The manufacture of steel rails, carried on first at Terni and afterwards at Savona, began in Italy in 1886.
rails placed on the bridge girders.
4), pigeons, gulls, plovers, rails and penguins, have the vomer pointed in front while the maxillo-palatines are free, leaving a fissure between the vomer and themselves.
The rails are laid on them, and they are covered with sand, and the cars run smoothly over them.
These rails were to be rolled in 33-ft.
It is practically a traveller mounted on high legs, so as to permit of its being travelled on rails placed on the ground level, instead of on an elevated gantry.
On one or more of the carriages of the trains were placed also insulated metallic sheets, which were in connexion through a telephone and the secondary circuit of an induction coil with the earth or rails.
Zealand parrot, Stringops, less in various flightless rails, in the dodo and solitaire.
in the Cathartae, in the Anseres, gulls, rails and various other aquatic birds.
Gallinaceous birds, storkand crane-like waders, rails, birds of prey, cormorants, &c. Especially numerous bones have been found in the Paris basin, chiefly described by G.
New Zealand has also yielded many flightless birds, notably the numerous species and genera of Dinornithidae, some of which survived into the 19th century; Pseudapteryx allied to the Kiwi; Cnemiornis, a big, flightless goose; Aptornis and Notornis, flightless rails; and Harpagornis, a truly gigantic bird of prey with tremendous wings and talons.
So intensely aristocratic (hence his nickname 6 AoXoiSopos, "he who rails at the people") was his temperament that he declined to exercise the regal-hieratic office of 1 3avLAeus which was hereditary in his family, and presented it to his brother.
" The manner of the carriage," says Lord Keeper North in 1676, " is by laying rails of timber.
But the iron sheathing was not strong enough to resist buckling under the passage of the loaded wagons, and to remedy this defect the plan, was tried of making the rails wholly of iron.
In 1767 the Colebrookdale Iron Works cast a batch of iron rails or plates, each 3 ft.
This line was originally designed as a " plateway " on the Outram system, but objections were raised to rails with upstanding ledges or flanges FIG.
This method, however, was not found satisfactory: the projecting feet were liable to be broken off, and in 1799 or 1800 Jessop abandoned them, using instead separate cast-iron sockets or chairs, which were fastened to the sleepers and in which the rails were supported in an upright position.
Jessop thus produced what was virtually the flanged wheel of to-day, having the flanges inside the rails,.
minus the width of two of his rails.
The manufacture of the rails themselves was gradually improved.
By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.
His rails were wedge-shaped in section, much wider at the top than at the bottom, with the intermediate portion or web thinner still, and he recommended that they should be made 18 ft.
The fishbellied rails, however, were found to break near the chairs, and from 1834 they began to be replaced with parallel rails weighing 50 lb to the yard.
3); he had to get the first lot of these rails, which were 15 ft.
There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.
Bridges Adams, the intention being by " fishing " the joints to convert the rails into continuous beams. In the original design two chairs were placed, one under each rail, a few inches apart, as in fig.
The joint was thus suspended between the two chairs, and two keys of iron, called " fishes," fitting the side channels of the rails, were driven in on each side between the chairs and the rails.
In subsequent modifications the fishes were, as they continue to be, bolted to and through the rails, the sleepers being placed rather further apart and the joint being generally suspended between them.
Thus it may fairly be said that the railway system of the United States was reconstructed between 1896 and 1905, so far as concerns rails, sleepers, ballast and the general capacity of a given group of lines to perform work.
The act of 1871 further renders it obligatory upon every railway company to send notice to the Board of Trade in the case of (1) any accident attended with loss of life or personal injury to any person whatsoever; (2) any collision where one of the trains is a passenger train; (3) any passenger train or part of such train leaving the rails; (4) any other accident likely to have caused loss of life or personal injury, and specified on that ground by any order made from time to time by the Board of Trade.
From the falling of rails, sleepers, &c., when at work on the line .
Passenger trains or parts of passenger trains leaving the rails 8.
Goods trains or parts of goods trains, lightengines, &c., leaving the rails 9.
Broken rails .
The theoretical limit is about i in 16; between I in 20 and 1 in 16 a steam locomotive depending on the adhesion between its wheels and the rails can only haul about its own weight.
Blenkinsop placed the teeth on the outer side of one of the running rails, and his reason for adopting a rack was the belief that an engine with smooth wheels running on smooth rails would not have sufficient adhesion to draw the load required.
Two lines may be drawn from this point, one to each of the two rails, in a plane normal to the rails, and the ends of these lines, where they meet the rails, may be joined to complete a triangle, which may conveniently be regarded as a rigid frame resting on the rails.
Simultaneously the frame as a whole tends to slide horizontally athwart the rails,.
If therefore the outer rail is laid at a level above that of the inner rail at the curve, overturning will be resisted more than would be the case if both rails were in the same horizontal plane, since the tilting of the vehicle due to this " superelevation " diminishes the overturning moment, and also increases the restoring moment, by shortening in the one case and lengthening in the other the lever arms at which the respective forces act.
The amount of superelevation required to prevent derailment at a curve can be calculated under perfect running conditions, given the radius of curvature, the weight of the vehicle, the height of the centre of gravity, the distance between the rails, and the speed; but great experience 1 See The Times Engineering Supplement (August 22, 1906), p. 265.
Closely allied to the question of safety is the problem of preventing jolting at curves; and to obtain easy running it is necessary not merely to adjust the levels of the rails in respect to one another, but to tail off one curve into the next in such a :nanner as to avoid any approach to abrupt lateral changes of direction.
The gauge of a railway is the distance between the inner edges of the two rails upon which the wheels run.
Sleepers, called ties or cross-ties in America, are the blocks or slabs on which the rails are carried.
