As prepared by the reduction of the oxide it is a grey powder.
The result is, on the one hand, a clearing away of much fantastic phylogeny, on the other, an enormous reduction of the supposed gaps between groups.
And yet, didn't clinical words like selective reduction and gestational carrier mask the facts?
Selective reduction, for starters...
The anticipations as to the increase of messages that would result from the reduction of rates were fully realized.
The Chamber, though convinced of the danger of this reform, the perils of which were incisively demonstrated by Sella, voted by an overwhelming majority for an immediate reduction of the impost by onefourth, and its complete abolition within four years.
We know very little of the details of reduction in the lower plants, but it probably occurs at some stage in the life history of all plants in which sexual nuclear fusion takes place.
Chauveau points to the reduction in the 12-hour term as compared to the 24-hour term on the Eiffel Tower, and infers the practical disappearance of the former at no great height.
In the stems of many water-plants various stages of reduction of the vascular system, especially of the xylem, are met with, and very often this reduction leads to the formation of a compact stele in which the individuality of the separate Reduced bundles may be suppressed, so that a closed cylinder lmpbost~h1c of xylem surrounds a pith.
At the end of 1907 Italy was among the few Countries that had not adopted the reduction of postage sanctioned at the Postal Union congress, held in Rome in 1906, by which the rates became 23/4d.
Soc. (1900), lxvi.; Gates, A Study of Reduction in Oenothera rubrinervis, Bot.
Metallic cobalt may be obtained by reduction of the oxide or chloride in a current of hydrogen at a red heat, or by heating the oxalate, under a layer of powdered glass.
Considerations such as these could not be expected to appeal to the nation at large, which hailed the advent of the Left as the dawn of an era of unlimited popular sovereignty, diminished administrative pressure, reduction of taxation and general prosperity.
In support of these views he reported that in Belgium in 1863 "a reduction of 33 per cent.
in the traffic; and similar statistics pointing to increase of business consequent on reduction of rates were produced in regard to France, Switzerland and Prussia.
Some of the complaints against the companies, however, were exaggerated, and the estimates formed of the possible commercial development of telegraphy were optimistic. The basis for these estimates was the experience of other countries, which, however, did not justify the expectation that a large increase of business consequent on reduction of rates could be obtained without serious diminution of profit.
A reduction has been made in the charges for trunk calls at night, and calls for single periods of three minutes are allowed at half the ordinary rates between 7 p.m.
The two divisions of the spore mother cell in which the reduction takes place, follow each other very rapidly and are known as Heterotype and Homotype (Flemming), or according to the terminology of Farmer and Moore (1905) as the meiotic phase.
Nor were other labourers, more nearly connected with the producing interests, satisfied with a reduction of wages because produce had fallen in price all round.
One consequence of the agrarian agitations was the increased use of machinery and the reduction in the number of hands employed, which if it proved advantageous to the landlord and to the few laborers retained, who received higher wages, resulted in an increase of unemployment.
reduction in size is due to A, Two vermiform nuclei in the emthe absence of cytoplasm, bryo sac; one approaching the eggwhich is in some cases so nucleus, the other uniting with the 11 ~ ~h ~h upper polar nucleus.
In doing what he did, Descartes actually exemplified that reduction of the processes of nature to mere transposition of the particles of matter, which in different ways was a leading idea in the minds of Bacon, Hobbes and Gassendi.
But the piratical acts of these traders, in which the knights themselves sometimes joined, and the strategic position of the island between Constantinople and the Levant, necessitated its reduction by the Ottoman sultans.
Cromwell himself sailed a fortnight later, leaving the reduction of the island, which was completed in 1652, to his generals.
The tertiary glycols are known as pinacones and are formed on the reduction of ketones with sodium amalgam.
Inasmuch as the debenture stocks and preference shares would have to be redeemed in 1911 at premiums ranging from 3 to 5 per cent., the state would have to pay the company £253,000 in excess of the total of the outstanding securities in order to enable the ordinary shares to receive par, and in the council's view this payment would diminish the p robability of the Post Office being able to afford a substantial reduction in the telephone charges.
The problem of the curves is solved by their reduction to a problem of straight lines; and the locus of any point is determined by its distance from two given straight lines - the axes of co-ordinates.
The rest sat on, discussing the constitution, drawing up lists of damnable heresies and of incontrovertible articles of faith, producing plans for the reduction of the army and demanding - consolidating his rule and power.
Macaulay imputes this reduction to Hastings as a characteristic act of financial immorality; but in truth it had been expressly enjoined by the court of directors, in a despatch dated six months before he took up office.
Taking everything into consideration the reduction was, perhaps, not less than 20 Lo, so that, though the nominal or money wages in 1873 and 1890 were the same, the actual wages were much higher in the latter year.
It was now that Alexander completed the conquest of the provinces north of the Hindu Kush by the reduction of the last mountain strongholds of the native princes.
He suggested an international congress on the question; inspired a pamphlet, Le Pape el le Con grs, which proposed a reduction of the papal territory, and wrote to the pope advising him to cede Romagna in order to obtain better guarantees for the rest of his dominions.
In fact, everywhere the demand for goods, especially of those for domestic consumption, fell away; and there was a reduction in the average number of persons employed in the manufacturing industries to the extent of more than 20%.
The potential gradient is in all cases lower in summer than winter, and thus the reduction in c 1 in summer would appear even larger than in Table V.
It will be seen that the revenue is swollen by a large number o taxes which can only be justified by necessity; the reduction and still more, the readjustment of taxation (which now largely falls or articles of primary necessity) is urgently needed.
A highly imaginative flufancial exposition by Seismit Doda, who announced a surplus of 2,400,000, paved the way fora Grist Tax Reduction Bil],which Cairoli had taken over from the Depretis programme.
It was hard indeed for a carter drawing coal to a gasworks to recognize the necessity which compelled a reduction in his wages because wool had fallen 20 7 0.
The reduction of the tentacles in all these forms may be correlated with their mode of life, and especially with living in a constant current of water, which brings foodparticles always from one direction and renders a complete whorl or circle of tentacles unnecessary.
The Siphonula produced buds on the manubrium, as many Anthomedusae are known to do, and these by reduction or dislocation of parts gave rise to the various appendages of the colony.
In other cases the reduction goes much further, till the endodermis eventually comes to surround nothing but an intercellular channel formed in place of the stelar tissue.
The reduction is brought about simply by the segmentation of the spirem thread into half the number of segments instead of the normal number.
The long-promised abolition of the grist tax was not explicitly mentioned, opposition to the railway redemption contracts was transformed into approval, and the vaunted reduction of taxation replaced by lip-service to the Conservative deity of financial equilibrium.
He showed further, that the increase of common salt in the soil is correlated with a reduction in the number and size of the chlo,-oplastids, and therefore in the amount of chlorophyll.
There would be no selective reduction.
"The results are due to mosquito reduction.
complex spectra of stars of the solar type this is by no means the case; for, as Dr Hartmann remarks, " in the first place the lines in these spectra are so numerous that their complete measurement and reduction would require many days, and in the second place a rigorous reduction of such material has hitherto not been at all possible because the wave-lengths of the lines are not known with sufficient accuracy.
By distillation over lime, the methyl group is removed from the pyridine ring, and the resulting a- pyridyl-Nmethylpyrrol gives i-nicotine on reduction.
Thus the gonads are covered over by at least four layers of epithelium, and since these are unnecessary, presenting merely obstacles to the dehiscence of the gonads, they gradually undergo reduction.
A survey of the vegetable kingdom indicates that evolution has proceeded, on the whole, from the simple to the complex; at the same time, as has been already mentioned, evidence of reduction or degeneration in common.
Thus in the series Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Phanerogamia, whilst the sporophyte presents progressive development, the gametophyte presents continuous reduction.
By the reduction of nitro-phenols, the corresponding aminophenols are obtained, and of these, the metaand para-derivatives are the most important.
In birds of various groups the clavicles are more or less degenerated, the reduction beginning at the distal end.
Reduction of the number of toes (the fifth shows no traces whatever, not even in Archaeopteryx) begins with the hallux, which is completely or partly absent in many birds; the second toe is absent in Struthio only.
The only really aberrant modifications of the wing-muscles are found in the Ratitae, where they are, however, all easily explained by reduction, and in the penguins, where the wings are greatly specialized into blades for rowing with screw-like motions.
The most primitive combination, ambiens and A B X Y, is the most common; next follows that of A X Y, meaning the reduction of B, i.e.
But the greatest reduction, with only A remaining, is characteristic of such a heterogeneous assembly as Accipitres, Cypselidae, Trochilidae, Striges and Fregata.
the Nearctic and the Palaearctic. The reduction of the Oriental to a subregion, with consequent " provincial " rank of its main subdivisions, will probably be objected to, but these are matters of taste and prejudice.
The industrial establishments comprise reduction works, saw-mills and flour-mills, one of the latter being the largest in Canada.
By the adoption of a regular system of work, and a careful plan of reduction, he was able to keep his observations reduced practically up to date, and published them annually with a degree of punctuality which astonished his contemporaries.
In the presence of water it frequently acts as a bleaching agent, the bleaching process in this case being one of reduction.
- The families of beetles included by Kolbe in this group are distinguished by the possession of six malpighian tubes, and a great reduction in one or two of the tarsal segments, so that there seem to be only four or three segments in each foot; hence the names Tetramera and Trimera formerly applied to them.
He lost his place owing to a reduction of the duke's establishment, and for several years he lived obscurely; but by good fortune he succeeded in persuading Maria de Uceda, one of the ladiesin-waiting of Mariana, second wife of Philip IV., to marry him.
By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.
Under this principle, rates are reduced where the increase of business which follows such reduction makes the change a profitable one.
They are kept relatively high in those cases where the expansion of business which follows a reduction is small, and where such a change is therefore unprofitable.
