Notwithstanding the offices he had filled he died poor, and provision had to be made for his daughter out of the funds of the state.
In cases where statutes did touch the question of regulation, they had to do with the operation of trains and with the provision of facilities for shippers and passengers, rather than with questions of rates.
It forbade the granting of passes except to certain specified classes, - a provision entirely absent from the original measure.
Until other provision was made, the governor-general was to have a salary of £10,000, paid by the Commonwealth.
Under this provision an amendment cannot be adopted until nearly four years after it is first proposed.
Another convenient arrangement is the provision of letter-boxes on electric tramcars in some cities.
The Commonwealth legislation thus made provision for the aged poor in the three states which up to 1908 had not accepted the principle of old age pensions, and also for those who, owing to their having resided in more than one state, were debarred from receiving pension in any.
However, the exercise of the pope's right of provision still left considerable scope for papal intervention, and the pope retained the annates.
c. r 1 made special provision for convicted clerks who broke out of the prisons of the ordinary.
The new licences were to terminate in 1911 without any provision for purchase or compensation in that year, but with the option to the government to purchase the plant of the licensees in 1890, 1897, or 1904 at a price to be determined by arbitration.
Application for admission to the Union was now made to Congress, and on the 31st of December 186 2 an enabling act was approved by President Lincoln admitting the state on the condition that a provision for the gradual abolition of slavery be inserted in the Constitution.
The licences were for 31 years, expiring in 1922, without any provision for purchase or compensation, and were subject to the payment of a minimum royalty to the Post Office of 10 per cent.
Provision is made for gaseous interchange between the internal tissues and the external air after the formation of cork, by the development of lenticels.
The money thus obtained was appropriated in part to naval defence and harbours, and in part to the provision of old age pensions under the Federal Old Age Pension Act of 1908.
It made provision for publicity of rates and for due notice of any change in rates; it forbade pooling of freight or earnings, and required annual reports from the carriers.
The method of counting the total number of revolutions gives more friction and is less convenient than Repsolds', and no provision seems to be made for illuminating the micrometer head in the practical and convenient plan adopted by Repsolds.
Congo for maternity cases and cases of curable Ubangi-Chad illness; (2) the hospice, where the aged Madagascar poor, cases of incurable malady, orphans, Nossi-be Island foundlings and other children without Ste Marie Island means of support, and in some cases Comoro Islands lunatics, are received; (3) the bureau de Somali Coast bien-faisance, charged with the provision 9f Reunion out-door relief (secours a domicile) in money st Paul 1 or in kind, to the aged poor or those who, Amsterdam though capable of working, are prevented Kerguelen.
It was discovered, however, that no statute had ever been passed to carry this provision into effect, and the votes were rejected.
The second prominent differentiation which presents itself takes the form of a provision to supply the living substance with water.
Provision was made for necessary alteration of the constitution of the Commonwealth, but so that no alteration could be effected unless the question had been directly submitted to, and the change accepted by the electorate in the states.
Sometimes ships that are windbound and have exhausted their provision of water, touch here and apply to the natives for it; in such cases the crews sometimes fall into the hands of the latter and most of them are massacred."
In 1868 Denver became the capital, but feeling in the southern counties was then so strong against Denver that provision was made for a popular vote on the situation of the capital five years after Colorado should become a state.
An unusual: provision in the constitution, a result of its adoption in the midst of the Civil War, gives soldiers and sailors in the service of the United States the right to vote; their votes to be applied to the township and county in which they were bona fide residents at the time of enlistment.'
But beyond this the pastoralist learnt most effectually the lesson that, in a country like Australia, provision must be made for the occasional season when the rainfall is entirely inadequate to the wants of the farmer and the pastoralist.
The encyclical letter is accompanied by sixty-three resolutions (which include careful provision for provincial organization and the extension of the title "archbishop" to all metropolitans, a "thankful recognition of the revival of brotherhoods and sisterhoods, and of the office of deaconess," and a desire to promote friendly relations with the Eastern Churches and the various Old Catholic bodies), and the reports of the eleven committees are subjoined.
The average cost of constructing an exchange circuit in the metropolitan area (including the installation of telephone instruments and of exchange apparatus, but excluding the provision of spare plant) has been £33.
The first trace of system is in the limited right of appeal given by the first oecumenical council of Nicaea and its provision that episcopal sentences or those of provincial synods on appeal were to be recognized throughout the world.
Besides absorption, assimilation, conduction and protection there is another very important function for which provision has to be made in any plant-body of considerable size, especially when raised into the air, that of support.
an amount p 2 which seems small but which would be quite sufficient to destroy one or more of the joints if provision were not made to prevent damage.
(k) In England the Constitutions of Clarendon added a provision for appeal to the king, " and if the archbishop shall have failed in doing justice recourse is to be had in the last resort (postremo) to our lord the king, that by his writ the controversy may be ended in the court of the archbishop; because there must be no further process without the assent of our lord the king."
The telegraph companies proposed to effect an amalgamation so as to enable the services to be consolidated and extended, and they proposed to submit to various conditions for the protection of the public, such as maximum rates and limitation of dividends, with the provision that new issues of capital should be offered by auction, but public opinion was averse to the proposal.
Burke and Grattan were anxious that provision should be made for the education of Irish Roman Catholic priests at home, to preserve them from the contagion of Jacobinism in France; Wolfe Tone, "with an incomparably juster forecast," as Lecky observes, "advocated the same measure for exactly opposite reasons."
This provision was omitted from Magna Carta, except so far as it related to aids from the citizens of London.
The constitution as adopted limited the suffrage to adult white males, but this provision was annulled by the fifteenth amendment to the Federal constitution; and in 1880 amendments to the state constitution were adopted striking out the word " white " from the suffrage clause and adding a new article granting rights of suffrage and office holding without regard to race, colour or previous condition of servitude.
The difficulty is solved by the provision of a complete system of minute intercellular spaces which form a continuous series of delicate canals between the cells, extending throughout the whole substance of the plant.
when he took over the city from Mathilda, an important new provision being that general rules for the government of the city were only to be made by arrangement between the count or his officials and the common council of the citizens.
(April 8, 1802), no express provision was made for ecclesiastical jurisdictions; but several bishops did create new ecclesiastical tribunals, " officialities " (Migne, Dict.
There is also a provision that only three-fourths of the jurors may be required to agree to a verdict in civil cases, although the legislature has the power to require by statute a unanimous agreement.
In the college itself the voting - secret and by ballot throughout - is by majority; and since this majority consists, under the actual system, of very conservative elements (the landowners and urban delegates having 8ths of the votes), the progressive elements - however much they might preponderate in the country - would have no chance of representation at all save for the curious provision that one member at least in each government must be chosen from each of the five classes represented in the college.
Provision for drainage was made by a channel running round the enclosure.
This severe provision was, however, repealed after the fall of Robespierre.
No other feed is required, the only provision necessary being an adequate supply of water and an occasional allowance of salt.
Provision was also made for public festivals, and a central commission was to be entrusted with educational questions.
Steam shovels are not well adapted to deep excavation unless provision is made for the rapid handling of the cars when filled.
The last is an invariable provision, and occurs in all subsequent Regency Acts.
child-care provision across the County.
Its most important feature, when compared with the previous constitution of 1868, is its provision for the choice of state officials other than the governor (who was previously chosen by election) by elections instead of by the governor's appointment, but the governor, who serves for four years and is not eligible for the next succeeding term, still appoints the circuit judges, the state' attorneys for each judicial circuit and the county commissioners; he may fill certain vacancies and may suspend, and with the Senate remove officers not liable to impeachment..
In the four last chapters the author, returning to the history, gives a detailed account of the provision made for the Israelites in the wilderness and of the pains and terrors with which the Egyptians were plagued.
He was, however, so far from fulfilling the terms of this treaty that it was determined to depose him; and an army being sent against him, he surrendered to the British, who made a provision for his maintenance, and elevated his infant son Desalji II.
