The words map and chart are derived from mappa and charta, the former being the Latin for napkin or cloth, the latter for papyrus or parchment.
When such faults occurred, the papyrus must be re-made.
Papyrus was also known to the Assyrians, who called it " the reed of Egypt."
Papyrus also made its way into Italy, but at how early a period there is nothing to show.
Moreover, we possess enumerations of towns in the geographical lists of the temple of Karnak and in a hieratic papyrus dating about 200 years after Tethmosis III.
Papyrus rolls are represented in ancient Egyptian wall-paintings; and extant examples of the rolls themselves are sufficiently numerous.
The most ancient Egyptian papyrus now known contains accounts of the reign of King Assa (35 80 -3536 B.C.).
On another papyrus in the same museum is depicted the victorious return of Seti I.
- [ED.] ' So the Papyrus first published by W.
TheLogia is the name given to the sayings contained in a papyrus leaf, by its discoverers Grenfell and Hunt.
The swampy regions of the Nile and of the Eastern province are characterized by an extravagant growth of papyrus and other rushes, of reeds and coarse grass.
8 Ala occurs also in the great magical papyrus of Paris, 1.3020 (Wessely, Denkschrift.
A fragment of the "sacred marriage" of Zas and Chthonie was found on an Egyptian papyrus at the end of the r9th century.
It was formerly the custom to assign the invention of algebra to the Greeks, but since the decipherment of the Rhind papyrus by Eisenlohr this view has changed, for in this work there are distinct signs of an algebraic analysis.
In the Ebers papyrus, 1550 B.C., mention is made of blisters, ointments, clysters, mineral and vegetable drugs.
clay tablets and discs (so far in Crete only), but nothing of more perishable nature, such as skin, papyrus, &c.; engraved gems and gem impressions; legends written with pigment on pottery (rare); characters incised on stone or pottery.
The Cyperus dives is still become that it is reported that in the reign of Tiberius, owing to the scarcity and dearness of the material caused by a failure of the papyrus crop, there was a danger of the ordinary business of life being deranged (Pliny, N.H.
They are traversed by the Anapus, with its tributary the Cyane, the latter famous for the papyrus planted by the Arabs, which here alone in Europe grows wild in the stream.
In addition to private rooms and state apartments, the Hofburg contains a library of about 800,000 volumes, 7000 incunabula and 24,000 MSS., including the celebrated "Papyrus Rainer"; the imperial treasury, containing the family treasures of the house of Habsburg-Lorraine, and other important collections.
The different kinds of papyrus writing material and their dimensions are also enumerated by Pliny.
As to cultivation of the plant in Europe, according to Strabo the Romans obtained the papyrus plant from Lake Trasimene and other lakes of Etruria, but this statement is unsupported by any other ancient authority.
A papyrus of Sent, 3300 B.C., gives directions as to the preparation of prescriptions.
Papyrus was cultivated and manufactured for writing material by the Arabs in Egypt down to the time when the growing industry of paper in the 8th and 9th centuries rendered it no longer a necessity.
The various uses to which the papyrus plant was applied are also enumerated by Theophrastus.
If the Hebrew Omer (OM also is to be identified with the Egyptian papyrus, something may be said in favour of the tradition that the bulrushes of which the ark was composed in which the infant Moses was laid were in fact papyrus.
That the plant was itself used also as the principal material in the construction of light skiffs suitable for the navigation of the pools and shallows of the Nile, and even of the river itself, is shown by sculptures of the fourth dynasty, in which men are represented building a boat with stems cut from a neighbouring plantation of papyrus (Lepsius, Denkm.
The widespread use throughout the ancient world of the writing material manufactured from the papyrus plant is attested by early writers, and by documents and sculptures.
This lake is the home of many sudd plants of the "swimming" variety - papyrus and ambach are absent.
Even after the introduction of vellum as the ordinary vehicle for literature papyrus still continued to some extent in use outside Egypt, and was not entirely superseded until a late date.
The Babylonian temples received garments as payment in kind, and the Egyptian lists in the Papyrus Harris (Rameses III.) enumerate an enormous number of skirts, tunics and mantles, dyed and undyed, for the various deities.
