Alex spoke to her reflection in the mirror.
His teeth were white in the reflection of the flashlight.
We have seen that in perpendicular reflection a surface error not exceeding IX may be admissible.
When she retreated to the bathroom, she flipped on the light, cringed, but forced herself to stare at her reflection in the mirror over the sink.
The flash of her reflection in the mirror caught her attention.
She caught her reflection in the mirror and admired her hair.
He could see her reflection, but not the look in her eyes.
The manor house had been built several hundred years ago, and every room but hers was a reflection of her father's wealth.
Deidre looked over her shoulder at the reflection in the mirror displaying the two markings on her back.
Glancing at her reflection in the mirror, Carmen straightened her dress.
Natasha looked in the mirrors and could not distinguish her reflection from the others.
He enjoyed exceptional privileges; his feeble health excused him from the morning duties, and thus early he acquired the habit of reflection in bed, which clung to him throughout life.
When starting on a journey or changing their mode of life, men capable of reflection are generally in a serious frame of mind.
He recognized himself, yet his reflection was... better.
Wisdom is represented as the result of human reflection, and thus as the guide in all the affairs of life.
The article REFLECTION explains the symmetrical arrangement of images formed by two mirrors inclined at an angle which is a sub-multiple of four right angles.
This forms the nucleus of the adult shell, and, as the animal grows, becomes enclosed by a reflection of the mantle-skirt.
She paced and caught sight of her reflection in the windows.
Only the reflection of the white snow and grey sky provided light once she stepped outside.
(It is easy to see that the radius of the bright spot is of the same order of magnitude.) The experiment succeeds in a dark room of the length above mentioned, with a threepenny bit (supported by three threads) as obstacle, the origin of light being a small needle hole in a plate of tin, through which the sun's rays shine horizontally after reflection from an external mirror.
I see by its face that it is visited by the same reflection; and I can almost say, Walden, is it you?
In the case of a reflection grating the same method applies.
She stared at her reflection, caught by something else that didn't seem right.
The order of ideas observable in children suggests the reflection that man began to discuss the "whence " of existence before the "whither."
At the time she had been too frightened to notice, but on reflection, being held in his arms wasn't all that unpleasant either.
Natasha quietly repeated her question, and her face and whole manner were so serious, though she was still holding the ends of her handkerchief, that the major ceased smiling and after some reflection-- as if considering in how far the thing was possible--replied in the affirmative.
Rutherfurd introduced into common use the reflection grating, finding that speculum metal was less trying than glass to the diamond point, upon the permanence of which so much depends.
She caught her reflection in the mirror, and the sight of the tattoo around her neck infuriated her.
The two souls acted in accord, the soul of the animal becoming a reflection, as it were, of the soul of the god.
The process of reflection in the case of a wave motion involves the condition that the wave-length shall be small compared with the dimensions of the mirror, and hence the attempt to reflect and converge electric waves loon ft.
The pictures the language paints on her memory appear to make an indelible impression; and many times, when an experience comes to her similar in character, the language starts forth with wonderful accuracy, like the reflection from a mirror.
But upon reflection, it is entirely inconsistent with our experience.
Pushing herself up, she caught her reflection in an oval, stand alone mirror with innately carved wood.
It wasn't a reflection.
This disagreement comes largely from the attempts made to find definitely expressed Greek philosophical dogmas in the book; such formulas it has not, but the general air of Greek reflection seems unmistakable.
Her eyes, always sad, now looked with particular hopelessness at her reflection in the glass.
Bacon then discusses vision in a right line, the laws of reflection and refraction, and the construction of mirrors and lenses.
The Solomonic authorship has long since been given up: the historical setting of the work and its atmosphere - the silent assumption of monotheism and monogamy, the nonnational tone, the attitude towards kings and people, the picture of a complicated social life, the strain of philosophic reflection - are wholly at variance with what is known of the 10th century B.C. and with the Hebrew literature down to the 5th or 4th century B.C. The introduction of Solomon, the ideal of wisdom, is a literary device of the later time, and probably deceived nobody.
These had existed for a long time side by side, without knowing anything of each other, but when they perceived each other, the Light had only looked and then turned away; but the Darkness, seized with desire for the Light, had made itself master, not indeed of the Light itself, but only of its reflection (species, color).
The fact that an unprecedented number of earth's inhabitants today live in poverty is an indictment of governments, not a reflection of some underlying natural limit.
Among the Greeks and Romans various speculations as to the cause of the how were indulged in; Aristotle, in his Meteors, erroneously ascribes it to the reflection of the sun's rays by the rain; Seneca adopted the same view.
They had not met for nearly half a year and, being at the age when young men take their first steps on life's road, each saw immense changes in the other, quite a new reflection of the society in which they had taken those first steps.
Only in the highest spheres did all these schemes, crossings, and interminglings appear to be a true reflection of what had to happen.
This feature seemed a reflection on the mendicant orders, and the idea of a community life without vows and not in isolation from everyday life, was looked upon as something new and strange, and even as bearing affinities to the Beghards and other sects, at that time causing trouble to both Church and state.
3 The power of a grating to construct light of nearly definite wavelength is well illustrated by Young's comparison with the production of a musical note by reflection of a sudden sound from a row of palings.
reflection, for we are always conscious that even after determination we are free to will or not to will.
reflection of the moon.
- The signs of dogmatic reflection in this Gospel point to its having been composed somewhat late in the 1st century, probably after Luke's Gospel, and this is in accord with the conclusion that some insertions had been made in the Marcan document used by this evangelist which were not in that used by Luke (see Luke, Gospel Of St).
The idea of power, or active causation, on the other hand, " is got," he acknowledges, not through the senses, but " through our consciousness of our own voluntary agency, and therefore through reflection " (bk.
Instead of the sober annalistic style of the earlier historian we have a work marked by hyperbole, inflated rhetoric and homiletic reflection.
If pencils proceed from media of high optical density to media of low density, and have a semi-aperture greater than the critical angle, total reflection occurs; in such cases no plane surface can be employed, hence front lenses have small radii of curvature in order to permit the wide pencils to reach the air (see fig.
The "why?" is the DOOR THROUGH WHICH HE ENTERS THE WORLD OF REASON AND REFLECTION.
And this was not the result of logical reasoning but was a direct and mysterious reflection.
"No, he would not have approved," said Pierre, after reflection.
This is perhaps a reflection of a 'master storyline ' that assumes international standard-setting activities are almost solely the purview of larger organizations.
The bottom looked like " highly polished metal " with a reddish glow, possibly a reflection of the primary red light.
Coming Out Jewish can stimulate reflection on Jewish-Christian Relations in other ways, too.
Theological reflection must make its contribution within the context of that history.
By forming a device with reflection coefficients of -1 and 1, a bipolar MLS diffuser produces better scattering.
The nebulae IC 432 and NGC 2023 appear as small blue reflection nebulae.
The MBE system features reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) that can be carried out during growth.
Also in true classic style he casts no reflection in a mirror.
The Gulf War was a reflection of that reality .
Its sound quality results from a novel reverb algorithm based on random reflection patterns.
Late Reflection Gain late reflection gain gain; This gain modifies the late reflection reverb level of the room.
Signs are not the reflection of a basic reality any more; they become simulacra, a term borrowed by Baudrillard from Ecclesiates.
Article continues At least my bedside vigil gave me time for sober reflection.
Reflection, as is required to underpin PDP for example, requires the ability to assess our own competence.
But reflection is not enough as Freire put it: Reflection without action is mere verbalism and action without reflection is pure activism.