There are two main ways of attaching the rails to the sleepers, corresponding to two main types of rails - the bull-headed rail A B FIG.
some extent in France and India, the rails have rounded bases and are supported by being wedged, with wooden keys, in castiron chairs which are bolted to the sleepers.
The keys which hold the rail in the chairs are usually of oak and are placed outside the rails; the inside position has also been employed, but has the disadvantage of detracting from the elasticity of the road since the weight of a passing train presses the rails up against a rigid mass of metal instead of against a slightly yielding block of wood.
The rails, which for heavy main line traffic may weigh as much as too lb per yard, or even more, are rolled in lengths of from 30 to 60 ft., and sleepers are placed under them at intervals of between 2 and 3 ft.
Preferably, they are so arranged that those in both lines of rails come opposite each other and are placed between the same pair of sleepers.
Flat-bottomed rails are fastened to the sleepers by hookheaded spikes, the heads of which project over the flanges.
In the United States the spikes are simply driven in with a maul, and the rails stand upright, little care being taken to prepare seats for them on the sleepers, on which they soon seat themselves.
The joints of flanged rails are similar to those employed with bull-headed rails.
The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.
The specifications for bull-headed rails issued by the British Engineering Standards Committee in 1904 provided for a carbon-content ranging from 0-35 to 0-50%, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.075%.
In the United States a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers, appointed to consider the question of rail manufacture in consequence of an increase in the number of rail-failures, issued an interim report in 1907 in which it suggested a range of carbon from 0-55 to 0-65% for the heaviest sections of Bessemer steel flange rails, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.085%; while the specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials, current at the same period, put the carbon limits at o 45 to 0-55%, and the phosphorus limit at o io.
For rails of basic open-hearth steel, which is rapidly ousting Bessemer steel, the Civil Engineers' specifications allowed from o 65 to 0-75% of carbon with 0-05% of phosphorus, while the specifications of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association provided for a range of 0.75 to 0-85% of carbon, with a maximum of 0.03% of phosphorus.
The rail-failures mentioned above also drew renewed attention to the importance of the thermal treatment of the steel from the time of melting to the last passage through the rolling mill and to the necessity of the finishing temperature being sufficiently low if the product is to be fine grained, homogeneous and tough; and to permit of this requirement being met there was a tendency to increase the thickness of the metal in the web and flanges of the rails.
The standard specification adopted by the Pennsylvania railway in 1908 provided that in rails weighing Ioo lb to the yard 41% of the metal should be in the head, 18-6% in the web, and 40-4% in the base, while for 85 lb rails 42.2% was to be in the head, 17-8% in the web and 40.0% in the base.
According to the specification for 85 lb rails adopted by the Canadian Pacific railway about the same time, 36-77% of the metal was to be in the head, 22'21% in the web and 41 02% in the base.
To enable trains to be transferred from one pair of rails to another pair, as from the main line to a siding, " points " or " switches " are provided.
At the place where the four rails come together, the two inner ones (one of the main line and the other of the siding), known as " switch rails " (b, fig.
Where, as at a double-line junction, one pair of rails crosses another pair, " diamond " crossings (p) are formed.
At both types of crossing, check rails (c) must be provided to guide the wheel-flanges, and if these are not accurately placed the safety of the trains will be endangered.
c = Check rails.
d = Wing rails.
e = Winged check rails.
The position of the main buildings - ticket offices, waiting and refreshment-rooms, parcels offices, &c. - relative to the direction of the lines of rails may be used as a means of classifying terminal stations.
They are placed either on the departure side parallel to the platform (" side " stations) or at right angles to the rails and platforms (" end " stations).
In other countries they are generally lower; in the United States they are commonly level with, or only a few inches higher than, the top of the rails.
In both types pits are constructed between the rails on which the engines stand to afford easy access for the inspection and cleaning of their mechanism.
wide, placed between the rails on perfectly level stretches of line.
The shed may have a single pair of rails for wagons running through it along one side of a raised platform, there being a roadway for carts on the other side; or if more accommodation is required there may be two tracks, one on each side of the platform, which is then approached by carts at the end.
The fundamental condition governing the design of all tractive machinery is that the wheels belonging to the axles to which torque is applied shall roll along the rails without slipping, and exert a tractive force on the train.
The coefficient of friction is a variable quantity depending upon the state of the rails, but is usually taken to be This is the fundamental equation between the forces acting, however the torque may be applied.
Assuming that the frictional resistance at the rails is given by the weight on the wheels, the total weight on the driving-wheels necessary to secure sufficient adhesion to prevent slipping must be at least 8.3 X5 =41.5 tons.
Other special types are in limited use for " rack-railways," and operate either by engagement of gearing on the locomotive into a rack between the track rails, or by a combination of this and rail adhesion.
On this account it is common to put small end doors, in American box cars, through which timber and rails may be loaded.
31), the earliest form, consisted of a single row of columns supporting two lines of longitudinal girders carrying the rails, the lateral stability of the structure being obtained by anchoring the feet of the columns to their foundations.
Thus the gauge may be narrow, the line single, the rails lighter than those used in standard practice, while deep cuttings and high embankments may be avoided by permitting the curves to be sharper and the gradients steeper: such points conduce to cheapness of construction.
gauge, and laid with rails weighing from 50 to 70 lb per yard; a flat-footed 60 lb rail, with the axle load limited to 14 tons, has the advantage for such lines that it permits the employment of a proportion of the locomotives used on main lines.
The orders actually granted have allowed 50 lb, 56 lb, 60 lb and 70 lb rails, with corresponding axle loads of 10, 12, 14 and 16 tons.
gauge, rails of 40 lb have been sanctioned.
The line is of m metre gauge, with steel rails weighing 212 kilos (42 lb) per yard.
Light locomotives, light rails and light rolling stock are employed.
Cuttings are reduced to a minimum; and where the roads are sufficiently wide, the rails are laid on the margins.
