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reduction

reduction

reduction Sentence Examples

  • As prepared by the reduction of the oxide it is a grey powder.

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  • The result is, on the one hand, a clearing away of much fantastic phylogeny, on the other, an enormous reduction of the supposed gaps between groups.

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  • And yet, didn't clinical words like selective reduction and gestational carrier mask the facts?

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  • Selective reduction, for starters...

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  • The anticipations as to the increase of messages that would result from the reduction of rates were fully realized.

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  • The Chamber, though convinced of the danger of this reform, the perils of which were incisively demonstrated by Sella, voted by an overwhelming majority for an immediate reduction of the impost by onefourth, and its complete abolition within four years.

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  • We know very little of the details of reduction in the lower plants, but it probably occurs at some stage in the life history of all plants in which sexual nuclear fusion takes place.

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  • Chauveau points to the reduction in the 12-hour term as compared to the 24-hour term on the Eiffel Tower, and infers the practical disappearance of the former at no great height.

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  • Chauveau points to the reduction in the 12-hour term as compared to the 24-hour term on the Eiffel Tower, and infers the practical disappearance of the former at no great height.

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  • In the stems of many water-plants various stages of reduction of the vascular system, especially of the xylem, are met with, and very often this reduction leads to the formation of a compact stele in which the individuality of the separate Reduced bundles may be suppressed, so that a closed cylinder lmpbost~h1c of xylem surrounds a pith.

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  • In the stems of many water-plants various stages of reduction of the vascular system, especially of the xylem, are met with, and very often this reduction leads to the formation of a compact stele in which the individuality of the separate Reduced bundles may be suppressed, so that a closed cylinder lmpbost~h1c of xylem surrounds a pith.

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  • At the end of 1907 Italy was among the few Countries that had not adopted the reduction of postage sanctioned at the Postal Union congress, held in Rome in 1906, by which the rates became 23/4d.

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  • Soc. (1900), lxvi.; Gates, A Study of Reduction in Oenothera rubrinervis, Bot.

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  • Metallic cobalt may be obtained by reduction of the oxide or chloride in a current of hydrogen at a red heat, or by heating the oxalate, under a layer of powdered glass.

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  • Considerations such as these could not be expected to appeal to the nation at large, which hailed the advent of the Left as the dawn of an era of unlimited popular sovereignty, diminished administrative pressure, reduction of taxation and general prosperity.

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  • in the traffic; and similar statistics pointing to increase of business consequent on reduction of rates were produced in regard to France, Switzerland and Prussia.

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  • Some of the complaints against the companies, however, were exaggerated, and the estimates formed of the possible commercial development of telegraphy were optimistic. The basis for these estimates was the experience of other countries, which, however, did not justify the expectation that a large increase of business consequent on reduction of rates could be obtained without serious diminution of profit.

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  • A reduction has been made in the charges for trunk calls at night, and calls for single periods of three minutes are allowed at half the ordinary rates between 7 p.m.

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  • In support of these views he reported that in Belgium in 1863 "a reduction of 33 per cent.

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  • The two divisions of the spore mother cell in which the reduction takes place, follow each other very rapidly and are known as Heterotype and Homotype (Flemming), or according to the terminology of Farmer and Moore (1905) as the meiotic phase.

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  • The two divisions of the spore mother cell in which the reduction takes place, follow each other very rapidly and are known as Heterotype and Homotype (Flemming), or according to the terminology of Farmer and Moore (1905) as the meiotic phase.

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  • Nor were other labourers, more nearly connected with the producing interests, satisfied with a reduction of wages because produce had fallen in price all round.

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  • One consequence of the agrarian agitations was the increased use of machinery and the reduction in the number of hands employed, which if it proved advantageous to the landlord and to the few laborers retained, who received higher wages, resulted in an increase of unemployment.

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  • reduction in size is due to A, Two vermiform nuclei in the emthe absence of cytoplasm, bryo sac; one approaching the eggwhich is in some cases so nucleus, the other uniting with the 11 ~ ~h ~h upper polar nucleus.

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  • In doing what he did, Descartes actually exemplified that reduction of the processes of nature to mere transposition of the particles of matter, which in different ways was a leading idea in the minds of Bacon, Hobbes and Gassendi.

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  • But the piratical acts of these traders, in which the knights themselves sometimes joined, and the strategic position of the island between Constantinople and the Levant, necessitated its reduction by the Ottoman sultans.

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  • Cromwell himself sailed a fortnight later, leaving the reduction of the island, which was completed in 1652, to his generals.

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  • The tertiary glycols are known as pinacones and are formed on the reduction of ketones with sodium amalgam.

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  • Inasmuch as the debenture stocks and preference shares would have to be redeemed in 1911 at premiums ranging from 3 to 5 per cent., the state would have to pay the company £253,000 in excess of the total of the outstanding securities in order to enable the ordinary shares to receive par, and in the council's view this payment would diminish the p robability of the Post Office being able to afford a substantial reduction in the telephone charges.

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  • The problem of the curves is solved by their reduction to a problem of straight lines; and the locus of any point is determined by its distance from two given straight lines - the axes of co-ordinates.

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  • The rest sat on, discussing the constitution, drawing up lists of damnable heresies and of incontrovertible articles of faith, producing plans for the reduction of the army and demanding - consolidating his rule and power.

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  • The rest sat on, discussing the constitution, drawing up lists of damnable heresies and of incontrovertible articles of faith, producing plans for the reduction of the army and demanding - consolidating his rule and power.

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  • Macaulay imputes this reduction to Hastings as a characteristic act of financial immorality; but in truth it had been expressly enjoined by the court of directors, in a despatch dated six months before he took up office.

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  • Taking everything into consideration the reduction was, perhaps, not less than 20 Lo, so that, though the nominal or money wages in 1873 and 1890 were the same, the actual wages were much higher in the latter year.

