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polarization

polarization

polarization Sentence Examples

  • Closely associated with the colour is the polarization of the light from the sky.

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  • In other directions the polarization becomes less and less complete as we approach the vertical.

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  • Of this nature are the neutral points, where the polarization changes character, observed by F.

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  • On the other hand, that the direction of complete polarization should be independent of the refracting power of the matter composing the cloud has been considered mysterious.

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  • It must be noticed, however, that the angle of maximum polarization would be about 76° instead of 90°.

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  • IIe was distinguished for his researches on polarization and on the artificial formation of minerals.

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  • In the early stages of the precipitation the polarization is complete in a perpendicular direction, and incomplete in oblique directions.

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  • This reverse electromotive force of polarization is produced in all electrolytes when the passage of the current changes the nature of the electrodes.

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  • Related to abnormalities of colour we may expect to find corresponding polarization effects.

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  • He also carried out many experiments in magneto-optics, and succeeded in showing, what Faraday had failed to detect, the rotation under the influence of magnetic force of the plane of polarization in certain gases and vapours.

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  • After an interval the polarization begins to be incomplete in the perpendicular direction, the light which reaches the eye when the nicol is set to minimum transmission being of a beautiful blue, much richer than anything that can be seen in the earlier stages.

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  • This is the moment to examine whether there is a more complete polarization in a direction somewhat oblique; and it is found that with 0 positive there is, in fact, a direction of more complete polarization, while with 0 negative the polarization is more imperfect than in the perpendicular direction itself.

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  • The polarization in a distinctly oblique direction, however, is not perfect, a feature for which more than one reas9n may be put forward.

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  • The fact that at this stage the polarization is a maximum, when the angle through which the light is turned exceeds a right angle, is the more worthy of note, as the opposite result would probably have been expected.

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  • He also engaged in work on magnetism, the polarization of light, phosphorescence and the absorption of light in crystals.

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  • Later still he engaged in the study of the relations between chemical constitution and rotation of the plane of polarization in a magnetic field, and enunciated a law expressing the variation of such rotation in bodies belonging to homologous series.

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  • The observed facts as to polarization are thus readily explained, and the general law connecting the intensity of the scattered light with the wave-length follows almost as easily from considerations of dimensions.

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  • So long as the particles are all very small in comparison with the wave-length, there is complete polarization in the perpendicular direction; but when the size is such that obliquity sets in, the degree of obliquity will vary with the size of the particles, and the polarization will be complete only on the very unlikely condition that the size is the same for them all.

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  • Hence there can be no reverse forces of polarization inside the liquid itself, such forces being confined to the surface of the electrodes.

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  • If we eliminate the polarization at the electrodes, it can be shown that an electrolyte possesses a definite electric resistance and therefore a definite conductivity.

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  • They agree very well with experiment, and require us to suppose that the vibrations are perpendicular to the plane of polarization.

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  • As regards the polarization of the dispersed light as dependent on the angle at which it is emitted, we find that although, when terms of the second order are included, the scattered light no longer vanishes in the same direction as before, the peculiarity is not lost but merely transferred to another direction.

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  • In the first place, with a given size of particles, the direction of complete polarization indicated by (23) is a function of the colour of the light, the value of 0 being 3 or 4 times as large for the violet as for the red end of the spectrum.

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  • If we begin with a blue glass, we may observe the gradually increasing obliquity of the direction of maximum polarization; and then by exchanging the blue glass for a red one, we may revert to the original condition of things, and observe the transition from perpendicularity to obliquity over again.

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  • But even with homogeneous light it would be unreasonable to expect an oblique direction of perfect polarization.

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  • The normal polarization at the zenith, as dependent upon the position of the sun, was the foundation of Sir C. Wheatstone's polar clock.

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  • A third class of electric wave detector depends upon the power of electric oscillations to annul the electrolytic polarization of electrodes of small surface immersed in an electrolyte.

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  • If, however, one electrode of this cell is connected to the earth and the other to a receiving antenna and electric waves allowed to fall on the antenna, the oscillations passing through the electrolytic cell will remove the polarization and L temporarily decrease the resistance of the cell.

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  • The most important subjects of his inquiries are enumerated by Forbes under the following five heads: - (1) The laws of polarization by reflection and refraction, and other quantitative laws of phenomena; (2) The discovery of the polarizing structure induced by heat and pressure; (3) The discovery of crystals with two axes of double refraction, and many of the laws of their phenomena, including the connexion of optical structure and crystalline forms; (4) The laws of metallic reflection; (5) Experiments on the absorption of light.

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  • He was especially interested in questions relating to the polarization of light, and his observations in this field, which gained him the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1840, laid the foundations of the polarimetric analysis of sugar.

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  • Only when the applied electromotive force exceeds this reverse force of polarization, will a permanent steady current pass through the liquid, and visible chemical decomposition proceed.

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  • It seems that this reverse electromotive force of polarization is due to the deposit on the electrodes of minute quantities of the products of chemical decomposition.

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  • To pass a steady current in the direction opposite to this electromotive force of polarization, the applied electromotive force E must exceed that of polarization E', and the excess E - E' is the effective electromotive force of the circuit, the current being, in accordance with Ohm's law, proportional to the applied electromotive force and represented by (E - E')/ R, where R is a constant called the resistance of the circuit.

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  • The opposing force of polarization is about 1.7 volt, but, when the plates are disconnected and used as a source of current, the electromotive force they give is only about 1.07 volt.

