into which most of these townships are grouped.
In Upper Burma these headmen have always been revenue collectors.
The Shan States Act of 1888 vests the civil, criminal and revenue administration in the chief of the The Shan state, subject to the restrictions specified in the sanad States.
The gross revenue of Lower Burma from all sources in 1871-1872 was Rs.1,36,34,520, of which Rs.1,21,70,5 o was from imperial taxation, Rs.3,73,200 from provincial services, and Rs.10,90,790 from local funds.
The land revenue of the province was Rs.34,45,230.
In 1890-1891 the revenue of Lower Burma has risen to Rs.2,08,38,872 from imperial taxation, Rs.1,55,51,897 for provincial services, and Rs.12,14,596 from incorporated local funds.
In Upper Burma the chief source of revenue is the thathameda, a tithe or income tax which was instituted by King Mindon, and was adopted by the British very much as they found it.
Other important sources of revenue are the rents from state lands, forests, and miscellaneous items such as fishery, revenue and irrigation taxes.
The amount then collected was Rs.87,47,020 The total revenue of Burma in the year ending March 31, 1900 was Rs.7,04,36,240 and in 1905, Rs.9,65,62,298.
The principal items of revenue in the budget are the land revenue, railways, customs, forests and excise.
Taxes and land revenue are light; markets for the disposal of produce are constant and prices good; while fresh land is still available in most districts.
In the reserves the trees of commercial value can only be cut under a licence returning a revenue to the state, while unreserved trees can be cut by the natives for home consumption.
In addition to teak, which provides the bulk of the revenue, the most valuable woods are sha or cutch, india rubber, pyingado, or ironwood for railway sleepers, and padauk.
m., and the gross revenue was Rs.
with a revenue of Rs.
The Abyssinians then held the fort, but as the result of frontier arrangement the town was definitely included in the Sudan, though Abyssinia takes half the customs revenue.
Taxes on imports and exports, not exceeding the equivalent of io% ad valorem, direct taxation of Europeans, and a poll tax on native adult males, a tax on ivory and the Government share in the exploitation of mines were the chief sources of revenue; the administrative services and interest on debt the largest items of expenditure.
Revenue increased from about £1,400,000 in 1909 to £2,320,000 in 1918.
1045) he appears as financial secretary and revenue collector of the Seljuk sultan Toghrul Beg, or rather of his brother Jaghir Beg, the emir of Khorasan, who had conquered Mery in 1037.
Another very important source of revenue is the so-called "tourist industry," which in late years has assumed immense proportions; the city contains a large number of hotels and boarding-houses which every year are filled to overflowing with strangers from all parts of the world.
The old systems of raising revenue no longer corresponded to the needs of the republic, and as early as 1336 the various loans made to the state were consolidated into one national debt (monte).
The estimated revenue is 46,000, the tribute X8000.
In nearly all civilized countries the cultivation of tobacco and its manufacture are conducted under state supervision and form an important source of public revenue.
The foundation of the feudal relationship proper was the fief, which was usually land, but might be any desirable thing, as an office, a revenue in money or kind, the right to collect a toll, or operate a mill.
This acted at once and without any consciousness of difference of function, as judiciary, as legislature, in so far as there was any in the feudal period, and as council, and it exercised final supervision and control over revenue and administration.
Shammar, who derives a considerable revenue from the pilgrimage.
Moreover, the hierarchy derives a vast revenue from the fees for burials in the sacred limits.
His financial position was from the outset strong, for not only had he the revenue from the accustomed papal dues but he had also the support of the powerful religious orders; e.g.
It is divided into seven buluk (districts): (I) Humeh, with town; (2) Kumrud; (3) Vazkerud; (4) KinarRud Khaneh; (5) Kuhistan; (6) Jasb; (7) Ardahal; has a population of 45, 000 to 50,000, and pays a yearly revenue of about £8000.
FRIEDRICH FRANZ KARL HECKER (1811-1881), German revolutionist, was born at Eichtersheim in the Palatinate on the 28th of September 1811, his father being a revenue official.
The annual revenue and expenditure amount each to about £41,000.
The revenue for the year 1900 was £1,456,640, and the expenditure was £1,452,597.
The principal sources of revenue are direct taxation, stamp and death duties, customs, port and lighthouse dues, octroi and tithes, tobacco, salt and gunpowder monopolies, postal and telegraph receipts, and revenue from the state domains (lands, fisheries, forests, mines).
Taxation was heavy, and the revenue very considerable: Don Juan of Austria, in a report to Philip II., states that the land revenue alone under the last Hafsite was 375,935 ducats, but of this a great part went in tribute to the Arabs.
Occasionally acts of chastisement, of which the bombardment of Porto Farina by Blake in 1655 was the most notable, and repeated treaties, extorted by European powers, checked from time to time, but did not put an end to, the habitual piracies, on which indeed the public revenue of Tunis was mainly dependent.