This act has been the means of effecting a considerable reduction in the hours worked by railway men on certain railways, and no case has yet arisen in which a reference to the Commissioners has been necessary.
This is mainly due to a great falling off in traffic, because of a general business depression; from 1907 to 1909 the reduction in the accident record is still greater.
His administration was marked by a revival of American industries and a reduction of the public debt, and at its conclusion the country was left in a condition of prosperity and on friendly terms with foreign nations.
The suggested causes are (I) reduction of insects by drainage, (2) reduced population, (3) the use of quinine.
Though she returned to Hanover in 1822 she did not abandon her astronomical studies, and in 1828 she completed the reduction, to January 1800, of 2500 nebulae discovered by her brother.
The isothermals of mean annual temperature lie over northern Asia on curves tolerably regular in their outline, having their western branches in a somewhat higher latitude than their eastern; a reduction of I° of latitude corresponds approximately - and irrespective of modifications due to elevation - to a rise of 2 ° Fahr., as far say as 30° N., where the mean temperature is about 75° Fahr.
Such a reduction of temperature is brought about along the greater part of the coasts of India and of the BurmoSiamese peninsula by the interruption of the wind current by continuous ranges of mountains, which force the mass of air to rise over them, whereby the air being rarefied, its specific capacity for heat is increased and its temperature falls, with a corresponding condensation of the vapour originally held in suspension.
It is here that the danger of "the ideal system" really lies - in its reduction of reality to "particular perceptions," essentially unconnected with each other.
He advocated freedom of the corn trade, reduction of the number of religious communities, and deprecated regulation of the interest on loans.
The remedy for the evils of the time was not so much the reduction as the equalization of the imposts, which would allow the poor to consume more, raise the production and add to the general wealth.
His first plan was to continue the work, already initiated by his predecessor Tourny, of making a fresh survey of the land (cadastre), in order to arrive at a juster assessment of the taille; he also obtained a large reduction in the contribution of the province.
The decrease in the demand for labour is attributable chiefly to the reduction of the cultivated area and the laying down to pasture of land once under the plough, and to the increasing use of agricultural machinery.
The reform of land tenure in Ireland, the representation of women, the reduction of the national debt, the reform of London government, the abrogation of the Declaration of Paris, were among the topics on which he spoke with marked effect.
The next three years was signalized by the reduction one by one of the strong places still held by the English: Linlithgow towards the end of 1310, Dumbarton in October 1311, Perth, by Bruce himself, in January 1312.
In forms which are naked in the adult state, the shell falls off soon after the reduction of the velum, but in Cenia, Runcina and Vaginula the shell-gland and shell are not developed, and the young animal when hatched has already the naked form of the adult.
The next six families include the animals formerly known as Gymnosomatous Pteropods, characterized by the absence of mantle and shell, the reduction of the ventral surface of the foot, and the parapodial fins at the anterior end of the body.
The last three families constitute the sub-tribe Porostomata, characterized by the reduction of the buccal mass, which is modified into a suctorial apparatus.
She added that all the parties except the Jacobins were full of confidence; and that the nobles now cherished hopes of a reaction, seeing that the reduction of the number of rulers from five to three pointed towards monarchy.
The order must therefore be ancient, and as no evidence is forthcoming as to the mode of reduction of the hind-wings, nor as to the stages by which the suctorial mouth-organs became specialized, it is difficult to trace the exact relationship of the group, but the presence of cerci and a degree of correspondence in the nervuration of the forewings suggest the Mecaptera as possible allies.
Most of the state institutions secured Federal charters after the establishments of the national banking system (1863-1864), but the high price of government bonds and the large amount of capital required led to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the reduction of the minimum capital to $25,000 under the currency act of the 14th of March 1900.
The " cotton stainers," various species of Dysdercus, are widely distributed, occurring for example in America, the West Indies, Africa, India, &c. The larvae suck the sap from the young bolls and seeds, causing shrivelling and reduction in quantity of fibre.
He is also to be credited with the abolition of the gladiatorial shows in 404 (although there is said to be evidence of their existence later), a reduction of the taxes, improvements in criminal law, and the reorganization of the defensores civitatum, municipal officers whose duty it was to defend the rights of the people and set forth their grievances.
From Antioch Hadrian set out for Dacia to punish the Roxolani, who, incensed by a reduction of the tribute hitherto paid them, had invaded the Danubian provinces.
The coordinates thus found will in the case of a body moving around the sun be heliocentric. The reduction to the earth's centre is a problem of pure geometry.
In 1857 Field became chairman of a state commission for the reduction into a written and systematic code of the whole body of law of the state, excepting those portions already reported upon by the Commissioners of Practice and Pleadings.
Since its reversion to Ottoman power (1840) the history of Marash has been varied only by Armenian troubles, largely connected with the fortunes of Zeitun, for the reduction of which place it has more than once been used as a base.
He was also violently opposed by -the Agrarians because he advocated the reduction of corn duties, and in 1897 he resigned office, and a few months later was appointed German ambassador in Constantinople.
Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.
From meta-brombenzoicacid two nitrobrombenzoic ac i ds are obtained on direct nitration; elimination of the bromine atom and the reduction of the nitro to an amino group in these two acids results in the formation of the same ortho-aminobenzoic acid.
By eliminating the hydroxy groups in these acids the same nitrobenzoic acid is obtained, which yields on reduction an aminobenzoic acid different from the starting-out acid.
If we accept Kekule's formula for the benzene nucleus, then we may expect the double linkages to be opened up partially, either by oxidation or reduction, with the formation of di-, tetra-, or hexa-hydro derivatives, or entirely, with the production of open chain compounds.
'Cooh Ci, BrC CO CBr3+ H H2 HC ("CH, HC C /CH, H02C C02HCI CI (t) (2) C(3) (4) (5) The reduction of o-oxybenzoic acids by sodium in amyl alcohol solution has been studied by A.
Resorcin on reduction gives dihydroresorcin, which G.
Kekule (Ann., 1883, 221, p. 230), however, reinvestigated this acid; he showed that it was dibasic and not tribasic; that it gave tartaric acid on reduction; and, finally, that it was dioxytartaric acid, HOOC C(OH) 2 C(OH) 2 COOH.
This acid is converted into the acid by soda, and into the Q2 tetrahydro acid by reduction.
From the fact that reduction products containing either one or two double linkages behave exactly as unsaturated aliphatic compounds, being readily reduced or oxidized, and combining with the halogen elements and haloid acids, it seems probable that in benzenoid compounds the fourth valencies are symmetrically distributed in such a manner as to induce a peculiar stability in the molecule.
From a study of the reduction of compounds containing two ethylenic bonds united by a single bond, termed a "conjugated system," E.
Reduction to hexamethylene compounds necessitates the disruption of three of the edges of the octahedron, the diagonal linkings remaining intact, or, in the plane projection, three peripheral linkages, the hexamethylene ring assuming the form (III); In 1888 J.
Marsh also devised a form closely resembling that of Thomsen, inasmuch as the carbon atoms occupied the angles of a regular octahedron, and the diagonal linkages differed in nature from the peripheral, but differeng from Thomsen's since rupture of the diagonal and not peripheral bonds accompanied the reduction to hexamethylene.
The molecule is aromatic but not benzenoid; however, by the reduction of one half of the molecule, the other assumes a benzenoid character.
By reduction, the double linkages become saturated, and compounds result which stand in much about the same relation to the original nucleus as hexamethylene does to benzene.
Reduction, however, converts it into an aliphatic compound.
This is comparable with the reduction of the benzene nucleus into hexamethylene, a substance of an aliphatic character.
This substance easily splits out alcohol, and the ring compound then formed yields pyrrolidine on reduction by sodium in amyl alcohol solution.
Reduction of this ester leads to the formation of ammonia, hydroxylamine, and dimethyl pyrrol dicarboxylic ester, C(CH3): C C02R HN< C(CO 2 R) :C CH3.
From the hare the wild rabbit is distinguished externally by its smaller size, shorter ears and feet, the absence or reduction of the black patch at the tip of the ears, and its greyer colour.
Finally, we have the family Rhinocerotidae, which includes the existing representatives of the group. In this family the dentition has undergone considerable reduction, and may be represented inclusive of all the variations, by the formula i a or a m a The first upper incisor, whenpresent, has an 430r2; PP antero-posteriorly elongated crown, but the second is small; when fully developed, the lower canine is a large forwardly directed tusk-like tooth with sharp cutting-edges, and biting against the first upper incisor.
On reduction by sodium amalgam in glacial acetic acid solution they yield primary amines.
They may also be prepared by the reduction of primary nitro compounds with stannous chloride and concentrated hydrochloric acid; by the reduction of unsaturated nitro compounds with minium amalgam or zinc dust in the presence of dilute acetic acid' Bouveault, Comptes rendus, 1902, 134, p. 1145):R2C:[[Chno 2 -R 2 C: Ch Nhoh - R 2 Ch Ch: Noh]], and by the action of alkyl iodides on the sodium salt of nitro-hydroxylamine (A.
The acetyl compound on reduction yields two of its nitrogen atoms in the form of ammonia and the third in the form of methylamine.
It melts at 173° C.; and on reduction with sodium in alcoholic solution yields tetramethylene diamine.
The y may also be prepared by the reduction of pseudo-nitrols (R.
On reduction it gives a strongly reducing substance, probably hydrazine.
The rates on these advances have now been generally reduced to 6% with the exception of that on the advances from the lighthouse administration, which refused to allow any reduction below 7%.
The ministry of commerce and of public works absorbed £T883,161 a reduction of some £T 180,000 on the previous year.
The demands of the various departments of state had been much cut down, and according to the minister of finance's own statement much of the reduction was merely unavoidable expenditure deferred; the fact that some of this expenditure, which had been jealously scrutinized, was to be undertaken at once, meant that demands on future years would be relatively re- duced.