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  • The phenomena of polarization are thus seen to be due to the changes of surface produced, and are correlated with the differences of potential which exist at any surface of separation between a metal and an electrolyte.

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  • by determining the rotation of the plane of polarization of a solution, or, chemically, by taking advantage of its property of reducing alkaline copper solutions.

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  • Among other subjects at which he subsequently worked were the absorption of gases in blood (1837-1845), the expansion of gases by heat (1841-1844), the vapour pressures of water and various solutions (1844-1854), thermo-electricity (1851), electrolysis (1856), induction of currents (1858-1861), conduction of heat in gases (1860), and polarization of heat (1866-1868).

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  • These investigations, together with his discovery of the "wonderful phenomenon" of polarization, are recorded in his Traite de la lumiere, published at Leiden in 1690, but composed in 1678.

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  • The intensity of a field may be measured by the rotation of the plane of polarization of light passing in the direction of the magnetic force through a transparent substance.

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  • de Phys., Paris, 1900, p. 561) that the true effect of magnetization is liable to be disguised by secondary or parasitic phenomena, arising chiefly from polarization of the electrodes and from local variations in the concentration and magnetic condition of the electrolyte; these may be avoided by working with weak solutions, exposing only a small surface in a non-polar region of the metal, and substituting a capillary electrometer for the galvanometer generally used.

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  • Another was the magnetic rotation of the plane of polarization of light, which was effected in 1845, and for the first time established a relation between light and magnetism.

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  • But, without entering upon matters of this kind, we may inquire in what manner a primary wave may be resolved into elementary secondary waves, and in particular as to the law of intensity and polarization in a secondary wave as dependent upon its direction of propagation, and upon the character as regards polarization of the primary wave.

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  • The occurrence of sin 4 as a factor in (6) shows that the relative intensities of the primary light and of that diffracted in the direction B depend upon the condition of the former as regards polarization.

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  • (5), of polarized light are executed in a direction perpendicular to the plane of polarization.

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  • Antenna has several important parameters: resonant frequency,gain, impedance, aperture or radiation pattern, efficiency and bandwidth, polarization.

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  • - Polished metallic surfaces, like those of other solids, divide any incident ray into two parts, of which one is refracted while the other is reflected - with this difference, however, that the former is completely absorbed, and that the latter, in regard to polarization, is quite differently affected.

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  • four series of "Researches on Heat," in the course of which he described the polarization of heat by tourmaline, by transmission through a bundle of thin mica plates inclined to the transmitted ray, and by reflection from the multiplied surfaces of a pile of mica plates placed at the polarizing angle, and also its circular polarization by two internal reflections in rhombs of rock-salt.

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  • Clerk Maxwell demonstrated, however, that all electric charge or electrification of conductors consists simply in the establishment of a physical state in the surrounding insulator or dielectric, which state is variously called electric strain, electric displacement or electric polarization.

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  • Dielectric constant.-Since all electric charge consists in a state of strain or polarization of the dielectric, it is evident that the physical state and chemical composition of the insulator must be of great importance in determining electrical phenomena.

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  • Suppose that the dielectric has a constant K, then we must multiply both sides by K and the expression for the energy per unit of volume of the field is equivalent to z DE where D is the displacement or polarization in the dielectric.

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  • Tin amalgam is used for "silvering" mirrors, gold and silver amalgam in gilding and silvering, cadmium and copper amalgam in dentistry, and an amalgam of zinc and tin for the rubbers of electrical machines; the zinc plates of electric batteries are amalgamated in order to reduce polarization.

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  • le Blanc has shown, however, that the effect of ammonium amalgam on the magnitude of polarization of a battery is comparable with that of the amalgams of the alkali metals.

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  • A train of ideas which strongly impressed itself on Clerk Maxwell's mind, in the early stages of his theoretical views, was put forward by Lord Kelvin in 1858; he showed that the special characteristics of the rotation of the plane of polarization, discovered by Faraday in light propagated along a magnetic field, viz.

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  • It has in fact been found, with the very great precision of which optical experiment is capable, that all terrestrial optical phenomenareflexion, refraction, polarization linear and circular, diffraction - are entirely unaffected by the direction of the earth's motion, while the same result has recently been extended to electrostatic forces; and this is our main experimental clue.

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  • A dielectric substance is electrically polarized by a field of electric force, the atomic poles being made up of the displaced positive and negative intrinsic charges in the atom: the polarization per unit volume (f',g',h') may be defined on the analogy of magnetism, and d/dt(f',g',h') thus constitutes true electric current of polarization, i.e.

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  • The establishment and convection of a single polar atom constitutes in fact a quasi-magnetization, in addition to the polarization current as above defined, the negative poles completing the current circuits of the positive ones.

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  • 1 On subtracting from this total the current of establishment of polarization d/dtl (f',g',h) as formulated above, there remains vd/dx(f',g',h) as the current of convection of polarization when the convection is taken for simplicity to be in the direction of the axis of x with velocity v.

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  • The polarization itself is determined from the electric force (P,Q,R) by the usual statical formula of linear type which becomes tor an isotropic medium (.f',g',h') = c2(P,Q,R), because any change of the dielectric constant K arising from the convection of the material through the aether must be independent of the sign of v and therefore be of the second order.

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  • In 1871 he began to turn his attention to experimental physics, his earlier researches bearing upon the polarization of light and his later work upon the electrical discharge in rarefied gases.