In the third quarter of the 19th century not more than a tenth part of the fertile land was under cultivation, and the yearly charge on the public debt exceeded the whole annual revenue.
From guano an immense revenue was derived during the third quarter of the 19th century and it is still one of the largest exports.
The revenue and expenditure are given below: - The main sources of revenue are licences, rent of government property, the post-office and land sales.
In 1869 the government of Santo Domingo (or the Dominican Republic) expressed a wish for annexation by the United States, and such a step was favoured Washington, comprising wholesale frauds on the public revenue, awakened lively disgust.
The chief sources of revenue in the order named are the general property tax, the tax on savings banks, the tax on insurance companies, and liquor licences.
Arrangements were made for a loan of a million sterling in London on the security of the customs revenue, and English engineers were engaged to lay a line between Tokyo and Yokohama (18 m.).
The budget is voted in either duchy for four years, a distinction being made between domain revenue and state revenue.
The civil list of the reigning duke is fixed at £i 5,000 a year, in addition to half the proceeds of the Gotha domains, after £s000 has been deducted and paid into the state exchequer, and half the net revenue of the Coburg domains.
The chief sources of revenue are direct and indirect taxes, domains and railways.
In addition, they formed a source of revenue and power for their founders, who on their part conceded liberal charters to the new towns.
His father held the offices of comes privatarum and sacrarum largitionum (controller of the emperor's private revenue and the public exchequer) under Odoacer, and subsequently attached himself to Theodoric, by whom he was appointed corrector (governor) of Bruttii and Lucania, and praefectus praetorio.
m.; pop. (Igor) 123,594; estimated revenue 33,000.
This was the maximum expansion possible under the conditions prevailing in 1920 -I, of a crisis in the political relations with Poland; but the maintenance of this establishment for any length of time appeared to be impracticable, since on this basis the army absorbed close on 60% of the revenue of the State, viz.
In almost all countries heavy taxes are levied on manufactured alcohol mainly as a source of revenue.
It was first enacted in 1855 that methylated spirit, a specific mixture of pure alcohol and wood naphtha, should be duty-free; the present law is to be found in the Customs and Inland Revenue Act of 1890, and the Finance Act (sect.
In America the internal revenue tax on denaturized alcohol (formerly duty-free only to scientific institutions) was removed by Congress in 1906 (act of June 7th).
The liberality of William the Lion had bestowed upon the corporation an extensive grant of lands; while in addition to the well-endowed church of St John, it had two monasteries, each possessed of a fair revenue.
Estimated revenue X22,000; tribute f,iioo.
Bhutias do not care to extend their cultivation, as an increased revenue is exacted in proportion to the land cultivated, but devote their whole energies to make the land yield twice what it is estimated to produce.
Other principal public buildings, nearly all to be included in modern schemes of development, are the city hall, occupying the site of the old Linen Hall, in Donegall Square, estimated to cost £300,000; the commercial buildings (1820) in Waring Street, the customhouse and inland revenue office on Donegall Quay, the architect of which, as of the court house, was Sir Charles Lanyon, and some of the numerous banks, especially the Ulster Bank.
The financial position in1906-1907is indicated by the following: Public revenue £513,594 (including £51,039 carried to revenue from capital); expenditure £446,849; imports (actual), I,219,819; imports in transit, £5,876,981; exports (actual), £123,510; exports in transit £6,127,277; imports from the United Kingdom (actual), £218,461.
A period elapsed before the government of Malta again became self-supporting, during which over £600,000 was contributed by the British exchequer in aid of revenue, and for the importation of food-stuffs.
Tenders were strictly enforced in letting government property and contracts; a largely increased revenue was applied on water supply, drainage and other works.
This diplomatic difficulty prevented the conclusion of a commercial treaty between China and Portugal for a long time, but an arrangement for a treaty was come to in 1887 on the following basis: (1) China confirmed perpetual occupation and government of Macao and its dependencies by Portugal; (2) Portugal engaged never to alienate Macao and its dependencies without the consent of China; (3) Portugal engaged to co-operate in opium revenue work at Macao in the same way as Great Britain at Hong-Kong.
He had derived a considerable revenue from the enemy's country, and he had moreover quartered his troops without expense.
In British units, especially in connexion with the statement of relative densities of alcoholic liquors for Inland Revenue purposes, comparison is made with water at 62° F.
Under this minister are the police, sanitary, harbour master's and revenue offices.
Local revenues are collected by the revenue office.
It is governed by an active municipality, whose revenue and expenditure have rapidly increased.
In the reign of the emperor Akbar the mines of Panna produced diamonds to the amount of Ioo,000 annually, and were a considerable source of revenue, but for many years they have not been so profitable.
