It consists of a large stone chamber which communicates directly with two slightly slanting tubular retorts of iron.
In the Belgian process the reduction and distillation are carried out in cylindrical or elliptical retorts of fire-clay, from 3 ft.
This is mixed with small coal, and when redistilled gives an enriched dust, and by repeating the process and distilling from cast iron retorts the metal is obtained.
For example, in the Gritti and Orlando processes the ore is charged into retorts and the fusion effected by superheated steam, the sulphur being run off as usual; or as was suggested by R.
The retorts are charged with molten sulphur from an upper reservoir, which is kept at the requisite temperature by means of the lost heat of the retort fires.
The pyrites is subjected to dry distillation from out of iron or fire-clay tubular retorts at a bright red heat.
The retorts of the prisoners were notable.
These distilling vessels are called retorts if they are supported only at the ends, and the furnace using them is termed a Belgian furnace.
Some fortysix or more retorts, arranged in parallel horizontal rows, are heated in one furnace.
The furnaces are square and open in front, to allow the outlet ends of the retorts to project; they are grouped together by fours; and their several chimneys are within the same enclosure.
After four days' heating the provisional front wall is removed piecemeal, and the retorts, after having been heated to redness, are inserted in corresponding sets.
The charge of the retorts consists of a mixture of 1100 lb of roasted calamine and 550 lb of dry powdered coal per furnace.
Supposing the last of these preliminary distillations to have been completed, the residues left in the retorts are removed, and the retorts, as they lie in the hot furnace, are charged by mean: of semi-cylindrical shovels, and their adapters put on.
He didn't even bother to search his mental library under pithy, tasteless and nasty retorts.
The metal is usually obtained from the flue-dust (produced during the first three or four hours working of a zinc distillation) which is collected in the sheet iron cones or adapters of the zinc retorts.
One man serves 2-4 retorts.
The kilns are made with either fixed or revolving retorts.
From the drying floor on which the spent char is heaped up it falls by gravitation into the retorts.
The chief improvements in the plant of these processes are concerned with the manufacture of the retorts or muffles, and especially with the introduction of gas-firing.
Even a machine of simple type, like the ordinary drain-pipe machine, in which the retorts are made by forcing the plastic clay mixture through a die, may result in greater economy and uniformity than is possible when retorts are made by hand.
In the United States, Belgian furnaces of type (a) are built to contain 864 retorts; of type (b), to contain 300 to 400 retorts; and of type (c), preferably about 600 retorts.
One man who understands the use of gaseous fuel can regulate the heat of a thousand or more retorts.
The men who charge and empty the retorts, those who draw and cast the metal, and those who keep the furnace in repair, need not know anything about the making or using of gas, and the men who make the gas need not know anything about a zinc furnace.
Again, in direct-fired furnaces there are commonly seven or eight rows of retorts, one above another, so that to serve the upper rows the workman must stand upon a table, where he is exposed to the full heat of the furnace and requires a helper to wait upon him.
With gas-firing the retorts can be arranged in four horizontal rows, all within reach of a man on the furnace-room floor.
Furthermore, with the large furnaces which gas-firing makes possible mechanical appliances may be substituted for manual labour in many operations, such as removing and replacing broken retorts, mixing and conveying the charge, drawing and casting the metal, charging and emptying the retorts, and removing the residues and products.
For dry distillations the retorts are generally horizontal cylinders, the bottom or lower surface being sometimes flattened.
Horizontal cylindrical retorts, holding from 200 to 1200 tb of amalgam, are used in the larger Californian mills, pot retorts being used in the smaller mills.
The bullion left in the retorts is then melted in black-lead crucibles, with the addition of small quantities of suitable fluxes, e.g.
In the liquation process the ore is heated in inclined cylindrical retorts, and the molten metal is tapped at the lower end; the residues being removed from the upper end.