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  • The polar clock, devised for use in place of a sun-dial, applies the fact that the plane of polarization of sky light is always 90° from the position of the sun; hence by measuring the azimuthal angle of the plane, even when the sun is below the horizon, correct apparent solar time may be obtained.

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  • The change of frequency of oscillation of radiating molecules placed in a magnetic field, which was discovered by P. Zeeman, and the observed polarization of the components, are all beautifully explained by the theory of H.

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  • A specimen of one of these heavy glasses afterwards became historically important as the substance in which Faraday detected the rotation of the plane of polarization of light when the glass was placed in the magnetic field, and also as the substance which was first repelled by the poles of the magnet.

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  • The first evidence which he obtained of the rotation of the plane of polarization of light under the action of magnetism was on the 13th of September 1845, the transparent substance being his own heavy glass.

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  • A paper published in 1809 ("Sur une propriete de la lumiere reflechie par les corps diaphanes") contained the discovery of the polarization of light by reflection, which is specially associated with his name, and in the following year he won a prize from the Institute with his memoir, "Theorie de la double refraction de la lumiere dans les substances cristallines."

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  • Fizeau he carried on a series of investigations on the intensity of the light of the sun, as compared with that of carbon in the electric arc, and of lime in the flame of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe; on the interference of heat rays, and of light rays differing greatly in lengths of path; and on the chromatic polarization of light.

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  • Maxwell never committed himself to a precise definition of the physical nature of electric displacement, but considered it as defining that which Faraday had called the polarization in the insulator, or, what is equivalent, the number of lines of electrostatic force passing normally through a unit of area in the dielectric. A second fundamental conception of Maxwell was that the electric displacement whilst it is changing is in effect an electric current, and creates, therefore, magnetic force.

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  • Faraday's notion as to the nature of electrification, therefore, about the middle of the 19th century came to be something as follows: - He considered that the so-called charge of electricity on a conductor was in reality nothing on the conductor or in the conductor itself, but consisted in a state of strain or polarization, or a physical change of some kind in the particles of the dielectric surrounding the conductor, and that it was this physical state in the dielectric which constituted electrification.

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  • Since Faraday was well aware that even a good vacuum can act as a dielectric, he recognized that the state he called dielectric polarization could not be wholly dependent upon the presence of gravitative matter, but that there must be an electromagnetic medium of a supermaterial nature.

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  • Verdet (1824-1860) made a study of the subject and discovered that a solution of ferric perchioride in methyl alcohol rotated the plane of polarization in an opposite direction to heavy glass (Ann.

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  • Laevo-tartaric acid is identical in its chemical and in most of its physical properties with the dextro-acid, differing chiefly in its action on polarized light, the plane of polarization being rotated to the left.

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  • As a result of this work Arago constructed a polariscope, which he used for some interesting observations on the polarization of the light of the sky.

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  • To him is also due the discovery of the power of rotatory polarization exhibited by quartz, and last of all, among his many contributions to the support of the undulatory hypothesis, comes the experimentum crucis which he proposed to carry out for comparing directly the velocity of light in air and in water or glass.

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  • But the most remarkable effects of change of surface-tension are those produced by what is called the electric polarization of the surface.

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  • He studied the reflection and polarization of radiant heat, the magnetism of rocks, electrostatic induction, daguerrotypy, &c.

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  • A ray of plane-polarized light traversing a right-handed crystal of quartz in the direction of the triad axis has its plane of polarization rotated to the right, while a left-handed crystal rotates it to the left.

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  • He succeeded in explaining the colour of thin and of thick plates, and the inflexion of light, and he wrote on double refraction, polarization and binocular vision.

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  • It is also occasioned by anodic polarization of iron in sulphuric acid.

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  • Anodic polarization in potassium chloride solution renders molybdenum, niobium, ruthenium, tungsten, and vanadium passive (W.

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  • The instrument used at Harvard was a " meridian photometer," constructed on the principle of polarization; while the " method of extinctions," by means of a wedge of neutral-tinted glass, served for the Oxford determinations.

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  • His papers, which are numerous, are devoted in great part to atmospheric electricity, waterspouts, cyanometry and polarization of skylight, the temperature of water in the spheroidal state, and the boilingpoint at great elevations.

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  • POLARIZATION OF LIGHT.

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  • T Malus gave the name of polarization, as he attributed it, on the emission theory of light, to a kind of polarity of the light-corpuscles.

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  • The phenomenon of polarization observed by Huygens remained an isolated fact for over a century, until Malus in 1808 discovered that polarization can be produced independently of double refraction, and must consequently be something closely connected with the nature of light itself.

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  • Further, if polarized light fall at the polarizing angle on a reflecting surface, the intensity of the reflected stream depends upon the azimuth of the plane of incidence, being proportional to the square of the cosine of the angle between this plane and the plane of the polarization.

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  • Fhe polarization of the light transmitted by the pile is never complete, but tends to become more nearly so as the number of the plates is increased and at the same time the angle of incidence for which the polarization is a maximum approaches indefinitely the polarizing angle (Sir.

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  • Such a plate acts in the same way on polarized light, stopping it or allowing it to pass, according as the plane of polarization is parallel or perpendicular to the principal section.

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  • From the above instances we see that an instrumental appliance that polarizes a beam of light may be used as a means of detecting and examining polarization.