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  • Macaulay imputes this reduction to Hastings as a characteristic act of financial immorality; but in truth it had been expressly enjoined by the court of directors, in a despatch dated six months before he took up office.

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  • Taking everything into consideration the reduction was, perhaps, not less than 20 Lo, so that, though the nominal or money wages in 1873 and 1890 were the same, the actual wages were much higher in the latter year.

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  • It was now that Alexander completed the conquest of the provinces north of the Hindu Kush by the reduction of the last mountain strongholds of the native princes.

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  • He suggested an international congress on the question; inspired a pamphlet, Le Pape el le Con grs, which proposed a reduction of the papal territory, and wrote to the pope advising him to cede Romagna in order to obtain better guarantees for the rest of his dominions.

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  • In fact, everywhere the demand for goods, especially of those for domestic consumption, fell away; and there was a reduction in the average number of persons employed in the manufacturing industries to the extent of more than 20%.

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  • The potential gradient is in all cases lower in summer than winter, and thus the reduction in c 1 in summer would appear even larger than in Table V.

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  • It will be seen that the revenue is swollen by a large number o taxes which can only be justified by necessity; the reduction and still more, the readjustment of taxation (which now largely falls or articles of primary necessity) is urgently needed.

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  • A highly imaginative flufancial exposition by Seismit Doda, who announced a surplus of 2,400,000, paved the way fora Grist Tax Reduction Bil],which Cairoli had taken over from the Depretis programme.

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  • It was hard indeed for a carter drawing coal to a gasworks to recognize the necessity which compelled a reduction in his wages because wool had fallen 20 7 0.

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  • The reduction of the tentacles in all these forms may be correlated with their mode of life, and especially with living in a constant current of water, which brings foodparticles always from one direction and renders a complete whorl or circle of tentacles unnecessary.

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  • The Siphonula produced buds on the manubrium, as many Anthomedusae are known to do, and these by reduction or dislocation of parts gave rise to the various appendages of the colony.

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  • In other cases the reduction goes much further, till the endodermis eventually comes to surround nothing but an intercellular channel formed in place of the stelar tissue.

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  • The reduction is brought about simply by the segmentation of the spirem thread into half the number of segments instead of the normal number.

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  • The reduction is brought about simply by the segmentation of the spirem thread into half the number of segments instead of the normal number.

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  • The long-promised abolition of the grist tax was not explicitly mentioned, opposition to the railway redemption contracts was transformed into approval, and the vaunted reduction of taxation replaced by lip-service to the Conservative deity of financial equilibrium.

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  • He showed further, that the increase of common salt in the soil is correlated with a reduction in the number and size of the chlo,-oplastids, and therefore in the amount of chlorophyll.

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  • There would be no selective reduction.

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  • complex spectra of stars of the solar type this is by no means the case; for, as Dr Hartmann remarks, " in the first place the lines in these spectra are so numerous that their complete measurement and reduction would require many days, and in the second place a rigorous reduction of such material has hitherto not been at all possible because the wave-lengths of the lines are not known with sufficient accuracy.

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  • By distillation over lime, the methyl group is removed from the pyridine ring, and the resulting a- pyridyl-Nmethylpyrrol gives i-nicotine on reduction.

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  • Thus the gonads are covered over by at least four layers of epithelium, and since these are unnecessary, presenting merely obstacles to the dehiscence of the gonads, they gradually undergo reduction.

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  • A survey of the vegetable kingdom indicates that evolution has proceeded, on the whole, from the simple to the complex; at the same time, as has been already mentioned, evidence of reduction or degeneration in common.

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  • Thus in the series Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Phanerogamia, whilst the sporophyte presents progressive development, the gametophyte presents continuous reduction.

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  • By the reduction of nitro-phenols, the corresponding aminophenols are obtained, and of these, the metaand para-derivatives are the most important.

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  • In birds of various groups the clavicles are more or less degenerated, the reduction beginning at the distal end.

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  • Reduction of the number of toes (the fifth shows no traces whatever, not even in Archaeopteryx) begins with the hallux, which is completely or partly absent in many birds; the second toe is absent in Struthio only.

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  • The only really aberrant modifications of the wing-muscles are found in the Ratitae, where they are, however, all easily explained by reduction, and in the penguins, where the wings are greatly specialized into blades for rowing with screw-like motions.

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  • The most primitive combination, ambiens and A B X Y, is the most common; next follows that of A X Y, meaning the reduction of B, i.e.

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  • But the greatest reduction, with only A remaining, is characteristic of such a heterogeneous assembly as Accipitres, Cypselidae, Trochilidae, Striges and Fregata.

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  • the Nearctic and the Palaearctic. The reduction of the Oriental to a subregion, with consequent " provincial " rank of its main subdivisions, will probably be objected to, but these are matters of taste and prejudice.

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  • The industrial establishments comprise reduction works, saw-mills and flour-mills, one of the latter being the largest in Canada.

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  • By the adoption of a regular system of work, and a careful plan of reduction, he was able to keep his observations reduced practically up to date, and published them annually with a degree of punctuality which astonished his contemporaries.

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  • In the presence of water it frequently acts as a bleaching agent, the bleaching process in this case being one of reduction.

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  • - The families of beetles included by Kolbe in this group are distinguished by the possession of six malpighian tubes, and a great reduction in one or two of the tarsal segments, so that there seem to be only four or three segments in each foot; hence the names Tetramera and Trimera formerly applied to them.

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  • He lost his place owing to a reduction of the duke's establishment, and for several years he lived obscurely; but by good fortune he succeeded in persuading Maria de Uceda, one of the ladiesin-waiting of Mariana, second wife of Philip IV., to marry him.

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  • By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.