The chief difference between the first three types lies in the weight of rails and rolling stock and in the radius of the curves.
0.5 in.); weight of rails, 12 (26.45 lb) to 20 (44 lb) kilos; mean load per axle, 6 tons; minimum curve, 70 m.
The simplicity is great; they can be quickly mounted and dismounted; the correct gauge can be perfectly maintained; the sections of rails and sleepers (which are of iron) are very portable, and skilled labour is not required to lay or to take them up; the making of a " turn-out " is easy, by taking out a 15 ft.
A portable line of this kind will have 20 lb steel rails and 2112 steel sleepers-4 ft.
Of birds some 30 kinds are known, an owl being the only bird of prey; parrots, pigeons, kingfishers, honey-suckers, rails, ducks, and other water birds are numerous.
Thus it is used of the purchase used in raising the flukes of an anchor to the bill-board; of a piece of wood or metal used to strengthen a sprung mast or yard; and of a plate of metal used, as in railway construction, for the strengthening of the meeting-place of two rails.
Not less conspicuous are his merits in disposing of the groups of what are ordinarily known as water-birds, his indicating the affinity of the rails (No.
Among his chief systematic determinations we may mention that he refers the tinamous to the rails, because apparently of their deep " notches," but otherwise takes a view of that group more correct according to modern notions than did most of his contemporaries.
The fifth order (the third of the Dasypaedes) is formed by the Grallatores, divided into 2 " series " - (I) Altinares, consisting of 2 " cohorts," Herodii with I family, the herons, and Pelargi with 4 families, spoonbills, ibises, storks, and the umbre (Scopus), with Balaeniceps; (2) Humilinares, also consisting of 2 " cohorts," Limicolae with 2 families, sandpipers and snipes, stilts and avocets, and Cursores with 8 families, including plovers, bustards, cranes, rails, and all the other " waders."
The metallurgic industries are well developed, and consist in the production of iron, steel, machinery, small-arms, lead articles, wire-cables and rails.
Snipe, woodcock, ducks and rails, in vast flocks, haunt the banks of the Drina and Save; while the crane, pelican, wild-swan and wild-goose are fairly plentiful.
But even this did not quite complete the distance, and the line was carried on for still another kilometre and there stopped, " with its pair of rails gauntly projecting from the permanent way " (Fraser, The Short Cut to India, 1909).
This has an oblong, dish-shaped hearth of acid or basic fire-brick built into a wrought-iron pan, which rests on transverse rails supported by longitudinal walls.
The grating at A and the eye-piece at 0 are rigidly attached to a bar AO, whose ends rest on carriages, moving on rails OQ, AQ at right angles to each other.
Wooden rails, protected by iron straps, are sometimes used on underground roads for temporary traffic; but steel rails, similar to, though lighter than, those employed for railways are the rule.
For hand tramming, animal and rope haulage, the rails weigh from 8 to 24 lb per yard, for locomotive haulage 30 to 40 lb.
The rope is carried on rollers between the rails.
There may be two complete lines of track or three lines of rails, one being common to both tracks, and the cars passing on a middle turnout or " parting "; or a single track with a parting.
The ropes are supported between the rails and guided on curves by rollers and sheaves.
The casting-table usually consists of a perfectly smooth cast-iron slab, frequently built up of a number of pieces carefully fitted together, mounted upon a low, massive truck running upon rails, so that it can be readily moved to any desired position in the casting-room.
The glass is taken from the furnace in large iron ladles, which are carried upon slings running on overhead rails; from the ladle the glass is thrown upon the cast-iron bed of a rolling-table, and is rolled into sheet by an iron roller, the process being similar to that employed in making plate-glass, but on a smaller scale.
783), a blind poet of Persian descent, shows the ascendancy of Persian influence as he openly rails at the Arabs and makes clear his own leaning to the Persian religion.
The provincial government has established ironworks for the manufacture of rails and other railway material.
Its crater- n rails, some 5 m.
They also construct carriages, wagons and locomotives, and they may therefore be said to have become entirely independent in the matter of railways, for a government iron-foundry at Wakamatsu in Kishifl is able to manufacture steel rails.
It has important iron and steel works and iron foundries, at which armour-plates, guns and projectiles are made for the Italian navy, also steel castings, machinery and rails, a royal arms factory, and lignite mining.
5, B) on which the stylets work, tongues or rails on the " guide " fitting accurately into longitudinal grooves on the stylet.
In large levels only the cap pieces for the roof are made of steel joists, but in smaller ones complete arches made of pieces of rails fish-jointed at the crown are used.
by a pair of oscillating engines placed on a frame running on rails in the usual way.
The rails used are of flat bottomed or bridge section varying in weight from 15 to 25 lb to the yd.; they are laid upon cross sleepers in a temporary manner, so that they can be easily shifted along the working faces, but are carefully secured along main roads intended to carry traffic continuously for some time.
The arrangements for this purpose vary, of course, with the amount of work to be done with one fixing of the machinery; where it is likely to be used for a considerable time, the drum and brake are solidly constructed, and the ropes of steel or iron wire carefully guided over friction rollers, placed at intervals between the rails to prevent them from chafing and wearing out on the ground.
In the first, which is that generally used in Northumberland and Durham, a single line of rails is used, the loaded tubs being drawn " out bye," i.e.
The rope, which is guided upon sheaves between the rails, is taken twice round the head pulley.
They are applied on one side of the cage only, forming a complete vertical railway, carried by iron cross sleepers, with proper seats for the rails instead of wooden buntons; the cage is guided by curved shoes of a proper section to cover the heads of the rails.
The Camden & Amboy railway, begun in 1831 and completed from Bordentown to South Amboy (34 m.) in 1832, was one of the first railways in the United States; in September 1831 the famous engine "Johnny Bull," built in England and imported for this railway, had its first trial at Bordentown, and a monument now marks the site where the first rails were laid.