The sale of the fertilizer more than pays for the cost of reduction, and the only expense the city has is in collecting it.
Therefore a reduction in the partial pressure of the gas in the atmosphere, or a rise in the temperature of the water, or a violent agitation of the sea itself, will lead to precipitation of calcium carbonate.
In Pleistocene times, then, when there were prolonged glacial ages, the sea-level was lowered and at the same time there was a reduction in sea temperature, so that the rate of reproduction of the coral polypes, and so the growth of reefs, was diminished.
From serving primitively as the essential organ of the cleft the tongue-bar may have undergone reduction and modification, becoming a secondary bar in Amphioxus, subordinate to the primary bars in size, vascularity and development; finally, in the craniate vertebrates it would then have completed its involution, the suggestion having been made that the tongue-bars are represented by the thymusprimordia.
This last substance may be reduced to mesoporphyrin, C34H3804N4, which by further reduction gives haemopyrrol, C 8 11 13 N, possibly methyl-propyl-pyrrol or butyl-pyrrol.
Wellington then, ostentatiously making preparations to enter Spain by the Badajoz line, once more turned northward, crossed the Tormes (June 17, 1812), and advanced to the Douro, behind which the French were drawn up. Marmont had erected at Salamanca some strong forts, the reduction of which occupied Wellington ten days, and cost him 600 men.
On reduction glucose appears to yield the hexahydric alcohol d-sorbite, and on oxidation d-gluconic and d-saccharic acids.
Difficulties in the supply of labour in the East may hinder the further development of the rubber-planting industry, especially at a period when a reduction in the cost of production may be the chief problem.
These promises were not kept for long, and by 1878 his attitude had become so hostile towards both the Natal and Transvaal governments that Sir Bartle Frere, then High Commissioner for South Africa, determined on his reduction.
It is a Realism of the most uncompromising type, which by its reduction of individuals to accidents of one identical substance seems to tremble on the very verge of Spinozism.
In 1849 he brought forward a proposal in parliament in favour of international arbitration, and in 1851 a motion for mutual reduction of armaments.
Reduction with acid-reducing agents gives amines.
Several different products may be obtained by the reduction of the aromatic nitro compounds, the substances formed in any particular case depending on the conditions of experiment.
The electrolytic reduction of the aromatic nitro compounds gives rise to substituted hydroxylamines which are immediately transformed into aminophenols or amines.
On oxidation with chromic acid they yield dinitrohydrocarbons, and on reduction with hydroxylamine (in alkaline solution) or with potassium sulphydrate give ketoximes, RR': C: NOH (R.
It has been found by Sir William Herschel and others that the definition of a telescope is often improved by stopping off a part of the central area of the object-glass; but the advantage to be obtained in this way is in no case great, and anything like a reduction of the aperture to a narrow annulus is attended by a development of the external luminous rings sufficient to outweigh any improvement due to the diminished diameter of the central area.'
If "=4), the term of the first order vanishes, and the reduction of the difference of path via P and via A to a term of the fourth order proves not only that Q and Q' are conjugate foci, but also that the foci are exempt from the most important term in the aberration.
on integration and reduction.
Metallic uranium, as shown by Peligot, can be obtained by the reduction of a mixture of dry chloride of potassium and dry uranous chloride, UC1 4, with sodium at a red heat.
This operation is no doubt intended to remove the oxygen diffused throughout the metal as oxide, part of it perhaps chemically by reduction of the oxide to metal, the rest by conveying the finely diffused oxide to the surface and causing it to unite there with the oxide scum.
It can be synthetically prepared by the reduction of coniferyl alcohol, (HO) (CH 3 O) C6H3 CH :CH CH20H, which occurs in combination with glucose in the glucoside coniferin, C16H2208.
In October 1905 a considerable reduction was made in railway rates and in port dues and customs, with the object of re-attracting to the port the transit trade of the interior, and in 1907 a branch of the Rhodesian customs was opened in the town.
It is curious to find that already in the 18th century a considerable reduction in the numbers of the city of London is supposed to have taken place, as is seen in the following figures: 1700.1750.
The head-gear is often combined with ore-bins and machinery for breaking and sizing the lump ore previous to shipment to the reduction works.
Ferric oxide gives a yellow colour, but requires the presence of an oxidizing agent to prevent reduction to the ferrous state.
A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while " decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the colour of the glass) are also sometimes added, those most generally used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal or anthracite coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in which it combines more readily with the silicic acid of the sand.
It has in general one value for the powdery metal as obtained by reduction of the oxide in hydrogen below the melting point of the metal, another for the metal in the state which it assumes spontaneously on freezing, and this latter value, in general, is modified by hammering, rolling, drawing, &c. These mechanical operations do not necessarily add to the density; stamping, it is true, does so necessarily, but rolling or drawing occasionally causes a diminution of the density.
by 177 years and effected a corresponding reduction in the dates assigned to Dynasties I.
8 In 1897 Rost followed up Peiser's suggestion by reducing the figure still further, but he counteracted to some extent the effects of this additional reduction by emending Sennacherib's date for Marduknadin-akhe's defeat of Tiglath-pileser I.
When revising his scheme of chronology in 1900, Rost abandoned his suggested emendation of Sennacherib's figure, but by decreasing his reduction of the length of Dynasty III., he only altered his date for the beginning of Dynasty I.
His slight reduction in the length of Dynasty I.
was obtained from the recently published date-lists, though his proposed reduction of Ammizaduga's reign to ten years has since been disproved.
It is not the purpose of this note to set forth the principles underlying the formation of proper names among the Babylonians and Assyrians, but it may not be out of place to indicate that by the side of such full names, containing three elements (or even more), we have already at an early period the reduction of these elements to two through the combination of the name of a deity with a verbal form merely, or through the omission of the name of the deity.
Our knowledge of the chemical structure of the monosaccharoses may be regarded as dating from 1880, when Zincke suspected some to be ketone alcohols, for it was known that glucose and fructose, for example, yielded penta-acetates, and on reduction gave hexahydric alcohols, which, when reduced by hydriodic acid, gave normal and secondary hexyliodide.
He prepared the cyanhydrins of glucose and fructose, hydrolysed them to the corresponding oxy-acids, from which the hydroxy groups were split out by reduction; it was found that glucose yielded normal heptylic acid and fructose methylbutylacetic acid; hence glucose is an aldehyde alcohol, CH 2 OH (CH OH) 4 CHO, whilst fructose is a ketone alcohol CH 2 OH (CH OH) 3 CO.
On warming the osazone with hydrochloric acid the phenylhydrazine residues are removed and an osone results, which on reduction with zinc and acetic acid gives a ketose.
The osazone prepared from a-acrose resembled most closely the glucosazone yielded by glucose, mannose, and fructose, but it was optically inactive; also the ketose which it gave after treatment with hydrochloric acid and reduction of the osone was like ordinary fructose except that it was inactive.
Other forms are: d- and l-gulose, prepared from the lactones of the corresponding gulonic acids, which are obtained from d- and /-glucose by oxidation and inversion; d- and l-idose, obtained by inverting with pyridine d- and l-gulonic acids, and reducing the resulting idionic acids; d- and l-galactose, the first being obtained by hydrolysing milk sugar with dilute sulphuric acid, and the second by fermenting inactive galactose (from the reduction of the lactone of d, l-galactonic acid) with yeast; and d- and l-talose obtained by inverting the galactonic acids by pyridine into d- and l-talonic acids and reduction.
The plane projection of molecular structures which differ stereochemically is discussed under Stereoisomerism; in this place it suffices to say that, since the terminal groups of the hexaldose molecule are different and four asymmetric carbon atoms are present, sixteen hexaldoses are possible; and for the hexahydric alcohols which they yield on reduction, and the tetrahydric dicarboxylic acids which they give on oxidation, only ten forms are possible.
When xylose is combined with hydrocyanic acid and the cyanide is hydrolysed, together with l-gulonic acid, a second isomeric acid, l-idonic acid, is produced, which on reduction yields the hexaldose l-idose.
On reduction it yields an inactive mixture of galactonic acids, some molecules being attacked at one end, as it were, and an equal number of others at the other.
In October 1900 a conditional agreement for the reduction of the bounties was made in Paris between France, Germany and Austria-Hungary; in February 1901 the Belgian government proposed a new session of the Conference of 1898, and on the 16th of December following Brussels welcomed once more the delegates of all the powers, with the exception of Russia, to the eighth European Sugar Bounty Conference since that of Paris in 1862.
Styrolene is oxidized by nitric or chromic acids to benzoic acid; reduction gives ethylbenzene; hydrochloric and hydrobromic acids yield a-haloid ethylbenzenes, e.g.
Reduction with hydriodic acid gives dibenzyl, and heating with sulphur gives tetraphenylthiophene or thionessal.
The latter on reduction yields a diamino compound, the disulphonic acid of which on diazotization and coupling with a phenol, &c., gives valuable substantive cotton dyes after the type yielded by Benzidine.
This programme was based upon the idea of a liberal reconstruction: he aimed at the reduction and simplification of the State schools combined with a more rigorous method of teaching, and at affording all facilities to, and indeed inviting the competition of, private instruction, fearless of the confessional school, which in his view would be compelled to modernize itself in order to maintain competition with the State school.
In the Belgian process the reduction and distillation are carried out in cylindrical or elliptical retorts of fire-clay, from 3 ft.
in 1708, subsequently participating in the battle of Holowczyn, the reduction of Mazepa, and the crowning victory of Poltava (June 26, 1709), where he won his marshal's baton.
The successful reduction of the rebels in Arabia enabled him in his first year to send his great general Khalid with his Arab warriors first against Persians, then against Romans.