It is manufactured by distilling wood in iron retorts at about 50o C., when an aqueous distillate, containing methyl alcohol, acetone, acetic acid and methyl acetic ester, is obtained.
The commercial salt is known as salvolatile or salt of hartshorn and was formerly obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous organic matter such as hair, horn, decomposed urine, &c., but is now obtained by heating a mixture of sal-ammoniac, or ammonium sulphate and chalk, to redness in iron retorts, the vapours being condensed in leaden receivers.
Only one compound of hydrogen and fluorine is known, namely hydrofluoric acid, HF or H 2 F 2, which was first obtained by C. Scheele in 1771 by decomposing fluor-spar with concentrated sulphuric acid, a method still used for the commercial preparation of the aqueous solution of the acid, the mixture being distilled from leaden retorts and the acid stored in leaden or gutta-percha bottles.
Animal charcoal (bone black) is prepared by charring bones in iron retorts.
The disadvantage in this process is that the by-products, such as pyroligneous acid, acetone, wood spirit, &c., are lost; as an alternative method, wood is frequently carbonized in ovens or retorts and the volatile products are condensed and utilized.
The product obtained after burning is known either as kelp or varec. Another method of obtaining kelp is to heat the seaweed in large retorts, whereby tarry and ammoniacal liquors pass over and a very porous residue of kelp remains.
The precipitate is washed and then distilled from iron retorts.
To produce the alkali metal, a calcined mixture of sodium carbonate, coal and chalk was strongly ignited in flat retorts made of boiler-plate; the sodium distilled over into condensers and was preserved under heavy petroleum.
per lb, the greater part of the expense being due to the constant failure of the retorts; in 1887 Castner's sodium cost less than is.
civ., 1881, p. 450) in which barium monoxide is heated in a current of air, forming the dioxide, which when the retorts are exhausted yields up oxygen and leaves a residue of monoxide; but this method is now being superseded, its place being taken by the fractional distillation of liquid air (The Times, Engin.
In this process the ammonium chloride is volatilized in large iron retorts lined with Doulton tiles, and then led into large upright wrought-iron cylinders lined with fire-bricks.
The amalgam is pressed in linen bags to eliminate a quantity of relatively silver-free liquid mercury (which is utilized as such in subsequent operations), and the remaining solid amalgam is subjected to distillation from iron retorts.
The product is then distilled from Stourbridge clay retorts, arranged in a galley furnace, previously heated to a red heat.
The second consideration is the form of the vessels; these may be open pans or dishes, or closed retorts, or combinations of both.
The majority of acid makers, however, prefer retorts made entirely of platinum, preferably provided by the Heraeus process with a dense, closely adherent coating of gold, including the top or "dome."
This furnace is also very well adapted for impure acids, unsuitable for platinum or platinum-gold stills on account of the crusts forming at the bottom of the retorts; and it is more and more coming into use both in Great Britain and on the Continent.
Condensation is a comparatively easy task in the case of platinum apparatus, but with glass or porcelain beakers or retorts it presents great difficulties.
Fuming or Nordhausen Oil of Vitriol, a mixture or chemical com pound of H 2 SO 4, with more or less S03, has been made for centuries by exposing pyritic schist to the influence of atmospheric agents, collecting the solution of ferrous and ferric sulphate thus formed, boiling it down into a hard mass ("vitriolstein") and heating this to a low red heat in small earthenware retorts.
On submitting a complex substance of this character to destructive distillation, it will be found that the yield and quality of the products will vary very considerably with the temperature existing in the retorts, with the size of the charge of coal used, with its distribution in the retort, with the length of time the distillation has been going on, and with an infinity of other factors of a more or less complex nature.
If the retorts are at a temperature of 1000° C. when the charge of coal is put in, the temperature of the distillation will vary from about 800° C. close to the walls, to about 400° C. in the centre of Effect of the coal; and in the same way, in the space above the coal, tempera- the products which come in contact with the sides of the tore in the retort are heated to 1000° C., whilst the gas near the coal retort.
