He crossed to Katie and sat on the ottoman in front of her.
He sat on the ottoman in front of her, reaching out to tuck her hair behind her ear.
His black cat leapt from the ottoman onto her chest, content to curl up and sleep.
In 1415 it was recovered by the Turks under Mahommed I., and since that period has belonged to the Ottoman empire.
Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
Next morning when the valet came into the room with his coffee, Pierre was lying asleep on the ottoman with an open book in his hand.
Pierre turned over heavily on the ottoman and opened his mouth, but could not reply.
He had a bowl in one hand and pulled the ottoman closer, seating himself close to her.
It became an important Seljuk town, and late in the 14th century passed into Ottoman hands.
He then sat on the sofa, put his feet up on the overstuffed ottoman and once again congratulated himself on his prowess.
Darian resumed his seat on the ottoman and took her hands again.
Under a Ottoman threat of war he obtained in 1826 the Convention of empire.
Only his superb strategy and the heroic devotion of his lieutenants - notably the converted Jew, Jan Samuel Chrzanowski, who held the Ottoman army at bay for eleven days behind the walls of Trembowla - enabled the king to remove "the pagan yoke from our shoulders"; and he returned to be crowned at Cracow on the 14th of February 1676.
After World War I, as the Ottoman Empire collapsed, several new countries emerged.
An attack made by the Moslems of Candia on the British garrison of that town, with the connivance of the Turkish authorities, brought home to the powers the necessity of removing the Ottoman troops, and the last Turkish soldiers quitted the island on the 14th of November 1898.
At last (July 13, 1909) the powers announced to the Porte, in answer to a formal remonstrance, their decision to withdraw their remaining troops from Crete by July 26 and to station four war-ships off the island to protect the Moslems and to safeguard " the supreme rights " of the Ottoman Empire.
(1422) the Ottoman power was paralysed.
But the piratical acts of these traders, in which the knights themselves sometimes joined, and the strategic position of the island between Constantinople and the Levant, necessitated its reduction by the Ottoman sultans.
The Panislamic propaganda was encouraged; the privileges of foreigners in the Ottoman Empire - of ten an obstacle to government - were curtailed; the new railway to the Holy Places was pressed on, and emissaries were sent to distant countries preaching Islam and the caliph's supremacy.
With regard also to the Ottoman empire his policy cannot be said to have been strictly conservative.
As another means of opposing Western influence in south-eastern Europe, Prince Lobanov inclined to the policy of protecting rather than weakening the Ottoman empire.
From this time Crete continued subject to Ottoman rule without interruption till the outbreak of the Greek revolution.
of the Berlin Treaty as a basis of reforms to be introduced in other parts of the Ottoman empire.
Owing to the existence of a strong Mussulman minority among its inhabitants, the warlike character of the natives, and the mountainous configuration of the country, which enabled a portion of the Christian population to maintain itself in a state of partial independence, the island has constantly been the scene of prolonged and sanguinary struggles in which the numerical superiority of the Christians was counterbalanced by the aid rendered to the Moslems by the Ottoman troops.
The Ottoman civil code is maintained for the present, but it is proposed to establish a code recently drawn up by Greek jurists which is mainly based on Italian and Saxon law.
Two years later came a most formidable outbreak; the sultan was denounced as false to Islam, and the Bosnian nobles gathered at Banjaluka, determined to march on Constantinople, and reconquer the Ottoman empire for the true faith.
But after the Ottoman defeat at Vienna in 1683, the situation changed.
The reform of the Ottoman government contemplated by the sultan Mahmud II.
The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.
He flung himself down into the oversized chair and lifted his boots onto the ottoman.
The decline of the Ottoman power, which began towards the end of the 17th century, was marked by increasing anarchy and lawlessness in the outlying portions of the empire.
Though Greek and Slavonic almost ceased to be written languages under Turkish rule, Europeans showed no disposition to replace them by Ottoman or Arabic literature.