In 1885 the brothers Cowles patented a process for the electrothermal reduction of oxidized ores by exposure to an intense current of electricity when admixed with carbon in a retort.
Later in that year they patented a process for the reduction of aluminium by carbon, and in 1886 an electric furnace with sliding carbon rods passed through the end walls to the centre of a rectangular furnace.
The reduction is not due to electrolysis, but to the action of carbon on alumina, a part of the carbon in the charge being consumed and evolved as carbon monoxide gas, which burns at the orifice in the cover so long as reduction is taking place.
Since that date other processes have been devised and the electrolytic processes have entirely replaced the older methods of reduction with sodium.
unites with C(OH) >C6114 C 6 11 4 /C6114 (y) (anthranol) is a reduction product of anthraquinone.
The metal thus produced formed a dark brown amorphous powder resembling iron as obtained by the reduction of its oxide in hydrogen.
Wallach, Ber., 1881, 14, P. 421); by the action of reducing agents on nitroparaffins; by the action of zinc and hydrochloric acid on aldehyde ammonias (German Patent 73,812); by the reduction of the phenylhydrazones and oximes of aldehydes and ketones with sodium amalgam in the presence of alcohol and sodium acetate (J.
The primary aromatic amines may be prepared by the reduction of the nitro-hydrocarbons, the reducing agents used being either alcoholic-ammonium sulphide (N.
They may also be obtained by the reduction of nitroso compounds and of hydrazo compounds and of hydrazones (J.
Paraphenylene diamine may be prepared as above, and also by the reduction of amidoazobenzene.
From his committee he reported in April 1888 the "Mills Bill," which provided for a reduction of the duties on sugar, earthenware, glassware, plate glass, woollen goods and other articles, the substitution of ad valorem for specific duties in many cases, and the placing of lumber (of certain kinds), hemp, wool, flax, borax, tin plates, salt and other articles on the free list.
This led to a material reduction in the army, which, as reorganized, consists of 4000 officers and men, divided into seven battalions of infantry of 300 men each, seven squadrons of cavalry of 125 men each, and one regiment of mountain artillery of 590 men, with six batteries of mountain guns.
The reduction of that stronghold was largely due to his energy and skill.
Cutler's original intention was to buy for the Ohio Company only about 1,500,000 acres, but on the 27th of July Congress authorized a grant of about 5,000,000 acres of land for $3,500,000; a reduction of one-third was allowed for bad tracts, and it was also provided that the lands could be paid for in United States securities.
The richest mining districts are those of Cadereyta and Toliman, where there are metallurgical works for the reduction of ores.
==Geology== The flat shore of Lough Neagh in the north is due to the thick deposit of pale-coloured clays with lignites, which are probably of Pliocene age, and indicate a reduction of the area of the lake in still later times.
At the same time, the diffusion of these compounds into contact with the cathode leads to a partial reduction to chloride, by the removal of combined oxygen by the instrumentality of the hydrogen there evolved.
The current, by endosmosis, favours the passage of the solution into the hide-substance, and at the same time appears to assist the chemical combinations there occurring; hence a great reduction in the time required for the completion of the process.
The pelvic girdle and the hind-limbs show the least reduction found in any recent snakes, ilia, pubes and ischia being still distinguishable, the last even retaining their symphysis, and there are small vestiges of the femurs.
The presence in an alloy of a eutectic which solidifies at a much lower temperature than the main mass, implies a great reduction in tenacity, especially if it is to be used above the ordinary temperature as in the case of pipes conveying super-heated steam.
('E7rch,utcov a Kai -y'); (5) On Regimen in Acute Diseases (IIEpi cairns o Ewv); (6) On Airs, Waters, and Places (IIEpi cthpwv, l'6aTwv, Kai rorrwv); (7) On the Articulations (IIEpi etpBpwv); (8) On Fractures (IIEpi by c&v); (9) The Instruments of Reduction (M0xXix6s); (Jo) The Physician's Establishment, or Surgery (Kar' i rpEiov); (II) On Injuries of the Head (IIEpi KE0aXij TpwpaTwv); (12) The Oath ("OpKoi); (13) The Law (Nopos).
About 1725 there were built, to protect the carrying-place here, Fort Bull, on Wood Creek, which was surprised and taken by French and Indians in March 1756, and Fort Williams, on the Mohawk, which, like Fort Craven, also on the Mohawk, was destroyed by Colonel Daniel Webb after the reduction of Oswego by the French in August 1756.
This reduction of the temperature, carried to an undesirable extreme, is the reason why the man who has copiously consumed spirits "to keep out the cold" is often visited with pneumonia.
They show that the dielectric constant of a liquid generally undergoes great reduction in value when the liquid is frozen and reduced to a low temperature.1 The dielectric constants of gases have been determined by L.
Perry, " A Preliminary Account of the Reduction of Observations on Strained Material, Leyden Jars and Voltameters," Proc. Roy.
On the other hand, the progressive reduction of mining and metallurgical costs effected by improved transportation and machinery, and the use of high explosives, compressed air, electric-power transmission, &c., resulted in California (as elsewhere) in a notable revival of deep mining.
This is smelted with rich gold ores, notably those containing tellurium, for white metal or regulus; and by a following process of partial reduction analogous to that of selecting in copper smelting, " bottoms " of impure copper are obtained in which practically all the gold is concentrated.
After this event Hussein Kuprili, surnamed "the Wise," devoted himself to the suppression of the revolts which had broken out in Arabia, Egypt and the Crimea, to the reduction of the Janissaries, and to the institution of administrative and financial reform.
Since it does not form an addition product with bromine, reduction must have taken place in one of the nuclei only, and on account of the aromatic character of the compound it must be in that nucleus which does not contain the amino group. This tetrahydro compound yields adipic acid, (CH 2) 4 (CO 2 H) 2, when oxidized by potassium permanganate.
He is credited with having brought about a reduction of the quantity of silver in the smaller coins; he was the author of the Tariff Act of 1857 and of the bonded-warehouse system, and was one of the first to advocate civil service reform.
Next year Edward effected the reduction of Calais.
The possessions of the Spaniards in Peru were now confined to the castles of Callao, which Rodil maintained for upwards of a year, in spite of all the means that could be employed for their reduction.
The wings in the Hymenoptera show a marked reduction in the number of nervures as compared with more primitive insects.
The principle of this method is as follows: - In the ordinary air expuls i on method, the vapour always mixes to some extent with the air in the tube, and this involves a reduction of the pressure of the vapour.
On account of the reduction and modification of the jaws in the Corixidae, C. Borner has lately suggested that they should form a special sub-order of Hemipterathe Sandaliorrhyncha.
It is still more surprising that the soldiers should have quietly submitted to a reduction in the amount of the donative or gift which it was customary for them to receive from a new emperor, though the civil population of the capital were paid their largess (congiarium) in full.
Gutbier (Ann., 1905, 34 2, p. 266) by reduction of the dioxide obtained 127.6; Marckwald, by determining the ratio of telluric acid to tellurium dioxide, obtained 126.85; H.
The third method is the most symmetrical of all, both in observation and reduction; but it was not employed by Bessel, on the ground that it involved the determination of the errors of two screws instead of one.
9 2 prohibited the planting of new vineyards in Italy, and ordered the reduction of those in the provinces by one-half.
The relation of the elevation of the boiling-point (t°) to the osmotic pressure (P) is very simply derived from the formula t=o 02407P 0, while the reduction of vapour pressure proportional to the concentration can be very easily obtained from the elevation of the boiling-point, or it may be obtained directly from tables of vapour tension.
The elevation of the boilingpoint is of little practical importance, but the reduction of vapour pressure means that sea-water evaporates more slowly than fresh water, and the more slowly the higher the salinity.
4282 t +0 0074527 t20.0000-5494 t3 Cl(o 2149 - o o07117 / 2 +0.0000931 13) In the case of ocean water with a salinity of 35 per mille, this gives for saturation with atmospheric gases in cc. per litre: The reduction of the absorption of gas by rise of temperature is thus seen to be considerable.
Reduction of the ulna from a complete and distinct bone to a comparatively rudimentary state in which it coalesces more or less firmly with the radius.
Reduction of the fibula till nothing but its lower extremity remains.
Reduction and final loss of outer pair of digits (second and fifth), with coalescence of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones of the two middle digits to form a cannon-bone.
The most interesting genera are, however, the Upper Oligocene and Lower Miocene Gelocus and Prodremotherium, which have perfectly selenodont teeth, and the third and fourth metacarpal and metatarsal bones respectively fused into an imperfect cannon-bone, with the reduction of the lateral metacarpals and metatarsals to mere remnants of their upper and lower extremities.
By extensive reorganizations, and in spite of having to cope with a rising in Nandi, his commission resulted in the reduction of expenditure and increase of local revenue.
The latter had taken a small castle, the reduction of which was one of the objects of his expedition, but his men had dispersed to plunder and could not be rallied before the following morning.
The metal may be obtained by reduction of its oxide with magnesium.
It behaves more as a ketone than as a quinone, since with hydroxylamine it yields an oxime, and on reduction with zinc dust and caustic soda it yields a secondary alcohol, whilst it cannot be reduced by means of sulphurous acid.
The reduction of friction by improved mechanical arrangements, and the introduction of electric firing, enabled the layer not only to train and elevate the gun himself, but also to fire it the moment it was truly " on " the target.
Among the consequences of the panic was a reduction of wages in many employments, accompanied by labour troubles more or less serious.
The establishment of a system of magnetic observatories in various parts of British territory all over the globe was accomplished mainly on his representations; and a great part of his life was devoted to their direction, and to the reduction and discussion of the observations.
The reduction in thickness of the bars is accompanied by a slight increase in their width and a very great increase in their length, so that it is generally necessary to cut partly rolled bars into two parts to keep them of convenient dimensions.