Although it uses technology similar to Sony 's X-black to reduce reflection and keep colors vibrant, it fails on both counts.
It showed his wan face, streaked with mud and blood, in a moment of reflection.
For many people, success provides little data and stimulates scant reflection.
It is similar to looking at a reflection in a mirror, thus the name.
The value at auction is the valuation that is usually used for tax and estate purposes as it gives the best reflection of the real value.
The card should be a reflection of the season and include a saying that is appropriate for the people you will be sending it to.
Screen Coatings-Many new laptops have glossy coatings on their screens that look just great in the store, but once you take the laptop outside or try using it with your back to a large window, the reflection can be frustrating.
Your score is a reflection of how you compare to other consumers and lets a financial institution determine how much of a risk you would be to lend money to.
Plant life now covers once frozen tundra, a reflection of increasing temperatures.
From cooking to gathering, it's hard to stay out of the kitchen, so make sure your kitchen is a reflection of you.
Light strips, surrounding the mirror, are popular, as are small crystal table lamps, which give your reflection a softer glow.
What they had witnessed in the last hour required the silence of personal reflection.
Adrienne grabbed a large stainless steel spoon from its hanger on the wall and primped at her distorted reflection.
When she was done, she studied her reflection.
He had no reflection.
She looked at her shoe then back up, straightening as she stared at her reflection.
For a few moments they sipped in silent reflection.
Maybe the loneliness he saw in her eyes was merely a reflection.
As, however, the wavelength necessary to cover any considerable distance must be at least 200 or 300 ft., it becomes impracticable to employ mirrors for reflection.
The prominence of Jerusalem, the centre of post-exilic Judaism, necessarily invited reflection.
5) is QQ'- QS = BD sec 4:,(I - cos SQQ') = BD sec cI)(1 +cos 20) = 2BD cos 4); from which it follows that an error of given magnitude in the figure of a surface is less important in oblique than in perpendicular reflection.
Then, if Q be any radiant point and Q' its image (primary focus) in the spherical mirror AP, we have 1 1 2cos4) v l + u 'a ' ' where v 1 = AQ', u =AQ, a =OA, =angle of incidence QAO, equal to the angle of reflection Q'AO.
The same conception was utilized by Theodoric of Vriberg, a Dominican, who wrote at some time between 1304 and 1311 a tract entitled De radialibus impressionibus, in which he showed how the primary bow is formed by two refractions and one internal reflection; i.e.
Bartolus, although written some twenty years previously, contains a chapter entitled "Vera iridis tota generatis explicatur," in which it is shown how the primary bow is formed by two refractions and one reflection, and the secondary bow by two refractions and two reflections.
If the ray suffers one internal reflection at D, then it is readily seen that, if DB be the path of the reflected ray, the angle ADB equals 2r, i.e.
Similarly it may be shown that each internal reflection introduces a supplementary deviation of 7r - 2r; hence, if the ray be reflected n times, the total deviation will be D =2(i - r) +n (7r - 2r) .
Thus, rays suffering one internal reflection will all lie within a cone of about 42°; in this direction the illumination will be most intense; within the cone the illumination will be fainter, while, without it, no light will be transmitted to the eye.
It is apparent, therefore, that all drops transmitting intense light after one internal reflection to the eye will lie on the surfaces of cones having the eye for their common vertex, the line joining the eye to the sun for their axis, and their semi-vertical angles equal to about 41° for the violet rays and 43° for the red rays.
Reflection of Light.
No poet has surpassed him in the power of vitally reproducing the pleasure and pain of the passing hour, not recalled by idealizing reflection as in Horace, nor overlaid with mythological ornament as in Propertius, but in all the keenness of immediate impression.
Satire, debarred from comment on political action, turned to social and individual life, and combined with the newly-developed taste for ethical analysis and reflection introduced by Cicero.
If we ask what that time provided to stir the fancy and move the mood of imaginative reflection, it is in the lyrical poems of Horace that we shall find the most varied and trustworthy answer.
His knowledge of human nature is keen and ample, and his sermons are a remarkable reflection of the manners and customs of his age.
The image is formed by 674° s°° successive total reflection at the surfaces b c and a b.
After much discussion and reflection he drew closer to the camp of "the Oxford Liberal Movement."
Again, in an ocular heliometer by Steinheil double image is similarly produced by a divided prism of total reflection placed in parallel rays.
In the last the field is full of false light, and it is not possible to give sufficiently minute and steady separation to the images; and there are of necessity a collimator, two prisms of total reflection, and a small telescope through which the rays must pass; consequently there is great loss of light.
The blue of the sea-water as observed by the Forel scale has of course nothing to do with the blue appearance of any distant water surface due to the reflection of a cloudless sky.
The infinite God is the all; the world of independent objects is the result of reflection or self-consciousness, by which the infinite unity is broken up. God is thus over and above the distinction of subject and object; our knowledge is but a reflex or picture of the infinite essence.
It may be regarded as an epicycloid in which the rolling and fixed circles are equal in diameter, as the inverse of a parabola for its focus, or as the caustic produced by the reflection at a spherical surface of rays emanating from a point on the circumference.
One of the chief proofs that has been urged of the truth of its point of view is the persistency with which it has always asserted itself at a certain stage in philosophical reflection and as the solution of certain recurrent speculative difficulties.
The writer's concluding reflection: the small success of Jesus' activity among the Jews.
Hence the octave, though comparatively feeble in the incident train, may predominate in the scattered reflection constituting the echo.
It further follows, as in the analogous case of light, that there is a certain angle termed the critical angle, whose sine is found by dividing the less by the greater velocity, such that all rays of sound meeting the surface separating two different bodies will not pass onward, but suffer total reflection back into the first body, if the.
13), the angle POM being greater than 1 5z°, will not pass into the water at all, but suffer total reflection.
To show its intermittent character its reflection is viewed in a revolving mirror.
We shall deduce the modes of vibration of the air column in a cylindrical pipe from the consideration that the air in motion within the pipe forms some part of a system of stationary waves, one train being formed by the exciter of the disturbance, and the other being formed by the reflection of the train at the end of the pipe.
But the reflection is not complete, for some of the energy comes out as waves; hence the direct and reflected trains are quite equal, and cannot neutralize each other at the loop.
The flame appears to lengthen, but if the reflection is viewed in a vertical mirror revolving about a vertical axis or in Koenig's cube of mirrors, it is seen that the flame is really intermittent, jumping up and down once with each vibration, sometimes apparently going within the jet tube at its lowest point.
§ 370), using as a source a " bird-call," a whistle of high frequency, formed a series of stationary waves by reflection at a flat surface.
Sceptical reflection rather than systematic scepticism is what meets us in Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592), though the elaborate presentation of sceptical and relativistic arguments in his " Apologie de Raimond-Sebond " (Essais, ii.
Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) is the main technique that is used to study these reactions.
I would point to the glory of the sun, to the pale reflection of the moon.
This was felt to be a fair reflection of the votes polled by Grads.
But a little reflection will show that he wrote with his usual accuracy and sobriety when he described her influence on him.
Consequently his theology is cosmological speculation and ethical reflection based on the sacred Scriptures.
We will now consider the application of the principle to the formation of images, unassisted by reflection or refraction (Phil.
"The case," says Henry Adams, "proved impeachment to be an impracticable thing for partisan purposes, and it decided the permanence of those lines of constitutional development which were a reflection of the common law."
Prince Andrew stood leaning on the railing of the raft listening to Pierre, and he gazed with his eyes fixed on the red reflection of the sun gleaming on the blue waters.