At that period the Georgians were divided into various petty principalities, the chief of which were Imeretia and Georgia (Kharthlia), owing at times a more or less shadowy allegiance to the sultan of the Ottoman Turks at Constantinople.
Manuel subsequently set out in person to seek help from the West, and for this purpose visited Italy, France, Germany and England, but without material success; the victory of Timur in 1402, and the death of Bayezid in the following year were the first events to give him a genuine respite from Ottoman oppression.
The appearance of the Ottoman Turk and the final collapse of the Latin empire in Syria brought about the next campaign between the rival maritime powers.
Contemporaneously other events were menacing the ascendancy and exhausting the treasury of the republic. In 1453 Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks, and although Venice entered at once into treaty with the new power and desired to trade with it, not to fight with it, yet it was impossible that her possessions in the Levant and the archipelago should not eventually bring her into collision with the expanding energy of the Mussulman.
In much the same way, at a later date and in a lesser sphere, the closing of the traderoutes by the advance of the Ottoman Turks led traders to endeavour to find new channels, and issued in the rounding of the Cape of Good Hope and the discovery of America.
In any case, he is the founder of the Latin kingdom of Cyprus (for he afterwards sold his new acquisition to Guy de Lusignan, who established a dynasty in the island); and thereby he made possible the survival of the institutions and assizes of Jerusalem, which were continued in Cyprus until it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
In the second place, as the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem fell, its institutions and assizes were transplanted bodily to Cyprus, where they survived until the island was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
The Mamelukes, who are analogous to the janissaries of the Ottoman Turks, were made of sterner and more fanatical stuff; and Bibars, the greatest of these Mamelukes, who had commanded at Gaza in 1244, had been one of the leaders in 1250, and was destined to become sultan in 1260, was the sternest and most fanatical of them all.
From 1350 onwards the Crusade assumes a new aspect; it becomes defensive, and it is directed against the Ottoman Turks, a tribe of Turcomans who had established themselves in the sultanate of Iconium at the end of the 13th century, during the confusion and displacement of peoples which attended the Mongol invasions.
As early as 1308 the Ottoman Turks had begun to settle in Europe; by 1350 they had organized their terrible army of janissaries.
The Crusades began with the Seljukian Turk planted at Nicaea; they ended with the Ottoman Turk entrenched by the Danube.
Under the present Ottoman distribution " Syria " is the province of Sham or Damascus, exclusive of the vilayets of Aleppo and Beirut and the sanjaks of Lebanon and Jerusalem, which all fall in what is called Syria is the wider geographical sense.
Ottoman Turks, scattered gipsy communities, German settlers in north Palestine, and all sorts of Europeans make up a heterogeneous and incompatible population.
The political status of the country is controlled by the Ottoman Empire, of which Syria makes part, divided into the vilayets of Aleppo, Sham or Syria (Damascus), the Lebanon (q.v.) and Beirut, and the separate sanjaks or mutessarifliks of Zor and Jerusalem.
But carriage roads in the Ottoman dominions are seldom completely made, and hardly ever kept in repair.
Since its reversion to Ottoman power (1840) the history of Marash has been varied only by Armenian troubles, largely connected with the fortunes of Zeitun, for the reduction of which place it has more than once been used as a base.
The traffic in slaves has been repeatedly declared by the Ottoman Porte to be illegal throughout its dominions, and a law for its suppression was published in 1889, but it cannot be said to be extinct, owing to the laxity and too often the complicity of the government officials.
The most important are the law courts, exchange, Ottoman bank, English church and the Abbas Hilmi theatre.
The building of Cairo in 969, and, above all, the discovery of the route to the East by the Cape of Good Hope in 1498, nearly ruined its commerce; the canal, which supplied it with Nile water, became blocked; and although it remained a principal Egyptian port, at which most European visitors in the Mameluke and Ottoman periods landed, we hear little of it until about the beginning of the 19th century.
A.).] During the anarchy which accompanied Ottoman rule in Egypt from first to last, Alexandria sank to a small town of about 4000 inhabitants; and it owed its modern renascence solely to Mehemet Ali, who wanted a deep port and naval station for his viceregal domain.