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  • Under this principle, rates are reduced where the increase of business which follows such reduction makes the change a profitable one.

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  • They are kept relatively high in those cases where the expansion of business which follows a reduction is small, and where such a change is therefore unprofitable.

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  • This act has been the means of effecting a considerable reduction in the hours worked by railway men on certain railways, and no case has yet arisen in which a reference to the Commissioners has been necessary.

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  • This is mainly due to a great falling off in traffic, because of a general business depression; from 1907 to 1909 the reduction in the accident record is still greater.

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  • His administration was marked by a revival of American industries and a reduction of the public debt, and at its conclusion the country was left in a condition of prosperity and on friendly terms with foreign nations.

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  • "The results are due to mosquito reduction.

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  • The suggested causes are (I) reduction of insects by drainage, (2) reduced population, (3) the use of quinine.

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  • Though she returned to Hanover in 1822 she did not abandon her astronomical studies, and in 1828 she completed the reduction, to January 1800, of 2500 nebulae discovered by her brother.

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  • The isothermals of mean annual temperature lie over northern Asia on curves tolerably regular in their outline, having their western branches in a somewhat higher latitude than their eastern; a reduction of I° of latitude corresponds approximately - and irrespective of modifications due to elevation - to a rise of 2 ° Fahr., as far say as 30° N., where the mean temperature is about 75° Fahr.

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  • Such a reduction of temperature is brought about along the greater part of the coasts of India and of the BurmoSiamese peninsula by the interruption of the wind current by continuous ranges of mountains, which force the mass of air to rise over them, whereby the air being rarefied, its specific capacity for heat is increased and its temperature falls, with a corresponding condensation of the vapour originally held in suspension.

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  • It is here that the danger of "the ideal system" really lies - in its reduction of reality to "particular perceptions," essentially unconnected with each other.

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  • He advocated freedom of the corn trade, reduction of the number of religious communities, and deprecated regulation of the interest on loans.

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  • The remedy for the evils of the time was not so much the reduction as the equalization of the imposts, which would allow the poor to consume more, raise the production and add to the general wealth.

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  • His first plan was to continue the work, already initiated by his predecessor Tourny, of making a fresh survey of the land (cadastre), in order to arrive at a juster assessment of the taille; he also obtained a large reduction in the contribution of the province.

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  • The decrease in the demand for labour is attributable chiefly to the reduction of the cultivated area and the laying down to pasture of land once under the plough, and to the increasing use of agricultural machinery.

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  • The reform of land tenure in Ireland, the representation of women, the reduction of the national debt, the reform of London government, the abrogation of the Declaration of Paris, were among the topics on which he spoke with marked effect.

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  • The next three years was signalized by the reduction one by one of the strong places still held by the English: Linlithgow towards the end of 1310, Dumbarton in October 1311, Perth, by Bruce himself, in January 1312.

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  • In forms which are naked in the adult state, the shell falls off soon after the reduction of the velum, but in Cenia, Runcina and Vaginula the shell-gland and shell are not developed, and the young animal when hatched has already the naked form of the adult.

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  • The next six families include the animals formerly known as Gymnosomatous Pteropods, characterized by the absence of mantle and shell, the reduction of the ventral surface of the foot, and the parapodial fins at the anterior end of the body.

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  • The last three families constitute the sub-tribe Porostomata, characterized by the reduction of the buccal mass, which is modified into a suctorial apparatus.

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  • She added that all the parties except the Jacobins were full of confidence; and that the nobles now cherished hopes of a reaction, seeing that the reduction of the number of rulers from five to three pointed towards monarchy.

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  • The order must therefore be ancient, and as no evidence is forthcoming as to the mode of reduction of the hind-wings, nor as to the stages by which the suctorial mouth-organs became specialized, it is difficult to trace the exact relationship of the group, but the presence of cerci and a degree of correspondence in the nervuration of the forewings suggest the Mecaptera as possible allies.

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  • Most of the state institutions secured Federal charters after the establishments of the national banking system (1863-1864), but the high price of government bonds and the large amount of capital required led to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the reduction of the minimum capital to $25,000 under the currency act of the 14th of March 1900.

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  • The " cotton stainers," various species of Dysdercus, are widely distributed, occurring for example in America, the West Indies, Africa, India, &c. The larvae suck the sap from the young bolls and seeds, causing shrivelling and reduction in quantity of fibre.

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  • He is also to be credited with the abolition of the gladiatorial shows in 404 (although there is said to be evidence of their existence later), a reduction of the taxes, improvements in criminal law, and the reorganization of the defensores civitatum, municipal officers whose duty it was to defend the rights of the people and set forth their grievances.

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  • From Antioch Hadrian set out for Dacia to punish the Roxolani, who, incensed by a reduction of the tribute hitherto paid them, had invaded the Danubian provinces.

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  • The coordinates thus found will in the case of a body moving around the sun be heliocentric. The reduction to the earth's centre is a problem of pure geometry.

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  • In 1857 Field became chairman of a state commission for the reduction into a written and systematic code of the whole body of law of the state, excepting those portions already reported upon by the Commissioners of Practice and Pleadings.

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  • Since its reversion to Ottoman power (1840) the history of Marash has been varied only by Armenian troubles, largely connected with the fortunes of Zeitun, for the reduction of which place it has more than once been used as a base.

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  • He was also violently opposed by -the Agrarians because he advocated the reduction of corn duties, and in 1897 he resigned office, and a few months later was appointed German ambassador in Constantinople.

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  • Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.

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  • From meta-brombenzoicacid two nitrobrombenzoic ac i ds are obtained on direct nitration; elimination of the bromine atom and the reduction of the nitro to an amino group in these two acids results in the formation of the same ortho-aminobenzoic acid.