Thus the pseudo-Democritus, who was reputed the author of the Physica et Mystica, which itself concludes each of its receipts with a magical formula, was believed to have travelled in Chaldaea, and to have had as his master Ostanes l the Mede, a name mentioned several times in the Leiden papyrus, and often by early Christian writers such as Tertullian, St Cyprian and St Augustine.
The scapus seems to have been a standard length of papyrus, as sold by the stationers.
The charta Fanniana appears to have been a kind of papyrus worked up from the amphitheatrica, which by flattening and other methods was increased in width by an inch, in the factory of a certain Fannius at Rome.
PAPYRUS, the paper reed, the Cyperus Papyrus of Linnaeus, in ancient times widely cultivated in the Delta of Egypt, where it was used for various purposes, and especially as a writing material.
The earliest literary papyrus is that known, from the name of its former owner, as the Prisse papyrus, and now preserved at Paris, containing a work composed in the reign of a king of the fifth dynasty, and computed to be itself of the age of upwards of 2500 years B,C. The papyri discovered in Egypt have often been found in tombs, and in the hands, or swathed with the bodies, of mummies.
At Rome there was certainly some kind of industry in papyrus, the charta Fanniana, already referred to, being an instance in illustration.
Lists of kings found on the temple wall at Abydos, in the fragments of the Turin papyrus and elsewhere, have cleared up many doubtful points in the lists of Manetho, and at the same time, as Professor Petrie has pointed out, have proved to us how true a historian that much-discussed writer was.
11 -13) has transmitted to us of the manufacture of the writing material from the papyrus plant should be taken strictly to refer to the process followed in his own time; but, with some differences in details, the same general method of treatment had doubtlessly been practised from time immemorial.
The early use of Papyrus among the Greeks is proved by the reference of Herodotus `(v.
p. 120), and in the Leiden Papyrus, xvii.
This second manufacture, however, is thought to have been detrimental to the papyrus, as it would then have been in a dried condition requiring artificial aids, such as a more liberal use of gum or paste, in the process.
At a later period, however, a papyrus was cultivated in Sicily, which has been identified by Parlatore with the Syrian variety (Cyperus syriacus), far exceeding in height the Egyptian plant, and having a more drooping head.
There is evidence to show that in the Toth century papyrus was used, to the exclusion of other materials, in papal deeds.
By the 12th century the manufacture of papyrus had entirely ceased, as appears from a note by Eustathius in his commentary on the Odyssey..
Gottingensis (1820), pp. 141 -208; Dureau de la Malle, " Memoire sur le papyrus," in the Mem.
Thus it occurs in a magical book of Moses, w hich has been edited from a Leiden papyrus of the 3rd or 4th century by Dieterich (Abraxas, 109).
The papyrus, which is of the 3rd century, was discovered by Bickell among the Rainer collection, who characterized it (Z.
The simplest kind was a pad or sole of leather or papyrus bound to the foot by two straps, one passing over the instep, the other between the toes.
The characters of the syllabary were all arranged and named, and elaborate lists of them were drawn up. The literature was for the most part inscribed with a metal stylus on tablets of clay, called laterculae coctiles by Pliny; the papyrus which seems to have been also employed has perished.
They think the papyrus was probably written about A.D.
In Athens it was doubtless in use for literary as well as for other purposes as early as the 5th century B.C. An inscription relating to the rebuilding of the Erechtheum in 407 B.C. records the purchase of two papyrus rolls, to be used for the fair copy of the rough accounts.
Of the Merovingian period there are still extant several papyrus deeds, the earliest of the year 625, the latest of 692.
This treatise was probably composed at a date not very different from that of the Leiden papyrus.
It is with this Syracusan plant that some attempts have been made in modern times to manufacture a writing material similar to ancient papyrus.
South of the lake is a wide plain, traversed by the Semliki river, which enters the Nyanza through a swamp of tall weeds, chiefly ambach and papyrus.
Turning north-east the channel becomes narrower and deeper, and is characterized by occasional reaches of papyrus.
' A considerable fragment of his epic Hecate has been discovered in the Rainer papyrus.
The water of the lake is fresh; the shore in many places is lined with papyrus.