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  • In addition to the above facts of polarization mention may be made of the partial polarization, in a plane perpendicular to that of emission, of the light emitted in an oblique direction from a white-hot solid, and of the polarization produced by diffraction.

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  • The polarization of the light reflected from a glass grating has also been investigated by I.

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  • The polarization of the light scattered by small particles has been examined by G.

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  • r); an interesting case of this phenomenon is the polarization of the light from the sky - a subject that has been treated theoretically by Lord Rayleigh in an important series of papers (See SKY, Colour Of, and Rayleigh, Scientific Works, i.

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  • An important addition to the knowledge of polarization was made in 1816 by Augustin J.

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  • (3) Two streams polarized at right angles and coming from a stream of common light can be brought to the same plane of polarization without thereby acquiring the faculty of interfering.

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  • (4) Two streams polarized at right angles and coming from a stream of polarized light interfere as common light, when brought to the same plane of polarization.

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  • (5) In calculating the conditions of interference in the last case, it is necessary to add a half wave-length to the actual difference of path of the streams, unless the primitive and final planes of polarization lie in the same angle between the two perpendicular planes.

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  • The lateral characteristics of a polarized stream lead at once to the conclusion that the stream may be represented by a vector, and since this vector must indicate the direction in which the light travels as well as the plane of polarization, it is natural to infer that it is transverse to the direction of propagation.

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  • By symmetry the polarization-vector must be either parallel or perpendicular to the plane of polarization: which of these directions is assumed depends upon the physical characteristic that is attributed to the vector.

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  • In conformity with the form of the path, the light is said to be elliptically polarized, rightor left-handedly as the case may be, and the axes of the elliptic path are determined by the planes of maximum and minimum polarization of the light.

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  • These different types of polarization may be obtained from a plane polarized stream by passing it through a quarter-wave plate, i.e.

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  • Such plates are generally made of mica or selenite, and the normal to the plane of polarization of the most retarded stream is called "the axis of the plate."

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  • If this axis be parallel or perpendicular to the primitive plane of polarization, the emergent beam remains plane polarized; it is circularly polarized if the axis be at 45° to the plane of polarization, and in other cases it is elliptically polarized with the axes of the elliptic path parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the plate.

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  • Conversely a quarter-wave plate may be employed for reducing a circularly or elliptically polarized stream to a state of plane polarization.

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  • Two streams are said to be oppositely polarized when the one is, so far as relates to its polarization, what the other becomes when it is turned through an azimuth of 90° and has its character reversed as regards right and left hand.

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  • Further a stream of light of the most general character is equivalent to the admixture of common and polarized light, the polarization being elliptical, circular or plane.

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  • We see then that there are seven possible types of light: common light, polarized light and partially polarized light; the polarization in the two latter cases being elliptical, circular or plane.

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  • They may be differentiated by first passing the light through a quarter-wave plate with its axis parallel or perpendicular to the plane of maximum polarization: for elliptically polarized light thereby becomes plane polarized and one of the streams is extinguished on rotating the rhomb; but with the other two kinds of light this is not the case, and the light is partially plane or partially elliptically polarized according as the plane of maximum polarization remains the same or is changed.

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  • Let a, 0, be the angles that the primitive and final planes of polarization and the plane of polarization of the quicker wave within the plate make with a fixed plane, and let be the relative retardation of phase of the two streams on emergence from the plate for light of period T.

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  • Since the first term represents a stream of white light, the plate will appear uncoloured whenever the plane of polarization of either stream transmitted by it coincides with either the primitive or final plane of polarization.

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  • If, however, the primitive and final planes of polarization be parallel or crossed, the field exhibits only one colour during a complete revolution of the plate.

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  • The phenomenon of colour may, however, be obtained with thick plates by superposing two of them in a suitable manner, the combination acting as a thicker or a thinner plate according as the planes of polarization of the quicker waves within them are parallel or crossed.

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  • In monochromatic light, then, the interference pattern is characterized by three systems of curves: the curves of constant retardation p = const.; the lines of like polarization = const.; the curves of constant intensity I = const.

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  • When p = 2nir and also when 4, = a or a-1-7/2 or Ili = 1 3 or 0+7r/2, that is at points for which the streams within the plate are polarized in planes parallel and perpendicular to the planes of primitive and final polarization, the intensity (called the fundamental intensity) is the same as when the plate is removed.

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  • These conditions define two systems of curves called respectively the principal curves of constant retardation and the principal lines of like polarization, these latter lines dividing the field into regions in which the intensity is alternately greater and less than the fundamental intensity.

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  • When, however, the planes of polarization and analysation are parallel or crossed, the two pairs of principal lines of like polarization coincide, and the intensity is at all points in the former case not greater than, and in the latter case not less than, it was before the introduction of the plate.

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  • To the same degree of accuracy as that employed in obtaining the expression for the intensity, the form of the lines of like polarization is given by the section, parallel to the plate, of a cone, whose generating lines are the directions of propagation of waves that have their planes of polarization parallel and perpendicular to a given plane: the cone is in general of the third degree and passes through the optic axes of the crystal.

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  • (Reference should be made to the article Crystallography for illustrations, and for applications of these phenomena to the determination of crystal form.) With an uniaxal plate perpendicular to the optic axis, the curves of constant retardation are concentric circles and the lines of like polarization are the radii: thus with polarizer and analyser regulated for extinction, the pattern consists of a series of bright and dark circles interrupted by a black cross with its arms parallel to the planes of polarization and analysation.