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  • By eliminating the hydroxy groups in these acids the same nitrobenzoic acid is obtained, which yields on reduction an aminobenzoic acid different from the starting-out acid.

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  • If we accept Kekule's formula for the benzene nucleus, then we may expect the double linkages to be opened up partially, either by oxidation or reduction, with the formation of di-, tetra-, or hexa-hydro derivatives, or entirely, with the production of open chain compounds.

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  • 'Cooh Ci, BrC CO CBr3+ H H2 HC ("CH, HC C /CH, H02C C02HCI CI (t) (2) C(3) (4) (5) The reduction of o-oxybenzoic acids by sodium in amyl alcohol solution has been studied by A.

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  • Resorcin on reduction gives dihydroresorcin, which G.

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  • Kekule (Ann., 1883, 221, p. 230), however, reinvestigated this acid; he showed that it was dibasic and not tribasic; that it gave tartaric acid on reduction; and, finally, that it was dioxytartaric acid, HOOC C(OH) 2 C(OH) 2 COOH.

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  • This acid is converted into the acid by soda, and into the Q2 tetrahydro acid by reduction.

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  • From the fact that reduction products containing either one or two double linkages behave exactly as unsaturated aliphatic compounds, being readily reduced or oxidized, and combining with the halogen elements and haloid acids, it seems probable that in benzenoid compounds the fourth valencies are symmetrically distributed in such a manner as to induce a peculiar stability in the molecule.

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  • From a study of the reduction of compounds containing two ethylenic bonds united by a single bond, termed a "conjugated system," E.

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  • Reduction to hexamethylene compounds necessitates the disruption of three of the edges of the octahedron, the diagonal linkings remaining intact, or, in the plane projection, three peripheral linkages, the hexamethylene ring assuming the form (III); In 1888 J.

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  • Marsh also devised a form closely resembling that of Thomsen, inasmuch as the carbon atoms occupied the angles of a regular octahedron, and the diagonal linkages differed in nature from the peripheral, but differeng from Thomsen's since rupture of the diagonal and not peripheral bonds accompanied the reduction to hexamethylene.

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  • The molecule is aromatic but not benzenoid; however, by the reduction of one half of the molecule, the other assumes a benzenoid character.

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  • By reduction, the double linkages become saturated, and compounds result which stand in much about the same relation to the original nucleus as hexamethylene does to benzene.

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  • Reduction, however, converts it into an aliphatic compound.

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  • This is comparable with the reduction of the benzene nucleus into hexamethylene, a substance of an aliphatic character.

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  • This substance easily splits out alcohol, and the ring compound then formed yields pyrrolidine on reduction by sodium in amyl alcohol solution.

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  • Reduction of this ester leads to the formation of ammonia, hydroxylamine, and dimethyl pyrrol dicarboxylic ester, C(CH3): C C02R HN< C(CO 2 R) :C CH3.

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  • From the hare the wild rabbit is distinguished externally by its smaller size, shorter ears and feet, the absence or reduction of the black patch at the tip of the ears, and its greyer colour.

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  • Finally, we have the family Rhinocerotidae, which includes the existing representatives of the group. In this family the dentition has undergone considerable reduction, and may be represented inclusive of all the variations, by the formula i a or a m a The first upper incisor, whenpresent, has an 430r2; PP antero-posteriorly elongated crown, but the second is small; when fully developed, the lower canine is a large forwardly directed tusk-like tooth with sharp cutting-edges, and biting against the first upper incisor.

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  • On reduction by sodium amalgam in glacial acetic acid solution they yield primary amines.

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  • They may also be prepared by the reduction of primary nitro compounds with stannous chloride and concentrated hydrochloric acid; by the reduction of unsaturated nitro compounds with minium amalgam or zinc dust in the presence of dilute acetic acid' Bouveault, Comptes rendus, 1902, 134, p. 1145):R2C:[[Chno 2 -R 2 C: Ch Nhoh - R 2 Ch Ch: Noh]], and by the action of alkyl iodides on the sodium salt of nitro-hydroxylamine (A.

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  • The acetyl compound on reduction yields two of its nitrogen atoms in the form of ammonia and the third in the form of methylamine.

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  • It melts at 173° C.; and on reduction with sodium in alcoholic solution yields tetramethylene diamine.

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  • The y may also be prepared by the reduction of pseudo-nitrols (R.

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  • On reduction it gives a strongly reducing substance, probably hydrazine.

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  • The rates on these advances have now been generally reduced to 6% with the exception of that on the advances from the lighthouse administration, which refused to allow any reduction below 7%.

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  • The ministry of commerce and of public works absorbed £T883,161 a reduction of some £T 180,000 on the previous year.

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  • The demands of the various departments of state had been much cut down, and according to the minister of finance's own statement much of the reduction was merely unavoidable expenditure deferred; the fact that some of this expenditure, which had been jealously scrutinized, was to be undertaken at once, meant that demands on future years would be relatively re- duced.

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  • The kilometric guarantee of 15,500 francs (£620) was split into two parts, 4500 francs (£180) being granted as the fixed working expenses of the line, all receipts in excess of which amount were to be credited to the Turkish government in reduction of the remaining 11,000 francs (f440) which took the form of an annuity to be capitalized as a 4% state loan redeemable in 99 years, that being the period fixed for the duration of the concession.

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  • The sale of the fertilizer more than pays for the cost of reduction, and the only expense the city has is in collecting it.

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  • Therefore a reduction in the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere, or a rise in the temperature of the water, or a violent agitation of the sea itself, will lead to precipitation of calcium carbonate.

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  • In Pleistocene times, then, when there were prolonged glacial ages, the sea-level was lowered and at the same time there was a reduction in sea temperature, so that the rate of reproduction of the coral polypes, and so the growth of reefs, was diminished.