Where there are two or any other even number of arbitrators, provision is usually made for an umpire (French sur-arbitre).
The constitution of Brazil provides that the coastwise trade shall be carried on by national vessels, but this provision did not go into effect until 1896.
One of the purposes of this restrictive provision was that of creating a national merchant marine, but the disinclination of Brazilians for maritime pursuits has been a serious obstacle to its realization.
The lowest rate of illiteracy is to be found in the southern half of the republic. Public instruction is, by constitutional provision, under secular control, but religious denominations are permitted to have their own schools.
Provision is made whereby a native can obtain relief from the operation of native law and be subject to the colonial law (Law No.
For higher education provision was made by the affiliation of Natal to the Cape of Good Hope University and by exhibitions tenable at English universities.
It Is Perhaps Unnecessary To Make Any Formal Provision Against An Error Which Can Only Happen After So Long A Period Of Time; But As 3323 Differs Little From 4000, It Has Been Proposed To Correct The Gregorian Rule By Making The Year 4000 And All Its Multiples Common Years.
A provision intended to prevent lobbying is that no one except legislators and the representatives of the press may be admitted to the floor of the House except by unanimous vote.
No provision is made for centring over a point.
The eldest son alone succeeded to the crown; but at the same time a custom was established by which the king made territorial provision suitable to their rank for his other children or for his brothers and sisters; custom forbade their being left landless.
The British government appointed Lords Auckland and Holland as negotiators, and the result of the deliberations was the treaty of the 31st of December 1806, which contained no provision against impressments and provided no indemnity for the seizure of goods and vessels.
In cold climates men coming from the warm atmosphere of a mine, often in wet clothing, are liable to suffer in health unless proper provision is made for the necessary change of clothing.
As a result of disease, and of casualties in action and from bombardment, the British divisions recruited in the United Kingdom were constantly far short of establishment, no proper provision having been made for keeping them up to strength.
Its most extraordinary feature consisted in the provision for lodging the executive authority in the hands of a president for life, without responsibility and with power to nominate his successor, a proposal which alarmed the friends of liberty, and excited lively apprehensions amongst the republicans of Buenos Aires and Chile; whilst in Peru, Bolivar was accused of a design to unite into one state Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, and to render himself perpetual dictator of the confederacy.
The provision for the joint influence of Great Britain and France over the New Hebrides (1906) brought these islands into some prominence owing to the hostile criticism directed against the British government both in Australia and at home.
In 1580 Sinan commanded the army against Persia and was appointed grand vizier, but was disgraced and exiled in the following year, owing to the rout of his lieutenant Mahommed Pasha, at Gori, in an attempt to provision the Turkish garrison of Tiflis.
P. Dunn's Indiana, a Redemption from Slavery (Boston, 1888) in the " American Commonwealth " series, as its secondary title indicates, is devoted principally to the struggle over the provision in the Ordinance of 1787 prohibiting slavery.
The legislature meets biennially, in odd numbered years, on the first Monday in January, and the length of the session is limited by a provision that the members shall be paid four dollars a day, besides an allowance for travelling expenses, not to exceed 75 days; whenever the governor calls an extra session they are not paid for more than 20 days.
This seems to have been the only instance of an intercolonial provision for the return of fugitive slaves; there were, indeed, not infrequent escapes by slaves from one colony to another, but it was not until after the growth of anti-slavery sentiment and the acquisition of western territory, that it became necessary to adopt a uniform method for the return of fugitive slaves.
In 1888 it was proposed by the public debt administration to undertake the collection of specified revenues to be set aside for the provision of railway guarantees, the principle to be followed being, generally, that such revenues should consist of the tithes of the districts through which the railways would pass, and that the public debt should hand over to guaranteed railway companies the amounts of their guarantees before transmitting to the imperial government any of the proceeds of the revenue so collected.
In 1813, when he was before San Sebastian, the ammunition ran short; a battering train, long demanded, reached him not only some time after it was needed, but even then with only one day's provision of shot and shell.
Various privileges were conceded to those who built in stone, but no provision was made as to the material to be used in the great monastic establishments.
This provision does not extend to abridging the prerogative after the impeachment has been heard and determined.
No other example of a statutory provision for a regency occurs till 1751.
Perhaps the most unique provision of the Nebraska constitution is that 2 An almost identical clause was inserted in the Ohio constitution of 1802, and one in exactly the same language appears in the present (1851) constitution of that state; it appears also in the Kansas constitutions of 1855, 1858 and 18J9 (present), in the Nebraska constitution of 1866, in the North Carolina and South Carolina constitutions of 1868, and was retained in the present constitution of North Carolina as amended in 1876.
The state constitution prescribes that " white and colored children shall not be taught in the same school, but impartial provision shall be made for both."
A provision was made that if, after waiting a year at Venice, they were unable to go to Jerusalem, this part of the vow should be cancelled and they should at once betake themselves to Rome.
Antoninus directed that slaves treated with excessive cruelty, who had taken refuge at an altar or imperial image, should be sold; and this provision was extended to cases in which the master had employed a slave in a way degrading to him or beneath his character.
This selection depends on the fact that more young are born than the natural provision of food will support.
The Senate can interpose a veto in all matters of legislation, saving taxation, and where there is a collision between the two bodies, provision is made for reference to a court of arbitration, consisting of members of both houses in equal numbers, and also to the supreme court of the empire (Reichsgericht) sitting at Leipzig.
The name " South African Republic " was adopted as the title of the state, and the new constitution made provision for a volksraad to which members were to be elected by the people for a period of two years, and in which the legislative function was vested.
The extent of the operations and the gravity of the situation now began to be felt in England; every available man was called up from the reserves, and the war office made what at the time appeared to be adequate provision for the waste which it was seen would occur.
At the same time provision must be made for the integration of knowledge as well as for the winning of it by several adits.
and museum of morbid anatomy, and was fusing these gains in the laboratory so as to claim for itself, as a special branch of science by virtue of peculiar concepts, its due place and provision - provision in the establishment of chairs and of special laboratories for its chemical and biological subdivisions - clinical medicine, by the formal provision of disciplinary classes, was illustrating the truth of the experience that teaching and research must go hand-in-hand, the one reinforcing the other: that no teacher can be efficient unless he be engaged in research also; nay, that for the most part even the investigator needs the encouragement of disciples.
Provision for the reception and treatment of insanity in its earliest and more curable stages can scarcely be said to exist.
Provision was made in the design, by Sir Aston Webb, for the extension of the Mall to open upon Trafalgar Square, through gateways in a semicircular range of buildings to be occupied by government offices, and for a wide circular space in front of the Palace, with a statue of the Queen by Thomas Brock in its centre.
The former company combined with the Great Western Company as regards the electrification of, and provision of stock for, the lines which they had previously worked jointly, from Edgware Road by Bishop's Road to Hammersmith, &c. The Baker Street & Waterloo railway (known as the " Bakerloo ") was opened in 1906 and subsequently extended in one direction to Paddington and in the other to the Elephant and Castle.
The mere control of existing traffic, local street improvements and provision of new means of communication between casual points, were felt to miss the root of the problem, and in 1903 a Royal Commission was appointed to consider the whole question of locomotion and transport in London, expert evidence being taken from engineers, representatives of the various railway and other companies, of the County Council, borough councils and police, and others.
The Council controls the provision of fire escapes in factories employing over 40 persons, under an act of 1901; it also compels the mainten ance of proper precautions against fire in theatres and places of entertainments.
When the mineral is transported by rail or water to concentration or metallurgical works for treatment, or to near or distant markets for sale, provision must be made for the economical loading of railway wagons or vessels, and for the temporary storage of the mineral product.
It is unquestionably better and easier to evaporate in vacuo than in an open pan, and with a better system of firing, a more liberal provision of steam generators, and multiple-effect evaporators of improved construction, a far larger yield of sugar is obtained from the juice than was possible of attainment in those days, and the megass often suffices as fuel for the crop.
He opposed the constitution as finally revised, one reason being that it contained a provision designed to pre vent New York City from having a majority of legislators.