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  • In the case of a biaxal plate perpendicular to the bisector of the acute angle between the optic axes, the curves of constant retardation are approximately Cassini's ovals, and the lines of like polarization are equilateral hyperbolae passing through the points corresponding to the optic axes.

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  • With a crossed polarizer and analyser the rings are interrupted by a dark hyperbolic brush that cuts the plane of the optic axes at right angles, if this plane be at 45° to the planes of polarization and analysation - the so-called diagonal position - and that becomes a rectangular cross with its arms parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the optic axes when this plane coincides with the plane of primitive or final polarization - the normal position.

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  • The isochromatic lines, unless the dispersion be excessive, follow in the main the course of the curves of constant retardation, and the principal lines of like polarization are with a crossed polarizer and analyser dark brushes, that in certain cases are fringed with colour.

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  • Let us suppose that the light is circularly analysed and that the primitive and final planes of polarization are at right angles.

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  • These attain their maximum visibility when the plane of analysation is at 45° to these planes, and vanish when the plane of polarization is parallel to either of the principal planes.

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  • The phenomena of chromatic polarization afford a ready means of detecting doubly refracting structure in cases, such as that produced in isotropic bodies by strain, in which its effects are very minute.

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  • Arago pointed out, by supposing that in passing through the plate the plane of polarization of each monochromatic constituent is rotated by an amount dependent upon the frequency - an explanation that may be at once verified either by using monochromatic light or by analysing the light with a spectroscope, the spectrum in the latter case being traversed by one or more dark bands, according to the thickness of the plate, that pass along the spectrum from end to end as the analyser is rotated.

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  • Biot further ascertained that this rotation of the plane of polarization varies as the distance traversed in the plate and very nearly as the inverse square of the wave-length, and found that with certain specimens of quartz the rotation is in a clockwise or right-handed direction to an observer receiving the light, while in others it is in the opposite direction, and that equal plates of the rightand lefthand varieties neutralize one another's effects.

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  • Further, certain cubic crystals, such as sodium chlorate and bromate, and also some liquids and even vapours, rotate the plane of polarization of the light that traverses them, whatever may be the direction of the stream.

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  • van't Hoff and others have established, corresponds to the presence of one or more asymmetric atoms of carbon - that is, atoms directly united to elements or radicles all different from one another - and in every case there exists an isomer that rotates the plane of polarization to the same degree in the opposite direction.

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  • Substances that by reason of the structure or arrangement of their molecules rotate the plane of polarization are said to be structurally active, and the rotation produced by unit length is called their rotary power.

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  • Fresnel showed that rotary polarization could be explained kinematically by supposing that a plane-polarized stream is resolved on entering an active medium into two oppositely circularly polarized streams propagated with different speeds, the rotation being rightor left-handed according as the rightor left-handed stream travels at the greater rate: The polarization-vector of the primitive - stream being = a cos nt, the first circularly polarized stream after traversing a distance z in the medium may be represented by = a cos (nt - k i z), ni = a sin (nt - kiz), and the second b z = a cos (nt - k 2 z), n2= - a sin (nt - k2z).

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  • The resultant of these is = 2a cos 2 (k 2 - k i)z cos {nt - 1(k2 -Fk2)z}, = 2a sin 2 (k 2 - ki)z cos {nt - z (k i + k2)z}, which shows that for any fixed value of z the light is plane polarized in a plane making an angle 1(k 2 - ki)z = ir(X i - X7 1)z, with the initial plane of polarization, X 1 and being the wave-lengths of the circular components of the same frequency.

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  • Fleischl for demonstrating circular polarization in liquids.

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  • This result is not, however, conclusive; for an application of Huygens's principle shows that it is a consequence of the rotation of the plane of polarization by an amount proportional to the distance traversed, independently of the state of affairs within the active medium.

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  • Airy extended Fresnel's hypothesis to directions inclined to the axis of uniaxal crystals by assuming that in any such direction the two waves, that can be propagated without alteration of their state of polarization, are oppositely elliptically polarized with their planes of maximum polarization parallel and perpendicular to the principal plane of the wave, these becoming practically plane polarized at a small inclination to the optic axis.

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  • When the polarizer and analyser are parallel or crossed, the pattern is the same as with inactive plates, with the exception that the brushes do not extend to the centre of the field; but as the analyser is rotated a small cross begins to appear at the centre of the field, while the rings change their form and become nearly squares with rounded corners, when the planes of polarization and analysation are at 45°.

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  • But a far more important instance of induced activity is afforded by Michael Faraday's discovery of the rotary polarization connected with a magnetic field.

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  • This subject is treated in the article Magneto-Optics, to which the reader is also referred for John Kerr's discovery of the effect on polarization produced by reflection from a magnetic pole, and for the action of a magnetic field on the radiation of a source - the "Zeeman effect."

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  • - Huygens satisfactorily explained the laws of reflection and refraction on the principles of the wave theory, so far as the direction of the waves is concerned, but his explanation gives no account of the intensity and the polarization of the reflected light.

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  • Fresnel obtained his formulae by assuming that the optical difference of media is due to a change in the effective density of the ether, the elasticity being the same - an assumption inconsistent with his theory of double refraction - and was led to the result that the vibrations are perpendicular to the plane of polarization.

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  • Franz Neumann and James MacCullagh, starting from the opposite assumption of constant density and different elasticities, arrived at the same formulae for the intensities of the reflected light polarized in the principal azimuths, but in this case the vibrations must be regarded as parallel to the plane of polarization.