The retorts in which the coal is carbonized are almostluniversally made of fire-clay, and in all but small country works the old singleended retort, which was about 9 ft.
in length, has given Retorts.
way to a more economical construction known as doubles, double-ended, or "through" retorts.
The retorts are heated externally and are set in an arch, the construction depending upon the number of retorts, which varies from three to twelve.
The arch and its retorts is termed a bed or setting, and a row of beds constitutes a bench.
It is usual to have a separate furnace for each setting, the retorts resting upon walls built transversely in the furnace.
- Cross Section of Retorts.
These gases enter the combustion chamber around the retorts at a high temperature, and are there supplied with sufficient air to complete their combustion, this secondary air supply being heated by the hot products of combustion on their way to the exit flue.
Complete combustion takes place at this point with the production of intense heat, the gases on rising are baffled in order to circulate them in every direction round the retorts, and upon arriving at the top of the setting they are conducted down a hollow chamber communicating with the main flue and shaft.
Retorts are set in either the horizontal, inclined or vertical position, and the advantages of the one over the other is a question upon which almost every gas engineer has his own views.
The introduction of labour-saving appliances into gas works has rendered the difficult work of charging and discharging horizontal retorts comparatively simple.
Formerly it was the practice to carry out such operations entirely by hand, men charging the retorts either by means of shovel or hand-scoop, and the coke produced being withdrawn with hand rakes.
The machines charge simultaneously at each end, so that the lids of the retorts may be shut immediately the coal enters.
Taking into account the original cost of such machines, and the unavoidable wear and tear upon the retorts brought about by using labour-saving appliances, and the fact that the coke-dust is very detrimental to the machinery, it is clear that the suggestion of setting the retorts at an incline in order to facilitate the work presented great inducements to the gas manager.
The object aimed at in thus setting retorts is to allow gravity to play the part of charging and discharging the coal and coke, the retorts being inclined at an angle to suit the slip of the class of coal used; this angle is between 28° and 34°.
The coal, previously elevated to hoppers, is dropped into the feeding chambers, which are so arranged that they can travel from end to end of the retorthouse and feed the coal into the retorts.
In the case of horizontal retorts the space between the top of the coal and the retort is of necessity considerable in order to permit the introduction of the scoop and rake; the gas has therefore a free channel to travel along, but has too much contact with the highly heated surface of the retort before it leaves the mouthpiece.
In the case of inclined retorts this disadvantage is somewhat reduced, but with vertical retorts the ideal conditions can be more nearly approached.
The heating as well as the illuminating value of the gas per unit volume is lowered by over-baking, and Dr Bueb gives the following figures as to the heating value of gas obtained from the same coal but by different methods of carbonization: Vertical Retorts, 604 British thermal units per cub.
into the liquid, and so makes a seal that allows of any retort being charged singly without the risk of the gas produced from the other retorts in the bench escaping _7 c - through the open retort.
Gas leaves the retorts saturated with naphthalene, and its capacity for holding that impurity seems to be augmented by the presence of water vapour.
Moreover, by putting the retorts under a slight vacuum, the amount of gas produced is increased by about 12%, and is of better quality, owing to its leaving the heated retort more quickly.
the retorts in the desired proportion, and the mixture of water gas and coal gas is then carburetted to the required extent by benzol vapour, a process which at the present price of oil and benzol is distinctly more economical than the use of carburetted water gas.
His temper was irritable, and his hasty utterances exposed him to retorts which he did not readily forgive.
The ordinary commercial arsenic is either the naturally occurring form, which is, however, more or less contaminated with other metals, or is the product obtained by heating arsenical pyrites, out of contact with air, in earthenware retorts which are fitted with a roll of sheet iron at the mouth, and an earthenware receiver.