61), made in pursuance of a decree of the people of the year 409-408 B.C., does not contain the provision for cases of premeditated homicide; cf.
Provision was made for the administration of the borough.
Next comes a section (xiv., xv.) reflecting a somewhat later development concerning fixed services and ministry; the desire for a stated service, and the need of regular provision for it, is leading to a new order of things.
Apart from these docks Ostend has a very considerable passenger and provision traffic with England, and is the headquarters of the Belgian fishing fleet, estimated to employ 400 boats and 1600 men and boys.
The chief defect of the league lay in its lack of proper provision for securing efficient armies and regular payment of imposts, and for dealing with disaffected members.
331) asked and obtained a papal provision to this very church of Pulham on the ground that it had passed to the pope's patronage by the promotion of its former possessor to the see of London.
The papal court was then moving from Avignon to Rome, and on the 14th of July 1367 the bull of "provision" issued at Viterbo.
Provision was made to erect a new building at a cost of $5,000,000.
Provision was made in 1909 to replace it by a new building.
This review should include the funding of education support teachers, school capitation grants, transport provision and school uniforms.
Neither the charge for deferred taxation nor the provision will impact upon the future cash flows of the group.
to give a pecuniary guarantee to ensure payment of fines for offences committed by any one of their number, a provision made necessary by the fact that the whole clan acted collectively.
Suitable provision is made for the egress of syrup from the massecuite in the cells when undergoing purging in the centrifugal; and the washing of the crystals can be aided by the injection of refined syrup and completed by that of " clairce."
The weight of these implements necessitates some provision for turning them at the headlands, and this is supplied either by a bowl wheel, enabling the plough to be turned on one side, or by a pair of wheels cranked so that they can be raised by a lever when the plough is working.
A few days after her birth her mother left England, and provision for her maintenance having been made by Charles she lived at Exeter under the care of Lady Dalkeith (afterwards countess of Morton) until the surrender of the city to the parliamentarians, when she was taken to Oatlands in Surrey.
The Czech immigrants, attracted to Vienna as to other German towns by the growth of industry, are now too numerous for easy absorption, which is further retarded by their national organization, and the provision of separate institutions, churches, schools (thus far private) and places of resort.
He warmly advocated the insertion in the Reconstruction Acts of a provision ensuring the early termination of military government; and he opposed the impeachment of President Johnson, though he voted for conviction on the trial.
This led to an important despatch by Viscount Halifax, president of the board of control, to the marquess of Dalhousie, the governor-general, authorizing an educational advance in primary and secondary schools, the provision of technical and scientific teaching, and the establishment of schools for girls.
This provision hardly consists with Comte's congratulations to the tsar Nicholas on the " wise vigilance " with which he kept watch over the importation of Western books.
A curious survival of the old system exists in the provision that only those who pay taxes on $134 worth of property may vote for members of city -councils or on propositions to levy taxes or to expend public money.
Formerly fifty-four representatives were elected, but provision was made (in the constitution) for increasing the number, and they at present number sixty-four, elected for six years.
He received an address of sympathy from the consistory of Anduze, and a provision was voted for him by the Union Protestante Liberale, to enable him to continue his preaching.
These evidences of civilization did not make their appearance until the first great era of Japanese reform, the Taika period (645650), when stations were established along the principal highways, provision was made of post-horses, and a system of bells and checks was devised for distinguishing official carriers.
Against much opposition, partly political (1879-1886) and a veto on a legal point from President Arthur, a relief bill finally passed Congress, and Porter was on the 5th of August 1886 restored to the United States army as colonel and placed on the retired list, no provision, however, being made for compensation.
The introduction of the India Bill in November 1783 alarmed many vested interests, and offended the king by the provision which gave the patronage of India to a commission to be named by the ministry and removable only by parliament.
The year 1890 was one of great depression following the exhaustion of the surface ore, but the provision of better machinery and cheaper coal led to a revival in 1891.
The emperor is afraid that the fire-brigade might become a "political club," and cautiously contents himself with approving the provision of a fire-engine (34) Trajan's fear of factions and clubs in these two last cases has sometimes been connected with the question of his attitude towards the Christians in Bithynia.
He soon distinguished himself by a speech in support of the Bill for Regulating Trials in Cases of Treason, one provision of which was that a person indicated for treason or misprision of treason should be allowed the assistance of counsel.
The provision of a new graving dock adjoining the Alexandra was delayed in October 1905 by a subsidence of the ground during its construction.
Dingli had refrained from making any provision in his code as to marrying.
At this time it became imperative that satisfactory provision should be made for the succession to the Danish throne.
They are recognizable by their slender and elongate hind-legs; many of them provision their burrows with spiders.
Indeed, there still existed on the statute a provision that "Masters and Bachelors who did not follow Aristotle faithfully were liable to a fine of five shillings for every point of divergence, and for every fault committed against the logic of the Organon."
As the Federal Constitution contained no provision for settling a dispute of this kind the two houses of Congress agreed to the appointment of an extra-constitutional body, the "Electoral Commission" (q.v.) which decided all the contests in favour of the Republican candidates.
This provision, introducing an entirely new principle into the American governmental system, came into effect in January 1903, and was employed in the following year when a previously elected councilman who was "recalled" by petition and was unsuccessful in the 1904 election brought suit to hold his office, and on a mere technicality the Supreme Court of the state declared the recall election invalid.
In 1835 it was made a city by the Mexican Congress, and declared the capital, but the last provision was not enforced and was soon recalled.
First, the growth of the practice of " reservation " and " provision," by which the popes assumed the right to appoint their own nominees to vacant sees and other benefices, in defiance of the claims of the crown, the chapters and private patrons.
From 1343 onward, statutes were passed by parliament forbidding any one to accept a papal provision, and cutting off all appeals to the papal curia or ecclesias tical courts in cases involving benefices.
(The same year the ratio of wealth productivity was as 66 to 37.) Massachusetts stands " foremost in the Union in the universality of its provision for secondary education."
In the former act he embodied a provision regulating and giving authority to the peculiar customs, usages, and regulations voluntarily adopted by the miners in various districts of the state for the adjudication of disputed mining claims. This, as Judge Field truly says, "was the foundation of the jurisprudence respecting mines in the country," having greatly influenced legislation upon this subject in other states and in the Congress of the United States.
19), the regular exposition of the appointed lessons was by no means regarded as part of the necessary business of a church, it was generally felt to be advisable that some provision should be made for the public instruction of congregations.
p. 58), and in modern times provision for a regency has always been made by act of parliament.
As late as 1704 provision was made for a regency after the death of Anne.
affords examples of provision for a regency during both the infancy and incapacity of a king.
Thirlwall replied by pointing out that no provision for theological instruction wa,s in fact made by the colleges except compulsory attendance at chapel, and that this was mischievous.
In the acts relating to the census from 1801 to 1851, provision for the enumeration of Scotland was made with that for England and Wales, allowance being made for the differences in procedure, which mainly concerned the agency to be employed.
A special feature in the operations is the provision, necessitated by the record of the legal population, for the inclusion in the local return of the persons temporarily absent on the date of the census, and their adjustment in the general aggregates, a matter to which considerable attention is paid.
The provision of the Constitution on the subject is as follows:- "Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this Union according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons.
The law under which the census of 1840 was taken contained a novel provision for the preparation in connexion with the census of statistical tables giving "such information in relation to mines, agriculture, commerce, manufactures and schools as will exhibit a full view of the pursuits, industry, education and resources of the country."
And therefore also because the Church is in a commonwealth, it is of their charge; that is, concerning the outward provision and outward justice, they are to look to it.
The loss of Harvard College compelled the provision of new seminaries, and missionary work both home and foreign was vigorously carried on.
The third modified this provision by requiring the approval of only a majority of the members elected to each house of the second legislature, and directed that the legislature should call a convention to revise the constitution at least once in twenty years if the people requested it.