But if the state is created then this revenue will be used to develop this own region.
Bills for raising revenue may originate only in the House of Representatives, but may be amended or rejected by the Senate.
The revenue for schools in 1907-08 was $8,020,229, of which $2,761,651 was from the state tax, $2,080,159 from the local tax, $1,640,969 from the one dollar poll tax on males between the ages of twenty-one and sixty, $481,899 from a state occupation tax, $4 2 9,3 6 5 from county funds, and $105,806 from tuition fees.
The constitution of 1876 forbids the borrowing of money except to supply casual deficiencies of revenue (amount limited to $200,000 at a time), repel invasion, suppress insurrection, defend the state in war, or pay existing debts.
Wetzel, are: that money as coin may have more than its bullion value; that natural interest is determined by the rent of land valued at the sum of money loaned - an anticipation of Turgot; that high wages are not inconsistent with a large foreign trade; that the value of an article is determined by the amount of labour necessary to produce the food consumed in making the article; that manufactures are advantageous but agriculture only is truly productive; and that when practicable (as he did not think it practicable at the end of the War of Independence) state revenue should be raised by direct tax.
Administration, Revenue, f&c. - For administrative purposes the country is divided into districts (Bezirkscimter), and stations (Stationsbezirke).
Revenue is raised by taxes on imports and exports, on licences for the sale of land and spirituous liquors, and for wood-cutting, by harbour and other dues, and a hut tax on natives.
The deficiency between revenue and expenditure is met by a subsidy from the imperial government.
In no case during the first twenty-one years' existence of the colony had the local revenue reached 60% of the local expenditure, which in normal years amounted to about £500,000.
686.) The expenditure for1902-1903was fixed at 210,000, of which about 170,000 was furnished by an imperial grant-in-aid and the balance from local revenue.
Between 1903 and E 1909 the revenue increased from £51,000 to £102,000.
Revenue is chiefly derived from hut and poll taxes, R customs, wharfage dues, game licences and land tax.
By extensive reorganizations, and in spite of having to cope with a rising in Nandi, his commission resulted in the reduction of expenditure and increase of local revenue.
The expenditure is about £38,000 annually, and the revenue, mainly derived from customs duties, is rapidly increasing.
Species of Palaquium, the genus from which, in the Indian Archipelago, the best gutta-percha is obtained, occur on the hills, and from their cultivation there might in time be obtained a large revenue independently of European labour.
The protectorate is included in the Universal Postal Union; each harbour has its post office, also a leading official with a number of assistants to control the natives and the revenue.
The revenue of German New Guinea is derived from taxes, dues and licences, and amounted on the 31st of March 1892 to about £3000; on the same rate, 1901, to £3750.
The annual revenue is averaged at £5000, and the expenditure at £4200.
The budget for 1910 showed a revenue of £57,000 and a like expenditure.
The personnel, revenue, jurisdiction, ritual, even the faith of the Church, were in this way placed under the complete control of the territorial governments.
The pope, moreover, had come to depend to a considerable extent for his revenue upon the payments made by his nominees, which represented a corresponding drain on the resources of the secular states.
The Good Parliament of 1376 declared that, in spite of the laws restricting papal provisions, the popes at Avignon received five times as much revenue from England as the English kings themselves.
had discovered a rich source of revenue in the jubilee, and in the jubilee indulgences extended to those who could not come to Rome.
The states in the Catholic League were permitted to retain for their own uses about one-fifth of the ecclesiastical revenue; the clergy was to be subjected to careful discipline; and only authorized preachers were to be tolerated, who based their teachings on the works of the four Latin Church fathers.
The beginning of the active opposition to the crown may be placed in the resistance, led by James Otis, to the issuing of writs (after 1 75 2, Otis's famous argument against them being made in 1760-1761) to compel citizens to assist the revenue officers; followed later by the outburst of feeling at the imposition of the Stamp Act (1765), when Massachusetts took the lead in confronting the royal power.
The merchants combined to prevent the importation of goods which by law would yield the crown a revenue; and the patriots - as the anti-prerogative party called themselves - under the lead of Samuel Adams, instituted regular communication between the different towns, and afterwards, following the initiative of Virginia, with the other colonies, through " committees of correspondence "; a method of the utmost advantage thereafter in forcing on the revolution by intensifying and unifying the resistance of the colony, and by inducing the co-operation of other colonies.
In 1853 exhaustive experiments were carried out in England with a view to ascertaining whether it would be possible so to treat alcohol as to allow it to be used industrially without, at the same time, any risk of the revenue being defrauded.
The revenue of the islands shows a fairly regular increase during the last years of the 19th century and the first of the loth, as from £37,830 in 1895 to £63,457 in 1904; expenditure is normally rather less than revenue.