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  • In the main such investigations have only an academic interest, as, whatever theory of light be adopted, we have to deal with two vectors that are parallel and perpendicular respectively to the plane of polarization.

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  • Similarly on the electromagnetic theory the electric or the magnetic force will be perpendicular to the plane of polarization, according as chemical action depends upon the electric or the magnetic energy.

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  • 104) has, however, shown that the polarization of the light from the sky can only be explained on the elastic solid theory by Fresnel's hypothesis of a different density, and from the study of Hertzian oscillations, in which the direction of the electric vibrations can be a priori assigned, we learn that when these are in the plane of incidence there is no reflection at a certain angle, so that the electric force is perpendicular to the plane of polarization.

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  • A more pronounced case of elliptic polarization by reflection is afforded by metals.

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  • The optical constants (refractive index and co-efficient of extinction) of the metal may then be obtained from observations of the principal incidence and the elliptic polarization then produced.

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  • Thus constructed, the ' prism produces no lateral shift of the transmitted pencil; a conical pencil, incident directly, has nearly constant polarization over its extent, and consequently the error in determining the polarization of a parallel pencil, incident not quite normally, is a minimum.

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  • For an accurate determination of the plane of polarization analysers that act by extinction are not of much practical use, and a different device has to be employed.

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  • planes of the plate: the plane of polarization is determined by turning the analyser until the bands, ordinarily seen, disappear,.

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  • The more usual half-shade analyser is available for light of only one frequency, as it depends upon the action of a half-wave plate, in traversing which the plane of polarization is turned until it makes the same angle with the principal section as at first but on the opposite side: half the field is covered with the plate, to which is attached a Nicol's prism with its principal section inclined at a small angle to that of the plate.

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  • The eye must be focussed on the edge of the plate, and the two halves of the field will only be equally dark when the principal plane of the plate is parallel to the primitive plane of polarization.

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  • Poynting, is before analysation to impress unequal rotations upon the plane of polarization of the two parts of the field, either by means of an active medium, or by oblique transmission through glass plates.

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  • Elliptically polarized light is investigated by the reduction of the pencil to a state of plane polarization, and a determination of the resulting plane of polarization.

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  • It is clear that direct transmission through the plate at a point where the thicknesses of the prisms are d 1 and d 2 will introduce a relative retardation of (µ,; -, u o) (d l - d2) between streams polarized in planes parallel and perpendicular to the edges of the prisms,, u o, and being the ordinary and the extraordinary refractive indices; and it is hence possible by an adjustment of the thickness to reduce elliptically polarized to plane polarization at an assigned point marked off by two parallel lines.

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  • A subsequent determination of the plane of polarization gives the ratio of the amplitudes of the vibrations in the component streams.

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  • Light from an extended source passes after polarization through two convex systems of lenses, between which the crystalline plate is placed, and is then received in an eyepiece furnished with an analyser.

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  • Of polarimeters for the study of rotary polarization there are three principal forms. In Wild's polaristrobometer, light from a soda flame, rendered parallel by a lens, is polarized by a Nicol's prism, and after traversing the space into which the active substance is to be inserted, falls on a Savart's plate placed in front of an astronomical telescope of low power, that contains in its eyepiece a Nicol's prism, which with the plate forms a Savart's analyser.

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  • The former consists of two semicircular plates of quartz, perpendicular to the optic axis and of opposite rotations, placed so as to have a common diameter and having such a thickness that each rotates the plane of polarization of mean yellow light through the same multiple of 90°.

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  • A rotation of the plane of polarization is not, however, measured by an adjustment of the analyser, but by annulling the rotation with a compensator.

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  • In addition to the above the reader may consult for the general subject of polarization the following treatises: Th.

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  • Some evidence has also been found by the same observer of polarization, showing that a considerable portion of the light must be reflected sunlight.

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  • For example, the real image may be recorded on a photographic plate; it may be measured; it can be physically altered by polarization, by spectrum analysis of the light employed by absorbing layers, &c. The greatest advantage of the compound microscope is that it represents a larger area, and this much more completely than is possible in the simple form.

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  • Nicols's, Glan-Thomson prisms or similar polarization apparatus are used as polarizers and analysers.

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  • If you wish to maximize the polarization or minimize the aberrations of the TGM output this is done with this mask.

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  • Abstract Jones matrices describe the polarization, or spin angular momentum, of a light beam as it passes through an optical system.

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  • The cycle of violence has contributed to an atmosphere of extreme mistrust and polarization, which has fuelled further antagonism and violence.

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  • Sure people talk about positive stereotyping but in these areas making such overt polarization seems destructive.

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  • By social polarization we mean the various ways in which many areas are becoming more socially distinct over time.

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  • Got to get marvelous eclecticism of its door grand prix polarization was proved.

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  • Therefore, all that is needed to produce a sensitive refractive index sensor is a sensitive measure of the rotation of the polarization ellipse.

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  • High extinction polarizing filters for microscopy are preferable for polarization studies (a microscope dealer's own brand should be of good quality ).

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  • hadron nucleus interactions are incorporated as well as vaccum polarization and finite size effects.

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  • A similar model was proposed with hydroxyl ions hydrogen bonding to surface H causing polarization and conductivity.

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  • interesting to observe the remarkable degree of variation in the response of these crystals to polarization.

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  • This is because the glass is optically isotropic, and does not change the polarization state of the light passing tho it.