Provision is made for secondary education in all the leading town schools, which prepare pupils for matriculation.
In view of the dissolution of the intercolonial council a convention was signed at Pretoria on the 29th of May which made provision for the division of the common property, rights and liabilities of the Orange Colony and the Transvaal in respect to the railways and constabulary, and established for four years a joint board to continue the administration of the railway systems of the two colonies.
This question has arisen chiefly in contracts for works, which frequently contain a provision that the engineer shall be the arbitrator, in any dispute between the contractor and his own employer.
c. 15 provided that the submission might be made a rule of court, a provision which gave the court power to assist the parties in the trial of the case, and to enforce the award of the arbitrators; (d) the statute 3 and 4 Will.
If there is no express provision on the point in the submission, an award under the Arbitration Act 1889 must be made within three months after the arbitrator has entered on the reference, or been called upon to act by notice in writing from any party to the submission.
The power to enforce the award depends on this last provision.
The court may name a sole arbiter, where provision is made for one only and the parties cannot agree (Arbitration [Scotland] Act 1894, s.
50, a provision is introduced whereby parties to an action in the supreme court may refer judicially any issue for trial to one, three, five or seven persons, who shall sit as a jury, and decide by a majority.
Ample provision is made in America for the arbitration of labour disputes.
In Portugal, provision has been made for the creation in important industrial centres, on the application of the administrative corporations, of boards of conciliation (decrees of the 14th of August 1889, and the 18th of May 1893).
Most commonly the engineer has to attach great importance to the question of cost, and to design his structure to secure the greatest economy consistent with the provision of adequate strength.
Provision is made for longitudinal expansion due to change of temperature, for distortion due to the sun acting on one side of the structure, and for the wind acting on one side of the bridge.
In spite of careful provision, much difficulty was experienced in making the connexion at the crown, from the expansion due to temperature changes.
In manufacturing districts and near large towns loads of 30 tons may come on road bridges, and county and borough authorities insist on provision being made for such loads.
Ep. 24), the provision being presumably secured by a yearly charge on state and municipal lands.
With regard to the latter, however, the requirements of industry were studied to a certain extent, in that the withdrawal of money from the banks was allowed, so far as it was necessary for paying wages and for the provision of working capital.
So soon as State control was applied to any article it could be taken as a sign that the supplies would soon come to an end, or at any rate were very restricted; and thus it was impossible to prevent the equipment of the army from becoming gradually more inadequate, and the provision both of the army and of the population behind the lines with all kinds of necessaries from being altogether insufficient; only wholly unsatisfactory substitutes could be provided, and the available provisions could hardly be made to go round.
Its main object was ecclesiastical reform, but the provision that a copy of Magna Carta should be hung in all cathedral and collegiate churches seemed to the king a political action, and parliament declared void any action of this council touching on the royal power.
On the occasion of the coming of age of the queen's sons and the marriages of her daughters parliament made provision.
Attempts to secure the repeal of this provision have been unsuccessful.
The minimum school term allowed by law is six Before the law passed by the first Legislative Assembly of the state to carry out this provision could come into effect, it was partially annulled by the decision of the United States Supreme Court in the case of Leisy v.
These negotiations bore important fruit in the Anglo-French convention of 1896, the chief provision of which was the neutralization by the contracting parties of the central portion of Siam, consisting of the basin of the river Menam, with its rich and fertile land, which contains most of the population and the.
Private sacrifices, too, could hardly be offered without some priestly aid now that ritual was more complex; the provision of Deut.
Maurice, however, made generous provision for his brother Augustus, and the desire to compensate him still further was one of the minor threads of his subsequent policy.
Special provision is made in the Constitutional Charter of the republic (in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of St.
'Nevertheless, some provision was made for negotiations with foreign countries by establishing a minimum tariff, with rates lower than those of the general or maximum tariff, the rates of this minimum tariff being applicable to countries which might make concessions to France.
Among these the provision of public libraries in the United States and United Kingdom (and similarly in other English-speaking countries) was especially prominent, and "Carnegie libraries" gradually sprang up on all sides, his method being to build and equip, but only on condition that the local authority provided site and maintenance, and thus to secure local interest and responsibility.
The state makes an annual provision for the stipends of the clergy, for the maintenance of fabrics and for other ecclesiastical needs.
Although the legislature had made no provision for furniture and decoration, the state Board of Public Grounds and Buildings (governor, auditor-general and treasurer) undertook to complete the furnishing and decoration of the building within the stipulated time, and paid out for that purpose more than $8,600,000.
There is no provision for a general periodic assessment, but a state tax commissioner appointed by the governor, treasurer and comptroller assesses the corporations, and the county commissioners (in the counties) and the appeal tax court (in the city of Baltimore) revise valuations of real property every two years.
A constitutional provision makes each stockholder in a state bank liable to the amount of his share or shares for all the bank's debts and liabilities.
The provision for the instruction of the European and Jewish population was also inadequate.
The well-established doctrine that the House of Lords could not amend, though it might reject, a money-bill, coupled with the fact that it never had gone so far as to reject a budget, was relied on by the extremists as dictating the obvious party tactics; and before the year 1909 opened, the possibility of the Lords being driven to compel a dissolution by standing on their extreme rights as regards the financial provision for the year was already canvassed in political circles, though it was hardly credited that the government would precipitate a constitutional crisis of such magnitude.
The state makes provision for revenue for school purposes as follows: (1) the interest on the Bond of the Commonwealth for $1,327,000 00; (2) dividends on 798 shares of the capital stock of the Bank of Kentucky - representing a par value of $79,800.00; (3) the interest at 6% on the Bond of the Commonwealth for $381,986.08, which is a perpetual obligation in favour of the several counties; (4) the interest at 6% on $606,641.03, which was received from the United States; (5) the annual tax of 262 cents on each $100 of value of all real and personal estate and corporate franchises directed to be assessed for taxation; (6) a certain portion of fines, forfeitures and licences realized by the state; and (7) a portion of the dog taxes of each county.
In 1886 the widow of Henry Draper, one of the pioneers of stellar spectroscopy, made a liberal provision for carrying on spectroscopic investigations at Harvard College in memory of her husband.
In his view, Nature has made provision for social wellbeing by the principle of the human constitution which prompts every man to better his condition: the individual aims only at his private gain, but is "led by an invisible hand" to promote the public good; human institutions, by interfering with this principle in the name of the public interest, defeat their own end; but, when all systems of preference or restraint are taken away, "the obvious and simple system of natural liberty establishes itself of its own accord."
Melbourne has numerous state schools, and ample provision is made for secondary education by the various denominations and by private enterprise.
The Jesuits themselves deny the existence of any such body, and are able to adduce the negative disproof that no provision for it is to be found in their constitutions.
A source of abundant discord was opened by the provision that each state should contribute its quota to the Federal revenues.
A radical revision of the constitution is rendered especially difficult by a provision that ma amendment proposed by a convention shall be adopted without the approval of two-thirds of the electors who vote on the subject when it is referred to them.
By an act approved on the 9th of April 1909 provision was made for direct nominations of candidates at primaries conducted by regular election officers.
The corporation has shown some concern for the housing of the poor, and an extensive scheme taken up in 1904 included the provision of cottage dwellings in the suburbs, as at Clontarf, besides improvements within the city itself.
The simple offering of food or shedding of blood at the grave develops into an elaborate system of sacrifice; even where ancestor-worship is not found, the desire to provide the dead with comforts in the future life may lead to the sacrifice of wives, slaves, animals, &c., to the breaking or burning of objects at the grave or to the provision of the ferryman's toll, a coin put in the mouth of the corpse to pay the travelling expenses of the soul.
Moreover, special provision had been made in the Constitutional Act of 1791 for the liberal endowment of the Protestant religion, then identified in the official mind with the Church of England, through what were afterwards known as the Clergy Reserves, being one-seventh of the lands of the new townships opened for settlement.
He took much interest in the educational affairs of the province, and in 1807 was instrumental in having provision made for the establishment of the first grammar schools.