By repeated passages through the rolls the bars are hardened, and to facilitate further reduction they are usually softened by annealing before being passed to the finishing rolls.
The reduction was due to stricter administration.
Although taxation was seconded by a drastic, indeed harsh, reduction of public salaries and wages (which were cut down by one-tenth all round) yet the years 1884, 1887 and 1888 were notable for heavy deficits in the treasury.
is due to reduction of the end correction.
The depression in trade which followed caused a reduction in revenue, the average for the years1904-1909being: revenue, £820,000; expenditure, £819,000.
The grounds of reduction of a decreet arbitral are "corruption," "bribery," "false hold" (Scots Act of Regulations 1695, s.
An attempt was made to include, under the expression "constructive corruption," among these statutory grounds of reduction, irregular conduct on the part of an arbitrator, with no suggestion of any corrupt motive.
The statutory definition of the grounds of reduction was intended, however, merely to put an end to the practice which had previously obtained of reviewing awards on their merits, and it does not prevent the courts from setting aside an award where the arbitrator has exceeded his jurisdiction, or disregarded any one of the expressed conditions of the submission, or been guilty of misconduct.
These have a speed reduction from armature shaft to bridge column of 1500 to I, through four intermediate spur gears and a worm gear.
By means of this coalition the Ministry succeeded, indeed, in passing the military service reforms on April 24 1911 (reduction of the three years' service to two years, combined with an increase in the contingent of recruits); but this completely exhausted its parliamentary strength, and the first parliamentary suffrage Parliament ended with but poor results in the midst of unsolved national problems.
Since 1910 a meat shortage in Austria had made itself more and more felt, especially in the towns, owing to their rapid growth, the decrease of cattle-raising in the Alpine lands, and the reduction in the imports of Serbian meat through the antiSerbian agrarian policy of Hungary.
Among the other important manufactures in 1905 were: chemicals, valued at $3,964,726; slaughtering and meat packing, $2,933,877; varnish, $2,893,305; stamped ware, $2,689,766; enamelled goods, $2,361,350; boots and shoes, $2,382,051; reduction of gold and silver, not from ore, $2,361,350; corsets, $2,081,761; paints, $1,812,463; silverware and silver-smithing, $1,780,906; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $1,742,862; hardware, $ 1, 6 16, 755; buttons, $1,281,528, and saddlery hardware, $1,151,789.
It is obtained by the dry distillation of nitrogenous vegetable and animal products; by the reduction of nitrous acid and nitrites with nascent hydrogen; and also by the decomposition of ammonium salts by alkaline hydroxides or by slaked lime, the salt most generally used being the chloride (sal-ammoniac, q.v.) thus 2NH 4 C1+Ca(OH) 2 =CaC1 2 +2H 2 O+2NH 3.
In that treaty the concessions made to France were the reduction by Great Britain of duties on wines and spirits, and the admission, free of duty, of some important French products, notably silk manufactures, gloves, and other products in which the French had superiority.
In 1872 a more general reduction was carried of war out, strongly resisted by the Protectionists, and finally duties.
reduction was repealed, and duties restored to their previous amounts.
Some of the Democratic senators were lukewarm in their support of the party policy of tariff reduction, and joined with the Re- publicans in mitigating the changes.
The duty on wool, typical among the duties on raw materials, was completely abolished, and with this change came a great reduction in the duties upon woollen goods.
The House had proposed to remove also the duties on coal and on iron ore, but the Senate permitted only a reduction in these.
Such a complete reduction of the whole anterior limb and girdle is unique among birds, but the cassowaries indicate the process.
The siege corps was commanded by General von Tresckow and numbered at first io,000 men with twenty-four field guns - a force which appeared adequate for the reduction of the antiquated works of Vauban.
Sodium is largely employed in the manufacture of cyanides and in reduction processes leading to the isolation of such elements as magnesium, silicon, boron, aluminium (formerly), &c.; it also finds application in organic chemistry.
This provides for the reduction as far as possible of contamination during the milking process itself.
Collecting all the coefficients, into one, we put (I) R = nd 2 p = nd 2 f (v), where and n is called the coefficient of reduction.
A discrepancy between a calculated and tabulated result will serve to show the influence of a slight change a in the coefficient of reduction n, and the muzzle velocity V.
gun at ranges 500, woo, 1500, 2000 yds., taking the muzzle velocity V =2150 f/s, and a coefficient of reduction n=0.96.
The graphite veins in the older crystalline rocks are probably akin to metalliferous veins and the material derived from deep-seated sources; the decomposition of metallic carbides by water and the reduction of hydrocarbon vapours have been suggested as possible modes of origin.
Scarcely had these amendments been carried when the serious financial straits brought on by debt incurred through the state's promotion of internal improvements gave rise to the demand for a reduction of governmental expenses and a limitation of the power of the General Assembly to contract debts.
This removes, or at least mitigates, the difficulty referred to, and leaves more room for the reigns of Jotham and Ahaz; but it requires, of course, a corresponding reduction in the reigns of the kings succeeding Ahaz.
It is in any case evident that the accession of Jehu and Athaliah must be brought down from 884 to 842 B.C.; and this will involve, naturally, a corresponding reduction of the dates of the previous kings of both kingdoms, and of course, at the same time, of those of Solomon, David and Saul.
The Peel report recommended that a large reduction in the number of licensed houses should be immediately effected, and that no compensation should be paid from the public rates or taxes, the money for this purpose being raised by an annual licence-rental levied on the rateable value of the licensed premises; it at once became a valuable weapon in the hands of advanced reformers.
From 1850 to 1880 there was a gradual reduction except during the years of the war.
The sesquioxide, Pr203, is obtained as a greenish white mass by the reduction of the peroxide.
This partly subterranean life is correlated with the frequent reduction of the limbs which, in closely allied forms, show every stage from fully developed, five-clawed limbs to complete absence.
The value of this intensity is equal to that of the force of gravity at the Bureau International, Paris (at the level of the Bureau), divided by 1.000332; a co-efficient which allows for theoretical reduction to the latitude 45° and to the level of the sea.
In the two remaining years of his life he was engaged on a reduction or "abridgment" of this work, which is known as the Book of Cupar, and is preserved in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh (MS. 35.
Brocchi and Daniel Rosa (1899) have developed the hypothesis of the progressive reduction of variability.
Internal causes of extinction are to be found in exaggeration of body size, in the hypertrophy or over-specialization of certain organs, in the irreversibility of evolution, and possibly, although this has not been demonstrated, in a progressive reduction of variability.
Other important manufactories are flour mills, of which there were over 500 in 1904; iron and steel works, of which there are 7 large establishments, including the immense plant at Monterey; 90 smelters for the reduction of precious metals; tanneries, potteries, and factories for the manufacture of hats, paper, linen, hammocks, harness and saddles, matches, explosives, aerated waters, soap, furniture, chocolate and sweetmeats.
It can be prepared by the reduction of phenyl propiolic acid with zinc and acetic acid, by heating benzal malonic acid, by the condensation of ethyl acetate with benzaldehyde in the presence of sodium ethylate or by the so-called "Perkin reaction"; the latter being the method commonly employed.
Cinnamic acid crystallizes in needles or prisms, melting at 133° C.; on reduction it gives phenyl propionic acid, C 6 H 5 CH 2 CH 2 000H.
Reduction of orthonitrocinnamic acid gives orthoaminocinnamic acid, C 6 H 4 (NH 2)CH:CH 000H, which is of theoretical importance, as it readily gives a quinoline derivative.
It is a powerful reducing agent, and is frequently employed for this purpose in organic chemistry; thus hydroxy acids are readily reduced on heating with the concentrated acid, and nitro compounds are reduced to amino compounds, &c. It is preferable to use the acid in the presence of amorphous phosphorus, for the iodine liberated during the reduction is then utilized in forming more hydriodic acid, and consequently the original amount of acid goes much further.
Melsens reconverted this derivative into the original acetic acid by reduction with sodium amalgam.
Its continued employment may, indeed, so injure the mucous membrane of the stomach as to interfere with digestion and so cause a morbid and dangerous reduction in weight.
and is readily soluble in water, but the solution is unstable and decomposes on standing, giving amorphous insoluble substances, and ammonium formate, oxalic acid, &c. An aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide converts it into oxamide, (CONH 2) 2, and reduction by zinc and hydrochloric acid gives methylamine.
In 1899 he lowered the fixed charge for the National Debt from twenty-five to twenty-three millions - a reduction imperatively required, apart from other reasons, by the difficulties found in redeeming Consols at their then inflated price.
Finally, the temporary reduction of the birth-rate, consequent upon the withdrawal of perhaps one-fourth of the national militia (males of 18 to 44 years) during two-fifths of the decade, may be estimated at perhaps 750,000.
what has been the cause of the reduction in the national birth-rate indicated by the census figures?
Walker, superintendent of the censuses of 1870 and 1880, the remarkable fact that such reduction coincided with a cause that was regarded as certain to quicken the increase of population, viz, the introduction of a vast body of fresh peasant blood from Europe, afforded proof that in this matter of population morals are far more potent than physical causes.
This is due to improvements in mining methods and reduction processes, which have made profitable low-grade ores that were not commercially available in 1880.
The production had steadily fallen to 16,984 flasks in 1908, but in the opinion of the United States Geological Survey this reduction is mainly attributable, in recent years at least, to market conditions, and does not truly indicate the exhaustion of the mines, although the ores now available are of low grades, those of New Almaden having shown a decrease in yield from 36.7% in1850-1851to o~74% in 1895-1896, so that only the greatest metallurgical skill and business economy can sustain the mines against a weak market.
This debt continued, slightly increased but without any very important change, until 18o6, when a reduction began, continuing until 1812, when the debt was about 45 millions.
On the other hand, resemblance to that genus is shown by the reduction of the upper incisors to a single pair.