Like its sister Epistle to the Colossians, it represents, whoever wrote it, deep experience and bold use of reflection on the meaning of that experience; if it be from the pen of the Apostle Paul, it reveals to us a distinct and important phase of his thought.
If a surface intended to be flat is affected with a slight general curvature, a remedy may be found in an alteration of focus, and the remedy is the less complete as the reflection is more oblique.
And this simple reflection suddenly destroyed all the interest Prince Andrew had felt in the impending reforms.
He took this as a sign of approval and a confirmation of his thoughts, and after a few minutes' reflection continued to think aloud.
The lamp c illuminates the drum-head and also, by reflection, the portions of the position-circle which come under the microscopes d and e.
But he never ceased to exercise an independent judgment, and his work on St Paul, which appeared in 1855, was the result of much original reflection and inquiry.
The most important subjects of his inquiries are enumerated by Forbes under the following five heads: - (1) The laws of polarization by reflection and refraction, and other quantitative laws of phenomena; (2) The discovery of the polarizing structure induced by heat and pressure; (3) The discovery of crystals with two axes of double refraction, and many of the laws of their phenomena, including the connexion of optical structure and crystalline forms; (4) The laws of metallic reflection; (5) Experiments on the absorption of light.
reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) that can be carried out during growth.
rift basins; a multichannel seismic reflection line; and sediment core analyzes.
It is often associated with offering guidance, encouraging self- reflection and increasing self-reliance.
The holder is attached onto a tilt swivel and can be adjusted in order to avoid light reflection.
thoughtful reflection on the reading suggests that it relates to temple prostitution, which Paul was understandably opposed to.
The park provides visitors with sloping walking paths, a professionally designed reflection pond and baseball diamonds.
They would never have died out, however, had not circumstances altered, and a new mental attitude been taken up. The spirit of philosophical and theological speculation and of ethical reflection, which began to spread through the churches, did not know what to make of the old hopes of the future.
a microscope cover-glass, held close to the eye and inclined at an angle of 45° to the horizon, one can See the images of objects in front, formed by reflection from the surface of the glass, and at the same time one can also see through the transparent glass.
p. 362) gives the following note from his laboratory book on the 10th of September 1822: "Polarized a ray of lamplight by reflection, and endeavoured to ascertain whether any depolarizing action (was) exerted on it by water placed between the poles of a voltaic battery in a glass cistern; one Wollaston's trough used; the fluids decomposed were pure water, weak solution of sulphate of soda, and strong sulphuric acid; none of them had any effect on the polarized light, either when out of or in the voltaic circuit, so that no particular arrangement of particles could be ascertained in this way."
Theme Title - More amusing than actually useful, with names like "Fractal Broccoli" or simply an emoticon "=)" the names are a reflection of the creativity of the people who posted it.
Though the early Hebrews (of the time before the 5th century B.C.) must have reflected on life, there is no trace of such reflection, of a systematic sort, in their extant literature.
This reflection is suggested by the following articles: Aether; Molecule; Capillary Action; Diffusion; Radiation, Theory Of; and others.
The metallic plate thus produced formed, when stripped from its support, a reflection grating reproducing many of the characteristics of the original.
In another form but along the same path of reflection the other sciences have proceeded.
Very few authors of so high a class have been so consistent, or have made their conduct so close a reflection of their philosophy.
For a plane boundary the image is the optical reflection of the vortex.
Another important conception connected with the preceding is the infinity of philosophy, which arises out of history and is as it were a reflection from history, varying at every moment and always solving a problem by placing alongside its solution the premise of a new history and therefore of a new problem and a new philosophy.
At first sight few natural materials appear to be of less interest than the soil; yet its importance is manifest on the slightest reflection.
Reflection shows that our apprehension of the tree is conditioned by the sense-organs with which we have been endowed, and that the apprehension of a blind man, and still more the apprehension of a dog or horse, is quite different from ours.
If, as Hegel asserted, our experience is all knowledge, and if knowledge is indefinitely transformed by the conditions of knowing, then we are tempted to regard the object as superfluous, and to treat our innate conviction that knowledge has reference to objects as a delusion which philosophical reflection is destined to dispel.
four series of "Researches on Heat," in the course of which he described the polarization of heat by tourmaline, by transmission through a bundle of thin mica plates inclined to the transmitted ray, and by reflection from the multiplied surfaces of a pile of mica plates placed at the polarizing angle, and also its circular polarization by two internal reflections in rhombs of rock-salt.
the image has the same appearance as the object and is not perverted as when the reflection of a printed page is viewed in a mirror.
In the Diversarum Speculationum Mathematicarum et Physicarum (1585), by the Venetian Giovanni Battista Benedetti, there is a letter in which he discusses the simple camera obscura and mentions the improvement some one had made in it by the use of a double convex lens in the aperture; he also says that the images could be made erect by reflection from any plane mirror.
Its main argument is that speech is a necessary outcome of that special arrangement of mental forces which distinguishes man, and more particularly from his habits of reflection.
However crude and hasty this critical investigation, it helped to direct philosophic reflection to the unity of mind, and so to develop the post-Kantian line of speculation.
Thus his theoretic opposition to the Kantian aesthetics is but the reflection of his practical opposition to the form-idolatry of the Weimar poets.
But so absolute was his lifelong self-mastery that he was hardly ever betrayed into saying that which, on cooler reflection, needed to be recalled.
Nevertheless it was by the work of a number of Roman chroniclers during this period that the materials of early Roman history were systematized, and the record of the state, as it was finally given to the world in the artistic work of Livy, was extracted from the early annals, state documents and private memorials, combined into a coherent unity, and supplemented by invention and reflection.
II), and that they are absorbed there without reflection.
The laws of reflection of sound are identical with those of the reflection of light, viz.
(1) the planes of incidence and reflection are coincident, and (2) the angles of incidence and reflection are equal.
Examples of reflection of sound in buildings are only too frequent.
The irregularities send back a scattered reflection of the different incident trains, and this scattered reflection becomes more copious the shorter the wavelength.
In 1637, when the doubts of Scaliger and Heinsius as to the purity of the Greek of the New Testament prompted the rector of Hamburg to introduce the study of classical authors, any reflection on the style of the Greek Testament was bitterly resented.
It changed thought into an emotional dream; it plunged into the ocean of sentiment; it treated the old world of fable as the reflection of a higher reality, and transformed reality into poetry; and after all these expedients, to borrow a phrase of Augustine's, it only saw afar off the land of its desire.
It is indeed an image and reflection of the first Being; but the further the line of successive projections is prolonged the smaller is its share in the true existence.
This knowledge of theirs was not based on reflection, on scientific inquiry and proof, but on revelation.
Arbes have used a method depending on total reflection (Drude's Theory of Optics, p. 394).
In this way the existence of bands in the infrared part of the spectrum has been predicted in the case of quartz and detected by experiments on the selective reflection of the material.
On the other hand reflection on past events made clear to him not only the sufferings but the defects and follies of the national heroes, and from henceforth, for the first time, we notice a bitterly humorous vein in his writings.
The above conveys the cycle of ideas within which Paul's reflection worked.
Near the mid line of the body, and at right angles to the last, another reflection, the falciform ligament, runs forward, and the line of attachment of this indicates the junction of the right and left lobes of the liver.
The four orders now retained exhibit successive stages in the modification of the ctenidia by reflection and concrescence of the filament, but other organs, such as the heart, adductors, renal organs, may not show corresponding stages.
Its more pointed lower end iš attached to the uterus by the ligament of the ovary, while its anterior border has a short reflection of peritoneum, known as the mesovarium, running forward to the broad ligament of the uterus.