During his second visit to England in1826-1827he obtained a royal charter for the university of King's College, with provision for its endowment out of the crown lands.
After several strong appeals and counter-appeals to the British government, the Canadian parliament was allowed to deal as it pleased with the question, with the result that the Reserves were completely secularized in 1854, provision being made for the life-interest of the beneficiaries at the time.
This importance is shown by the fact that, in the peace of Nicias (421 B.C.), its restoration to Athens is made the subject of a special provision, and that about 4 17, this provision not having been observed, at least one expedition was made by Nicias with a view to its recovery.
The senatorial recommendation of jhe necessary number of candidates seems to have been merely ratified in the comitia; and a Spanish municipal law of the 1st century makes special provision for occasions on which an insufficient number of candidates are forthcoming.
In the municipalities, as in Rome, provision was made out of the public funds for feeding the poorest part of the population, and providing a supply of corn which could be bought by ordinary citizens at a moderate price.
The ostensible objects of nearly all such collegia of which we have any knowledge were twofold, the maintenance of the worship of some god, and provision for the performance of proper funerary rights for its members.
(5) The Elizabethan Act of Uniformity contained a provision that at the universities the public services, with the exception of the Eucharist, might be in a language other than English; and in 1560 there appeared a Latin version of the Prayer-Book, issued under royal letters patent, in which there was a rubric prefixed to the Order for the Communion of the Sick, based on that in the first Prayer-Book of Edward VI.
Since 1850, however, provision has been made on an ample scale for their collection, although the constant modifications of the schedules under which the statistics were arranged makes very difficult comparisons of the latest with the earlier censuses.
The Senate rules have no provision for the closure of debate, nor any limitation on the length either of a debate or of a speech.
To this officer was committed the provision of the monks' daily food, as well as that of the guests.
Provision has also been made for rendering the sector buoyant by forcing air into it, so that it can be raised when the head of water is insufficient to lift it by the pressure of the water from the upper pool.
The guarantee of the imperial government made easy the provision Nova Scotia question.
Provision was made in the British North America Act to receive new provinces into the Dominion.
The constitution of 1875 abolished the one-fifth revenue provision, made the support of the schools, except that derived from the land grant of 1819, and poll taxes, depend upon the appropriation of the legislature, and established separate schools for whites and blacks.
Though deeply mortified at the loss of the command, Wellesley in his devotion to duty moved the troops on his own responsibility from Trincomalee to Bombay, from the conviction that, if they were to be of any use in Egypt, it was absolutely necessary that they should provision at Bombay without delay.
Moreover, they were so absorbed in the expectation of the speedy return of Christ that they did not feel called to make provision for the instruction of subsequent generations.
The procedure on trial of petitions is substantially the same, and wherever no other provision is made by the acts or rules the procedure on the trial of parliamentary election petitions is to be followed.
This provision has been successful in reducing the number of Japanese coming to the mainland from Hawaii.
If the lord was a king this provision took the form of a grant, perhaps normally ten hides, from the royal lands.
In the Kentish laws provision is made for widows to receive a proportionate share in their husbands' property.
They had been taught to observe the sacraments and naturally desired that provision should be made for their administration in their own chapels.
His temporal sovereignty he attempted to strengthen through his family connexions, and magnificent provision in general was made for the members of his house.
Statutory provision has been made in England for the summoning of expert assistance by the legal tribunals in various cases.
103), and special provision is made for calling in an assessor in employers' liability cases (act of 1880, s.
3); a like provision is made as to maritime causes in Scottish courts (Nautical Assessors [Scotland] Act 1894).
The Australian or " Massachusetts " ballot, adopted in 1891 under a law which fails to require personal registration, by a provision like that in Nebraska makes it easy to vote a straight ticket; party names are arranged on the ballot according to the number of votes secured by each party at the last preceding election.
To avoid the possibility of metropolitan domination provision is made that no city or county shall be entitled to more than one-sixth of the total number of senators.
secured by the provision that each elector shall vote for one less than the number of judges to be chosen at each election.
1 The constitution of 1873 made provision for minority representation as follows: " Whenever two judges of the supreme court are At present supreme court judges serve for twenty-one years and are ineligible for re-election.
The object of the provision, however, has been in a large measure nullified by the system of city classification, under which Philadelphia is the only city of the first class.
After the proprietors subscribed £5000 for the protection of the colony the assembly momentarily gave up its contest for a tax on the proprietary estates and consented to pass a money bill, without this provision, for the expenses of the war.
The provision last mentioned was nullified by the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the constitution of the United States.
Further, Pope Pius confined the functions of the chancery to the sending out of bulls under the leaden seal (sub plumbo), for the erection of dioceses, the provision of bishoprics and consistorial benefices, and other affairs of importance, these bulls being sent out by order of the Consistorial Congregation.
It began by relating how the existing state of lawlessness was due to the malign influence exercised by the Irish over the English, and, like Magna Carta, its first positive provision declared that the church should be free.
Operations were pushed on vigorously during the war, and a special Act of Parliament was passed in 1915 to facilitate the provision of dwelling-houses for Admiralty employees.
These wasps, moreover, also provision their nurseries with caterpillars, grasshoppers and other insects.
Against invasion it furnished a permanent provision both in men-at-arms and strongholds; nor was it unsuited for the campaigns of neighbouring counts and barons which lasted for only a few weeks, and extended over only a few leagues.
In 1805 another alteration was effected by the provision that the lineal descendants of George II.
"There are many souls not good enough to dispense with this provision, and not bad enough to be benefited by it" (op. cit.
Plant houses must be as far as possible impervious to wet and cold air from the exterior, provision at the same time being made for ventilation, while the escape of warm air from the interior must also be under control.
When repotting is adopted as a temporary expedient, as in the case of bedding-out plants which it is required to push forward as much as possible, it will suffice if provision is made to prevent the drainage hole from getting blocked, and a rich light compost is provided for the encouragement of the roots.
On the formation of the Senate he was appointed a member of that body, with an ample provision and the title of count of Pelusium; but on the fall of Napoleon he was deprived of all his honours, and even excluded from the list of members of the reconstituted Institute.
Since 1871 Bavaria has shared to the full in the marvellous development of Germany; but her "particularism," founded on traditional racial and religious antagonism to the Prussians, was by no means dead, though it exhibited itself in no more dangerous form than the prohibition, reissued in 1900, to display any but the Bavarian flag on public buildings on the emperor's birthday; a provision which has been since so far modified as to allow the Bavarian and imperial flags to be hung side by side.
Provision is made for paying the councillors a certain fee - called presence-money " - when required.
The large powers granted to the king under the new constitution displeased the Liberals, who saw in its provision only a disguised form of personal government.
Provision has now been made for the service of this foreign debt, and the authorities have been able regularly to meet the service of the coupons.
In some ferns, however, there seems to be a provision for indefinite terminal growth, while in others this, growth is periodically interrupted.
On the other hand, the provision of regular support for the priests and Levites, the ministers of the public ritual, was now all important, and received special attention from Ezra and Nehemiah (Neh.
Statutory provision is also made for allowing tithes and tithe rent charge to be exchanged for land, and for the redemption of rent charges made under the acts, and also of corn rents under the local acts.
Special provision is made for the recovery of the rent charge in railway lands.
Provision was made by statute after the fire of London for certain annual tithes to be paid in parishes whose churches had been destroyed, and there have been local acts from time to time with regard to particular parishes therein.
He appears to have had an illegitimate daughter for whom he made generous provision.
For this purpose it was fixed that there should be an annual provision of Rx.i,50o,000, to be spent on: (1) relief, (2) protective works, (3) reduction of debt.
Ample provision is made for scientific collections of all kinds in almost all places of any importance, either at the public expense or through private munificence.
To meet this a further law was passed in the Prussian parliament, forbidding the exercise of ecclesiastical offices by unauthorized persons, and it contained a provision that any one who had been convicted, under the law could be deprived of his rights of citizenship, ordered to live in a particular district, or even expelled from the kingdom.