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  • From serving primitively as the essential organ of the cleft the tongue-bar may have undergone reduction and modification, becoming a secondary bar in Amphioxus, subordinate to the primary bars in size, vascularity and development; finally, in the craniate vertebrates it would then have completed its involution, the suggestion having been made that the tongue-bars are represented by the thymusprimordia.

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  • This last substance may be reduced to mesoporphyrin, C34H3804N4, which by further reduction gives haemopyrrol, C 8 11 13 N, possibly methyl-propyl-pyrrol or butyl-pyrrol.

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  • Wellington then, ostentatiously making preparations to enter Spain by the Badajoz line, once more turned northward, crossed the Tormes (June 17, 1812), and advanced to the Douro, behind which the French were drawn up. Marmont had erected at Salamanca some strong forts, the reduction of which occupied Wellington ten days, and cost him 600 men.

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  • On reduction glucose appears to yield the hexahydric alcohol d-sorbite, and on oxidation d-gluconic and d-saccharic acids.

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  • Difficulties in the supply of labour in the East may hinder the further development of the rubber-planting industry, especially at a period when a reduction in the cost of production may be the chief problem.

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  • Having regard to the present cost of producing " plantation " rubber, and to the probability that, apart from a possible increase in the price of labour, this cost is susceptible of further reduction, it may be concluded that rubber production will continue to be profitable even should a considerable fall in market value take place.

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  • The existence of such a relation, as 0-1+0-2+.,.+cr2=0, necessitates the vanishing of a certain function of the coefficients A2, A 3, ...A 9, and as a consequence one product of these coefficients can be eliminated from the expanding form and no seminvariant, which appears as a coefficient to such a product (which may be the whole or only a part of the complete product, with which the seminvariant is associated), will be capable of reduction.

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  • for 0=2, (a l a i +v 2 a 2) w; either v l or cr 2 will vanish if a1a2=A2=o; but every term, in the development, is of the form (222...)Ar and therefore vanishes; so that none are left to undergo reduction.

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  • Hence every product of A 1, A2, A3, A4, which contains the product A 4 A 3 disappears before reduction; this means that every seminvariant, whose partition contains the parts 4, 3, is a perpetuant.

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  • The reduction of the book to four originally independent sections requires that the point of each be stated separately.

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  • The roasting process is then resumed, to be followed by another reduction, and so on.

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  • In smelting at once in the same blast-furnace ores of different character, the old use of separate processes of precipitation, roasting and reduction, and general reduction prevailing in the Harz Mountains, Freiberg and other places, to suit local conditions, has been abandoned.

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  • It has a good mining school and reduction works, and is the supply station for an extensive mining district.

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  • The maximum permeability (for H = 2) was 3400 at 15° and only 2700 at - 186°, a reduction of more than 20%; but the percentage reduction became less as the magnetizing force departed from the value corresponding to maximum permeability.

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  • The reduction of the organism to seven leg-bearing somites, of which the first pair, as in so many Eu-arachnida, are chelate, is a form of degeneration connected with a peculiar quasi-parasitic habit resembling that of the crustacean Laemodipoda.

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  • - Derivative forms in which the reduction in number of the anterior appendages is carried farther than in the other orders, reaching its extreme in the Pycnogonidae, where the 1st and 2nd pairs are absent in both sexes, and the 3rd pair also are absent in the female.

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  • Its scope may be briefly described as the reduction of the theory of mechanics to certain general formulae, from the simple development of which should be derived the equations necessary for the solution of each separate problem.

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  • As obtained by the reduction of the chloride, it is a steel grey powder of specific gravity 7 06.

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  • Early in 1070 the reduction of the north was completed by a march over the moors to Chester, which had not hitherto submitted but was now placed under an earl of William's choice.

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  • The redistribution of land appears to have proceeded pari passu with the reduction of the country; and at every stage of the conquest each important follower received a new reward.

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  • This constitution was confirmed in 1280 by the reduction of the supreme magistracy to fifteen members, all of the humbler classes, and was definitively sanctioned in 1285 (and 1287) by the institution of the magistracy of nine.

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  • These promises were not kept for long, and by 1878 his attitude had become so hostile towards both the Natal and Transvaal governments that Sir Bartle Frere, then High Commissioner for South Africa, determined on his reduction.

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  • It is a Realism of the most uncompromising type, which by its reduction of individuals to accidents of one identical substance seems to tremble on the very verge of Spinozism.

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  • In 1849 he brought forward a proposal in parliament in favour of international arbitration, and in 1851 a motion for mutual reduction of armaments.

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  • Reduction with acid-reducing agents gives amines.

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  • Several different products may be obtained by the reduction of the aromatic nitro compounds, the substances formed in any particular case depending on the conditions of experiment.

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  • The electrolytic reduction of the aromatic nitro compounds gives rise to substituted hydroxylamines which are immediately transformed into aminophenols or amines.

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  • On oxidation with chromic acid they yield dinitrohydrocarbons, and on reduction with hydroxylamine (in alkaline solution) or with potassium sulphydrate give ketoximes, RR': C: NOH (R.

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  • It has been found by Sir William Herschel and others that the definition of a telescope is often improved by stopping off a part of the central area of the object-glass; but the advantage to be obtained in this way is in no case great, and anything like a reduction of the aperture to a narrow annulus is attended by a development of the external luminous rings sufficient to outweigh any improvement due to the diminished diameter of the central area.'

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  • If "=4), the term of the first order vanishes, and the reduction of the difference of path via P and via A to a term of the fourth order proves not only that Q and Q' are conjugate foci, but also that the foci are exempt from the most important term in the aberration.

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  • on integration and reduction.

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  • Metallic uranium, as shown by Peligot, can be obtained by the reduction of a mixture of dry chloride of potassium and dry uranous chloride, UC1 4, with sodium at a red heat.