The biblical evidence does not favour any continued Philistine domination since the time of Rameses III., who indeed, later in his reign, made an expedition, not against the Purasati, but into North Syria, and, as appears from the Papyrus Harris, restored Egyptian supremacy over Palestine and Syria.
Khufu is a leading figure in an ancient Egyptian story (Papyrus Westcar), but it is unfortunately incomplete.
A 3rd-century papyrus (Flinders Petrie, Papyri, ed.
The first method distinguishes between uncial or majuscule, and cursive or minuscule; the second between papyrus, vellum or parchment, and paper (for further details see Manuscript and Palaeography); and the third distinguishes mainly between Gospels, Acts and Epistles (with or without the Apocalypse), New Testaments (the word in this connexion being somewhat broadly interpreted), lectionaries and commentaries.
It is also necessary to add that there is one small scrap of papyrus of the 3rd century containing a few verses of the 4th Gospel.
We might cite the maxims of Ani in the Egyptian papyrus Prisse (XIIth dynasty).
Beside the equivalence of the hon to 5 utens weight of water, the mathematical papyrus (35) gives 5 besha = (2/3)cubic cubit (Revillout's interpretation of this as 1 cubit cubed is impossible geometrically; see Rev. Eg., 1881, for data); this is very concordant, but it is very unlikely for 3 to be introduced in an Egyptian derivation, and probably therefore only a working equivalent.
The kat was regularly divided into 10; but another division, for the sake of interrelation with another system, was in 1/3 and 1/4, scarcely found except in the eastern Delta, where it is common (29); and it is known from a papyrus (38) to be a Syrian weight.
Another division (in a papyrus) (38) is a silver weight of 6/10 kat = about 88 -- perhaps the Babylonian siglus of 86.
In the medical papyrus (38) a weight of 2/3rds kat is used, which is thought to be Syrian; now 2/3 kat = 92 to 101 grains, or just this weight which we have found in Syria; and the weights of 2/3 and 1/3 kat are very rare in Egypt except at Defenneh (29), on the Syrian road, where they abound.
" The Sayings," to which the term Logia is generally applied, consist of (a) a papyrus leaf containing seven or eight sayings of Jesus discovered in 1897, (b) a second leaf containing five more sayings discovered in 1903, (c) two fragments of unknown Gospels, the former published in 1903, the latter in 1907.
Among the ancient Egyptians, as would appear from a calculation in the Rhind papyrus, the number (3) 4, i.e.
The texts of the older authors which have come down to us were written for the most part not on stone but on papyrus, parchment or other perishable material.
The present treatise, without however its beginning and end, written on a papyrus discovered in Egypt and now in the British Museum, was first edited by F.
He would even be drawn into this process by his writing materials, which were papyrus rolls of some magnitude; he would tend to write discourses on separate rolls, and then fasten them together in a bundle into a treatise.
Finally, in a papyrus of the Roman age, the word "god" is practically defined as "buried," i.e.
He appears at the head of the lists not only in Herodotus and Manetho, but also in the native Turin Papyrus of Kings and the lists of Abydos, while the list of Sakkara begins with the sixth king of the 1st Dynasty, a fact which may throw some doubt on the supposed foundation of Memphis by Menes.
For the geography and civilization of Canaan about 1400 B.C. we have valuable evidence in the Egyptian papyrus Anastasi I., which mentions Kepuna (Gubna, Gebal-Byblus) the holy city, and continues: " Come then to Berytus, to Sidon, to Sarepta.
In the curious poem in the Sallier papyrus (II.), written about 1800 B.C., Duan, son of Khertu, expatiates on the effects of divers handicrafts on the workmen as compared with the elevating influences of a literary life.
It may be added that a special interest attaches to his account of the manufacture of the papyrus (xiii.
This difficulty has, however, been lessened since the translation and publication of the papyrus Rhind by Eisenlohr; 1 and it is now generally admitted that, in the distinction made in the last passage quoted above from Proclus, reference is made to the two forms of his work - aL a - Tr Epov pointing to what he derived from Egypt or arrived at in an Egyptian manner, while indicates the discoveries which he made in accordance with the Greek spirit.