The chief features of his administration were the fiscal preference of 333% in favour of goods imported into Canada from Great Britain, the despatch of Canadian contingents to South Africa during the Boer war, the contract with the Grand Trunk railway for the construction of a second transcontinental road from ocean to ocean, the assumption by Canada of the imperial fortresses at Halifax and Esquimault, the appointment of a federal railway commission with power to regulate freight charges, express rates and telephone rates, and the relations between competing companies, the reduction of the postal rate to Great Britain from 5 cents to 2 cents and of the domestic rate from 3 cents to 2 cents, a substantial contribution to the Pacific cable, a practical and courageous policy of settlement and development in the Western territories, the division of the North-West territories into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the enactment of the legislation necessary to give them provincial status, and finally (1910), a tariff arrangement with the United States, which, if not all that Canada might claim in the way of reciprocity, showed how entirely the course of events had changed the balance of commercial interests in North America.
In 336 he was sent with Amyntas and Attalus to make preparations for the reduction of Asia.
It is important, because such a concrescence is by no means universal, and does not occur, for example, in Mytilus or in Arca; further, because when its occurrence is once appreciated, the reduction of the gill-plates of Anodonta to the plume-type of the simplest ctenidium presents no difficulty; and, lastly, it has importance in reference to its physiological significance.
It is as follows: (1) Negative rejection of Plato's hypothesis of forms and formal number, and reduction of forms to the common in the early dialogu€ 7rEpi uXoaogtas and in the early work 7rEpt 13€&w.
(3) Expansion of the doctrine that things are individual substances in the Metaphysics, coupled with the reduction of all attributes to predicates, and the direct denial of universal substances; but nevertheless calling the universal essence of a species of substances substance, because the individual essence of an individual substance really is that substance, and the universal essence of the whole species is supposed to be indivisible and therefore identical with the individual essence of any individual of the species.
A curious feature among them is the frequent reduction of the wings in the males of certain species, contrary to the usual condition among the Hexapoda, where if the sexes differ in the development of their wings it is the female which has them reduced.
We Have Then (26 1 30 (N 6)) R But The Numerator 3 Of This Fraction Becomes By Reduction I I N 40 Or 1 I N To (The 30 Being Rejected, As The Remainder Only Is Sought) =N Io(N I); Therefore, Ultimately, Must Be Deducted From J.
For his conduct at the relief of Dublin he received the thanks of Parliament, and in 1651 he was employed under Blake in the operations for the reduction of Scilly.
In his double role of cavalry leader and intelligence officer, Hodson played a large part in the reduction of Delhi and consequently in saving India for the British empire.
the pale envelope, for oxidation, and the luminous portion, for reduction.
Charcoal is valuable for its infusibility and low conductivity for heat (allowing substances to be strongly heated upon it), and for its powerful reducing properties; so that it is chiefly employed in testing the fusibility of minerals and in reduction.
On the 10th of December 1816 Pozzo di Borgo wrote to the duke enclosing a memorandum in which the emperor Alexander of Russia suggested a reduction in the army of occupation: "no mere question of finance, but one of general policy, based on reason, equity and a severe morality"; at the same time he left the question of its postponement entirely to Wellington.
There are reduction works of the old-fashioned type and some manufactures, including cotton and woollen goods, pottery, refined sugar and leather.
They may be prepared by the reduction of nitro compounds in alkaline solution (using zinc dust and alkali, or a solution of an alkaline stannite as a reducing agent); by oxidation of hydrazo compounds; or by the coupling of a diazotized amine and any compound of a phenolic or aminic type, provided that there is a free para position in the amine or phenol.
It crystallizes from alcohol in orange red plates which melt at 68° C. and boil at 293° C. It does not react with acids or alkalis, but on reduction with zinc dust in acetic acid solution yields aniline.
Amino-azo-benzene, C6H5 N2 C 6 H 4 NH 2, crystallizes in yellow plates or needles and melts at 126° C. Its constitution is determined by the facts that it may be prepared by reducing nitro-azo-benzene by ammonium sulphide and that by reduction with stannous chloride it yields aniline and.
The constitution of methyl orange follows from the fact that on reduction by stannous chloride in hydrochloric acid solution it yields sulphanilic acid and para-aminodimethyl aniline.
Zincke found that the products obtained by coupling a diazonium salt with a-naphthol, and by condensing phenylhydrazine with a-naphthoquinone, were identical; whilst Meldola acetylated the azophenols, and split the acetyl products by reduction in acid solution, but obtained no satisfactory results.
It crystallizes in orange-red needles which melt at 82.5-83° C. On reduction with zinc dust in dilute sal - ammoniac solution, it yields ortho-aminophenol and aniline.
Goldschmidt, Ber., 1888, 21, p. 2578), and on reduction with zinc dust (preferably in alcoholic acetic acid solution) they yield usually a hydrazine and an amine.
Azoxy Compounds, R N O N R', are usually yellow or red crystalline solids which result from the reduction of nitro or nitroso compounds by heating them with alcoholic potash (preferably using methyl alcohol).
Azoxybenzene is also found among the electro-reduction products of nitrobenzene, when the reduction is carried out in alcoholic-alkaline solution.
Many of them, like ungulates, are specialized for swift running, and have unusually long limbs, with ridges developed on the articular surfaces of the lower bones; the clavicles are more or less reduced; the thorax is more compressed than usual, with a narrower breast-bone; and there is a marked tendency to the reduction or loss of the lateral toes, more especially in the hind limb.
He took a prominent part in the corn-law debates of 1814 and 1815; and in 1819 he presented a memorandum to Lord Liverpool advocating a large reduction in the unfunded debt, and explaining a method for the resumption of cash payments, which was embodied in the act passed the same year.
Among the more important legislative changes with which he was principally connected were a reform of the Navigation Acts, admitting other nations to a full equality and reciprocity of shipping duties; the repeal of the labour laws; the introduction of a new sinking fund; the reduction of the duties on manufactures and on the importation of foreign goods, and the repeal of the quarantine duties.
" The maintenance of universal peace and a possible reduction of the excessive armaments which weigh upon all nations, represent, in the present condition of affairs all over the world, the ideal towards which the efforts of all governments should be directed," were the opening words of the Note which the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count Mouraviev, handed to the diplomatic representatives of the different powers suggesting the first Hague Conference.
A further Note submitting the programme proposed gave more precision to this item, which thereupon took the following form: " An understanding not to increase for a fixed period the present effectives of the armed military and naval forces, and at the same time not to increase the budgets pertaining thereto; and a preliminary examination of the means by which even a reduction might be effected in future in the forces and budgets above mentioned."
(Chamber of Deputies, June 12, 1906.) In the Italian Chamber of Deputies, an interpellation was addressed to the minister of foreign affairs about the same time asking " whether the Government had knowledge of the motion approved by the British House of Commons, and of the undertaking of the British government that, in the programme of the coming Hague Conference, the question of the reduction of armaments should be inserted, and in what spirit the Italian government had taken or proposed to take the propositions of the British government, and what instructions it would give to the Italian representatives at the conference."
Nevertheless, I should consider it a crime against humanity not to sincerely co-operate in an initiative having for object a simultaneous reduction of armaments of the great powers.
The only existing case of contractual reduction of armaments is, that of the Disarmament Agreement of the 28th of May 1902 between the Chilian and Argentine republics, adopted " owing to the initiative and good offices of His Britannic Majesty," which is as follows: Art.
This reduction to be made within one year from the date at which the present agreement shall be ratified.
The clauses of the will governing the distribution of these prizes are as follows: " The entire sum shall be divided into five equal parts, one to go to the man who shall have made the most important discovery or invention in the domain of physical science; another to the man who shall have made the most important discovery or introduced the greatest improvement in chemistry; the third to the author of the most important discovery in the domain of physiology or medicine; the fourth to the man who shall have produced the most remarkable work of an idealistic nature; and, finally, the fifth to the man who shall have done the most or best work for the fraternity of nations, the suppression or reduction of standing armies, and the formation and propagation of peace congresses.
3 Surely with all the existing activity in the removal of causes of war, in the reduction to precise expression of the rules of law governing the relations of states with one another, in the creation of international judicatures for the application of these rules, in the concluding of treaties specifically framed to facilitate the pacific settlement of difficulties diplomacy may have failed to adjust, in the promotion of democratic civilian armies with everything to lose by war,!and all the other agencies which have been described above, the hope seems warranted that, in no distant future, life among nations will become still more closely assimilated to life among citizens of the same nation, with legislation, administration, reform all tending to the one great object of law, order and peace among men.
Increased density at the same temperature means in the first place a reduction of the average distance between the molecules, but it means also a reduction in the mean free path and an increase in the number of impacts.
Hence the apparent reversals so frequently observed in the centre of a widened line may not be reversals at all but due to a reduction in luminosity.
Pringsheim, who, by a series of experiments of undoubted merit, tried to establish that the emission of the line spectra of the alkali metals was invariably associated with a reduction of the metallic oxide.
Pringsheim seems, however, to have modified his view in so far as he now seems to consider that the spectra in question might be obtained also in other ways, and to attach importance to the process of reduction only in so far as it forms an effective inciter of the particular spectra.
In spite of the fact that C. Fredenhagen has recently attempted to revive Pringsheim's original views in a modified form - substituting oxidation for reduction - we may consider it as generally admitted that the origin of spectra lies with vibrating systems which are definite and not dependent on the method of incitement.
On the other hand, it differs from the aliphatic aldehydes in many respects; it does not form an addition product with ammonia but condenses to hydrobenzamide (C 6 H 5 CH) 3 N 2; on shaking with alcoholic potash it undergoes simultaneous oxidation and reduction, giving benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol (S.
By the reduction of ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde with ferrous sulphate and ammonia, ortho-aminobenzaldehyde is obtained.