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  • This operation is no doubt intended to remove the oxygen diffused throughout the metal as oxide, part of it perhaps chemically by reduction of the oxide to metal, the rest by conveying the finely diffused oxide to the surface and causing it to unite there with the oxide scum.

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  • It can be synthetically prepared by the reduction of coniferyl alcohol, (HO) (CH 3 O) C6H3 CH :CH CH20H, which occurs in combination with glucose in the glucoside coniferin, C16H2208.

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  • In October 1905 a considerable reduction was made in railway rates and in port dues and customs, with the object of re-attracting to the port the transit trade of the interior, and in 1907 a branch of the Rhodesian customs was opened in the town.

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  • It is curious to find that already in the 18th century a considerable reduction in the numbers of the city of London is supposed to have taken place, as is seen in the following figures: 1700.1750.

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  • The head-gear is often combined with ore-bins and machinery for breaking and sizing the lump ore previous to shipment to the reduction works.

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  • Ferric oxide gives a yellow colour, but requires the presence of an oxidizing agent to prevent reduction to the ferrous state.

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  • A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while " decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the colour of the glass) are also sometimes added, those most generally used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal or anthracite coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in which it combines more readily with the silicic acid of the sand.

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  • It has in general one value for the powdery metal as obtained by reduction of the oxide in hydrogen below the melting point of the metal, another for the metal in the state which it assumes spontaneously on freezing, and this latter value, in general, is modified by hammering, rolling, drawing, &c. These mechanical operations do not necessarily add to the density; stamping, it is true, does so necessarily, but rolling or drawing occasionally causes a diminution of the density.

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  • by 177 years and effected a corresponding reduction in the dates assigned to Dynasties I.

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  • 8 In 1897 Rost followed up Peiser's suggestion by reducing the figure still further, but he counteracted to some extent the effects of this additional reduction by emending Sennacherib's date for Marduknadin-akhe's defeat of Tiglath-pileser I.

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  • When revising his scheme of chronology in 1900, Rost abandoned his suggested emendation of Sennacherib's figure, but by decreasing his reduction of the length of Dynasty III., he only altered his date for the beginning of Dynasty I.

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  • His slight reduction in the length of Dynasty I.

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  • was obtained from the recently published date-lists, though his proposed reduction of Ammizaduga's reign to ten years has since been disproved.

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  • It is not the purpose of this note to set forth the principles underlying the formation of proper names among the Babylonians and Assyrians, but it may not be out of place to indicate that by the side of such full names, containing three elements (or even more), we have already at an early period the reduction of these elements to two through the combination of the name of a deity with a verbal form merely, or through the omission of the name of the deity.

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  • Our knowledge of the chemical structure of the monosaccharoses may be regarded as dating from 1880, when Zincke suspected some to be ketone alcohols, for it was known that glucose and fructose, for example, yielded penta-acetates, and on reduction gave hexahydric alcohols, which, when reduced by hydriodic acid, gave normal and secondary hexyliodide.

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  • He prepared the cyanhydrins of glucose and fructose, hydrolysed them to the corresponding oxy-acids, from which the hydroxy groups were split out by reduction; it was found that glucose yielded normal heptylic acid and fructose methylbutylacetic acid; hence glucose is an aldehyde alcohol, CH 2 OH (CH OH) 4 CHO, whilst fructose is a ketone alcohol CH 2 OH (CH OH) 3 CO.

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  • On warming the osazone with hydrochloric acid the phenylhydrazine residues are removed and an osone results, which on reduction with zinc and acetic acid gives a ketose.

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  • The osazone prepared from a-acrose resembled most closely the glucosazone yielded by glucose, mannose, and fructose, but it was optically inactive; also the ketose which it gave after treatment with hydrochloric acid and reduction of the osone was like ordinary fructose except that it was inactive.

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  • Other forms are: d- and l-gulose, prepared from the lactones of the corresponding gulonic acids, which are obtained from d- and /-glucose by oxidation and inversion; d- and l-idose, obtained by inverting with pyridine d- and l-gulonic acids, and reducing the resulting idionic acids; d- and l-galactose, the first being obtained by hydrolysing milk sugar with dilute sulphuric acid, and the second by fermenting inactive galactose (from the reduction of the lactone of d, l-galactonic acid) with yeast; and d- and l-talose obtained by inverting the galactonic acids by pyridine into d- and l-talonic acids and reduction.

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  • The plane projection of molecular structures which differ stereochemically is discussed under Stereoisomerism; in this place it suffices to say that, since the terminal groups of the hexaldose molecule are different and four asymmetric carbon atoms are present, sixteen hexaldoses are possible; and for the hexahydric alcohols which they yield on reduction, and the tetrahydric dicarboxylic acids which they give on oxidation, only ten forms are possible.

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  • When xylose is combined with hydrocyanic acid and the cyanide is hydrolysed, together with l-gulonic acid, a second isomeric acid, l-idonic acid, is produced, which on reduction yields the hexaldose l-idose.

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  • On reduction it yields an inactive mixture of galactonic acids, some molecules being attacked at one end, as it were, and an equal number of others at the other.

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  • In October 1900 a conditional agreement for the reduction of the bounties was made in Paris between France, Germany and Austria-Hungary; in February 1901 the Belgian government proposed a new session of the Conference of 1898, and on the 16th of December following Brussels welcomed once more the delegates of all the powers, with the exception of Russia, to the eighth European Sugar Bounty Conference since that of Paris in 1862.

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  • Styrolene is oxidized by nitric or chromic acids to benzoic acid; reduction gives ethylbenzene; hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids yield a-haloid ethylbenzenes, e.g.

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  • Reduction with hydriodic acid gives dibenzyl, and heating with sulphur gives tetraphenylthiophene or thionessal.