To this conclusion Berkeley seems, in the first place, to have been led by the train of reflection that naturally conducts to subjective or egoistic idealism.
The collimator has a vertical slit at its outer end, the width of which may be regulated by a micrometer screw; in some instruments one half of the slit is covered by a small total reflection prism which permits the examination of two spectra simultaneously.
The scale telescope contains a graduated scale which is illuminated by a small burner; the scale is viewed by reflection from the prism face opposite the first refracting face.
In it de Gerando, after a rapid review of ancient and modern speculations on the origin of our ideas, singles out the theory of primary ideas, which he endeavours to combat under all its forms. The latter half of the work, devoted to the analysis of the intellectual faculties, is intended to show how all human knowledge is the result of experience; and reflection is assumed as the source of our ideas of substance, of unity and of identity.
Our reflection is that there is a great difference between the essence and the consistency of Kant's philosophy.
An image of the ivory scale B is observed after reflection in the magnet mirror by the telescope A.
In physical science, a halo is a luminous circle, surrounding the sun or moon, with various auxiliary phenomena, and formed by the reflection and refraction of light by ice-crystals suspended in the atmosphere.
Thomas Young explained the parhelic circle (P) as due to reflection from the vertical faces of the long prisms and the bases of the short ones.
Reflection from an excess of horizontal prisms gives rise to a vertical circle passing through the sun.
Double internal reflection by a triangular prism would form a single coloured image on the parhelic circle at about 98° from the sun.
Essentially it consists in an optical system of lenses and mirrors, or mirrors alone, the upper part of which projects from cover, or from the deck of a submarine, while the observer looks into the lower end, receiving an image of the surrounding country or sea by reflection down a tube.
Sheol is the common abode of the righteous and the ungodly: life there is shadowy and feeble, but seems to continue in a wavering and dim reflection features of this life.
This paper was followed by many others on diverse topics - on rain and dew and the origin of springs, on heat, the colour of the sky, steam, the auxiliary verbs and participles of the English language and the reflection and refraction of light.
Mahommedanism indeed is active, and is the chief opponent of Christianity to-day, but the character of its teaching is too exact a reflection of the race, time, place and climate in which it arose to admit of its becoming universal.
Experience, coupled with observation and reflection, as well as the more indirect teachings of tradition, are therefore of primary importance to the practical gardener.
the product of reflection upon experience, thus reducing the valiuity of the historical argument to that of the theoretical proofs.
It was also asserted that Belgian French literature lacked a national basis, and was merely a reflection of Parisian models.
The discussions of the next few years served to make clearer than before the practical workings of the constitution of the United States as a shield and support of slavery; and Garrison, after a long and painful reflection, came to the conclusion that its pro-slavery clauses were immoral, and that it was therefore wrong to take an oath for its support.
Gr eek culture had, however, both in " Hellenic " and " Hellenistic " times, a common essence, just as light is light whether in the original luminous body or in a reflection, and to describe this by the term Hellenism seems most natural.
The movements of the apparatus, which when complete should consist of two similar pendulums in planes at right angles to each other, are recorded by means of a beam of light, which, after reflection from the mirror or mirrors, passes through a cylindrical lens and is focussed upon a moving surface of photographic paper.
Many passages are based upon purely intellectual reflection.
That, to be sure, on calm reflection, is not so very surprising.
The reflection of light from the snow is blinding.
Thus the reflection of a person in a mirror is known as his "image"; in popular usage one person is similarly described as "the very image" of another; so in entomology the term is applied in its Latin form imago to an insect which, having passed through its larval stages, has achieved its full typical development.
A paper published in 1809 ("Sur une propriete de la lumiere reflechie par les corps diaphanes") contained the discovery of the polarization of light by reflection, which is specially associated with his name, and in the following year he won a prize from the Institute with his memoir, "Theorie de la double refraction de la lumiere dans les substances cristallines."
Its composite population is a faithful reflection of the heterogeneous elements in the dominions of the Habsburgs, while the trade and industry of Hungary are centralized at Budapest in a way that can scarcely be affirmed of any other European capital.
of questions to be answered in writing should as a rule be divided into two parts: (i.) a number of questions requiring short answers and intended to test the range of the candidate's knowledge; (ii.) questions requiring long answers, intended to test its depth, and the candidate's powers of co-ordination and reflection.
A necessary condition for the application of the second kind of test is that time should be given for reflection and for rewriting,.
But on reflection we are led to question the sufficiency of the account thus offered to us.
It is no longer the law of Moses or that of the prophetic revelation - it is the standard of rightdoing resident in every man's mind, the creation of wise reflection; such a conception lies outside the point of view that forms the very substance of Hebrew thought in the period prior to the 5th century.
His philosophy was not one aspect of his intellectual life, to be contemplated from others; it was the ripe fruit of concentrated reflection, and had become the one all-embracing form and principle of his thinking.
Most interesting of all, however, is the reflection of the classic spirit in works already begun in earlier days, such as Egmont and Faust.
But in 1798 appeared Hermann and Dorothea, one of Goethe's most perfect poems. It is indeed remarkable - when we consider by how much reflection and theoretic discussion the composition of the poem was preceded and accompanied - that it should make upon the reader so simple and "naive" an impression; in this respect it is the triumph of an art that conceals art.
The revolt was not a reflection of the attitude of the natives.
the later are coloured by religious reflection and show the characteristic tendency of the Old Testament to re-tell the fortunes of Israel in a form that lays ever-increasing weight on the work of Yahweh for his people.
In philosophy his method was psychological; he attempted to explain the Ego by examining the nature of its reflection upon the facts of consciousness.
He hated the "morbid rage of debate" because he believed that men were never convinced by argument, but only by reflection, through reading or unprovocative conversation; and this belief guided him through life.
chap. 21) of Leonard Digges 1 (originally published by his son Thomas in 1571, and again in 1591): - "Marvellous are the conclusions that may be performed by glasses concave and convex, of circular and parabolic forms, using for multiplication of beams sometime the aid of glasses transparent, which, by fraction, should unite or dissipate the images or figures presented by the reflection of other."
This form was adopted by the - elder Herschel to avoid the loss of light from reflection in the small mirror of the Newtonian telescope.
Also, if the axis is made to revolve at half the apparent diurnal motion of the stars, the image of the celestial sphere, viewed by reflection from such a moving mirror, will appear at rest at every point - hence the name coelostat applied to the apparatus.
Besides these complications there is another drawback to the use of the coelostat for general astronomical work, viz., the obliquity of the angle of reflection, which can never be less than that of the declination of the star, and may be greater to any extent.
Within the focus of the object-glass is a right-angled prism of total reflection, which diverts the converging rays from the object-glass at right angles to the axis of the telescope, and permits the observing micrometer n to be mounted in the very convenient position shown in the figure.
While Anu, with whom there was associated as a pale reflection a consort Antum, assigned to him under the influence of the widely prevalent view among the early Semites which conceived of gods always in pairs, remained more or less of an abstraction during the various periods of the Babylonian-Assyrian religion and taking little part in the active cult of the temples, his unique position as the chief god of the highest heavens was always recognized in the theological system developed by the priests, which found an expression in making him the first figure of a triad, consisting of Anu, Bel and Ea, among whom the priests divided the three divisions of the universe, the heavens, the earth with the atmosphere above it, and the watery expanse respectively.