The problem of magnesium reduction is in many respects similar to that of aluminium extraction, bait the lightness of the metal as compared, bulk for bulk, with its fused salts, and the readiness with which it burns when exposed to air at high temperatures, render the problem somewhat more difficult.
Moissan found that the oxide resisted reduction by carbon in the electric furnace, so that electrolysis of a fusible salt of the metal must be resorted to.
Their real founder was Fichte, on account of his definite reduction of the noumenal to a mental world.
It is an idealistic pantheism, which is a denial of all bodily mechanism, a reduction of everything bodily to phenomena, and an assertion that all real action is the activity of God.
But the idealists are only too glad to get any excuse for denying bodily substances and causes; and, while Leibnitz supplied them with the fancied analysis of material into immaterial elements, and Hume with the reduction of bodies to assemblages of sensations, Mach adds the additional argument that bodily forces are not causes at all.
After the metaphysical idealism, begun by Berkeley, had eventuated in Hume's reduction of the objects of knowledge to sensations, ideas and associations, the Scottish school, applying the Baconian method to the study of mind, began to inquire once more for the evidences of our knowledge, and produced the natural or intuitive realism of T.
The number of farms increased from 127,577 in 1850 to 224,248 in 1900, the increase resulting in part from a reduction of their size but more largely from the appropriation of new lands for farming purposes.
It also formerly enjoyed certain spiritual powers for the reduction of the obligations imposed by Fabric pious legacies and foundations, the objects of which, for of St want of funds or any other reason, could not be fully carried out, and for the condonation of past omission of such obligations, e.g.
These two great rationalist movements, the critical and the philosophical, ultimately led to, or were accompanied by, the gradual reduction of religion to a system of morals based at the most on two or three fundamental religious principles.
Some domesticated mice are entirely white with the exception that they have black eyeballs; and individuals of this type are known in which there is a reduction of pigment in the eyeballs, and since the colour of the blood is then partially visible these appear of a reddish-black colour.
Various degrees in the reduction of the pigment patches up to that of complete elimination may be traced.
unable to consider with equanimity the loss of the autonomy of their group and its reduction to the level of a special division of the fungi.
cases the reduction goes still farther and the ascogenous hyphae instead of developing from the ascogonia are derived directly from the vegetative hyphae.
At once observing the reduction of the chloride, he realized the importance of his discovery and immediately began to study the commercial production of the metal.
If, according to the present method of winning the metal, a bath containing silica as well as alumina is submitted to electrolysis, both oxides are dissociated, and as silicon is a very undesirable impurity, an alumina contaminated with silica is not suited for reduction.
Before the application of electricity, only two compounds were found suitable for reduction to the metallic state.
Rose also carried out experiments on the decomposition of cryolite, and expressed an opinion that it was the best of all compounds for reduction; but, finding the yield of metal to be low, receiving a report of the difficulties experienced in mining the ore, and fearing to cripple his new industry by basing it upon the employment of a mineral of such uncertain supply, Deville decided to keep to his chlorides.
Therefore while less energy is absorbed in its final reduction, more is needed in its initial preparation, and it is questionable whether the economy possible in the second stage would not be neutralized by the greater cost of the first stage in the whole operation of winning the metal from bauxite with the sulphide as the intermediary.
About 1879 dynamos began to be introduced into metallurgical practice, and from that date onwards numerous schemes for utilizing this cheaper source of energy were brought before theublic. The first electrical method worthy lectrical P y reduction.
Assuming the materials to be of equal tensile strength per unit of area - hard-drawn copper is stronger, but has a lower conductivity - the adoption of aluminium thus leads to a reduction of 52% in the weight, a gain of 60% in the strength, and an increase of 26% in the diameter of the conductor.
The detection of a plot, in which Norfolk was implicated, for the invasion of England by Spain on behalf of Mary, who was then to take him as the fourth and most contemptible of her husbands, made necessary the reduction of her household and the stricter confinement of her person.
According to Paul Pelseneer the Polyplacophora are the most archaic, the Aplacophora being specialized in (1) the great reduction of the foot, (2) the disappearance of the shell (Cryptoplax among the Polyplacophora showing both reductions in progress), (3) the disappearance of the radula.
Rutherfurd's photographs of the Pleiades in 1866 entitle him to rank as a pioneer in the use of the camera as an instrument of precision; and he secured at Cordoba 1400 negatives of southern starclusters, the reduction of which occupied the closing years of his life.
Further reduction of the supplies of food effects the formation of oogonia.
In connexion with this condition of reduction a fusion of nuclei has been observed in Humaria rutilans and is probably of frequent occurrence.
If there are two fusions one would expect two reductions, and Harper has suggested that the division of the nuclei into eight in the ascus, instead of into four spores as in most reduction processes, is associated with a double reduction process in the ascus.
Miss Fraser in Humaria rutilans finds two reductions: a normal synaptic reduction in the first nuclear division of the ascus, and a peculiar reduction division termed brachymeiosis in the third ascus division.
During the tetrad division in the basidium nuclear reduction occurs.
The sporophyte may be considered to begin at the stage of nuclear association and end with the nuclear reduction in the basidium.
We have thus a series showing a progressive reduction in the complexity of the life-history, the lepto and micro forms having a life-history like that of the Basidiomycetes.
They have never been found to cause in fection, and they have not the characters of conidia; the large size of their nuclei, the reduction of their cytoplasm and the absence of reserve material and their thin cell wall all point to their being male gametes.
There is also a further reduction in that the basidium is not derived from a teleutospore but is borne directly on the mycelium.
By the same method as had succeeded with aluminium (reduction of the chloride by potassium) Wohler in 1828 obtained metallic beryllium and yttrium.
(-Naphthoquinone is formed by oxidizing 2amino-a-naphthol (from 0-naphthol-orange by reduction) with ferric chloride.
It is reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution to "aromatic" tetrahydro-a-naphthol (reduction occurring in the ring which does not contain the hydroxyl group).
After the piece has been reduced in thickness by its first passage or " pass " between the rolls, it may be given a second reduction and then a third and so on, either by bringing the two rolls nearer together, as in case of the plain rolls BB at the left in fig.
- Wire undergoing Reduction in the Die.
The piece travels through the rolls very rapidly, so that the reduction takes place over its whole length in a very few seconds, whereas in forging, whether under hammer or press, after one part of the piece has been compressed the piece must next be raised, moved forward, and placed so that the hammer or press may compress the next part of its length.
In 1907 the British steel production was nearly five times, that of the [[Table Iv]].- Reduction in Cost of Iron Manufacture in America-C. Kirchoff.
Note, for instance, a reduction of some 35% in the total cost, and an even greater reduction in the cost of labour, reaching in one case 54% f in a period of between seven and ten years.
This great economy is not due to reduction in wages.
[[Table V]].- Reduction in Price of Certain Products.
shows the reduction in prices.
Chemie, 1866, 2, p. 308), on account of their ready condensation to form azo compounds and their easy reduction to hydrazines, assumed that they were substances of the type R N: N Cl.
On reduction it yields ammonia and glycocoll (aminoacetic acid).
The reduction in the rate of interest must, in general, result from " the increase of industry and frugality, of arts and commerce."
The Catholic party also strove to mitigate the principle of obligatory military service by encouraging the system of volunteering and by a reduction of the time of active service and of the number with the colours.
In 1895 an arrangement was made for a reduction of the rate of interest, for the funding of the arrears, and for the creation of a sinking fund.
Yet he considered it, even in these stages, of so much importance towards that end that, notwithstanding the individual suffering arising from the struggle for life, he deprecated any great reduction in the natural, by which he seems to mean the ordinary, rate of increase.
In 1307, owing to non-payment of tribute, a fresh series of Mussulman incursions began, under Malik Kafur, issuing in the final ruin of the Yadava power; and in 1338 the reduction of the Deccan was completed by Mahommed ben Tughlak.
In these cases the zinc sulphide has probably arisen from the reduction of sulphate by organic matter.
The first reduction in size occurred in 1857, when some of the western portion of the vilayet was added to the newly created sanjak of Zor.
Etienne Pascal, who had bought some of the hotel-de-ville rentes, protested against Richelieu's reduction of the interest, and to escape the Bastille had to go into hiding.
Nor can a high degree of praise be denied to his financial policy, especially his plans for the reduction of the national debt and the simplification and consolidation of its different branches.
as the more suitable: In irrigated meadows, though in a less degree than on sewaged land, the reduction of the amount or even the actual suppression of certain species of plants is occasionally well marked.
For this purpose it was fixed that there should be an annual provision of Rx.i,50o,000, to be spent on: (1) relief, (2) protective works, (3) reduction of debt.
Wohler by the reduction of the chloride with potassium, and in 1855 H.
The Confederates, however, immediately ordered its reduction, and after a thirty-four hours' bombardment the garrison capitulated on the 13th of April 1861.
The reduction of Vicksburg (4th of July) and Port Hudson (9th of July), with other operations, restored complete control of the Mississippi, severing the Southern Confederacy.
Both branches of administration have undergone a surprising development, especially since the reduction of the postal rates.
A Roman garrison was left in the conquered districts between the Rhine and the Elbe, but the reduction was not thoroughly completed.
In all these treaties the general principle was a reduction of the import duties on corn in return for advantages given to German manufactures, and it is this which brought about the struggle of the government with the Agrarians which after 1894 took the first place in party politics.
synthetically prepared by the reduction of benzoyl chloride; by the action of nitrous acid on benzylamine; by boiling benzyl chloride with an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate, or by the so-called "Cannizzaro" reaction, in which benzaldehyde is shaken up with caustic potash, one half of the aldehyde being oxidized to benzoic acid, and the other half reduced to the alcohol.