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  • The latter on reduction yields a diamino compound, the disulphonic acid of which on diazotization and coupling with a phenol, &c., gives valuable substantive cotton dyes after the type yielded by Benzidine.

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  • This programme was based upon the idea of a liberal reconstruction: he aimed at the reduction and simplification of the State schools combined with a more rigorous method of teaching, and at affording all facilities to, and indeed inviting the competition of, private instruction, fearless of the confessional school, which in his view would be compelled to modernize itself in order to maintain competition with the State school.

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  • In the Belgian process the reduction and distillation are carried out in cylindrical or elliptical retorts of fire-clay, from 3 ft.

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  • in 1708, subsequently participating in the battle of Holowczyn, the reduction of Mazepa, and the crowning victory of Poltava (June 26, 1709), where he won his marshal's baton.

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  • The successful reduction of the rebels in Arabia enabled him in his first year to send his great general Khalid with his Arab warriors first against Persians, then against Romans.

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  • In 1885 the brothers Cowles patented a process for the electrothermal reduction of oxidized ores by exposure to an intense current of electricity when admixed with carbon in a retort.

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  • Later in that year they patented a process for the reduction of aluminium by carbon, and in 1886 an electric furnace with sliding carbon rods passed through the end walls to the centre of a rectangular furnace.

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  • The reduction is not due to electrolysis, but to the action of carbon on alumina, a part of the carbon in the charge being consumed and evolved as carbon monoxide gas, which burns at the orifice in the cover so long as reduction is taking place.

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  • Since that date other processes have been devised and the electrolytic processes have entirely replaced the older methods of reduction with sodium.

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  • unites with C(OH) >C6114 C 6 11 4 /C6114 (y) (anthranol) is a reduction product of anthraquinone.

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  • The metal thus produced formed a dark brown amorphous powder resembling iron as obtained by the reduction of its oxide in hydrogen.

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  • Wallach, Ber., 1881, 14, P. 421); by the action of reducing agents on nitroparaffins; by the action of zinc and hydrochloric acid on aldehyde ammonias (German Patent 73,812); by the reduction of the phenylhydrazones and oximes of aldehydes and ketones with sodium amalgam in the presence of alcohol and sodium acetate (J.

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  • The primary aromatic amines may be prepared by the reduction of the nitro-hydrocarbons, the reducing agents used being either alcoholic-ammonium sulphide (N.

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  • They may also be obtained by the reduction of nitroso compounds and of hydrazo compounds and of hydrazones (J.

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  • Paraphenylene diamine may be prepared as above, and also by the reduction of amidoazobenzene.

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  • From his committee he reported in April 1888 the "Mills Bill," which provided for a reduction of the duties on sugar, earthenware, glassware, plate glass, woollen goods and other articles, the substitution of ad valorem for specific duties in many cases, and the placing of lumber (of certain kinds), hemp, wool, flax, borax, tin plates, salt and other articles on the free list.

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  • This led to a material reduction in the army, which, as reorganized, consists of 4000 officers and men, divided into seven battalions of infantry of 300 men each, seven squadrons of cavalry of 125 men each, and one regiment of mountain artillery of 590 men, with six batteries of mountain guns.

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  • The reduction of that stronghold was largely due to his energy and skill.

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  • Cutler's original intention was to buy for the Ohio Company only about 1,500,000 acres, but on the 27th of July Congress authorized a grant of about 5,000,000 acres of land for $3,500,000; a reduction of one-third was allowed for bad tracts, and it was also provided that the lands could be paid for in United States securities.

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  • The richest mining districts are those of Cadereyta and Toliman, where there are metallurgical works for the reduction of ores.

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  • ==Geology== The flat shore of Lough Neagh in the north is due to the thick deposit of pale-coloured clays with lignites, which are probably of Pliocene age, and indicate a reduction of the area of the lake in still later times.

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  • At the same time, the diffusion of these compounds into contact with the cathode leads to a partial reduction to chloride, by the removal of combined oxygen by the instrumentality of the hydrogen there evolved.

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  • The current, by endosmosis, favours the passage of the solution into the hide-substance, and at the same time appears to assist the chemical combinations there occurring; hence a great reduction in the time required for the completion of the process.

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  • The pelvic girdle and the hind-limbs show the least reduction found in any recent snakes, ilia, pubes and ischia being still distinguishable, the last even retaining their symphysis, and there are small vestiges of the femurs.

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  • The presence in an alloy of a eutectic which solidifies at a much lower temperature than the main mass, implies a great reduction in tenacity, especially if it is to be used above the ordinary temperature as in the case of pipes conveying super-heated steam.

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  • ('E7rch,utcov a Kai -y'); (5) On Regimen in Acute Diseases (IIEpi cairns o Ewv); (6) On Airs, Waters, and Places (IIEpi cthpwv, l'6aTwv, Kai rorrwv); (7) On the Articulations (IIEpi etpBpwv); (8) On Fractures (IIEpi by c&v); (9) The Instruments of Reduction (M0xXix6s); (Jo) The Physician's Establishment, or Surgery (Kar' i rpEiov); (II) On Injuries of the Head (IIEpi KE0aXij TpwpaTwv); (12) The Oath ("OpKoi); (13) The Law (Nopos).

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  • About 1725 there were built, to protect the carrying-place here, Fort Bull, on Wood Creek, which was surprised and taken by French and Indians in March 1756, and Fort Williams, on the Mohawk, which, like Fort Craven, also on the Mohawk, was destroyed by Colonel Daniel Webb after the reduction of Oswego by the French in August 1756.

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  • This reduction of the temperature, carried to an undesirable extreme, is the reason why the man who has copiously consumed spirits "to keep out the cold" is often visited with pneumonia.