There most of the negotiations between the powers and Mehemet Ali were conducted; thence started the Egyptian naval expeditions to Crete, the Morea and Syria; and thither sailed the betrayed Ottoman fleet in 1839.
On the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in the 6th century Suez became a naval as well as a trading station, and here fleets were equipped which for a time disputed the mastery of the Indian Ocean with the Portuguese.
He was governor-general of Crete; and in 1895 was appointed Ottoman ambassador in London, a post which he continued to hold until his death at Constantinople in 1902.
At the time of the Austrian annexation in 1908, the only remaining token of Ottoman suzerainty was that the foreign consuls received their exequatur from Turkey, instead of Austria; otherwise the government of the country was conducted in the name of the Austrian emperor, through the imperial minister of finance at Vienna, who controlled the civil service for the occupied territory.
With Venetian aid he wrested from Hungary the entire Adriatic littoral between Fiume and Cattaro, except the city of Zara; thus adding Dalmatia to his kingdom at the moment when Servia was lost through the Ottoman victory of Kossovo (1389).
Many of the Roman Catholics withdrew into Croatia-Slavonia and south Hungary, where they ultimately fell again under Ottoman dominion.
The treaty had contemplated the evacuation of the occupied provinces after the restoration of order and prosperity; and this had been expressly stipulated in an agreement signed by the AustroHungarian and Ottoman plenipotentiaries at Berlin, as a condition of Turkish assent to the provisions of the treaty.
But the Turkish reform movement of 1908 seemed to promise a revival of Ottoman power, which might in time have enabled the Turks to demand the promised evacuation, and thus to reap all the ultimate benefits of the Austrian administration.
The Turkish or Ottoman Empire comprises Turkey in Europe, Turkey in Asia, and the vilayets of Tripoli and Barca, or Bengazi, in North Africa; and in addition to those provinces under immediate Turkish rule, it embraces also certain tributary states and certain others under foreign administration.
The mainstay of the Ottoman dynasty is the Asiatic portion of the empire, where the Mahommedan religion is absolutely predominant, and where the naturally vigorous and robust Turki race forms in Asia Minor a compact mass of many millions, far outnumbering any other single ethnical element and probably equalling all taken collectively.
The table on the following page, for which the writer is indebted to the kindness of Carolidi Effendi, formerly professor of history in the university of Athens, and in 1910 deputy for Smyrna in the Turkish parliament, shows the various races of the Ottoman Empire, the regions which they inhabit, and the religions which they profess.
Owing principally to the fact that the system of the caliph Omar came to be treated as an immutable dogma which was clearly not intended by its originator, and to the peculiar relations which developed therefrom between the Mussulman Turkish conquerors and the peoples (principally Christian) which fell under their sway, no such thing as an Ottoman nation has ever been created.
Under such a system, and the legal protection enjoyed through it by Ottoman functionaries against evil consequences of their own misdeeds, corruption was rife throughout the empire.
Under the new regime this system, which had greatly cramped the military strength and efficiency of the Ottoman Empire, has been changed, and all " Ottomans " are now subject to military service.
The revision of the whole military system was undertaken in 1910, especially as regards enrolment and promotion of officers, but, as things then stood, the term of service was twenty years (from the age of 20 to the age of 40), for all Ottoman male subjects: active service (muasaff) nine years, of which three with the colours (nizam), in the case of infantry, four in the case of cavalry and artillery; six and five respectively in the reserve (ikhtiat); Landwehr (redif) nine years; territorial (mustahfiz) two years.
The total strength of the Ottoman army in 1904 was returned at 1,795,350 men all told, made up as follows: (1) Active (4 years' service) 230,408 (called), reserve (ikhtiat) 251,511 (called), total 481,919; (2) nizam (class I., completely trained) 237,026 (called); (3) redif (class II., not completely trained), from 21-29 years old, 585,846; from 30-38 years old, 391,563; total 977,4 0 9 (uncalled); (4) mustahfiz, trained 53,715 (called), untrained 40,286 (uncalled), total 94,001.