67, - evidently refers to "the president of the church," and in a recently discovered papyrus which Ramsay dates 303 a certain bishop is described as Xaov 7rpoIQTaµevov, Studies in Roman Provinces, pp. 125-126.
The land slopes gently and drains into a considerable number of streams, turning the land into a morass of reeds and papyrus.
The celebrated Rhind mathematical papyrus was coried in the reign of an Apopi from an original of the time of Amenemhe III.
The famous byblus or papyrus no longer exists in the country, but other kinds of cyperi are found.
For one early papyrus that survives, many millions must have perished.
The marshy lands in the north were the resort of fishermen and fowlers, and the papyrus, the cultivation of which was a regular industry, protected an abundance of wild life.
The abandonment of papyrus culture in the 8th century A.D, the neglect of the canals, and the inroads of the sea, have converted much of that country into barren salt marsh, which only years of draining and washing can restore to fertility.
For boatbuilding papyrus stems and acacia wood were employed, and for the best work cedar-wood was imported from Lebanon.
Papyrus rolls and fine linen were good merchandise in Phoenicia in the 10th century B.C. From the earliest times Egypt was dependent on.
According to the papyrus of Unamun at the end of the weak XXth Dynastypaymentforcedarwasinsisted on by the king of Byblus from the Egyptian commissioner, and proofs were shown to him of payment having been made even in the more glorious times of Egypt.
In the papyrus marshes the hippopotamus was slain with harpoons, the wild boar, too, was probably hunted, and the sportsman brought down wild-fowl with the boomerang, or speared or angled for fish.
Papyrus, which grew wild in the marshes, was also cultivated, at least in the later ages: its stems were used for boat-building, and according to the classical authors for rope-making, as well as for the famous writing material.
paper drove the latter out of use, and the papyrus plant quickly became extinct.
As to legal instruments: contracts agreed to in public or before witnesses and written on papyrus are found as early as the Middle Kingdom and perhaps belong to all historic times, but are very scarce until the XXVth Dynasty.
Two wills exist on papyrus of the XIIth Dynasty, but they are isolated, and such are not again found among native documents, though they occur in Greek in the Ptolemaic age.
The principal text is the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus in the British Museum, written under a Hyksos king c. 1600 B.C.; unfortunately it is full of gross errors.
A papyrus of the Roman period in the British Museum attributes the invention of horoscopes to the Egyptians, but no early instance is known.
The finest non-religious papyrus known, the Ebers Papyrus, is a vast collection of receipts.
Reisner, The Hearst Medical Papyrus (Leipzig, 1905),
Thompson, The Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden (London, 1904).
In demotic the most notable of such works is a papyrus of the first century A.D.
The best-known of these books is the Papyrus Harris published by F.
A papyrus in London contains a calendar of lucky and unlucky days.
(g) Under the heading Miscellaneous we must mention a number of sources of great value: the grave-stones, or stelae, especially those from Abydos, which throw much light on funerary beliefs; the great Papyrus Harris, the longest of all papyri, which enumerates the gifts of Rameses III.
When magicians made figures of wax representing men whom they desired to injure, this was of course an illegal act like any Dther, and the law stepped in to prevent it: one papyrus that has been preserved records the judicial proceedings taken in 1uch a case in connection with the harem conspiracy against Rameses III.
Often the formula was written on a strip of rag or a scrap of papyrus and tied round the neck of the person for whom it was intended.
The written nieroglyphs, formed by the scribe with the reed pen on papyrus, eather, wooden tablets, &c., have their outlines more or less abbreyitted, producing eventually the cursive scripts hieratic and demotmc. The written hieroglyphs were employed at all periods, especially or religious texts, Hieratic.A kind of cursive hieroglyphic or hieratic writing is ound even in the 1st Dynasty.
Demotic.Widely varying degrees of cursiveness are at all periods observable in hieratic; but, about the XXVLth Dynasty, which inaugurated a great commercial era, there was something like a definite parting between the uncial hieratic and the most cursive form afterwards known as demotic. The employment of hieratic was thenceforth almost confined to the copying of religious and other traditional texts on papyrus, while demotic was used not only for all business but also for writing literary and even religious texts in the popular language.