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  • They show that the dielectric constant of a liquid generally undergoes great reduction in value when the liquid is frozen and reduced to a low temperature.1 The dielectric constants of gases have been determined by L.

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  • Perry, " A Preliminary Account of the Reduction of Observations on Strained Material, Leyden Jars and Voltameters," Proc. Roy.

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  • On the other hand, the progressive reduction of mining and metallurgical costs effected by improved transportation and machinery, and the use of high explosives, compressed air, electric-power transmission, &c., resulted in California (as elsewhere) in a notable revival of deep mining.

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  • This is smelted with rich gold ores, notably those containing tellurium, for white metal or regulus; and by a following process of partial reduction analogous to that of selecting in copper smelting, " bottoms " of impure copper are obtained in which practically all the gold is concentrated.

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  • After this event Hussein Kuprili, surnamed "the Wise," devoted himself to the suppression of the revolts which had broken out in Arabia, Egypt and the Crimea, to the reduction of the Janissaries, and to the institution of administrative and financial reform.

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  • Since it does not form an addition product with bromine, reduction must have taken place in one of the nuclei only, and on account of the aromatic character of the compound it must be in that nucleus which does not contain the amino group. This tetrahydro compound yields adipic acid, (CH 2) 4 (CO 2 H) 2, when oxidized by potassium permanganate.

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  • He is credited with having brought about a reduction of the quantity of silver in the smaller coins; he was the author of the Tariff Act of 1857 and of the bonded-warehouse system, and was one of the first to advocate civil service reform.

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  • Next year Edward effected the reduction of Calais.

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  • The possessions of the Spaniards in Peru were now confined to the castles of Callao, which Rodil maintained for upwards of a year, in spite of all the means that could be employed for their reduction.

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  • The wings in the Hymenoptera show a marked reduction in the number of nervures as compared with more primitive insects.

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  • The principle of this method is as follows: - In the ordinary air expuls i on method, the vapour always mixes to some extent with the air in the tube, and this involves a reduction of the pressure of the vapour.

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  • On account of the reduction and modification of the jaws in the Corixidae, C. Borner has lately suggested that they should form a special sub-order of Hemipterathe Sandaliorrhyncha.

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  • It is still more surprising that the soldiers should have quietly submitted to a reduction in the amount of the donative or gift which it was customary for them to receive from a new emperor, though the civil population of the capital were paid their largess (congiarium) in full.

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  • Gutbier (Ann., 1905, 34 2, p. 266) by reduction of the dioxide obtained 127.6; Marckwald, by determining the ratio of telluric acid to tellurium dioxide, obtained 126.85; H.

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  • The third method is the most symmetrical of all, both in observation and reduction; but it was not employed by Bessel, on the ground that it involved the determination of the errors of two screws instead of one.

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  • 9 2 prohibited the planting of new vineyards in Italy, and ordered the reduction of those in the provinces by one-half.

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  • The relation of the elevation of the boiling-point (t°) to the osmotic pressure (P) is very simply derived from the formula t=o 02407P 0, while the reduction of vapour pressure proportional to the concentration can be very easily obtained from the elevation of the boiling-point, or it may be obtained directly from tables of vapour tension.

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  • The elevation of the boilingpoint is of little practical importance, but the reduction of vapour pressure means that sea-water evaporates more slowly than fresh water, and the more slowly the higher the salinity.

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  • 4282 t +0 0074527 t20.0000-5494 t3 Cl(o 2149 - o o07117 / 2 +0.0000931 13) In the case of ocean water with a salinity of 35 per mille, this gives for saturation with atmospheric gases in cc. per litre: The reduction of the absorption of gas by rise of temperature is thus seen to be considerable.

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  • Reduction of the ulna from a complete and distinct bone to a comparatively rudimentary state in which it coalesces more or less firmly with the radius.

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  • Reduction of the fibula till nothing but its lower extremity remains.

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  • Reduction and final loss of outer pair of digits (second and fifth), with coalescence of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones of the two middle digits to form a cannon-bone.

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  • The most interesting genera are, however, the Upper Oligocene and Lower Miocene Gelocus and Prodremotherium, which have perfectly selenodont teeth, and the third and fourth metacarpal and metatarsal bones respectively fused into an imperfect cannon-bone, with the reduction of the lateral metacarpals and metatarsals to mere remnants of their upper and lower extremities.

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  • By extensive reorganizations, and in spite of having to cope with a rising in Nandi, his commission resulted in the reduction of expenditure and increase of local revenue.

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  • The latter had taken a small castle, the reduction of which was one of the objects of his expedition, but his men had dispersed to plunder and could not be rallied before the following morning.

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  • The metal may be obtained by reduction of its oxide with magnesium.

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  • It behaves more as a ketone than as a quinone, since with hydroxylamine it yields an oxime, and on reduction with zinc dust and caustic soda it yields a secondary alcohol, whilst it cannot be reduced by means of sulphurous acid.

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  • The reduction of friction by improved mechanical arrangements, and the introduction of electric firing, enabled the layer not only to train and elevate the gun himself, but also to fire it the moment it was truly " on " the target.

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  • Among the consequences of the panic was a reduction of wages in many employments, accompanied by labour troubles more or less serious.

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  • The establishment of a system of magnetic observatories in various parts of British territory all over the globe was accomplished mainly on his representations; and a great part of his life was devoted to their direction, and to the reduction and discussion of the observations.

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  • The reduction in thickness of the bars is accompanied by a slight increase in their width and a very great increase in their length, so that it is generally necessary to cut partly rolled bars into two parts to keep them of convenient dimensions.

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  • By repeated passages through the rolls the bars are hardened, and to facilitate further reduction they are usually softened by annealing before being passed to the finishing rolls.

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  • The reduction was due to stricter administration.

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