The first message of his first presidency had contained a severe reflection on the bank; and in the very height of this second campaign (July 1832) he vetoed the re-charter, which had been passed in 1 The charge was freely made then and afterwards (though, it is now believed, without justification) that Clay had supported Adams and by influencing his followers in the house had been instrumental in securing his election, as the result of a bargain by which Adams had agreed to pay him for his support by appointing him secretary of state.
They are objects of its reflection and made explicit in the few with pains and gradually.
In these truths predicates are accepted or rejected by subjects, and therefore depend on the reflection of fact in Xoyot (propositions).
to the physician, there is a specific form of this, but the reflection that this is so is something of an afterthought.
So too when the reflection is made that scepticism is after all a medicine that purges out itself with the disease, the disciple of Pyrrho and Aenesidemus bows and says, Precisely!
It is Locke's initial attribution of the primary role in mental process to the simple ideas of sensation that precludes him from the development of the conception of another sort of ideas, or mental contents that he notes, which are produced by reflection on " the operations of our own mind within us."
Reflection remains a sort of " internal sense," whose ideas are of later origin than those of the external sense.
Upon abstraction from all particular methods of thought these rules were to be discerned a priori or without dependence on experience by reflection solely upon the use of the understanding in general.
As soon divorce the investigation of the shape and material of a mirror from the laws of the incidence of the rays that form images in it, and call it a science of reflection!
Some indication of the way in which he would hypothetically and speculatively mitigate the antithesis is perhaps afforded by the reflection that the distinction of the mental and what appears as material is an external distinction in which the one appears outside to the other.
It was in the pressing to its extreme consequences of the conception of uncompromising identity which is to be found in Leibnitz, that the contradictions took their rise which Herbart aimed at solving, by the method of relations and his doctrine of the ultimate plurality of " reals," The logic of relations between conceptual units, themselves unaltered by the relation, seems a kind of reflection of his metaphysical method.
He takes courage from the reflection that to accept scepticism is to presume the competence of the thought that accepts.
An earnest attempt to satisfy this demand was made by Fichte whose single principle was the activity of the pure Ego, while his single method was the assertion of a truth revealed by reflection on the content of conscious experience, the characterization of this as a half truth and the supplementation of it by its other, and finally the harmonization of both.
The ego posits itself, but reflection on the given shows that we must add that it posits also the non-ego.
A vivid realization of the industrial revolution in the state is to be gained from the reflection that in 1875 California was pre-eminent only for gold and sheep; that the aggregate mineral output thirty years later was more than a third greater than then, and that nevertheless the value of farm produce at the opening of the 10th century exceeded by more than $100,000,000 the value of mineral produce, and exceeded by $50,000,000 the most generous estimate of the largest annual gold output in the annals of the state.
Twinning according to the second law can only be explained by reflection across the plane (roi), not by rotation about an axis; chalcopyrite affords an excellent example of this comparatively rare type of symmetric twinning.
afterwards, Anne declared her "heart to be entirely English," words which were resented by some as a reflection on the late king.
The light from the slit is reflected on to this mirror by an inclined fixed mirror, and after reflection at the movable mirror is again reflected at the fixed mirror and so reaches the recording drum.
The progress of reflection is especially shown in the higher ideas entertained regarding the gods.
Within the Catholic body itself there was even at this time a more or less pronounced anti-Roman movement, a reflection of the Gallican and Febronian tendencies on the continent of Europe, and the " Catholic Committee," consisting for the most part of influential laymen, which had been formed to negotiate with the government, was prepared to go a long 1 This declaration, which denounced the mass as " idolatrous and superstitious," was taken by all office-bearers, including bishops on taking their seats in the House of Lords, until the Relief Act of 1829.
This idea contains within it the germ of the modern idea of the subjectivity of sense-given data; perception is not merely a passive reflection of external objects.
But the senses cannot lead to truth; thought and reflection must look at the thing on every side.
This period was for Calhoun a time of reflection.
It is useful, therefore, in a summary sketch of asceticism, to begin with the facts as they can be observed among less advanced races, or as mere survivals among people who have reached the level of genuine moral reflection; and from this basis to proceed to a consideration of self-denial consciously pursued as a method of ethical perfection.
When he has reached the stage of reflection there arises what we know as conscience.
It is the only sort which can ripen north of the great wall, where the winter ends late and begins very early; but in the southern provinces, where the climate is milder and the land more fertile, two harvests a year may be easily obtained, and it is for me a sweet reflection to have procured this advantage for my people."
and it is possible that the primeval empire of the Saga is only a reflection of the Achaemenid and Sassanid empires of reality, whose existence legend dates back to the beginning of the world, simply because legend is pervaded by the assumption that the conditions obtaining in the present are the natural conditions, and, as such, valid for all time.
Seven years afterwards his most popular prose work - The Aids to Reflection - first appeared.
The special relation among the parts of our nature to which Butler alludes is the subordination of the particular passions to the universal principle of reflection or conscience.
He calls it the Principle of Reflection, the Reflex Principle of Approbation, and assigns to it as its province the motives or propensions to action.
As, in Fenelon's own opinion, the great merit of Homer was his "amiable simplicity," so the great merit of Telemaque is the art that gives to each adventure its hidden moral, to each scene some sly reflection on Versailles.
The simplest reflection among savages and halfcivilized men connects vitality with the air inhaled in Pneuma.
A preponderance of reflection and foreign influences distinguish the poets now to be mentioned.
A theory sprang up which was supposed to explain the marvellous powers of the Buddhas by representing them as only the outward appearance, the reflection, as it were, or emanation, of ethereal Buddhas dwelling in the skies.
The eye, for example, is damp and porous, and the act of seeing consists in the reflection of the image (SELKeAov) mirrored on the smooth moist surface of the pupil.
Another discussed conduction in curved sheets; a third the distribution of electricity in two influencing spheres; a fourth the deter mination of the constant on which depends the intensity of induced currents; while others were devoted to Ohm's law, the motion of electricity in submarine cables, induced magnetism, &c. In other papers, again, various miscellaneous topics were treated - the thermal conductivity of iron, crystalline reflection and refraction, certain propositions in the thermodynamics of solution and vaporization, &c. An important part of his work was contained in his Vorlesungen fiber mathematische Physik (1876), in which the principles of dynamics, as well as various special problems, were treated in a somewhat novel and original manner.
He studied the reflection and polarization of radiant heat, the magnetism of rocks, electrostatic induction, daguerrotypy, &c.
In optics, the term caustic is given to the envelope of luminous rays after reflection or refraction; in the first case the envelope is termed a catacaustic, in the second a diacaustic. Catacaustics are to be observed as bright curves when light is allowed to fall upon a polished riband of steel, such as a watch-spring, placed on a table, and by varying the form of the spring and moving the source of light, a variety of patterns may be obtained.
The investigation of caustics, being based on the assumption of the rectilinear propagation of light, and the validity of the experimental laws of reflection and refraction, is essentially of a geometrical nature, and as such it attracted the attention of the mathematicians of the 17th and succeeding centuries, more notably John Bernoulli, G.
equality of the angles of incidence and reflection, that the reflected ray QR is such that the angles RQC and CQP are equal; to determine the caustic, it is necessary to determine the envelope of this line.
The Cartesian equation to the caustic produced by reflection at a circle of rays diverging from any point was obtained by Joseph Louis Lagrange; it may be expressed in theform 1(4,2_ a2) (x 2+ y2) - 2a 2 cx - a 2 c 2 1 3 = 2 7 a4c2y2 (x2 + y2 - c2)2, where a is the radius of the reflecting circle, and c the distance of the luminous point from the centre of the circle.