The molten metal is poured into the moulds N, which are carried on wheels running on rails Q.
The parts of the range of moulds are brought tightly together and held in position by the bars 0 and the screw P, and when one mould is filled the carrier is moved forward on its rails by wheels worked by a handle also shown in the figure.
Game birds include ducks, geese, plovers, snipe, loons, grebes, terns, rails, the woodcock and the ruffed grouse; quails are scarce except on Long Island, where a number or young birds are liberated each year, and by the same mea 's a supply of pheasants is maintained in some parts of the state.
When we are walking past a fence formed by equally-spaced vertical rails or overlapping boards, we may often note that each footstep is followed by a musical ring.
15) be the source very nearly in the line of the rails Abcdef.
At the instant that the original wave reaches F the wave from E has travelled to a circle of radius very nearly equal to EF-not quite, as S is not quite in the plane of the rails.
As these " secondary waves " return to S their distance apart is nearly equal to twice the distance between the rails, and the observer then hears a note of wave-length nearly 2EF.
The franchise, roadway, roadbed, rails and rolling stock of railways in more than one county are assessed at their full value by the state board of equalization.
For railway bridges it commonly consists of cross girders, attached to or resting on the main girders, and longitudinal rail girders or stringers carried by the cross girders and directly supporting the sleepers and rails.
It consists of a pair of tubular girders with solid or plate sides stiffened by angle irons, one line of rails passing through each tube.
An internal viaduct of lattice girders carries a double line of rails.
This bridge, connecting very important railway systems, was designed to carry two lines of rails, a highway and electric railway on each side, all between the main trusses.
and the height of the rails above the valley 380 ft.
for two lines of rails.
This gives a load of 50 tons per eccentric. One motor is placed at each end of the span to operate the eccentrics and also to release the latches and raise the rails of the steam track.
But if a load is so applied that the deflection increases with speed, the stress is greater than that due to a very gradually applied load, and vibrations about a mean position are set up. The rails not being absolutely straight and smooth, centrifugal and lurching actions occur which alter the distribution of the loading.
In railway bridges the weight of sleepers, rails, &c., is 0.2 to 0.25 tons per ft.
In the case of braced girder bridges, the wind pressure is taken as acting on a continuous surface extending from the rails to the top of the carriages, plus the vertical projected area of so much of one girder as is exposed above the train or below the rails.
In 1870, while some duties were lowered, others were raised, as, for instance, those on steel rails and on marble.
Certain duties were reduced (though in no case greatly reduced) such as those upon wool, some woollens, cheaper grades of cotton cloths, iron, steel rails, copper.
Scranton better grades of iron ore and of limestone were procured, and within a decade a rolling mill, a nail factory and a manufactory of steel rails were established, and adequate facilities for railway transportation were provided.
The larger bell-bird (Anthornis melanocephala) has become quite scarce; the magnificent fruit-pigeon (Carpophaga chathamensis), and the two endemic rails (Nesolimnas dieffenbachii and Cabalus modestus), the one of which was confined to Whairikauri and the other to Mangare Island, are extinct.
First, there is timber, such as gates, stiles and rails; the first two are, nine times out of ten, awkward jumps, as the take off is either poached by cattle, or else is on the ascent or descent.
But in jumping a gate, or a flight of rails, as ordinarily situated, there is no width to be covered, and to make a horse go through the exertion of jumping both high and wide when he need only do one is to waste his power, added to which to ride fast at timber, unless very low with a ditch on the landing side, is highly dangerous.
Often there is a reredos behind it; it is also fenced in by rails to preserve it from profanation of various kinds.
When these operations were begun a project for linking Suakin to Berber by railway, first proposed during Ismail's viceroyalty, was revived and a few miles of rails were laid in 1884.
- Subsidiary to walls as a means of training fruit trees, espalier rails were formerly much employed, and are still used in many gardens.
In their simplest form, they are merely a row of slender stakes of larch or other wood driven into the ground, and connected by a slight rod or fillet at top. The use of iron rails has now been almost wholly discontinued on account of metallic substances acting as powerful conductors of both heat and cold in equal extremes.
The forms chiefly adopted for trees trained to walls and espalier rails are the fan-shaped, the half-fan and the horizontal, with their various modifications.
For one kind of meat we could substitute another; wool could be replaced by cotton, silk or fur; were our common silicate glass gone, we could probably perfect and cheapen some other of the transparent solids; but even if the earth could be made to yield any substitute for the forty or fifty million tons of iron which we use each year for rails, wire, machinery, and structural purposes of many kinds, we could not replace either the steel of our cutting tools or the iron of our magnets, the basis of all commercial electricity.
The distortion which rails undergo in manufacture and use is incomparably less than that to which rivets are subjected, and thus rail steel may safely be much richer in carbon and hence in cementite, and therefore much stronger and harder, so as to better endure the load and the abrasion of the passing wheels.
Thus the typical carbon-content may be taken as about o 05% for rivets and tubes, 0.20% for boiler plates, and 0.50 to 0.75% for rails, implying the presence of o 75% of cementite in the first two, 3% in the third and 7.5% to 11.25% in the last.
The best tool steel should not contain more than 0.02% of either, and in careful practice it is often specified that the phosphorus and sulphur respectively shall not exceed 0.04 and o 05% in the steel for important bridges, or o 06 and 0 07% in rail steel, though some very prudent engineers allow as much as 085% or even o To% of phosphorus in rails.
In passing, it may be noted that the cost of the ore itself forms a relatively small part of the cost even of the cruder forms of steel, hardly a quarter of the cost of such simple products as rails, and an insignificant part of the cost of many most important finished objects, such as magnets, cutting tools, springs and wire, for which iron is almost indispensable.
Thus, if the use of ores very much poorer than those we now treat, and the need of concentrating them mechanically, were to double the cost of a pound of iron in the concentrated ore ready for smelting, that would increase the cost of rails by only one quarter.