About two-thirds of the public revenue was derived from duties on imports, in the adjustment of which the doctrine of protection to native industry had a large place.
census at short intervals used to be taken in all the states of the Zollverein, for the purpose of ascertaining the contribution to the federal revenue, the amount of which was revisable every three years.
With the disappearance of direct taxation as a source of federal revenue, the motive mentioned for understating the population disappeared.
One of the most important duties of the warden was the collection from the contractor of the seigniorage which was claimed by the sovereign by virtue of his prerogative as a source of revenue to the Crown.
Revenues for state purposes are derived from special taxes collected from the liquor traffic, corporations, transfers of decedents' estates, transfers of shares of stock, recording tax on mortgages, sales of products of state institutions, fees of public officers including fines and penalties, interest on deposits of state funds, refunds from department examinations and revenue from investments of trust funds, the most important of which are the common school fund and the United States deposit fund.
Some of them preferred charges against him relating to his administration of the revenue.
Other acts divided the province into counties, established courts of justice, and provided for a revenue.
He then attempted to revive the act of 1683 for raising revenue, but met with so much opposition that he issued writs for the election of another assembly.
Until 1737 it had been the custom to continue the revenue acts from three to five years, but thereafter the assembly insisted on annual appropriations.
The mullahs, who fix the burial fees, derive an enormous revenue from the faithful.
The colonial revenue is chiefly derived from customs, stamp duties, land tax, income tax, beer excise, postal and telegraphic services, railways, and crown land sales and rents.
Customs duties, railways and stamps are by far the most important sources of revenue.
They yielded £3,103,000, L2,765,000 and £1,550,000 respectively out of a total revenue of £9,056,000 in the financial year 1907-1908.
of railway, and though the population had increased to nearly half a million, the revenue was stagnant.
Revenue is derived chiefly from customs receipts and a capitation tax of frs.
The government of Alexander Mackenzie refused to consider a protection policy, and determined to adhere to Free Trade, with a tariff for revenue only.
The revenue for state, county and municipal purposes is derived principally from a general property tax, a privilege tax levied on the gross receipts of express companies and private car companies, an inheritance tax and licence fees for the sale of intoxicating liquors.
The annual revenue and expenditure are each somewhat in excess of £3,000,000.
Customs and indirect taxes yield more than three-fifths of the total revenue, and direct taxes less than one-fourth.
The bulk of the revenue, e.g.
In 1870-1871, when the province was an independent state and possessed neither railways nor diamond mines, the revenue was £78,000 and the expenditure £71,000; in1884-1885the revenue had risen to £228,000 and the expenditure to 229,000; in 1898, the last full year of the republican administration, the figures were: revenue, including railway profits, £799,000; expenditure, including outlay on new railways, £956,000.
Omitting the figures during the war period, the figures for the year ending June 1903 were: revenue, £956,000; expenditure, £839,000.
The depression in trade which followed caused a reduction in revenue, the average for the years1904-1909being: revenue, £820,000; expenditure, £819,000.
During each of its seven years of existence there had been a surplus of revenue over expenditure, despite the fact that taxation had not materially increased, save in respect to mining, which did not affect the general population.
About one-half of the revenue for state and county purposes is derived from a general property tax.
Among the other sources of revenue are a poll-tax of two dollars on each man between the ages of twenty-one and sixty, licences, an inheritance tax, rent of state lands and the income from invested funds received from the sale of state lands.
Under the Revenue Act 1906, s.
Added to this the state saw itself compelled, in view of the political situation, to increase its expenditure on armaments; and since this expenditure grew at a rate with which the revenue could not keep pace, the Government had constantly to raise large sums by borrowing in the open market, and in 1912 had even to raise a big loan in America.
- The revenue from taxation rose year by year, partly owing to the increased profits of industry, partly to fresh increases in taxation.
From the year 1902 to the financial year 1914-5 the State revenues doubled, rising from 1,730 millions of kronen to 3,460 millions of kronen, but this increase in revenue could only be achieved by placing an extraordinary strain on the taxable capacity of the country.
Of the estimated net revenue of 2,102 millions of kronen, 432 millions (20.5%) came under the head of receipts from direct taxation, 905 millions (43%) under the head of receipts from indirect taxation and taxes on commerce, while 294 millions (14%) were the proceeds of State property and State institutions.
But James was unmoved by his application, and granted the revenue of his see to the duke of Lennox.
The general property tax is the chief source of revenue for state, county and local purposes.
The revenue of Penang, that is to say, not only of the island but of the entire settlement, amounted in 1906 to $6,031,917, of which $2,014,033 was derived from the revenue farms for the collection of import duties on opium, wine and spirits; $160,047 from postal revenue; $119,585 from land revenue; $129,151 from stamps.