Reduction by means of hydriodic acid and phosphorus at 140° C. gives toluene, whilst on distillation with alcoholic potash, toluene and benzoic acid are formed.
Up to 1896 the sulphur industry was in a state of crisis due to the competition of pyrites, to the subdivision of the mines, to antiquated methods, and to a series of other causes which occasioned violent oscillations in and a continual reduction of prices.
He took his seat in the House of Commons as one of the members for Durham on 28th July 1843, and on 7th August delivered his maiden speech in support of a motion by Mr Ewart for reduction of import duties.
He supported Cobden's motion for the reduction of public expenditure, and in and out of parliament pleaded for peace.
It was the first foreign country to establish a penny postage with Great Britain, the reduction from 21/2d.
If a surplus remained to the Caisse after making good such deficit the surplus was to be divided equally between the Caisse and the government; the government to be free to spend its share as it pleased, while the Caisse had to devote its share to the reduction of the debt.
The convention left the permanent rate of interest on the debt, as fixed by the Law of Liquidation, unchanged, but to afford temporary relief to the Egyptian exchequer a reduction of 5% on the interest of the debt was granted for two years, on condition that if at the end of that period payment, including the arrears of the two years, was not resumed in full, another international commission was to be appointed to examine into the whole financial situation.
Thus in 1906 the salt monopoly was abolished at a cost to the revenue of 175,000, while the reduction of import duties on coal and other fuels, live-stock, &c., involved a further loss of 1I8,000, and an increase of over 1,000,000 in expenditure was budgeted for.
The British troops were quickly sent down stream to Cairo, and the sirdar, shortly afterwards created Lord Kitchener of Khartum, was free to turn his attention to the reduction of the country to some sort of order.
The plants included are, however, mainly well-established parasites, and the absence of nucellus is only one of those characters of reduction to which parasites are liable.
On his return he found that his father had been elected king of Denmark in the place of Christian II., and the young prince's first public service was the reduction of Copenhagen, which stood firm for the fugitive Christian II.
By a codification we understand the reduction of the whole pre-existing body of law to a new form, the re-stating it in a series of propositions, scientifically ordered, which may or may not contain some new substance, but are at any rate new in form.
The reduction stage, on the other hand, is the first division of the mother-cell of the spore.
From this it would seem that in this plant reduction takes place in the tetraspore mothercell, and that the tetrasporiferous plants are sporophytes which alternate with sexual plants.
Moreover, it is known that the reduction in the number of chromosomes which occurs at the initiation of the gametophyte generation in Pteridophyta occurs of the various constituent groups.
Mottier first observed that a reduction in the number takes place in the mother-cells of the tetraspore.
His first task on taking up this post was the reduction and publication of a large mass of observations left by his predecessor, from a selected portion of which (those made 1856-1860) he compiled a catalogue of 1154 stars.
Tartronyl urea (dialuric acid), C0[NH CO]CH OH, formed by the reduction of alloxan (J.
After the passing of the act (1886) the Crofters' Commission in 15 years considered applications for rent and revaluation of holdings which amounted to £82,790, and fixed the fair rent at £61,233, or an annual reduction of £21,557; of arrears of rent amounting to £184,962 they cancelled £124,180, and also assigned 4 8, 949 acres in enlargement of holdings.
Margaret, in fact, completed the reduction of the Celtic church in Scotland to conformity with western Christendom, and some recent presbyterian writers have not forgiven her.
And similarly in the development of a complicated organism, the suppression or doubling of a single cell or group of cells may bring about striking differences in the symmetry of the adult, or the reduction or increase in the number of metameric organs.
Zolkiewski then returned to the Polish camp and assisted in the reduction of Smolensk, but Moscow in the meantime drove out the Polish garrison and proclaimed a native dynasty under Michael Romanov.
Various reduction methods have been employed for the isolation of the metal.
On the 1st of November 1772 he deposited with the Academy a sealed note which stated that sulphur and phosphorus when burnt increased in weight because they absorbed "air," while the metallic lead formed from litharge by reduction with charcoal weighed less than the original litharge because it had lost "air."
The gas given off in the reduction of metallic calces by charcoal he at first supposed to be merely that contained in the calx, but he soon came to understand that it was a product formed by the union of the charcoal with the "dephlogisticated air" in the calx.
In the 18th century the ability of certain natives of the town greatly fostered its cotton industry; thus James Hargreaves here probably invented his spinning jenny about 1764, though the operatives, fearing a reduction of labour, would have none of it, and forced him to quit the town for Nottingham.
By the action of nitric acid on guanidine in the presence of sulphuric acid, nitroguanidine, HN: C(NH 2) NH NO 2 (a substance possessing acid properties) is obtained; from which, by reduction with zinc dust, amidoguanidine, HN :C(NH 2) NH NH 2, is formed.
The hind-limb is typically avine, with intertarsal joint, distally reduced fibula, and the three elongated metatarsals which show already considerable anchylosis; reduction of the toes to four, with 2, 3, 4 and 5 phalanges; the hallux is separate, and as usual in recent birds posterior in position.
But in those forms where curving must take place in different directions the layers or fibres of metal are made to glide over one another, extension taking place in some layers but not in others, and this goes on without producing much reduction in the thickness.
The ductile metals and alloys also extend from Jo to 30 with reduction of area before they fracture, the crystalline ones snap shortly without warning.
If it be possible,"he said," to be certainly conscious of anything, I am conscious of feeling no difference between writing to the highest and lowest being on earth."Jefferson's first administration was marked by a reduction of the army, navy, diplomatic establishment and, to the uttermost, of governmental expenses; some reduction of the civil service, accompanied by a large shifting of offices to Republicans; and, above all, by the Louisiana Purchase, following which Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, sent by Jefferson, con 1 See also Jefferson to E.
3 Among important but secondary measures of his second administration were the extinguishment of Indian titles, and promotion of Indian emigration to lands beyond the Mississippi; reorganization of the militia; fortification of the seaports; reduction of the public debt; and a simultaneous reduction of taxes.
(13) A more general resort to reduction of assessments in cases of local deterioration, where such reduction cannot be claimed under the terms of settlement."
Sir Hugh Gough and other commanders-inchief had petitioned for the removal of India's chief arsenal from Delhi to Umballa; and Lord Dalhousie himself had protested against the reduction of the British element in the army.
The products of its electrolytic reduction vary with the conditions: in sulphuric acid solution it yields para-aminophenol (L.
On oxidation it gives triphenylcarbinol, (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH, and reduction with hydriodic acid and red phosphorus gives benzene and toluene.
Fuming nitric acid gives a paratrinitro substitution derivative which on reduction gives paraleucaniline; the salt of the carbinol formed on oxidizing this substance is the valuable dye rosaniline.
This Variation May Have Been Due To The State Of The Lagging, Which Moorby Distrusted In Spite Of The Great Reduction Of The Heat Loss, Or It May Have Been Partly Due To The Difficulty Of Regulating The Speed Of The Engine And The Watersupply To The Brake In Such A Manner As To Maintain A Constant Temperature In The Outflow, And Avoid Variations In The Heat Capacity Of The Brake.
Many Of The Uncertainties In The Reduction Of Older Experiments, Such As Those Of Regnault, Arise From Uncertainty In Regard To The Unit In Terms Of Which They Are Expressed, Which Again Depends On The Scale Of The Particular Thermometer Employed In The Investigation.
Bosscha From An Independent Reduction Of Regnault'S Experiments Is Probably Within The Limits Of Accuracy Between Ioo° And Zoo° C., So Far As The Mean Rate Of Variation Is Concerned, But The Absolute Values Require Reduction.
The Work Of Rowland By The Mechanical Method Was The First In Which Due Attention Was Paid To The Thermometry And To The Reduction Of The Results To The Absolute Scale Of Temperature.
It Appears Probable That His Values For Higher Temperatures May Be Adopted With This Reduction, Which Is Further Confirmed By The Results Of Reynolds And Moorby, And By Those Of Liidin.
The Specific Heat At 4° Could Be Accurately Determined At The Mean Over The Range O° To 8° Keeping The Jacket At O° C. But The Change Appears To Be Rather Rapid Near O°, The Temperature Is Inconveniently Low For Ordinary Calorimetric Work, And The Unit At 4° Would Be So Much Larger Than The Specific Heat At Ordinary Temperatures That Nearly All Experiments Would Require Reduction.
It Was Supposed At The Time, From The Original Reduction Of Rowland'S Experiments, That This Would Be Nearly At 10° C., But It Now Appears That It May Be As Low As 5° C., Which Would Be Inconvenient.
But For Purposes Of Definition It Would Be Necessary To Take The Mean Value Of The Specific Heat Over A Given Range Of Temperature, Preferably At Least 10°, Rather Than The Specific Heat At A Point Which Necessitates Reference To Some Formula Of Reduction For The Rate Of Variation.
Thenard, who had no battery at their disposal, to search for a chemical method of obtaining those metals, and by the action of red-hot iron on fused potash - a method of which Davy admitted the advantages - they succeeded in 1808 in preparing potassium, going on to make a full study of its properties and to use it, as Davy also did, for the reduction of boron from boracic acid in 1809.
Yet a third improvement was permission conceded to prisoners locked up in default of payment of fine, to obtain a reduction of time proportionate to part payment of the fine.
In it he suggested that the following reforms should be carried out, some by administrative order and some by future legislation: (1) time for the payment of fines inflicted for minor offences; (2) disciplinary treatment outside prison for all offenders under 21 years of age; (3) punishment of those guilty of offences not involving moral turpitude to be relieved of all degrading features; (4) the reduction of the period of solitary confinement to a maximum of one month; (5) and the abolition of the ticket-of-leave system.
The metal may also be obtained on the small scale by the reduction of the oxide by hydrogen or by carbon,, by ignition of the oxalate or of nickel ammonium oxalate (J.