Baron von Ketteler, archbishop of Mainz, had maintained that it was the duty of the state to secure working men work and provision during sickness and old age.
A further provision empowered the Bundesrat to fix the hours of labor in unhealthy trades; this was applied to the bakeries by an edict of 1895, but the great outcry which this caused prevented any further extension.
In 1316 the prior of Tywardreath, as lord of the manor, obtained the right to hold a Monday market and two fairs on the feasts of St Finbar and St Lucy, but by the charter of 1690 provision was made for a Saturday market and three fairs, on the 1st of May, 10th of September and Shrove Tuesday, and only these three continue to be held.
Municipal ownership does not prevail to any extent, and in the larger cities the powers of certain great corporations have tended to cause friction, but such matters as the provision of electric power and light are gradually being taken in hand both by the municipalities and by the province, and a railway and municipal board appointed by the local legislature has certain powers over the railways and electric tramlines.
Genoa is also well supplied with technical schools and other institutions for higher education, while ample provision is made for primary education.
The discontent created at the time by the provision of the treaty of Paris as confirmed by the congress of Vienna had doubtless no slight share in keeping alive in Genoa the republican spirit which, through the influence of a young Genoese citizen, Joseph Mazzini, assumed forms of permanent menace not only to the Sardinian monarchy but to all the established governments of the peninsula.
The government, however, in 1880 declared Slovenian a customary language, so that provision had to be made in public offices and law courts for dealing with business in Slovenian.
Under the supreme dominion of Rome even the unprivileged cities kept their own laws, magistrates and assemblies, provision being made for suits between Romans and Sicilians and between Sicilians of different cities (Verr.
Statutory provision for the prevention of cruelty to those who are unable to protect themselves has been particularly marked in the 19th century.
The act of 1849 also forbids bulland bearbaiting, or fighting between any kinds of animals; requires the provision of food and water to animals impounded; lays down regulations as to the treatment of animals sent for slaughter, and imposes a penalty for improperly conveying animals.
This has been the case from time immemorial, and the provision, in 1869, of direct maritime communication between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, by the completion of the Suez Canal, ensured for the Egyptian route the supremacy in sea-borne traffic to Asia, which the discovery of the passage to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope had menaced for three and a half centuries.
This vizier had the astuteness to see the necessity of codifying the doctrines of the Ftimites, and himself undertook this task; in the newly-established mosque of el-Azhar he got his master to make provision for a perpetual series of teachers and students of his manual.
A more reputable expedient with the same end in view was the construction of a great library in Cairo, with ample provision for students; this was mpdelled on a similar institution at Bagdad.
The jurisdiction exercised by consuls in civil and criminal affairs Lord Cromer proposed should cease pan passu with the provision by the Egyptian government, under the powers conferred by the treaty required to set up the new council, of courts having competence to deal with such matters, various safeguards being introduced to prevent injustice in criminal cases.
At the first of these assemblies held at Nyborg, Midsummer Day 1314, the bishops and councillors solemnly promised that the commonalty should enjoy all the ancient rights and privileges conceded to them by Valdemar II., and the wise provision that the Danehof should meet annually considerably strengthened its authority.
was not left absolutely his own master; for the provision regarding a Recess, or new constitution, showed plainly enough that such a constitution was expected, and, once granted, would of course have limited the royal power.
His next move was to attempt to detach Sweden from France; but, Sweden showing not the slightest inclination for a rapprochement, Denmark was compelled to accede to the anti-French league, which she did by the treaty of Copenhagen, of January 1674, thereby engaging to place an army of 20,000 in the field when required; but here again Griffenfeldt safeguarded himself to some extent by stipulating that this provision was not to be operative till the allies were attacked by a fresh enemy.
The primary idea of sepulture appears to have been the provision of a habitation for the dead; and thus, in its perfect form, the barrow included a chamber or chambers where the tenant was surrounded with the prized possessions of his previous life.
He also established an arsenal and a factory of arms. But all this provision was to no purpose.
He entered the business of his uncle, an export provision merchant in Waterford, in 1779 and succeeded him in 1790.
The instructions given to them by the emperor were as follows: - they were to procure and peruse all the writings of all the authorized jurists (those who had enjoyed the jus respondendi); were to extract from these writings whatever was of most permanent and substantial value, with power to change the expressions of the author wherever conciseness or clearness would be thereby promoted, or wherever such a change was needed in order to adapt his language to the condition of the law as it stood in Justinian's time; were to avoid repetitions and contradictions by giving only one statement of the law upon each point; were to insert nothing at variance with any provision contained in the Codex constitutionum; and were to distribute the results of their labours into fifty books, subdividing each book into titles, and following generally the order of the Perpetual Edict.2 These directions were carried out with a speed which is surprising when we remember not only that the work was interrupted by the terrible insurrection which broke out in Constantinople in January 532, and which led to the temporary retirement from office of Tribonian, but also that the mass of literature which had to be read through consisted of no less than two thousand treatises, comprising three millions of sentences.
Another section declared non-mailable all written or printed matter which violated any provision of the Espionage Act.
A parliamentary commission was appointed in 1881 to investigate the causes of the disastrous subsidences which are constantly taking place in all the salt districts, and the provision of a remedy.
In the latter case there is no legal subdivision of the older diocese, the new bishop administering such districts as belonged to it under commission from its bishop, provision being made, however, that in all matters ecclesiastical there shall be no appeal but to the metropolitan of India.
That it was the founder's intention to establish a great public school upon the model of Westminster and St Paul's, with provision for university training, is shown by the statutes; but for more than two centuries the educational benefits of God's Gift College were restricted to the twelve poor scholars.
Special provision for vegetative multiplication is not common among Chlorophyceae.
The elaborate provision for the conduct of water from part to part which has played so important its allies, nor is it known in the whole of the Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.
The occurrence of a plentiful mucilage in many freshwater forms is, however, doubtless a provision against desiccation on exposure.
The fine subdivision of filamentous and net-forms is similarly a provision for easy access of water and light to all parts.
Rome thus lay at his mercy, but he wasted time, and the Romans were able to occupy and provision the Capitol (though they had not sufficient forces to defend their walls) and to send their women and children to Veii.
19-22), the provision of water for the army of Jehoshaphat in the arid desert (iii.
The captions and headings in this Agreement are inserted only as a matter of convenience, and in no way define, limit or in any other way described the scope of this Agreement or the intent of any provision hereof.
A unique provision for its upkeep out of Imperial funds dates from the reign of Charles II.
The various religious secessions in Scotland led to the founding of a large number of sectarian and subscription schools, and at the Disruption in 1843 the Free Church made provision for the secular as well as the religious instruction of the children of its members.
It should be noted that, according to Scottish usage, police " includes drainage, the suppression of nuisances, paving, lighting and cleansing, in addition to the provision of a constabulary force, and that in point of fact, paradoxical as it appears, the bulk of the police burghs do not manage their police.
The Book of Discipline and the Book of Common Order express Knox's ideals, which, as far as they were noble, as in the matter of education and of provision for the poor, remained, in part or in whole, " devout imaginations."
He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1787, and on the 29th of May presented the "Virginia plan" (sometimes called the "Randolph plan").1 In the Convention Randolph advocated a strongly centralized government, the prohibition of the importation of slaves, and a plural executive, suggesting that there should be three executives from different parts of the country, and refused to sign the constitution because too much power over commerce was granted to a mere majority in Congress, and because no provision was made for a second convention to act after the present instrument had been referred to the states.
Under this provision in the Cape province natives and other non-white races possess the provincial franchise.
The term of senators is four years, that of representatives two years; and in the election of representatives since 1870 there has been a provision for "minority" representation, under which by cumulative voting each voter may cast as many votes for one candidate as there are representatives to be chosen, or he may distribute his votes (giving three votes to one candidate, or 12 votes each to two candidates, or one vote each to three candidates), the candidate or candidates receiving the highest number of votes being elected.