The strong sense of social wrongs, the impatience with tongue-religion, the utter ignoring of ceremonialism, the reflection on the value and significance of "life," are distinctive simply of the "wisdom" writers.
His mother, the duchess, died in 1472, and his first wife in 1473; in 1475 and the following year he went on pilgrimage to the holy places of Italy; from this time forth there was a strong tincture of serious reflection thrown over his character; he was now, as we learn from Caxton, nominated "Defender and Director of the Siege Apostolic for the Pope in England."
they are non-superposable, one being the mirror reflection of the other: they are left-handed and right-handed crystals respectively.
In the higher chromosphere on occasions metallic gases are carried up to such a level that without an eclipse a bright line spectrum of many elements may be seen, but it is always possible to see those of hydrogen and helium, and by opening the slit of the spectroscope so as to weaken still further the continuous spectrum from the photosphere (now a mere reflection) the actual forms of the gaseous structures called prominences round the sun's rim may be seen.
This inferiority of the Gregorian he explained as being probably due to the mutual interference of the rays as they crossed at the principal focus before reflection at the second mirror.
The decline in revenue, £4,000,000 in four years, while not a true reflection of the economic condition of the country - yearly becoming more self-supporting by the increase in home produce - caused general disquietude and injuriously affected the position of the ministry.
He adds: " This made me take reflections into consideration, and finding them regular, so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence; I understood, that by their mediation Optick instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable, provided a Reflecting substance could be found, which would polish as finely as Glass, and reflect as much light, as glass transmits, and the art of communicating to it a Parabolick figure be also attained.
The species of colour, and degree of Refrangibility proper to any particular sort of Rays, is not mutable by Refraction, nor by Reflection from natural bodies, nor by any other cause, that I could yet observe.
These propositions having been reached, apart from particular experience, by reflection upon the fundamental principle, we have in them, Parmenides conceived, a body of information resting upon a firm basis and entitled to be called " truth."
But there is a primary kind of volition which has not reflection for its condition, which is yet free and spontaneous.
This brought them within the sphere of reflection, and gave as their guarantee the impossibility of thinking them reversed; and led to their being regarded as wholly relative to human intelligence, restricted to the sphere of the phenomenal, incapable of revealing to us substantial reality - necessary, yet subjective.
And "all subjectivity with all reflection expires in the spontaneity of apperception.
In external nature there are expansion and contraction History which correspond to spontaneity and reflection.
spontaneity; humanity expresses reflection.
In human history the East represents the spontaneous stage; the Pagan and Christian world represent stages of reflection.
First, in the spontaneous stage, where reflection is not yet developed, and art is imperfect, humanity has thought only of the immensity around it.
We thus after all fall back on reflection as our ground for their universal application; mere spontaneity of apprehension is futile; their universality is grounded in their necessity, not their necessity in their universality.
It is not clear from the analysis whether the self is immediately observed as an acting or originating cause, or whether reflection working on the principle of causality is compelled to infer its existence and character.
When Cousin thus set himself to vindicate those points by reflection, he gave up the obvious advantage of his other position that the realities in `question are given us in immediate and spontaneous apprehension.
Immediate spontaneous apperception may seize this supreme reality; but to vindicate it by reflection as an inference on the principle of causality is impossible.
This long and varied service gave him extensive opportunities for observation, which he supplemented by constant study of naval authorities and reflection on the interpretation of the problems of maritime history.
Yet, however far he might go on the road to tyranny, Henry had sufficient cunning, versatility and power of cool reflection, to know precisely when he had reached the edge of the impossible.
Foolish as the sermon was, it was but the reflection of folly which was widely spread amongst the rude a~d less educated classes.
The Liberals, who complained that their leaders were pursuing a Conservative policy, could at least console themselves by the reflection that, the chancellor of the exchequer was introducing satisfactory budgets.
He may have anticipated with something of remorse the reflection of a modern historian, that the absenteeism of her landlords has been less of a curse to Ireland 'than the absenteeism of her men of genius.
The desired result could be obtained if it were possible, by reflection or otherwise, to cause two different rays to unite without loss and pursue a common path.
Aids to Reflection, Aphorism 2, Comment.
in the shade are common, and the heat is rendered still more unbearable by the reflection from a soil destitute of vegetation.
He found a retreat in France, where he could unite calm reflection upon the legitimate operations of " human understanding " with attention to his health.
The " verification " of this hypothesis, offered in the thirteenth and following chapters of the second book, goes to show in detail that even those ideas which are " most abstruse," how remote soever they may seem from original data of outward sense, or of inner consciousness, " are only such as the understanding frames to itself by repeating and joining together simple ideas that it had at first, either from perceiving objects of sense, or from reflection upon its own operations."
To prove this, our thoughts of space, time, infinity, power, substance, personal identity, causality, and others which " seem most remote from the supposed original " are examined in a " plain historical method," and shown to depend either on (a) perception of things external, through the five senses, or on (b) reflection upon operations of the mind within.
Reflection, " though it be not sense, as having nothing to do with external objects," is yet, he says, " very like it, and might properly enough be called internal sense."
But the suggestion that " sense " might designate both the springs of experience is misleading, when we find in the sequel how much Locke tacitly credits " reflection " with.
Although the second book is a sort of inventory of our ideas, as distinguished from the certainty and boundaries of our knowledge, Locke even here makes the assumption that the " simple ideas " of the five senses are practically qualities of things which exist without us, and that the mental " operations " discovered by " reflection " are those of a person continuously existing.
He thus relieves himself of the difficulty of having at the outset to explain how the immediate data of outward sense and reflection are accepted as " qualities " of things and persons.
The hypothesis, that even our most profound and sublime speculations are all limited to data of the senses and of reflection, is crucially tested by the " modes " and " substances " and " relations " under which, in various degrees of complexity, we somehow find ourselves obliged to conceive those simple phenomena.
And it is only thus, he says, that we can approach a positive conception of God, namely by " enlarging indefinitely some of the simple ideas we received from reflection."
This immediate consciousness of freedom persists upon another occasion even though subsequent reflection upon conduct should lead the individual to regard himself as determined at the very moment when he was aware of himself as free.
And though reflection upon conduct may lead us to suppose that our past acts were determined, that desire of pleasure or the wish to avoid pain controlled our wills, the unphilosophical observer interprets, in offenders against morality, such arguments as a mere excuse.
Philosophy is a process of reflection upon the presuppositions involved in unreflective thought.
But when such criticism passes into the attempt to find a universal criterion of morality - such an attempt being in effect an effort to make morality scientific - and especially when the attempt is seen, as it must in the end be seen, to fail (the moral consciousness being superior to all standards of morality and realizing itself wholly in particular judgments), then ethics as a process of reflection upon the nature of the moral consciousness may be said to begin.
26a reflection that the mark or sign of the perfect performance of a particular virtuous act or function is the presence of a characteristic pleasure which always accompanies it, is opposed to the reflection that it is a mark of the highest morality never to rest satisfied, and out of these seemingly contradictory statements of the reflective consciousness might arise a multitude of controversies either concerning pleasure and duty, or the even more difficult and complex conceptions of merit, progress, and the nature of the Supreme Good or Final End.
But so soon as men perceive upon reflection an apparent discrepancy between the utterances of their moral consciousness and certain conclusions to which theological speculation (or at a later period metaphysical and scientific inquiries) seems inevitably to lead them, they will not rest satisfied until the belief in the will's freedom (hitherto unquestioned) is upon further reflection justified or condemned.