As secretary of the treasury (1874-1876) he prosecuted with vigour the so-called "Whisky Ring," the headquarters of which was at St Louis, and which, beginning in 1870 or 1871, had defrauded the Federal government out of a large part of its rightful revenue from the distillation of whisky.
Distillers and revenue officers in St Louis, Milwaukee, Cincinnati and other cities were implicated, and the illicit gains - which in St Louis alone probably amounted to more than $2,500,000 in the six years 1870-1876 - were divided between the distillers and the revenue officers, who levied assessments on distillers ostensibly for a Republican campaign fund to be used in furthering Grant's re-election.
186; Secrets of the Great Whiskey Ring (Chicago, 1880), by John McDonald, who for nearly six years had been supervisor of internal revenue at St Louis, - a book by one concerned and to be considered in that light.
His eldest SOn, SIR Charles John Herries (1815-1882), was chairman of the board of inland revenue.
With a supply pressure of 200 volts a 5 c.p. carbon filament lamp takes only 0.1 ampere; hence unless a meter will begin to register with 1 1 - 6 - ampere it will fail to record the current consumed by a single small incandescent lamp. In a large supply system such failure would mean a serious loss of revenue.
The chief source of revenue for the state, counties and municipalities is the general property tax.
The revenue administration is controlled by the ministers of the interior, of metropolitan government and of finance, by means of well-organized departments and with expert European assistance.
The total revenue of the country for.1908-1909amounted to 58,000,000 ticals, or, at the prevailing rate of exchange, about £4,3 00, 000, made up as follows: Farms and monopolies (spirits, gambling, &c.).
£783,000 Opium revenue.
Bowring's treaty of 1855, fixing the rates of land revenue, were abrogated in order to facilitate Siamese financial reform.
Estimated revenue, £70,000; tribute to Sindhia paid through the 1 Lat.
The revenue of Netherlands India has been derived mainly from customs, excise, ground-tax, licences, poll-tax, &c., from monopolies - opium, salt and pawn-shops (the management of which began to be taken over by the government in 1903, in place of the previous system of farming-out), coffee, &c., railways, tin mines and forests, and from agricultural and other concessions.
The following table affords comparisons in the revenue and expenditure: - The monetary system is similar to that of Holland (the unit being the guilder), but there are also certain silver and copper coins of small value bearing Malay or Javanese inscriptions.
In the second half of the 17th century the monopoly system and the employment of slaves and forced labour gave rise to many abuses, and there was a rapid decline in the revenue from sugar, coffee and opium, while the competition of the British East India Company, which now exported spices, indigo, &c. from India to Europe, was severely felt.
Raffles (q.v.) held office until March 1816, and introduced many important changes in the departments of revenue, commerce and judicature.
In 1863 Fransen van de Putte, minister for the colonies, introduced the first of the annual colonial budgets for which the Regulations had provided, thus enabling the statesgeneral to control the revenue and expenditure of Netherlands India; in 1865 he reduced and in 1872 abolished the differentiation of customs dues in favour of goods imported from Holland, substituting a uniform import duty of 6% and establishing a number of free ports throughout the archipelago.
The import duty was considered so moderate that an increase required for revenue purposes was readily conceded in 1886.
It has a population of about 70,000, and, together with the district Tusirkhan, pays a yearly revenue of about X13,000.
The estimated gross revenue is £17,000 and the tribute £2500.
This flourishing industry, which fully occupied 40,000 boats and 300,000 fishers assembled from all parts of Europe to catch and salt the favourite Lenten fare of the whole continent, was the property of the Danish crown, and the innumerable tolls and taxes imposed by the king on the frequenters of the market was one of his most certain and lucrative sources of revenue.
A large part of his revenue is derived from tribute exacted from the salt caravans.
Together with Khunsár it forms a small province, paying a yearly revenue of about L6000.
The budgets of 1919 and 1920 disclosed deficits of 5 billion and 3 billion kronen respectively, but in that for 1921 the revenue slightly exceeded the expenditure.
Resort is made to tariffs, or duties on imports, partly to secure revenue, partly to affect the course of industry within a country.
Strictly speaking, these two objects are inconsistent with each other; since a customs duty, in so far as it causes a domestic industry rather than a foreign to supply the market, ceases to be a source of revenue.
But in a great number of cases the imposition of a duty causes only a partial displacement of the foreign supply, and hence brings some revenue from that which remains.
This circumstance strengthens the hold of the protective system, especially in countries where customs duties are an important source of revenue, the combination of fiscal convenience and of protection to home industry being a highly attractive one.
Where tariff duties are imposed solely for revenue, an equivalent excise tax is imposed within the country, so as to put the domestic producer precisely on the footing of his foreign G.
The first of them, in 1842, was signalized by the introduction of the Income Tax as a means of raising revenue to replace that lost by the diminished import duties.