"Satan appears in Scripture under four leading characters: - first as the tempter of freedom, who desires to bring to decision, secondly as the accuser, who by virtue of the law retorts criminality on man; thirdly as the instrument of the Divine, which brings evil and death upon men; fourthly and lastly he is described, especially in the New Testament, as the enemy of God and man."
These are known as muffle or chamber furnaces; and by supposing the crucibles or retorts to represent similar chambers of only temporary duration, the ordinary pot melting air furnaces, and those for the reduction of zinc ores or the manufacture of coal gas, may be included in the same category.
Among the chief localities are the neighbourhood of Stourbridge in Worcestershire and Stannington near Sheffield, which supply most of the materials for crucibles used in steel and brass melting, and the pots for glass houses; Newcastle-on-Tyne and Glenboig near Glasgow, where heavy blast furnace and other firebricks, gas retorts, &c., are made in large quantities.
In Belgium the clay raised at Andenne is very largely used for making retorts for zinc furnaces.
Some of his one-liners and retorts are hilarious, as he makes the character instantly charming and never offensive.
retorts made by government officials whenever this topic is brokered appear to be purely a tactic of obfuscation!
One of the best retorts I saw was from Mike Reid a few years ago.
The recording picked up some loud retorts, which sound like gunfire or explosions.
He glares at me and angrily retorts, 'Don't gimme that crap, whit kinda life is it fur them?
Early gas retorts were made of iron in the form of a horizontal tube about 12 " in diameter.
With the fixed retorts these valves are worked from time to time by the attendant, but with revolving retorts they are worked continuously and automatically and allow from sixteen to twenty-four ounces of char to escape per minute from each cooler, and so make room in the retort above for a corresponding quantity to enter from the drying floor.
In some cases, especially in dry distillations, the furnace flames play directly on the retorts, in others, such as in the case of nitric acid, the whole still comes under the action of the furnace gases to prevent condensation on the upper part of the still, while in others the furnace gases do not play directly on the base or upper portion of the still but are conducted around it by a system of flues (see Coal-Tar).
The amalgam is cleaned out periodically - fortnightly or monthly - and after filtering through linen bags to remove the excess of mercury, it is transferred to retorts for distillation (see below).
If the retorts are at a temperature of 1000Ã‚° C. when the charge of coal is put in, the temperature of the distillation will vary from about 800Ã‚° C. close to the walls, to about 400Ã‚° C. in the centre of Effect of the coal; and in the same way, in the space above the coal, tempera- the products which come in contact with the sides of the tore in the retort are heated to 1000Ã‚° C., whilst the gas near the coal retort.
The cross sections generally employed for retorts are known as "D-shaped," "oval" and "round" (fig.
The heating of the retorts is carried out either by the "direct firing" or by the "regenerative" system, the latter affording 77.53 6'33 1.03 0 61 14.50 FIG.
In the regenerative system of firing, a mixture of carbon monoxide and nitrogen is produced by passing air through incandescent gas coke in a generator placed below the bench of retorts, and the heating value of the gases so produced is increased in most cases by the admixture of a small proportion of steam with the primary air supply, the steam being decomposed by contact with the red-hot coke in the generator into water gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (see Fuel: Gaseous).
With "through" retorts charging machines feed the retorts at both ends, the scoop, which has a capacity of about 12 cwt., entering and discharging its contents twice at each end, so that the total charge is about 6 cwt., which is allowed from four to six hours to distil off according to the quality of the gas required.
The object aimed at in thus setting retorts is to allow gravity to play the part of charging and discharging the coal and coke, the retorts being inclined at an angle to suit the slip of the class of coal used; this angle is between 28Ã‚° and 34Ã‚°.
Indeed some of the retorts made by government officials whenever this topic is brokered appear to be purely a tactic of obfuscation !
He glares at me and angrily retorts, 'Do n't gimme that crap, whit kinda life is it fur them?
Early gas retorts were made of iron in the form of a horizontal tube about 12 in diameter.
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