In executing it, however, he took care to make the terms as advantageous for England as possible, with express provision that the Spaniards should in nowise be allowed to interfere in the government of the country.
By an act passed in 1898, of which the provisions came into force in 1900, the university of London was reconstituted as a teaching university, although provision was made for the continuance of the system of examinations by " external examiners " for " external students," together with " internal examinations " for " internal students," in which the teachers and the external examiners of the university are associated.
Lights and Buoys.-In view of the difficulties attending navigation in the Gulf, and the impossibility of arranging with the Governments of the littoral for the provision of lights and buoys except on terms which would have greatly hampered shipping, the British Government, in view of the great preponderance of British shipping in the Gulf, has established since 1912 a very complete system of lights and buoys, the cost of which is shared in equal moieties by the Government of India and H.M.
In 1562 an act of parliament had made provision for translating the Bible into Welsh, and the New Testament was issued in 1567; but the number printed would barely supply a copy for each parish church.
For earthly needs no thought is to be taken: the birds and the flowers make no provision for their life and beauty.
Up to 1921 an annual grant of £1,000 was the only contribution of the Government to education; no provision was made for the instruction of white children.
The scheme adopted breathed the spirit of the Renaissance; provision was made for the teaching of Greek, Erasmus lauded the institution and Pole was one of its earliest fellows.
The last provision meant that the growing Protestantism was to be fought by harrassing litigation - nicht fechten sondern rechten was the phrase.
According to the Indian conception, these belts could tell by means of an interpreter the exact rule, provision or transaction talked into them at the time and of which they were the exclusive record.
The result was that Maurice made more generous provision for his brother, who acted as regent of Saxony in 1552 during the absence of the elector.
This provision was defeated in 1784, but was adopted in 1787 for the north-western territory - a step which is very often said to have saved the Union in the Civil War; the south-western territory (out of which were later formed Mississippi, Alabama, &c.) being given over to slavery.
Provision for the poor is often made by the community.
The opium, known as " provision opium," is manufactured in government factories at Patna and Ghazipur, and sold by auction at Calcutta for export to China.
Husbandry depended on the periodical rains; and forecasts of the weather, with a view to " make adequate provision against a coming deficiency," formed a special duty of the Brahmans.
The general plan and the adequate provision of resources were due to the marquis Wellesley, as also the indomitable spirit that could not anticipate defeat.
The kindness of friends, however, supplied provision for his children, and enabled him to carry out the long-cherished wish of visiting some of his philosophical allies.
Though much has been done to make the town sanitary, including the provision of a good water-supply, the death-rate is generally over 44 per 1000.
Germany has embarked on penitentiary reforms with the provision of several new prisons; it is the same with the United States, Austria, Holland, Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Norway, Sweden.
Five classes of law courts were established, and provision was made for appeals in both civil and criminal cases.
Among reforms not specifically referred to may be mentioned the improvement of coastwise navigation, the provision of posts, roads, railways, public buildings, hospitals and sanitary works, and the official advancement of industries.
In connexion with the college there is provision for graduate study and for night courses, and there are teachers' courses to which women are admitted.
The governor holds office for two years; he has the pardoning and veto power, but his veto may be overridden by a simple majority in each house of the whole number elected to that house (a provision unusual among the state constitutions of the Union).
A majority of the members elected to each of the two houses suffices to propose a constitutional amendment, which the people may then accept by a mere majority of all votes cast at an election for the legislature (an unusually democratic provision); no more than three amendments, however, can be proposed or submitted at the same time.
Elections of members of the state legislature and of Congress are not held at the same time - a very unusual provision.
Notable was the innovation that agreement by threefourths of a jury should be sufficient in civil cases and that a jury might be waived in minor criminal cases, a provision which of course was based on experience under the Mexican law.
The McKinley Bill reduced revenues by its high and in many cases almost prohibitive duties; it put sugar on the free list with a discriminating duty of 30th of one cent a pound on sugar imported from countries giving a bounty for sugar exported, and it gave bounties to American sugar growers; it attempted to protect many "infant" industries such as the manufacture of tin-plate; under its provision for reciprocal trade agreements (a favourite project of James G.
The Constitution, which continued the Territorial provision of full suffrage for women, met the approval of Congress, and on the 10th of July 1890 Wyoming was formally admitted as a state.
per hour, but in modern instruments provision is generally made for the time scale to be increased at will to 180 mm.
When, by the 4th article of the treaty of Fredrikshavn (Friedrichshamn), 5/17 September 1809, the islands were ceded to Russia, together with the territories forming the grand-duchy of Finland on the mainland, the Swedes were unable to secure a provision that the islands should not be fortified.
And yet in an ordinary policy of insurance there is no express provision requiring the underwriter to indemnify the assured against this liability.
provision was made; and Napoleon refused to tolerate the presence of unsalaried clerics on whom the government had no hold.
The Roman Catholic Charities Act 1860 enables the court to separafe a lawful charitable trust from any part of the estate subject to any trust or provision deemed to be superstitious.
2 His will contained a provision freeing his slaves, and a request that no oration be pronounced at his funeral.
The Constitution of Colorado declares the waters of its streams the property of the state, and a great body of irrigation law and practice has grown up about this provision.
Helsingfors was without tramcars, cabs, gas and electricity; no shops except provision shops were open; public departments, schools and restaurants were closed.
Thus the amount and character of public ex penditure necessarily depends on the functions that the state undertakes to perform - national defence, the maintenance of internal' order, and the efficient equipment of the state organization; such are the tasks that all governments have to discharge, and for their cost due provision has to be made.
The prohibition of export of corn was an economic rather than a financial provision.
The confederacy of Delos made provision for the collection of a revenue (46pos) from the members of the league, which was employed at first for defence against Persian aggression, but afterwards was at the disposal of Athens as the ruling state.
A noble scheme of education was sketched for the whole country, but neither this nor the provision made for ministers' stipends was carried out, the revenues of the old church, from which the expenses of both were to be paid, being in the hands of the barons.
Under a convention signed at Constantinople on the 4th of June 1878, Great Britain engaged to join the sultan of Turkey in defending his Asiatic possessions (in certain contingencies) against Russia, and the sultan, " in order to enable England to make necessary provision for executing her engagement," consented to assign the island of Cyprus to be occupied and administered by England.
A separate act on behalf of Welsh education was likewise passed in 1889, when the Welsh Intermediate Education Act made special provision for intermediate and technical education throughout the Principality and Monmouthshire.
This Commission was authorized to " inquire into the origin, nature, amount and application of the temporalities, endowments and other; properties of the Church of England in Wales and Monmouthshire; and into the provision made and the work done by the Churches of all denominations in Wales and Monmouthshire for the spiritual welfare of the people, and the extent to which the people avail themselves of such provision."
Laws must be adjusted from time to time to meet changing needs, and new necessities naturally arose in the Greek and Roman period for which the older codes and usages made no provision.
As a means of preserving harmony the Philadelphia Confession of Faith, a Calvinistic document, with provision against too rigid a construction, was adopted and a step was thus taken toward harmonizing with the "Regular" Baptists of the Philadelphia type.
Provision for circulation of solution is made in the systems of copper-refining now in use.
Contracts between private individuals are of course within the provision.
On the other hand, marriage and divorce, and arrangements which are political in their nature, such as charters of municipal corporations, licences to carry on particular trades or regulations of police are not within the provision.
Private railways are controlled by the regulations of the board, while a joint traffic union has as its object the provision of uniformity of administration, tariff, &c. The government has made grants towards the construction of some of the private lines, and has in a few cases taken over such lines.
In the north vast quantities of timber are floated down the great rivers, and the lesser streams are used as floating-ways by the provision of flumes and dams. The millowners either own forests, or lease the right of cutting, or buy the timber when cut, in the Crown or private forests.
No measure could now become law till it had obtained the assent of three at least of the four estates; but this provision, which seems to have been designed to protect the lower orders against the nobility, produced evils far greater than those which it professed to cure.