A great number of articles had been enumerated in the earlier tariff acts, each of which was imported in very small quantity and yielded an insignificant revenue.
A very few articles (spirits, beer, wine, tobacco, tea, coffee, cocoa) yield practically all of the customs revenue, and, so far as these articles are produced within the country, they are subject to an excise duty, an internal tax precisely equal to the import duty.
In 1901, to aid in meeting the expenses of the South African war, a moderate revenue duty was again imposed on sugar; and in 1902 the shilling duty on corn and flour (abolished in 1869) was restored, but again taken off in 1903.
The customs revenue was divided among the several states in proportion to population.
It had been the design of Madison, and of other firm supporters of the new constitution, to adopt in 1789 a very simple measure, designed solely to secure revenue.
a time to time in order to secure more revenue, but the arrangement and the general rate of the duties not being sensibly modified.
The import duties were correspondingly raised, partly by way of off-set to the internal taxes, partly as a means of getting additional revenue, and finally in some degree because of a disposition to protect domestic industries.
The most important acts were the great revenue acts of 1862 and 1864.
The main features of the tariff history of the United States since the Civil War have been that the internal taxes have been almost entirely swept away, the import duties on purely revenue articles similarly abolished, while those import duties that operated to protect domestic industries have been maintained, and indeed in many cases increased.
No further resort was made to internal taxes until the revenue act of 1898 was passed, at the outbreak of the Spanish War.
In 1875, however, when the revenue had become deficient after the crisis of 1873, the io per cent.
It deserves to be noted that in 1872 an important step was also taken towards removing entirely the duties on purely revenue articles, tea and coffee being then admitted free of duty.
Thus the ten years immediately following the close of the war brought about the gradual transformation of the high duties levied on all commodities for revenue purposes into a system of high duties almost wholly on protective commodities.
The decade from 1880 to 1890 was one of great prosperity, consequently of rising imports, consequently of swelling customs revenue.
In the second half of the decade a continuous large surplus in the Treasury necessarily directed attention to the state of the revenue, and gave strength" to the protests against excessive taxation.
A further step towards consolidating the protective system was taken by abolishing the duty on sugar, mainly a revenue duty.
The necessity for reducing the revenue and cutting down the continued surplus was met in this way rather than by lowering the protective duties.
A duty was reimposed on sugar, chiefly as a means of securing needed revenue, but at a less rate than had existed before 1890.
The additional revenue gained by the Crown from Masovia was at first but 14,000 gulden per annum.
of territory, with a population of 550,000 and an annual revenue of 920,000 Polish gulden.
m., with a population of 816,000 and an annual revenue of 1,408,000 gulden.
m., with a population of 378,000, and an annual revenue of 534,000 thalers.
The revenue is derived partly from subscriptions, partly from gate-money, from the fine concert-hall and refreshment pavilions, and from sales.
The Society is not assisted by the state or the municipality, but derives its revenue from the subscriptions of Fellows, gate-money, Garden receipts and so forth.
The state's revenue is derived from a general direct property tax, a licence tax, corporation taxes, a collateral inheritance tax, fines, forfeitures and fees; and the penitentiary yields an annual net revenue of about $40,000.
Adams, Taxation in Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Studies (Baltimore, 1900), an historical account of the sources of the state's revenue and administration of its taxing system; A.
The loss of revenue consequent upon the secession of Lithuania placed John Albert at the mercy of the Polish Sejmiki or local diets, where the szlachta, or country gentry, made their subsidies dependent upon the king's subservience.
==Finance== Revenue is derived chiefly from direct taxation, customs and monopolies.
The Algerian budget for 1906 showed revenue and expenditure balancing at £3,820,000.
About one-half of the national revenue is derived from customs, the remainder being principally furnished by railways, stamps, and the salt and tobacco monopolies.
In the financial year 1904-1905 the revenue was £503,000, the expenditure £390,000.
This appears particularly in their attitude toward revenue officers sent to discover and close illicit stills for the distilling from Indian corn of so-called " moon-shine " whisky (consisting largely of pure alcohol).
All revenue measures must originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may introduce amendments.
The state makes provision for revenue for school purposes as follows: (1) the interest on the Bond of the Commonwealth for $1,327,000 00; (2) dividends on 798 shares of the capital stock of the Bank of Kentucky - representing a par value of $79,800.00; (3) the interest at 6% on the Bond of the Commonwealth for $381,986.08, which is a perpetual obligation in favour of the several counties; (4) the interest at 6% on $606,641.03, which was received from the United States; (5) the annual tax of 262 cents on each $100 of value of all real and personal estate and corporate franchises directed to be assessed for taxation; (6) a certain portion of fines, forfeitures and licences realized by the state; and (7) a portion of the dog taxes of each county.