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  • The present project has sought to examine polarization properties of both edge-emitting and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers.

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  • The high spin polarization of the mixed valence manganites make them attractive for devices based on spin polarized tunneling and spin injection.

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  • nematic layer (the layer between the polarization filters) is adequate for TFT displays.

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  • omnidirectional horizontal polarization the source currents must lie in the azimuth plane.

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  • Explain the relationship between electrical permittivity, susceptibility and polarization.

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  • measuring the photoelectron current at 0º and 90º to the polarization vector of the synchrotron radiation yields the polarisations, given below.

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  • The polarimeter An exposure from a single-beam polarimeter consists of an image of the sky in a single state of polarization.

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  • polarization of a photon, the choice of what direction to measure affects all subsequent measurements.

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  • polarization of the light is carried by the direction of the angular momentum or spin of the photons.

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  • Firstly, there is currently no facility for measuring circular polarization.

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  • For example, Winter Hill uses horizontal polarization and most of its relays use vertical.

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  • The marked linear polarization of the emission from the condensate is also measured.

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  • Most BBC and ITV regions are available, although the regions with horizontal polarization tend to give poorer reception than regions with vertical polarization.

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  • Your signals will arrive in the wanted area with horizontal polarization.

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  • Abstract We investigate the effects of fiscal transparency and political polarization on the prevalence of electoral cycles in fiscal balance.

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  • This was also a time of social polarization, which HS tries to counter with the jubilee provisions of Leviticus 25.

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  • polarization rotation from the strength of your own echoes.

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  • polarization vector of the laser with respect to the laboratory reference frame.

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  • polarization signature takes on different shapes.

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  • polarization filter with a built-in phase corrector.

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  • polarization measurement.

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  • polarization state.

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  • These zero percentage polarization values then result in zero polarized intensity values.

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  • You also observe that the participants reflected a ' widening class polarization in the community ' .

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  • Another branch of research in group psychology deals with group polarization.

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  • This is referred to as polarization synthesis, and illustrates the power and flexibility of a fully polarimetric radar.

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  • saturable absorbers in order to allow for a two-dimensional medium polarization.

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  • turnstile antennas are commonly used as transmitting antennas when horizontal polarization is required together with omnidirectional radiation.

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  • It must be noticed, however, that the angle of maximum polarization would be about 76° instead of 90°.

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  • So far as (7) is concerned the alternative supposition that AD vanishes would answer equally well, if we suppose the vibrations to be executed in the plane of polarization; but let us now revert to (5), which gives w 3 = _ PAN y z - = + PAN xy _ PAN z 2 - x2 8 N r 2 N r2' W 2 + N r2 (8) from 0 along which there is no scattered light, - two along the axis According to these equations there would be, in all, six directions of y normal to the original ray, and four (y z = =x) at angles of 45° with that ray.

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  • So long as the particles are small no such vanishing of light in oblique directions is observed, and we are thus led to the conclusion that the hypothesis of a finite AN and of vibrations in the plane of polarization cannot be reconciled with the facts.

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  • No form of the elastic solid theory is admissible except that in which the vibrations are supposed to be perpendicular to the plane of polarization, and the difference between one medium and another to be a difference of density only (Phil.

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  • When quenched as far as possible by rotation of a nicol prism, it exhibits a residue of a more intense blue colour; and further it is found that the direction of the most nearly complete polarization becomes inclined to the direction of the primary rays.

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  • Not only is the oblique direction of maximum polarization more definite and the polarization itself more complete, but the observation is easier than with white light in consequence of the uniformity in the colour of the light scattered in various directions.

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  • By Brewster's law (see Polarization of light) this angle in the case of regular reflection from a plate is less than a right angle; so that not only is the law of polarization for a very small particle different from that applicable to a plate, but the first effect of an increase of size is to augment the difference.

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  • These were actually made between 1885 and 1889, when he was professor of physics in the Carlsruhe Polytechnic. He himself recorded that their origin is to be sought in a prize problem proposed by the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1879, having reference to the experimental establishment of some relation between electromagnetic forces and the dielectric polarization of insulators.

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  • It was of course well known, as a necessity of Maxwell's mathematical theory, that the polarization and depolarization of an insulator must give rise to the same electromagnetic effects in the neighbourhood as a voltaic current in a conductor.

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  • Continuing his inquiries for the next year or two, he was able to discover the progressive propagation of electromagnetic action through space, to measure the length and velocity of electromagnetic waves, and to show that in the transverse nature of their vibration and their susceptibility to reflection, refraction and polarization they are in complete correspondence with the waves of light and heat.

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  • Few will be inclined to dispute the verdict of Forbes: - "His scientific glory is different in kind from that of Young and Fresnel; but the discoverer of the law of polarization of biaxial crystals, of optical mineralogy, and of double refraction by compression, will always occupy a foremost rank in the intellectual history of the age."

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  • If we eliminate the reverse electromotive forces of polarization at the two electrodes, the conduction of electricity through electrolytes is found to conform to Ohm's law; that is, once the polarization is overcome, the current is proportional to the electromotive force applied to the bulk of the liquid.

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  • In accordance with a general consequence of reflection and refraction, it is readily seen that the light of the rainbow is partially polarized, a fact first observed in 1811 by Jean Baptiste Biot (see Polarization).