Another provision, which in spite of all opposition obtained a permanent place in English law, declared that all suits even between clerk and clerk concerning advowsons and presentations should be tried in the king's court.
by Muzaffar-ud-Din Shah, Mahommed Ali Mirza (his successor) and the grand vizir, on the 3oth of December 1906, deals with the rescript of the 5th of August, states the powers and duties of the national council and makes provision for the regulation of its general procedure by the council itself.
When the police was put on a more complete footing and the area enlarged, provision was made for the more effectual administration of justice by the magistrates of the metropolis (Metropolitan Police Courts Act 1839).
Many representatives objected to the provision placing the supreme power in the hands of a single person and of parliament, a discussion which was futile, as clause XII.
The thickening of the epidermis in the hands and feet, which occurs from constant use, is nature's provision for meeting the extra wear to which these parts are subjected by much use; but pressure is apt to cause the defensive process to be carried too far, and to lead to corns, which give rise to much pain and annoyance.
The presence of both nominated and elected members in the Senate is a novel provision in the constitution of the upper chambers of British colonial legislatures.
If a bill passed by the Assembly has been twice rejected by the Senate, provision is made for a joint sitting of both houses, when members vote and decide upon the measure concerned as one body.
' It was not until the time of Ryk Tulbagh (governor of the colony, 1751-1771) that the Chamber of Seventeen permitted foreign ships to provision at Table Bay.
Among the other decisions of the convention were: the choice of Pretoria as the seat of administration anti of Cape Town as the seat of the legislature, the renaming the Orange River Colony, Orange Free State Province; the provision of three membered constituencies and of proportional representation and the safe-guarding of the smaller communities by giving Natal and the Orange River colonies more members of parliament than they were entitled to on the voters basis.
The agreement was to last ten years, and provision was made for its recognition by the government of the Union.
The convention parliament had been dissolved on the 2 9 th of December 1660, and Charles's first parliament, the Long Parliament of the Restoration, which met on the 8th of May 1661 and continued till January 1679, declared the command of the forces inherent in the crown, repudiated the taking up of arms against the king, and repealed in 1664 the Triennial Act, adding only a provision that there should not be intermission of parliaments for more than three years.
Sec. 16 contains a provision empowering the chief governor and privy council of Ireland by a proclamation under the great seal of Ireland to suspend the act during such time only as there shall be an actual invasion or rebellion in Ireland; and it is enacted that during the currency of the proclamation no judge or justices shall bail or try any person charged with being concerned in the rebellion or invasion without an order from the lord lieutenant or lord deputy and senior of the privy council.
Under a Scots act of 1701 (c. 6) provision is made for preventing wrongous imprisonment and against undue delay in trials.
It is recognized that the great fertility of fishes is nature's provision to meet a high mortality - greater in sea-fishes with minute pelagic eggs than in fresh-water fishes with larger-yolked eggs, partly because of the greater risks of marine pelagic life, and partly because of the greater delicacy of marine larvae at the time of hatching.
Provision is made for filling the mains with salt water from the bay if necessary in fighting fire.
Although Bolivia has a free and compulsory school system, education and the provision for education have made little progress.
CONSUL, a public officer authorized by the state whose commission he bears to manage the commercial affairs of its subjects in a foreign country, and formally permitted by the government of the country wherein he resides to perform the duties which are specified in his commission, or lettre de provision.
A homestead provision (1901) exempts from liability for debts (except mortgages or liens placed before the homestead claim) any homestead belonging to the head of a family, existing in one compact body and valued at not more than $2500; such a homestead a married man may not sell, lease or put a lien on without his wife's consent.
"The rubrics as retained from the Book of Geneva made provision for an extempore prayer before the sermon, and allowed the minister some latitude in the other two prayers.
Profiting by this experience, the framers of the constitution of 1850 inserted a provision in that document whereby no general banking law can have effect until it has been submitted to the people and has been approved by a majority of the votes cast on the question.
This provision is included in the revised constitution adopted in 1908, with an additional provision that no amendment shall be made to any banking law unless it shall receive an affirmative two-thirds vote of both branches of the legislature.
Provision opium manufactured for' export, and Excise or Akbari opium intended for local consumption in India.
The two most important works undertaken by the old municipality were the provision of a supply of filtered water and the construction of a main drainage system.
In the field, armies lived as a rule in camp (q.v.), and when the provision of canvas shelter was impossible in bivouac. At the present time, however, it is unusual, in Europe at any rate, for troops on active service to hamper themselves with the enormous trains of tent wagons that would be required, and cantonments or bivouacs, or a combination of the two have therefore taken the place, in modern warfare, of the old long rectilinear lines of tents that marked the restingplace and generally, too, the order of battle of an 18th-century army.
In order to attract immigrants, the proprietors in February 1665 published their " Concession and Agreement," by which they made provision for a governor, a governor's council, and an assembly chosen by the freemen and having the power to levy taxes.
The New Jersey plan left its impress in the provision of the Constitution (approved in the Convention on the 7th of July) for equal representation in the national Senate.
For the most part this is founded on Dutch models, and testifies in a high degree to the king's progressive aims. Provision was made for the better education of the lower, and the restriction of the political influence of the higher clergy; there were stern prohibitions against wreckers and "the evil and unchristian practice of selling peasants as if they were brute beasts"; the old trade gilds were retained, but the rules of admittance thereto made easier, and trade combinations of the richer burghers, to the detriment of the smaller tradesmen, were sternly forbidden.
The entrance to the harbour was guarded by two blockhouses; provision was made for barracks and garrison stores; buildings were erected for the legislature; and there the members of parliament, summoned by royal proclamation to "meet us in our provincial parliament in our town of York," assembled on the 1st of June 1797.
The father seems to have been an energetic, visionary man, who, dying while his only son was a little lad, left to his family no better provision than a lawsuit against the municipality of the town of Aix It was at Aix, which figures as Plassans in so many of his novels, that the boy received the first part of his education.
Protestantism, indeed, since the Act of Settlement in 1689, has been of the essence of the Constitution, the sovereign forfeiting his or her crown ipso facto by acknowledging the authority of the pope, by accepting " the Romish religion," or by marrying a Roman Catholic; and though of late years efforts have been made to modify or to abrogate this provision, the fact that such efforts have met with widespread opposition shows that it still represents the general attitude of the British nation.
The inland navigation system suffers from a want of uniformity in the size of locks, depth of water, width of channels and other arrangements, so that direct intercommunication between one canal and another is often impossible in consequence; moreover, although the canals, like railways, are owned by many separate bodies, hardly any provision has been made, as it has in the case of railways, for such facilities as the working of through traffic over various systems at an inclusive charge.
(4) Provision was made by the act of 1888 for including entirely within one administrative county each of such urban districts as were situated in more than one ancient county.
Elaborate provision is made for the distribution of the surplus (if any), with a view to securing a due share being paid to the quarter sessions boroughs.
The hundred rate is seldom made, though in some counties it may be made for purposes of main roads and bridges chargeable to the hundred as distinguished from the county at large; (ii.) the borrowing of money; (iii.) the passing of the accounts of, and the discharge of the county treasurer; (iv.) shire halls, county halls, assize courts, the judges' lodgings, lock-up houses, court houses, justices' rooms, police stations and county buildings, works and property; (v.) the licensing under any general act of houses and other places for music or for dancing, and the granting of licences under the Racecourses Licensing Act 1879; (vi.) the provision, enlargement, maintenance and management and visitation of, and other dealing with, asylums for pauper lunatics; (vii.) the establishment and maintenance of, and the contribution to, reformatory and industrial schools; (viii.) bridges and roads repairable with bridges, and any powers vested by the Highways and Locomotives Amendment Act 1878 in the county authority.
The committee are also charged with the duties of appointing or removing the clerk of the peace, and they have jurisdiction in matters relating to justices' clerks, the provision of accommodation for quarter sessions or justices out of session, and the like, and their expenses are paid by the county council out of the county fund.
Provision is made for the control of main roads in urban districts being retaine