The only native work on the writing that has come to light as yet is a fragmentary papyrus of Roman date which has a table in parallel bite, &c. columns of hieroglyphic signs, with their hieratic equivalents and words written in hieratic de d ~ scribing them or giving their values or mean- woo ree ings.
(5) Papyri concerning daily affairs which throw light on history; or which give historic detail, as the great papyrus of Rameses III., and the trials under Rameses X.
Traditional evidence for the lengths of reigns exists in the Turin Papyrus of kings and in.
Manethos history; unfortunately the papyrus is very fragmentary and preserves few reign-lengths entire, and Manethos evidence seems very untrustworthy, being known only from late excerpts.
The lengths of several reigns in the XIIth, XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties are known, and the sum total for the XIIth Dynasty is preserved better than any other in the Turin Papyrus, which was written under the XIXth Dynasty.
Of these, the Sothic date furnished by a calendar in the Ebers Papyrus of the 9th year of Amenophis I.
on a Berlin papyrus from Kahttn, similarly interpreted (1882-1878 B.C.), gives for the XIIth Dynasty a range from 2000 to 1788 B.C.
began about 1570 B.C., taking what seems to be the utmost interval that it permits, 220 years have to contain a crowd of kings of whom nearly 100 are already known by name from monuments and papyri, while fresh names are being added annually to the long list; the shattered fragments of the last columns in the Turin Papyrus show space for 150 or perhaps _____ - 180 kings of this period, apparently with ~asted Petrie out reaching the XVIIth Dynasty.
In the Turin Papyrus ~50 - ~ two reign-lengths of less than a year, seven 475 4003 others of less than five years each, one of ten 3933 years and one of thirteen seem attributable 445 3787 to the XIIIth and XIVth Dynasties.
It is 788 3246 possible that the compiler of the Turin 2793 Papyrus, who excluded contemporary reigns in the period between the VIth and the 1731 XIIth Dynasties, here admitted such; nor 580 1580 is a correspondingly large number of kings 350 1322 in so short a period without analogies in history.
Others are grounded on the dates of certain operations which are likely to have taken place at particular seasons of the year so that they can be roughly calculated on the Sothic basis, others on Manethos figures, average lengths of reigns, evidence of the Turin Papyrus, &c.
Papyrus and many dated inscriptions fix the succession and length of reign of the eight kings very accurately; The troubled times that the kingdom had passed through taught the long-lived monarchs the precaution of associating a competent successor on the throne.
The Turin Papyrus preserves many names on its shattered fragments, and the monuments are for ever adding to the list, but it is difficult to assign them accurately to their places.
Their domination must have lasted ~s~s a considerable time, the Rhmn.d mathematical papyrus period, having been copied in the thirty-third year of a king Apophis.
A great papyrus written after the death of Rameses III.
We read in a papyrus of a strike of starving laborers in the Theban necropolis who would not work until corn was given to them, and apparently the government storehouse was empty at the time, perhaps in consequence of a bad Nile.
From this period dates a remarkable papyrus containing the report of an envoy named Unamfin, sent to Syria by Hrihov to obtain cedar timber from Byblus.
Unamfin was robbed on the voyage, the prince of Byblus rebuffed him, and when at last the latter agreed to provide the timber it was only in exchange for substantial gifts hastily sent for from Egypt (including rolls of papyrus) and the promise of more to follow.
From this brief re-establishment of Persian dominion (counted by Manetho as Dynasty XXXI.) no document survives except one papyrus that appears to be dated in,the reign of Darius III.
18), and by the "Nash Papyrus."
" With the papyrus paper," says Professor Breasted, 2 " the hand customarily written upon it in Egypt now made its way into Phoenicia, where before the 10th century B.C. it developed into an alphabet of consonants, which was quickly transmitted to the Ionian Greeks and thence to Europe."
These characteristics were naturally emphasized in the Aramaic writing on papyrus which, beginning about 500 B.C., during the Persian sovereignty in Egypt, lasted on there till about zoo B.C. The gradual development of this script into the square Hebrew, and the more ornamental writing of Palmyra, may be traced in the works of Berger and Lidzbarski.'
The large genus Cyperus contains about 400 species, chiefly in the warmer parts of the earth; C. Papyrus is the Egyptian Papyrus.