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  • The polar clock, devised for use in place of a sun-dial, applies the fact that the plane of polarization of sky light is always 90° from the position of the sun; hence by measuring the azimuthal angle of the plane, even when the sun is below the horizon, correct apparent solar time may be obtained.

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  • This was the foundation of an intimate friendship between Arago and Fresnel, and of a determination to carry on together further researches in this subject, which led to the enunciation of the fundamental laws of the polarization of light known by their names (see Polarization).

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  • Chem., 1903, 43, p. 1), on the other hand, regarded it as due to surface films of a gas; submitting that the difference between iron made passive by nitric acid and by anodic polarization was explained by the film being of nitrogen oxides in the first case and of oxygen in the second case.

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  • If this axis be parallel or perpendicular to the primitive plane of polarization, the emergent beam remains plane polarized; it is circularly polarized if the axis be at 45° to the plane of polarization, and in other cases it is elliptically polarized with the axes of the elliptic path parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the plate.

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  • Two streams are said to be oppositely polarized when the one is, so far as relates to its polarization, what the other becomes when it is turned through an azimuth of 90° and has its character reversed as regards right and left hand.

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  • With a crossed polarizer and analyser the rings are interrupted by a dark hyperbolic brush that cuts the plane of the optic axes at right angles, if this plane be at 45° to the planes of polarization and analysation - the so-called diagonal position - and that becomes a rectangular cross with its arms parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the optic axes when this plane coincides with the plane of primitive or final polarization - the normal position.

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  • These attain their maximum visibility when the plane of analysation is at 45° to these planes, and vanish when the plane of polarization is parallel to either of the principal planes.

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  • When the polarizer and analyser are parallel or crossed, the pattern is the same as with inactive plates, with the exception that the brushes do not extend to the centre of the field; but as the analyser is rotated a small cross begins to appear at the centre of the field, while the rings change their form and become nearly squares with rounded corners, when the planes of polarization and analysation are at 45°.

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  • The former consists of two semicircular plates of quartz, perpendicular to the optic axis and of opposite rotations, placed so as to have a common diameter and having such a thickness that each rotates the plane of polarization of mean yellow light through the same multiple of 90°.

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  • The resonant nonlinearity is modeled by a degenerate three-level system of saturable absorbers in order to allow for a two-dimensional medium polarization.

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  • Turnstile antennas are commonly used as transmitting antennas when horizontal polarization is required together with omnidirectional radiation.

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  • These type of guns use electromagnetic polarization that shoves the nail from the solenoid into the wood.

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  • Darker colors provide higher levels of polarization.

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  • If the sun is very low or very high, the sunglasses will not filter the glare as well, because the best polarization is obtained when the sun is 37 degrees from the horizon.

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  • Polarization is an especially important factor in sunglasses for outdoor sports when glare can not only be annoying, but dangerous.

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  • All of the Costa Del Mar sunglasses offer 100 percent polarization and UV protection along with a lifetime warranty.

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  • The lenses use Costa Del Mar's "Exclusive Colorific Polarization System" in order to ensure the absolute best clarity they can offer via glare reduction.

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  • Each style features the UV protection; 13 styles are available with polarization, and 4 styles are available with glass polarization.

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  • Most reputable "replicators" do provide some UV protection, and some even provide an inexpensive and relatively effective polarization.

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  • These fashionable, yet fully functioning bi-focal, deliver 100 percent UV protection, polarization and come with a lifetime warranty.

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  • Polarization is offered today in many types of standard sunglasses, and it is an especially important aspect of sport sunglasses, where intense light glare can be extremely dangerous.

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  • Oakley's prescription lenses are offered in a rainbow of colors, polarization options and performance coatings.

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  • Axis of Polarization: This technology is built on the scientific principle that cutting down glare depends on the angle through which that light, or glare is viewed.

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  • All are UV-400 rated, and styles offering polarization, gradient lenses, mirror finish, and other specific characteristics are available.

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  • Many manufacturers make reading sunglasses with UV protection and polarization.

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  • Polarization or anti-reflective coatings to minimize glare.

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  • The polarization takes away the glare while the UV protection keeps your eyes safe.

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  • Trident polarized lenses: Spy's special polarization film reduces glare by 99 percent, making these lenses ideal for high-glare sports like skiing, snowboarding, and wakeboarding.

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  • Polarization coatings to reduce glare in all light levels.

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  • Since polarization does not correspond to UV protection, you must still examine the lenses to make sure they offer adequate sun defense.

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  • The glasses with the polarization layer located inside the actual lens should be your first choice, as over time the polarization layer on the outside of your lenses can be scratched or wear off.

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  • Glare is the result of a process known as polarization.

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  • In order to make the case for a higher price tag, high-performance shades nearly always advertise enhancing features such as the percentage of UV blockage, polarization, mirroring, and scratch resistant coating.

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  • The reflection of light when it hits a surface is actually called polarization.

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  • Horizontal polarization is the light reflected from semi-flat surfaces such as the pavement and sand mentioned earlier, and it is this type of light that causes that unpleasant glare.

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  • Polarized lenses either reduce or eliminate horizontal glare, but still admit vertical polarization.

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  • Dark matter is from virtual fermion-antifermion vacuum polarization "bubble" Feynman diagrams.

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  • They relate almost entirely to electrical phenomena, such as the magnetic rotation of light, the action of gas batteries, the effects of torsion on magnetism, the polarization of electrodes, &c., sufficiently complete accounts of which are given in Wiedemann's Galvanismus.

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