The difficulty in the way of this system was that, in pouring the steel from ladle to mould, more or less of it:occasionally spatters, and these spatterings, if they strike the rails or the running gear of the cars, obstruct and foul them, preventing the movement of the train, because the solidified steel is extremely tenacious.
The Roechling-Rodenhauser furnace is unfitted, by the vulnerability of its interior walls, for receiving charges of cold metal to be melted down, but it is used to good advantage for purifying molten basic Bessemer steel sufficiently to fit it for use in the form of railway rails.
basic form, made all of the world's rail steel; but even for this work it has now begun to be displaced by the basic open-hearth process, partly because of the fast-increasing scarcity of ores which yield pig iron low enough in phosphorus for the acid Bessemer process, and partly because the increase in the speed of trains and in the loads on the individual engineand car-wheels has made a demand for rails of a material better than Bessemer steel.
There are two distinct ways of making the steel objects actually used in the arts, such as rails, gear wheels, guns, beams, &c., out of the molten steel made by the Bessemer, open hearth, or crucible process, or in an electric furnace.
In strong contrast with this is the procedure in making rolled products such as rails and plates.
But in addition to the greater cost of steel founding as compared with rolling there are two facts which limit the use of steel castings: (1) they are not so good as rolled products, because the kneading which the metal undergoes in rolling improves its quality, and closes up its cavities; and (2) it would be extremely difficult and in most cases impracticable to cast the metal directly into any of the forms in which the great bulk of the steel of commerce is needed, such as rails, plates, beams, angles, rods, bars, and wire, because the metal would become so cool as to solidify before running far in such thin sections, and because even the short pieces which could thus be made would pucker or warp on account of their aeolotachic contraction.
It is for this reason, for instance, that railroad rails are of constant uniform section throughout their length, instead of having those parts of their length which come between the supporting ties deeper and stronger than the parts which rest on the ties.
8d.) per ton, and in very large quantities at $15 (£3, 2s.) per ton, in the latter case, according to Mr Carnegie, without further loss than that represented by interest, although the cost of each ton includes that of mining 2 tons of ore and carrying them moo miles, mining and coking 1.3 tons of coal and carrying its coke 50 m., and quarrying one-third of a ton of limestone and carrying it 140 m., besides the cost of smelting the ore, converting the resultant cast iron into steel, and rolling that steel into rails.
second-hand wrought iron rails.
The campaign was unusually animated - only the Whig campaign for William Henry Harrison in 1840 is comparable to it: there were great torchlight processions of "wide-awake" clubs, which did "railfence," or zigzag, marches, and carried rails in honour of their candidate, the "rail-splitter."
The export of steel (railway) rails and bridges from this part is steadily on the increase.
of rails, capable of taking 2000 trucks, was constructed at Campasso in 1906 north of San Pier d'Arena (through which till then the traffic of the first three lines, representing 95% of the total, had to pass).
These in Dortmund more particularly embrace steel railway rails, mining plant, wire ropes, machinery, safes and sewing machines.
They generally have moulded rails or balusters, and rich friezes of pierced and repousse work, the whole being often thickly plated with silver.
Four lines of rails on deck gave accommodation for 54 ten-ton wagons carrying an average load of 900 tons.
A lifting bridge at the wharf-end, which the ferry approached stern on, enabled accurate connection of rails at all suites of the tide, the process of embarking a train requiring ordinarily not more than 15 minutes.
South Bethlehem is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. The Bethlehem Steel Company manufactures here iron and steel, including Bessemer steels, armour plate, steel rails, government ordnance, drop forgings, iron and steel castings, stationary engines, gas engines, hydraulic pumps, projectiles, steel shaft and pig iron; zinc is smelted and refined; and there are large hosiery and knitting mills, and silk mills and cigar factories.
The second section, to near Timbo in Futa Jallon, was completed in 1907, and the rails reached Kurussa in 1910.
It owed its origin in the latter half of the 17th century to the discovery of salt-springs, and now produces coal, salt, alabaster and quicksilver, and manufactures steel rails.
the road-bed with the rails and sleepers not over 100 ft.
long, in the hope that when the speed reached a certain point it would leave the rails, but it was prevented from rising more than an inch or so by four arms, or outriggers, furnished with wheels, which projected from its sides and ran under an inverted wooden upper or safety track outside the railway track proper.
Coal is brought to the city from the coalfields by boats on the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers as well as by rail, and great fleets of barges carry coal and other heavy freight, such as steel rails, cotton ties, sheet iron, wire and nails, down the Ohio in the winter and spring.
Several neighbouring cities and towns are also extensively engaged in the same industry, and in 1902 Allegheny county produced about 24% of the pig-iron, nearly 34% of the Bessemer steel, more than 44% of the open-hearth steel, more than 53% of the crucible steel, more then 24% of the steel rails, and more than 59% of the structural shapes that were made in that year in the United States.
There are great iron and steel works, producing every kind of heavy goods used by railway and engineering works, such as boiler plates, rails, axles, tubes, bolts and nuts.
Birds are very numerous, including no fewer than 4 varieties of crows, 5 of warblers, 7 of woodpeckers, 8 of buntings, 4 of falcons, and 5 of eagles; while among the hosts of waterfowl which people the marshes of the Danube are 9 varieties of ducks, and 4 of rails.
from East London, the rails are 5450 ft.
of rails had been laid from Wadi Halfa at a cost of some £450,000.
The height from low-water level to the rails is 420 ft.
Eng., 1878, 1879) on the friction between brake-blocks and wheels, and between wheels and rails.
Modern improvements, with a view to cheapening of cost, effect the transport of the cages from one press battery to another on rails.
The latter are very commonly made of old flat bottom rails, laid with the flat of the flange against the wall.
The rattling of the rails fought against Ely's wailing vocal refrain.