In earlier days Phoenicia produced excellent wine, that of Sidon being specially esteemed; it is mentioned in an Aramaic papyrus from Egypt (4th century B.C., N.S.I.
The papyrus discoveries in Egypt have a peculiar interest, for they are mainly the letters of people unknown to fame, and having no thought of publicity.
Scichsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (1893) with special reference to the papyrus finds at the end of the 19th century; E.
A series of impressions from Greek seals was found at Selinus in Sicily, dating before 249 B.C.; a small collection of sealed Greek documents on papyrus of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. has been discovered at Elephantine in Egypt.
Papyrus is found by the river banks.
The oldest authority for any part of Theocritus is a papyrus discovered by B.
1 9-34.5 There are also fragments of another papyrus belonging to the 5th century, which contain some lines of i., v., xiii., xv., xvi.
Going north, the hills give way to papyrus and ambach swamps, which mark the delta of the Kagera.
In a Paris papyrus edited by Albr.
Among recent papyrus finds are fragments of a special lexicon to the Aristocratea and a commentary by Didymus (ed.
They also make from straw and papyrus peel strong and beautiful mats and baskets in great variety, some of much fineness and delicacy, and also hats resembling those of Panama.
In the swamp regions of north-east Africa the papyrus and associated plants, including the soft-wooded ambach, flourish in immense quantities - and little else is found in the way of vegetation.
He edited several of his brother's works, and was also author of original works on philological and historical subjects, among which may be mentioned Nouvelles recherches sur les patois ou idiomes vulgaires de la France (1809), Annales de Lagides (1819) and Chartes latines sur papyrus du VP e siecle de l'ere chretienne.
The former is on a papyrus leaf about 8 by 3 in., the latter on mere fragments of papyrus which have been pieced together.
Papyrus grows in Lake Huleh, and rice and cereals thrive on its shores, whilst below the Sea of Galilee the vegetation is almost tropical.
codexguistic or numerical listing was employed and the storage media were clay tablets, papyrus codices, leather scrolls or hieroglyphics.
Nor did they; not one papyrus fragment from a cyclic epic poem survives.
hieroglyphics on papyrus.
We know that the papyrus manuscripts are safe where they are, protected by the volcanic material which covers them.
papyrus published by Hayes will give us much information on this aspect of the life of Joseph.
We are fortunate to have a papyrus from the Middle Kingdom that deals with slaves.
It is recorded in the longest know papyrus, the Great Harris Papyrus, that many people throughout the region were made homeless.
papyrus codices, leather scrolls or hieroglyphics.
papyrus swamps, in the W of the country.
papyrus reeds bound together with string made from reed fibers.
papyrus fragment dated to the 60s AD has been discovered 4.
papyrus fragment manuscripts of the New Testament.
P66 is a second century papyrus that contains almost all of John.
pith of the papyrus plant, which then grew plentifully in the Nile.
A gloaming rush among papyrus reeds, Where Serapis goes to drink with the Sphinx.
She was dressed in white satin with papyrus flowers in gold which she had designed & had made in Paris.
reading supposed subtexts can be nothing other than subjective unless she has a papyrus with the code on it.
It is dissected by numerous small rivers with valley grasslands and papyrus swamps.
He greatly furthered the general knowledge of antiquity by the purchase of the papyrus discovered at Fayum, which was called, after him, the " Rainer papyrus."
His Diplomes et chartres de l'epoque Merovingienne sur papyrus et sur velin were published in 1844.
Of this there is other evidence; a Leiden papyrus names Etum as the wife of the Semitic fire-god Reshpu.
Receipts given in the Leiden papyrus reappear in the Compositiones ad Tingenda and the Mappae Clavicula, both workshop receipt books, one known in an 8th-century MS. at Lucca, and the other in a loth-century MS. in the library of Schlettstadt; and again in such works as the De Artibus Romanorum of Eraclius and the Schedula Diversarum Artium of Theophilus, belonging to the 11th or 12th century.
papyrus, appears to be of Egyptian origin.