The naive and fragmentary precepts of conduct, which are everywhere the earliest manifestation of nascent moral reflection, are a noteworthy element in the gnomic poetry of the 7th and 6th centuries B.C. Their importance is shown by the traditional enumeration of the Seven Sages of the 6th century, and their influence on ethical thought is attested by the references of Plato and Aristotle.
Even Socrates, in spite of his aversion to physics, was led by pious reflection to expound a teleological view of the physical world, as ordered in all its parts by divine wisdom for the realization of some divine end; and, in the metaphysical turn which Plato gave to this view, he was probably anticipated by Euclid of Megara, who held that the one real being is " that which we call by many names, Good, Wisdom, Reason or God," to which Plato, raising to a loftier significance the Socratic identification of the beautiful with the useful, added the further name of Absolute Beauty, explaining how man's love of the beautiful finally reveals itself as the yearning for the end and essence of being.
On account of the conflict of opinion in ethics we cannot hope to obtain certainty upon all questions; still reflection will lead us to discard some of the conflicting views and find a reconciliation for others, and will furnish, on the whole, a practically sufficient residuum of moral truth.
Nay, it would even be found that the habit of philosophical reflection often operated adversely to the attainment of this end, by developing the thinker's selfconsciousness, so as to disturb that normal relation to external objects on which the zest of ordinary enjoyment depends.
There is, however, a yet higher point to be reached in the upward ascent of the Neoplatonist from matter; and here the divergence of Plotinus from Platonic idealism is none the less striking, because it is a bona fide result of reverent reflection on Plato's teaching.
He attempts, however, to show, in a summary way, that all the duties which his moral theory recommends are also " the true interest of the individual," - taking into account the importance to his happiness of " peaceful reflection on one's own conduct."
In the main the appeal to reason has followed the traditional course of such movements in ethics, and has reaffirmed in the light of fuller reflection the moral principles implicit in the ordinary moral consciousness.
There is no doubt a distinction between morality as a form of consciousness and reflection upon that morality.
Similarly the notion of Conscience as a special faculty giving its pronouncements immediately and without reflection cannot be maintained in the face of modern psychological analysis and is untrue to the nature of moral judgment itself.
He further introduced, in 1821, the method of duplicate observations by direct vision and by reflection, and by these means obtained results of very high precision.
Having fallen in love with his own reflection in the waters of a spring, he pined away (or killed himself) and the flower that bears his name sprang up on the spot where he died.
7) that it was an omen of death to dream of seeing one's reflection in water.
The death of her father roused her to serious reflection, and one day, as she entered the oratory, she was struck by the image of the wounded Christ, placed there for an approaching festival.
Its position on the road from Tumbez to Lima gave it considerable political and commercial importance, and some reflection of that colonial distinction still remains.
The former school considered that the state of thought out of which myths were developed was produced by decaying language; the latter maintains that the corresponding phenomena of language were the reflection of thought.
By reflection on dreams, in which the self, or " spirit," of the savage seems to wander free from the bounds of time and space, to see things remote, and to meet and recognize dead friends or foes; by speculation on the experiences of trance and of phantasms of the dead or living, beheld with waking eyes; by pondering on the phenomena of shadows, of breath, of death and life, the savage evolved the idea of a separable soul or spirit capable of surviving bodily death.
The details point rather to a reflection of the entrance of the children of Israel, elsewhere ascribed to the leadership of Joshua (q.v.).
Secondly, the form may be looked at as the similarity evolved by a process of comparison, as the work of mental reflection, and in that way as essentially expressing a relation.
Philosophy, according to Herbart, begins with reflection upon our empirical conceptions, and consists in the reformation and elaboration of these - its three primary divisions being determined by as many distinct forms of elaboration.
becomes a, b, d ...; and this, which experience thrusts upon us, proves on reflection unthinkable.
And, therefore, finding on reflection any particular concrete factor contingent, we abstract the position from that which occupies it, and so reach the speculative notion of the pure Ego.
This subject is treated in the article Magneto-Optics, to which the reader is also referred for John Kerr's discovery of the effect on polarization produced by reflection from a magnetic pole, and for the action of a magnetic field on the radiation of a source - the "Zeeman effect."
Reflection and Refrciction.
- Huygens satisfactorily explained the laws of reflection and refraction on the principles of the wave theory, so far as the direction of the waves is concerned, but his explanation gives no account of the intensity and the polarization of the reflected light.
In order to avoid the question of the measurements of the intensity in different media, it is convenient to suppose that the refracted stream emerges into a medium similar to the first by a transition so gradual that no light is lost by reflection.
104) has, however, shown that the polarization of the light from the sky can only be explained on the elastic solid theory by Fresnel's hypothesis of a different density, and from the study of Hertzian oscillations, in which the direction of the electric vibrations can be a priori assigned, we learn that when these are in the plane of incidence there is no reflection at a certain angle, so that the electric force is perpendicular to the plane of polarization.
In the contrary case, total reflection commences as soon as sin i =µ 1, µ being still the relative refractive index of the more highly refracting medium; and for greater angles of incidence r becomes imaginary.
Fresnel's formulae are sufficiently accurate for most practical purposes, but that they are not an exact representation of the facts of reflection was shown by Sir David Brewster and by Sir G.
Wernicke and others have established that in general light polarized in any but the principal azimuths becomes elliptically polarized by reflection, the relative retardation of phase of the components polarized in these azimuths becoming 42 at a certain angle of incidence, called the principal incidence.
In some cases it is the component polarized in the plane of incidence that is most retarded and the reflection is then said to be positive: in the case of negative reflection the reverse takes place.
It was at first supposed that the defect of Fresnel's formulae was due to the neglect of the superficial undulations that, on a rigorous elastic solid theory of the ether, are called into existence at reflection and refraction.
The effect of such a transition-layer can easily be calculated, at least approximately; but it is of little use to take account of it except in the case of a theory of reflection that gives Fresnel's formulae as the result of an abrupt transition.
Lord Rayleigh has pointed out that all theories are defective in that they disregard the fact that one at least of the media is dispersive, and that it is probable that finite reflection would result at the interface of media of different dispersive powers, even in the case of waves for which the refractive indices are absolutely the same.
A more pronounced case of elliptic polarization by reflection is afforded by metals.
Formulae for metallic reflection may be obtained from Fresnel's expressions by writing the ratio sin i / sin r equal to a complex quantity, and interpreting the imaginary coefficients in the manner explained above.
The higher the co-efficient of extinction for light of a given period, the more copious will be reflection of that constituent of a mixed pencil.
In a second type, called Nicol's prisms, one stream is removed by total reflection.
We seem to see things coming into being and passing from it; but reflection tells us that decease and growth only mean a new aggregation (viPyrcpcvcs) and disruption (&arcpco-Ls).
Thus Anaxagoras distrusted the senses, and gave the preference to the conclusions of reflection.
The only source of doubt as to the validity of the conclusion that this is really the zodiacal light arises from the possibility that, after the close of the ordinarily recognized twilight, there may be a faint illumination arising from the reflection of light by the very rare upper atmosphere, shown by the phenomena of meteors to extend some hundred miles or more above the earth's surface.
The question whether the Gegenschein can be accounted for by the reflection of light from the same matter as the zodiacal band is still unsettled.
This view certainly accounts for some intensification of the light, to which may be added the intensification produced by the vertical reflection 'of the sunlight.
The human soul, the human intellect or spirit, the spirit of the universe, and the elements or matter are the four stages of this divine emanation, man being the immediate reflection of God, and nature in turn a reflection of man.
The losses of light which occur in this case are due to reflection, which takes place in the passage of the light through the glass surfaces.