This very loosely structured film eventually goes off the rails and the closing scenes feel almost like an afterthought.
Three steps up to altar with altar rails on second step.
Beyond, the three-sided altar rails are almost ghost-like, the oak is so silvered.
Top of page angled rails Angled rails are useful anywhere you want to change height (from standing to sitting, for example ).
awkward to fit two steps comfortably between the gaps in the rails.
Chrome tubular engine guards front and rear, a padded backrest and sturdy aluminum passenger grab rails are just part of the story.
In the second, vertical position, Triple Tail becomes a flexible passenger backrest with grab rails.
The whole of the viaduct was decked with 3 inch timber planking with large timber balks running longitudinally under the rails.
The communion rails with turned balusters are from 17th century.
The altar rails have twisted balusters of late seventeenth-century date, and the altar table belongs to the earlier part of the same century.
This is surrounded by an imposing balustrade with twisted balusters, similar to a set of communion rails.
banister rails are also in dark wood.
Boards were used to enclose the rails on the tower battlements.
A shelf with shiny brass rails curving around the aft cabin.
Features like the hard disk caddies, drive rails and fan mounts are all nice plus points.
chassis box section rails are cut in 30 minutes instead of five hours.
conductor rails carry 750 volts DC.
corrosion resistant rails for perfect sealing.
cutlery fix baskets to stainless steel rails making full use of wall space.
dado rails and decking.
In a complete change of mood, ' Off The Rails ' is an amusing little ditty with a simplistic guitar accompaniment.
Items such as small grab rails, additional banister rails and flashing light doorbells fall into this category and are called minor adaptations.
electrifyed to have lines electrified with third rails which were removed in the 1960s.
Ruby on Rails Support Ruby is a pure object-oriented programming language with a super clean syntax that makes programming elegant and fun.
fastening system, to the horizontal cross rails in the internal supporting frame.
More than a quarter of all the world's 60-odd living species of rail are flightless, and all flightless rails live on islands.
The hand rails are bolted to the main girders.
glanceone which struck the viaduct was a glancing blow on ends of sleepers, which with rails on downside, damaged.
Steps lead up through the screen with rails giving some good handholds should you go forward to anchor.
This elegantly styled headboard with its antique gold rails and sculpted accents is certainly full of Italian charm.
Points of Special Interest: The canal had no locks but had three inclined planes which took the boats down a slope on rails.
Since then innumerable cyclists have fallen as they cross these rails.
kettle tippers bath rails grabbers walkers stair lifts How do I get to see an OT?
lattice girders swung over the stern to form a continuation of the engine room overhead rails.
Take for example the first steam locomotive to run on rails in England.
lowered down from the trailer - the rails of the siding are just visible beneath.
Just 3-4m beyond the wooden rails of the " viewing gallery " were 3 male manakins sitting on the ground.
The fence is made of split chestnut, with the lower rail mortised into the ' godfathers ', and the upper rails nailed.
The reredos, altar rails, and pulpit are of modern carved oak, and were erected by subscription in 1878.
The simplest are slip rails, often used in horse paddocks.
paddyaddition, when driving from Hanoi toward Xuan Thuy one passes many rice paddies where waders and possibly rails should be found.
Pulpit and altar rails have C18 carved panels said to have come " from a college chapel " .
Specification: - Solid hardwood rails with high density particleboard panels, screwed, glued, stapled.
Anita goes off the rails; her desire for closure and some sort of answers becomes almost pathological.
The gateway may also include paving, grass, pillars, planters, w all s, trees, rails or fences.
ponypan>Pit ponies, pulling wagons along rails, transported these items to the end of the barrier.
A mobile crane placed bogies on the rails and then prefabricated boxcars or wagons were put on them.
Having attached the pulleys, the cables were threaded through from the rails on the prompt side wall.
This track has guides or rails built into it together with a toothed rack has guides or rails built into it together with a toothed rack or track.
On that day, a workman was engaged in cutting and grinding the aft top-deck guard rails and stanchions of the Northern Challenger.
At the east end of the north aisle is a chapel separated from it by wrought iron altar rails.
Above: the thrust stage, retaining the old communion rails.
Screw down, corrosion resistant rails for perfect sealing.
riven fencing, and mortised fencing using sawn rails.
shelfdrobe - Complete with two adjustable half shelves both with coat rails.
You just sit in the seat and push the sled up and down the rails.
In 1876 the railroad was rebuilt on a new course with steel rails laid on wooden sleepers.
The rails were mounted on either stone blocks or timber sleepers.
steam locomotive to run on rails in England.
stuck in corners, hanging upside down on rails but still grinding them and other small hassles are still present.
toilet facilities in both rooms have lateral transfer rails.
typo sidebar looks pretty much like any other Rails plugin.
Electricity Overhead lines carry 25,000 volts AC, conductor rails carry 750 volts DC.
Pit ponies, pulling wagons along rails, transported these items to the end of the barrier.
The track in each rail tunnel has two continuously welded rails laid on pre-cast concrete supports embedded in the concrete track bed.
western extremities the Zetland country is mainly grass with stone walls, rails and hedges.
wingtip missile rails removed and the trailing edge reshaped they are almost a perfect match.
Little convoys of about six hutches were pulled along rails by this moving wire rope.
New Zealand has also yielded many flightless birds, notably the numerous species and genera of Dinornithidae, some of which survived into the 19th century (see M0A); Pseudapteryx allied to the Kiwi; Cnemiornis, a big, flightless goose; Aptornis and Notornis, flightless rails; and Harpagornis, a truly gigantic bird of prey with tremendous wings and talons.
(From the original in the Museum of Zoology of the University of Cambridge.) parrot, of ducks, pigeons, rails, herons, geese and of a dwarf darter, Plotus nanus, all sub-fossil, now extinct.
exactly straight and parallel, and bulky carts are made with four rowlets fitting these rails, whereby the carriage is so easy that one horse will draw down four or five chaldrons of coals " (from io-6 to 13.2 tons).