The system of classifying the revenue into separate funds has frequently produced annual deficits, which are, as a rule only nominal, since the total receipts exceed the total expenditures.
The object of this ordinance was to secure revenue, but it led to the institution of serfdom in its most grinding form.
Owing to the great pressure on the soil from the density of the population, to the reluctance to part with land characteristic of small proprietors, to the generally great productiveness of land and to the very light assessment of government revenue, land in Ballia, for agricultural purposes merely, has a market value higher than in almost any other district.
The last two branches of inquiry are regarded as forming but a single body of doctrine in the well-known passage of the Theory of Moral Sentiments in which the author promises to give in another discourse "an account of the general principles of law and government, and of the different revolutions they have undergone in the different ages and periods of society, not only in what concerns justice, but in what concerns police, revenue and arms, and whatever else is the subject of law."
A man's whole stock consists of two portions - that which is reserved for his immediate consumption, and that which is employed so as to yield a revenue to its owner.
Its fixed capital consists chiefly of (1) machines, (2) buildings which are the means of procuring a revenue, (3) agricultural improvements and (4) the acquired and useful abilities of all members of the society (since sometimes known as "personal capital").
Next comes the distinction of the gross national revenue from the net - the first being the whole produce of the land and labour of a country, the second what remains after deducting the expense of maintaining the fixed capital of the country and that part of its circulating capital which consists of money.
Money, "the great wheel of circulation," is altogether different from the goods which are circulated by means of it; it is a costly instrument by means of which all that each individual receives is distributed to him; and the expenditure required, first to provide it, and afterwards to maintain it, is a deduction from the net revenue of the society.
Productive labourers alone are employed out of capital; unproductive labourers, as well as those who do not labour at all, are all maintained by revenue.
In advancing industrial communities, the portion of annual produce set apart as capital, bears an increasing proportion to that which is immediately destined to constitute a revenue, either as rent or as profit.
In what are commonly called loans of money, it is not really the money, but the money's worth, that the borrower wants; and the lender really assigns to him the right to a certain portion of the annual produce of the land and labour of the country, As the general capital of a country increases, so also does the particular portion of it from which the possessors wish to derive a revenue without being at the trouble of employing it themselves, and, as the quantity of stock thus available for loans is augmented, the interest diminishes, not merely "from the general causes which make the market price of things commonly diminish as their quantity increases," but because, with the increase of capital, "it becomes gradually more and more difficult to find within the country a profitable method of employing any new capital" - whence arises a competition between different capitals, and a lowering of profits, which must diminish the price which can be paid for the use of capital, or in other words the rate of interest.
The industry is protected by a high tariff, as is also the production of raw cotton, and further encouragement is offered through a remission of internal revenue taxes where Mexican fabrics are exported for foreign consumption.
The national revenues are derived from import and export duties, port dues and other taxes levied on foreign commerce; from excise and stamp taxes and other charges upon internal business transactions; from direct taxes levied in the federal district and national territories, covering a land tax in rural districts, a house tax in the city, commercial and professional licences, water rates, and sundry taxes on bread, pulque, vehicles, saloons, theatres, &c.; from probate dues and registry fees; from a surcharge on all taxes levied by the states, called the " federal contribution," which is paid in federal revenue stamps; from post and telegraph receipts; and from some minor sources of income.
The most fruitful revenue is the duty on imports, which is sometimes used for the protection of national industries, and which yields from 40 to 45% of the total receipts.
For the fiscal year1906-1907the revenue produced a total of 114,286,122 pesos (dollars), or, approximately, £11,428; 612, and the expenditure was 85,076,641 pesos, or £8,507,664.
The estimates for [[[Religion: Finance]]1908-1909show a marked decline owing to the commercial depression, the revenue being computed at 103,385,000 pesos, and the expenditure at 103,203,830 pesos.
The revenues and expenditures of the states and municipalities in 1904, the latest date available, aggregated as follows: Revenue.
But the financial situation was desperate; the federal revenue, mostly from customs - which were evaded by extensive smuggling - was not half the expenditure; and Indian revolts in Yucatan (1847-1850) and in the Sierra Gorda had added to the strain.
In brief, under President Diaz's rule the history of Mexico is mainly economic. In the six financial years1893-1894to1899-1900inclusive the yield of the import duties increased by upwards of 80%; the revenue from ogressic stamps over 60%, though the duties were reduced; the postal revenue from1895-1896to1899-1900rose 60%; the telegraph revenue over 75%.
Again, in1898-1899the total ordinary revenue of the state was J6,013,921; in 1906-1907 it had increased to £11,428,612, or by more than 90%, and though1907-1908was a year of depression its total revenue (£11,177,186) exceeded that of any year save its immediate predecessor.
Revenue is obtained mostly from customs and a hut.