But since no rays are lost in this transmission (apart from the slight loss due to reflection) the brightness of the image point in the water is as large as that in air, although the apertures have become less.
In immersion-systems a very much greater aggregate of rays is used in the representation than is possible in dry-systems. In addition to a considerable increase in brightness the losses due to reflection are avoided; losses which arise in passing to the back surface of the cover-slip and to the front surface of the front lens.
The objects observed with the vertical illuminator must not have a glass cover if the dry system is employed, because the upper surface of the glass cover would send so much light back into the objective by reflection, that the image would be indistinct.
46) is made entirely of glass, and is in the form of a paraboloid, having on the top a spherical hole, of such a curvature that all entering rays, r r' r", parallel to the axis, after their reflection on the surface of the paraboloid, traverse the spherical surface perpendicularly and unite in F, the centre of the sphere.
Some immersion fluid must then be placed between the stage plate and the condenser in order to allow all the rays to pass out; otherwise only those rays would be able to pass out which are close to the axis of the condenser in the inside of the condenser, and are smaller than the limiting angle of the total reflection.
Through this hole the points of the metal plates b can be observed by total reflection on the surface c. The apertometer is laid on the stage, so that the hole lies in the axis of the microscope, and the hole is sharply focused.
It opens up a new series of questions upon which subsequent philosophic reflection has been directed, and gives to them the form, under which it is possible that they should be fruitfully regarded.
The fundamental question for philosophic reflection presented itself to him in the form which it had assumed in the hands of Locke and his successors in England, of Leibnitz and the Leibnitzian school in Germany.
Any success in the attempt is due only to the fact that Berkeley introduces alongside of his individualist notion a totally new conception, that of mind itself as not in the same way one of the matters of conscious experience, but as capable of reflection upon the whole of experience and of reference to the supreme mind as the ground of all reality.
The difficulty with which Kant is presented was one arising inevitably from reflection upon the Leibnitzian theory of knowledge, and the solution does not in any way go beyond that theory.
His long-continued reflection on the Wolffian doctrine of knowledge had made clear to him that synthetic connexion, the essence of real cognition, was not contained in the products of thinking as a formal activity of mind operating on material otherwise supplied.
In our reflection we necessarily treat the objects, not as phenomena, as matters of positive, scientific knowledge, but as things-in-themselves, as noumena.
Free reflection upon the whole system of knowledge is sufficient to indicate that the sphere of intuition, with its rational principles, does not exhaust conscious experience.
This ray is also given a periodic motion of the same frequency by reflection from a separate oscillating mirror so as to make the two motions at right angles to one another, and thus we have depicted on the screen a bright line having the same form as the periodic current being tested.
Fate's reflection moved into her line of sight.
The morning was slipping away and all the reflection on the past wasn't achieving anything.
She pushed herself away from the door and glanced at her reflection in the mirror.
Her reflection was seated, and her hair was blond.
She shied away from her reflection, from the paleness of her skin and the stark red of her blood soaking the cream sweater.
Darian caught his reflection in the mirror as he walked down the long hallway of the White God's Texas headquarters.
Another reflection of this battle can be seen in the early saints' penchant for dragon slaying.
All this is to repeat the refrain that the tool is a reflection of the mind of the tool-maker.
accurate reflection of the current legal regime?
Advent reflection last Monday evening.
air cushion wall is of low impedance and causes reflection of ground vibration on the upstream side.
Maximum tidal amplitudes are found at the head of the basin where reflection occurs.
anechoic surface This material is designed to minimize sound wave reflection.
On reflection do you not think you too owe an apology to the Forum?
My work in the social apostolate is mainly concerned with academic reflection.
So we assume that the human language is a perfectly good tool for rational argumentation, reflection and thought.
assimilative learning style relies on theorizing and reflection.
The ceiling of the room should be painted black in order to prevent reflection from the lamp (Fig.
There is still a small but very broken up reflection, and the sea looks very choppy indeed.
seeING Christ IN THE MARGINS - a day of reflection, sharing and contemplative prayer.
clatter away in your ignorance, with never any reflection!
critical reflection, then they are concepts in which we can have confidence.
There will be time for quiet personal reflection and the Gospel theme will be depicted in Indian dance during the day.
DKM Upon further reflection it would seem odd, in some cases, to invite a long divorced daughter-in-law to family dinner.
It is primarily devoted to tips and suggestions for games, but also has some reflection on the hobby itself.
The whole diocese embarked on a period of reflection early in 2004.
These are just preliminary thoughts rather disjointed to provoke the process of reflection.
On reflection, I might have said ' ' a controlled drug ' ' rather than ' ' controlled drugs ' ' .
The questions for personal reflection at the end of each chapter make the book perfect for a small group study or for personal edification.
The natural world and reflection are here too, but this sounds effortless: Earth smells rising up.
See the striking lines, the stirring verse and the reflection like the last embers of a dying winter fire!
The range was immense - a reflection of the passionate, even fanatical, interest of the Hillier family in hardy plants.
Deep in the circle of his pupil was the reflection of a giant toad, sitting asleep among its own putrid filth.
These suppress flare and ghosting Ã¢ more prone to occur with digital cameras due to reflection off the image sensor.
humanists do not pray, tho humanist funerals will often include a period for silent reflection.
A gull, soaring over the deserted funfair wintry sun CRITICAL REFLECTION The last image tends to dominate emotionally, doesn't it?
The ThinkVision L171p's flat, matte screen minimizes glare and reflection without detracting from the display's high brightness score.
even glossy metal targets can be stably detected by ignoring the influence of specular reflection.
Sight through the rear sight and the window in the mirror and align the hairline at the reflection of the face of the compass.
humanize hand they show a person humanizing nature through reflection, observation and hard work.
impedance mismatch a reflection is generated.
The peritoneal reflection is then incised with the diathermy a few millimeters posterior to the " white line " .
Custom and language were both somewhat inexact in their reflection of the accepted border of the duchy.
The resulting reflection file will contain all possible (h k lting reflection file will contain all possible (h k l) for the structure spacegroup and for the defined resolution.
leaning over, close to the water, looking at your reflection, then imagine what lies hidden below.
luminescence measurements White plates give maximum reflection so may offer some advantage over transparent plates for weakly luminescent samples.
magnitude of the reflection coefficient is the same everywhere along the line.
meaningful engagement with reflection.
microns of the materials are identified in a reflection mode scan.
Although a problem in computer ethics may seem clear initially, a little reflection reveals a conceptual muddle.
A moment's reflection about treating myositis suggests this can be divided into stages.
NGC 1999 is an example of a reflection nebula.
The reflection nebulosity traces the cavity evacuated by the wind or jet driving each outflow.
Use them for backgrounds, pattern fills, web graphics, reflection maps, texture wraps around 3D objects and much more.
We address these objectives by producing albedo maps, and reflection and emission spectra, and observing stellar occultations.
Zappa's whole oeuvre was a reflection on the social limits of freedom.
My muted palette is a reflection of that experience.
The question of what happens when you require a cold drink and a hot pasty raised a moment's silence for reflection.
pauses for reflection and the 'O Lord Remember ' phrases plead quietly with God.
She also researches into adult education in general, focusing on the processes of learning and reflection, and distance learning pedagogy.
Together we will create a frank reflection of the artist's persona and practice.
philosophic reflection to story-telling.
prayerful reflection that we make together.
Instead her now-familiar ritual of alternately preening then appearing petrified conjured up an atmosphere not of sober reflection but juvenile hysteria.
Most of the sunlight entering raindrops leaves the other side without internal reflection.