Wooden sleepers continued to be used, the rails being secured by spikes passing through the extremities, but about 1793 stone blocks also began to be employed--an innovation associated with the name of Benjamin Outram, who, however, apparently was not actually the first to make it.
between the guide wheels; but before it was opened he decided not only to cast the guiding wheels and bearing wheels in one piece but also to put the former inside the rails, arguing that with this arrangement the edge-rails themselves would keep the wheels in position on the axles, whereas with that first contemplated fastenings would have been required for them (fig.
This rail was more easily rolled than others, and, being reversible, was in fact two rails in one.
It was found, naturally, that the rails would not rest in their chairs at the joints, but were loosened and bruised at the ends by the blows of the traffic. The fish-joint was therefore devised in 1847 by W.
A cutting, or cut, is simply a trench dug in a hill or piece of rising ground, wide enough at the bottom to accommodate one or more pairs of rails, and deep enough to enable the line to continue its course on the level or on a moderate gradient.
If this pressure is not relieved in some way, the train may be derailed either (I) by " climbing " the outer rail, with injury to that rail and, generally, to the corresponding wheel-flanges; (2) by overturning about the outer rail as a hinge, possibly without injury to rails or wheels; or (3) by forcing the outer rail outwards, occasionally to the extent of shearing the spikes that hold it down at the curve, thus spreading or destroying the track.
(" sixfoot way ") being left between the inner rails of each pair in Great Britain (fig.
In the second method the rails have flat flanged bases which rest directly on the sleepers (fig.
Troostite and Sorbite, indeed, seem to be chiefly very finely divided mixtures of ferrite and cementite, and it is probably because of this fineness that sorbitic steel has its remarkable combination of strength and elasticity with ductility which fits it for resisting severe vibratory and other dynamic stresses, such as those to which rails and shafting are exposed.
If any individual blow proves to be too hot, it may be cooled by throwing cold " scrap " steel such as the waste ends of rails and other pieces, into the converter, or by injecting with the blast a little steam, which is decomposed by the iron by the endothermic reaction H20+Fe=2H+Fe0.
Bessemer steel rails sold at $174 in the depre fated currency of 1868 (equivalent to about £25, 17s.
I had to feel for the rails with my toe; but I was not afraid, and got on very well, until all at once there came a faint "puff, puff" from the distance.
If we do not get out sleepers, and forge rails, and devote days and nights to the work, but go to tinkering upon our lives to improve them, who will build railroads?
Let us spend one day as deliberately as Nature, and not be thrown off the track by every nutshell and mosquito's wing that falls on the rails.
Looking down over the rails Prince Nesvitski saw the rapid, noisy little waves of the Enns, which rippling and eddying round the piles of the bridge chased each other along.
He stood looking about him, when suddenly he heard a rattle on the bridge as if nuts were being spilt, and the hussar nearest to him fell against the rails with a groan.
These temporary aims are like the broom fixed in front of a locomotive to clear the snow from the rails in front: they clear men's moral responsibilities from their path.
This track has guides or rails built into it together with a toothed rack or track.
The rattling of the rails against Ely 's wailing vocal refrain.
This includes cleft or riven fencing, and mortised fencing using sawn rails.
Below the dado rails, it is painted a rich shade of burgundy, complemented by cream paintwork elsewhere.
Wardrobe - Complete with two adjustable half shelves both with coat rails.
The grab rails feature special soft grip moldings around the bar to reduce the risk of slipping, even with wet soapy hands.
Dado and picture rails plus a solid wooden staircase with decorative balustrade set the period tone of the property.
Getting stuck in corners, hanging upside down on rails but still grinding them and other small hassles are still present.
The toilet facilities in both rooms have lateral transfer rails.
The top rails of each trampoline frame are now fitted with a plastic insert which provides an improved interlocking fit.
So, now a typo sidebar looks pretty much like any other Rails plugin.
Toward its northern, southern and western extremities the Zetland country is mainly grass with stone walls, rails and hedges.
With the wingtip missile rails removed and the trailing edge reshaped they are almost a perfect match.
You simply remove the changing pad and rails from the top of the dresser, add a mirror if you like, and there you have it!
Bed rails that are too far apart can possibly strangle a child.
Plastic tabs which are used to lock the rails can break or become loose over time.
Before she begins pulling up, you should place the mattress at the lowest level to keep her from falling over the rails of the crib.
Traditional tot beds are designed to use a crib mattress, are built low to the ground, and come with either built-in or removable side rails.
Bed rails are included with this bed and match the design.
This one comes with shorter rails near the head of the bed.
Convertible beds usually include removable side rails.
However, the full size rails are sold separately.
Disney Minnie Mouse Toddler Bed: This purple bed comes with plastic side rails and a fun Minnie Mouse design.
Bed rails are included that seamlessly fit into the fire truck design.
Make sure that you get an SUV that is roomy and consider getting one with roof rails.
The slate extends slightly past the playing surfaces to add strength to the rails.
Like the table's top and foundation, the rails are another important part of a high-quality pool table.
These sit in rails anywhere from 2 1/2" to 3 1/2" thick attached around the perimeter of the table surface.
The rails are made of hardwood or other matching cabinet material glued to a piece of wood or MDF.
Although it is recommended that you use a treadmill without holding on to the machine to take advantage of natural running posture and arm movement, hand rails are still useful for beginners or those who have difficulty balancing.
Hand rails should be positioned comfortably and feel sturdy.
There should be no more than a three-and-a-half inch gap between the bed frame and the guardrail on bunk beds designed for children, and the space between rails shouldn't be wide enough for a child's head to fit in between.
They're basically two rectangular wooden boxes mounted on posts and outfitted with rails.