But it seems hardly credible that the Cyperus papyrus could have sufficed for the many uses to which it is said to have been applied and we may conclude that several plants of the genus Cyperus were comprehended under the head of byblus or papyrus - an opinion which is supported by the words of Strabo, who mentions both inferior and superior qualities.
Papyrus was cultivated and manufactured for writing material by the Arabs in Egypt down to the time when the growing industry of paper in the 8th and 9th centuries rendered it no longer a necessity (see Paper).
Varro's statement, repeated by Pliny, that papyrus was first made in Alexander's time, should probably be taken to mean that its manufacture, which till then had been a government monopoly, was relieved from all restrictions.
In the 5th century St Augustine apologizes for sending a letter written on vellum instead of the more usual substance, papyrus (Ep. xv.); and Cassiodorus (Varr.
on papyrus in book form are still extant in different libraries of Europe, viz.: the Homilies of St Avitus, of the 6th century, at Paris; Sermons and Epistles of St Augustine, of the 6th or 7th century, at Paris and Geneva; works of Hilary, of the 6th century, at Vienna; fragments of the Digests, of the 6th century, at Pommersfeld; the Antiquities of Josephus, of the 7th century, at Milan; Isidore, De contemptu mundi, of the 7th century, at St Gall; and the Register of the Church of Ravenna, of the 10th century, at Munich.
By the 12th century the manufacture of papyrus had entirely ceased, as appears from a note by Eustathius in his commentary on the Odyssey, xxi.
Guilandino's commentary on the chapters of Pliny relating to papyrus, Papyrus, hoc est commentarius, &c. (Venice, 1572); Montfaucon, " Dissertation sur la plante appellee Papyrus," in the Memoires de l'academie des inscriptions (1729), pp. 592-608; T.
de l'institut (1851), pp. 140-183; P. Parlatore, " Memoire sur le papyrus des anciens," in the Mem.
The land slopes gently to the depression from the south, east and north, and into it drain a considerable number of streams, turning the greater part into a morass of reeds and papyrus.
Griffith, The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus in Proceedings of the Soc. of Biblical Archaeology, Nov.
In the Saite period a sort of standard edition was drawn up, consisting of 165 chapters in a fixed order and with a common title the book of going forth in the day; this recension was published by Lepsius in 1842 from a Turin papyrus Like the Pyramid texts, the Book of the Dead served a funerary purpose, but its contents are far more heterogeneous; besides chapters enabling the dead man to assume what shape he will, or to issue triumphant from the last judgment, there are lists of gates to be passed and demons to be encountered in the nether world, formulae such as are inscribed on sepulchral figures and amulets, and even hymns to the sun-god.
Still more important than all such funereal objects are the books that were placed in the grave for the use of the dead: in the pyramids they are written on the walls of the sepulchral chamber and the passages leading to it; in the Middle Kingdom usually inscribed on the inner sides of the sarcophagus; in later times contained in rolls of papyrus.
At this point a papyrus of stories written in the popular language of the Middle Kingdom provided Erman with a stepping-stone from Old Egyptian to the Late Egyptian of the Neuagyptische Grammatik, and gave the connections that would bind solidly together the whole structtire of Egyptian grammar (see Sprache des Papyrus Westcar, 1889).
Girard, E tudes sur la poesie grecque (1884); Kaibel in PaulyWissowa's Realencyclopddie, according to whom Epicharmus was a Siceliot; for the papyrus fragment, Blass in Jahrbiicher fur Philologie, cxxxix., 1889.
This papyrus contains the first documentary evidence of the use of algebra. rhombus A quadrilateral with four sides of equal length.
Of its history, there is mention of it as a herbal preparation in a papyrus taken from the sarcophagus of an Egyptian Pharaoh.
Reading supposed subtexts can be nothing other than subjective unless she has a papyrus with the code on it.
The library is said to have contained hundreds of thousands of papyrus and vellum scrolls.
Another early reference to aloe and its healing properties is found in the Egyptian Papyrus Ebers, the oldest preserved Egyptian medical texts dating from approximately 1500 BC.
Papyrus looks like a its written with a quill pen.
Papyrus Custom Printing: The printing company site provides free examples of party invitation wording in several different styles.
As early as the Egyptians, papyrus was used to promote sales on wall posters.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.