The average annual revenue for the five years ending the 31st of March 1906 was £30,074; the average annual expenditure during the same period was £80,114.
The chief sources of revenue in Norman times were the valuable fisheries and numerous mills.
He has an estimated revenue of about £15,000, and pays a tribute of £460.
The treasury was filled out of the proceeds of the landed possessions of the community, especially such fruitful sources of revenue as mines and quarries, and out of import and export duties.
Of the revenue, about 64% is derived from customs and excise; 9% from property, road, military, slaughter and salt taxes; 1.7% from the gunpowder monopoly; and the remainder from various taxes, stamps, government lands, and postal and telegraph services.
The estimated revenue for 1905-1906 was 23,000,000 pesos (about £328,500); the estimated expenditure was 27,317,659 pesos (£39 0, 200), of which £242,800 were allotted to the public debt, £42,000 to internal development and justice, £29,000 to the army and the remainder largely to education.
It may be added that the net ordinary revenue of the government was in 1850 $43,592,889, and in 1909 $662,324,445; that the value of imports rose from $7.48 ~er capita in 1850 to $14.47 in 1909; and of exports from $6.23 to $18.50.
Each has its own documentary constitution; its legislature of two elective houses; its executive, consisting of a governor and other officials; its judiciary, whose decisions are final, except in cases involving Federal law; its system of local government and local taxation; its revenue, system of taxation, and debts; its body of private civil and criminal law and procedure; its rules of citizenship, which may admit persons to be voters in state and national elections under conditions differing from those prevailing in other states.
the names, functions and powers of the houses of the legislature, the chief executive officials, and the courts of justice, with provisions regulating the electoral franchise; Provisions creating, or directing the creation of, a system of local government for cities and rural areas; Miscellaneous provisions relating to law and administration, including the militia, revenue and taxation, state prisons and hospitals, agriculture, banking and other corporations, railways, labor questions; Provisions for the amendment of the constitution; A schedule prescribing the method of submitting the draft constitution to the vote of the people, with temporary provisions regulating the mode of tranfition from the old constitutional arrang~ments to the new ones.
In legislative matters its powers are identical with those of the House of Representatives, with the single restriction that bills for raising revenue must originate in the popular assembly.
Revenue bills for imposing or continuing the various customs duties and internal taxes are prepared by the House committee on ways and means, whose chairman is always a leading man in the majority party.
Neither does it proceed on estimates of the sums needed to maintain the public service, for, in the first place, it does not know what appropriations will be proposed by the spending committees; and in the second place, a primary object of the customs duties has been for many years past, not the raising of revenue, but the protection of American industries by subjecting foreign imports to a very high tariff.
Fresh items of appropriations are often added, and changes are made in revenue bills in the interest of particular purposes or localities.
The national government, whose revenue powers are only limited by: (a) the provision of the constitution which prohibits all duties on exports, and (b) the provision that all direct taxes must be levied in proportion to populationa provision which deprives direct taxes of nearly all their efficiency for revenue purposes.
The several states, whose revenue powers are only limited by: (a) restrictions in their respective constitutions, and (b) the general principle that those powers must not be exercised in such a way as to contravene laws of the United States, or to destroy sources of the national revenue, although a state may prohibit within its borders the sale of liquors, from taxes upon which the Unit~d States Treasury derives a considerable part of its receipts.
Nevertheless,only recently have other sources of revenue been largely developed, and the general property tax to a degree abandoned.
These two species of indirect taxes have from the beginning been the main sources of national revenue.
At three periods, namely 1800-1802,1814-1817and 1863-1871, direct taxes have contributed considerable amounts to the revenue.
At times also the proceeds of the sales of public lands have formed an important element of the receipts of government, although it has been the accepted policy to sell such lands to actual settlers at rates so low as to be inconsistent with the object or attainment (relatively) of revenue.
They have, however, never been a stable source of revenue, even during periods when the tariff was constant; and compared with th steady returns shown by the selected articles of the British tariff list this instability has been most extraordinary.
During the years in which it was in power little more than a tenth of the national revenue ~as derived from excises, yet they became a national political issue, and the Whisky Rebellion shows how little they were fitted to the nation at that time.
After the war a system of internal revenue was therefore continued.
The customs revenue, in its form of high protection, has always had against it a strong free trade sentiment, generally unorganized, and this seems to be growing.
The internal revenue is affected by the remarkable spread of the prohibition movement.
The aggregate net ordinary receipts into the United States treasury, from I 791 to the 30th of June 1885, were as follows, in millions of dollars: from customs, 5642; from internal revenue, 3449; from direct taxes, 28; from public lands, 241; from miscellaneous sources, 578; total, 9938.
A phenomenal growth of both customs and excise revenue has made such expenditures easy.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.