Allowing for the width of the rails and the wooden enclosure, several additional inches should be included in determining the size of the room and the free space allowed around the table for players to shoot.
Also make sure that it has the appropriate safety rails so that your child won't fall out of bed (virtually all loft beds have them built in as part of the style).
Keep side rails up at all times when the baby is in the crib.
Tuscan villas often have wrought iron rails and even furniture.
Paint your crown moldings and chair rails a bright white or stain them a color to match your furniture.
Wrought iron railings, hand rails and banisters are the perfect way to display the fleur de lis.
Bathrooms with a lot going on, such as mosaic designs, borders, chair rails and decorative lights and faucets need a simple place to rest the eye.
The Greene and Greene style and the Reed Mission designs often used the popular "cloud lift" motif, which is a design created out of rounded edges and arched top rails in pieces of furniture.
It also makes it easier to ride the rails.
Binding systems are typically impregnated into the design of the ski using a set of rails.
As the ski flexes while turning, the bindings "float" on the rails.
This binding mount position increases control when riding or landing while providing a more neutral balance in the air and on the rails.
It boasts a full-sized pipe as well as a variety of tables, jumps, rails and boxes.
The area has a wide selection of rails, tables and jumps.
It has a 40 foot double barrel straight, a 40 foot down flat down, 35 foot 180 degree C box down flat down S street stair set, an eight foot wide butterbox with grindable rails and multiple 70 ft jumps.
It has a combination of rails, boxes, jibs and jump.
Ride the rails to popular attractions and destinations.
The same swag can be used on a larger scale on altar rails or handrails on altar steps; use it to line a balcony, too.
Rather than using garlands of summer or wintery greens, find fall garlands suitable for stringing across balconies, candelabras, banisters and altar rails.
While large ships are often replete with garish colors and frenetic themes, Celebrity cruise ships are smoothly coordinated with nautical accents of etched glass, brass rails, warm wood tones, and rich fabrics.
Three low walls made of lumber, brick, cedar rails or even plastic.
This could be old cedar rails, plywood, planks, or even logs.
With different types of fixtures to go with this type of light, including pendants and directional spot lighting, curved or straight rails, track lighting can even be used to illuminate architectural details and artwork.
Instead, the sliding closet door moves into the wall on almost silent rails.
For homeowners that are only concerned with finding the best looking railing, they should consider hiring a craftsman to design custom rails.
Rails are available in a variety of metallic finishes, from brass to chrome, and this lighting source can be used for subtle accent lighting or more direct task lighting.
Most rails support about 300 Watts of power, which is routed through a transformer.
The track will be bolted into the ceiling at several points for stability, while the lights themselves can move along the track by being slid inside the rails.
Install lighting that is custom to your home, your style and your budget with a track lighting kit with flexible rails and transform your home today.
Decide if grab rails are a necessary feature.
Chair rails, mixed material mosaics and accent tiles are also available for relatively little money, making a backsplash out of slate one of the more economic choices for backsplash designs.
Instead, two to three rails run horizontal to the deck attached to the rail posts at regular intervals.
Vertical - With a vertical rail design, the balusters run up and down between the rails, similar to a banister on a balcony or set of stairs.
How you set up your deck rails is entirely up to you and depends on what aesthetics you desire.
Rails that won't hold the weight of an adult are a bad choice, no matter how good they may look.
Remove the glass and fixed panel and take out the meeting rails and trim.
This will entail unscrewing the assembly and may require a hacksaw to get the rails off.
Monorail lighting tracks are made of flexible metallic rails that serve to both suspend the light as well as deliver the power necessary for lighting it.
Choose single or double rails, pendants, cluster lights and even metal finish to suit your space.
Is adequate safety equipment, including bathroom rails and wheelchair ramps, readily available?
Wheel chairs, portable ramps and guard rails may take up more space than you assumed, creating a cramped home.
Bobsled: A bobsled coaster is one that runs along a freewheeling trough rather than a set of track rails.
The path Sonic travels is predetermined and on rails.
Medal Events are exclusive to racing and slopestyle competitions, but Shred Challenges include everything from grinding rails to knocking down tourists and you can replay them all to earn more cash.
Value #5 gets you the system plus The Grim Adventures of Bill and Mandy, Super Monkey Ball Banana Blitz, Transformers: the Game, and Thrillville Off the Rails''.
The gauge is the measurement of the distance between the rails inner edges.
Teenagers should accordingly be warned not to climb on power towers, play near transformer systems, or explore electrified train rails or other electrical systems.
Stairs should always have sturdy hand rails.
Buy a bed with guard rails on both sides.
If your bed does not have guard rails, you can buy safety rails at department stores, furniture stores, and children's stores.
Make sure guard rails are high enough to prevent your child from rolling off of the bed.
Children: Kid two years and younger ride the rails for free while children ages two to 15 years of age receive 50% off standard adult fares on most trains.
The English teacher went off the rails when Jen informed him that she didn'tt want a school teacher to take care of her child.
Remove all existing rails and hardware in the closet.
Don't lean onto the side rails as this decreases the amount of work your body does, thereby lowering your caloric burn.
Instead, stand up straight and only use rails for balance if needed.
Covered objects include public property, like mail boxes, sign posts, and guard rails.
For example, the Steam Community offers the Javaserver Group to JSP developers, and RailsLodge is an online social network for Ruby on Rails developers.
C#, Microsoft Visual Basic, Java, and Ruby on Rails are all examples of it.
New programming platforms such as Flash's ActionScript, Ruby on Rails, and AJAX are all becoming successors to the PHP language.
Other technologies were developed such as Dynamic HTML, Flash, XML (eXtensible Markup Language), and other protocols like PHP, AJAX and Ruby on Rails.
These have become languages and platforms unto themselves, and you can build an entire site with Rails, for example, without using any HTML on your site.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.