The line was designed, surveyed and constructed by Turkish engineers - employing Ottoman navvies and labourers - in a highly efficient and economical manner, the average cost per mile having been £3230, although considerable engineering difficulties had to be overcome, especially in the construction of the Haifa branch.
The Ottoman Empire is renowned for its productiveness, but enterprise and skill in utilizing its capabilities are still greatly lacking.
Under the auspices of the Ottoman public debt administration silk culture is also carried on with much success, especially in the vilayets of Brusa and Ismid.
Among other important productions of the Ottoman Empire are sesame, coleseed, castor oil, flax, hemp, aniseed, mohair, saffron, olive oil, gums, scammony and liquorice.
At this time (1657-1681) the brilliant administration of the two Kuprilis restored temporary order to Ottoman finance.
Then came forced loans and debased currency (1788), producing still more acute distress until, in 1791, at the close of the two years' war with Russia, in which the disaster which attended Ottoman arms may be largely ascribed to the penury of the Ottoman treasury, Selim III., the first of the " reforming sultans, " attempted, with but little practical success, to introduce radical reforms into the administrative organization of his empire.
It was there stated that, on the most favourable estimate, the normal deficit of the Turkish treasury was T2,725,000, (upwards of £T,1,700,000 below the truth as now declared.) and the following observations were appended: " This budget represents the normal situation of Ottoman finance; it does not tally with the budget published in 1897, which was prepared with a special object in view, and was obviously full of inaccuracies, nor indeed does it agree with figures which could be officially obtained from the Porte.
By this last the centralization of receipts and expenditure and the movement of funds in the provinces were to be confided to the Imperial Ottoman Bank, which extended and perfected its own organization for the purpose.
It is thought better here, for the sake of clearness, to reserve observations on revenues specially assigned to the international administration of the Ottoman Public Debt, and on the expenditure of that administration, and to deal with that subject separately, while, however, including the total figures of both in the general figures in order to reproduce exactly the totals shown in the budget of the empire.
The duties are estimated to produce £T393,107; other professional duties £T110,887 - together £T503,994 A " Military Exoneration tax " is levied on male Ottoman subjects between the ages of 15 and 75 to the amount of £T50 for 135 persons - certain exceptions such as priests, religious orders, &c., are allowed.
The Public Debt Administration plays so considerable a part in the finances of the Ottoman Empire, and its history is of such importance that a special section of this article will be devoted to it below.
The total credits for the ministry of finance are, then, as follows: Ottoman public debt, £T8,288,394; House of Osman, £T443,880; legislative corps, U181,871; treasury, ET2,989,600; central accounts department, £T17,124; forming an aggregate of £T11,920,869.
assistance given in settling Mussulmans immigrating from provinces detached from the Ottoman Empire.
As regards the first of these, it is curious to observe that the budget decree of 1880 stringently limited the peace strength of the Ottoman army to 100,000 men, " including officers and generals," in order to put a stop to the rapidly increasing military expenditure; but this was merely the expression of a pious wish, at a time when European financial good will was indispensable, that expenditure might be kept down.
It should be added that the Greek War (1897) revealed to the sultan the decrepit state into which the Ottoman navy had fallen, and considerable " extraordinary " expenditure - much of which was wasted - has been incurred since (and including) 1902 to put the least out-of-date warships into a serviceable condition.
The Ottoman Empire possesses a very complete system of local self-government within certain limits.
These " committees" were the " Council of Foreign Bondholders " for Great Britain, the Imperial Ottoman Bank and its " group " for France, Herr S.
In all other respects the council, provided that it kept within the limits of the laws the administration of which was entrusted to it, was to be entirely independent of the Ottoman government, free to appoint and dismiss its own officials from highest to lowest, and to carry on its administration on such lines as it thought best.
The lottery bonds receive a special treatment both in regard to interest and sinking fund; full information as to the intricate arrangements made for these bonds will be found in the decree of Muharrem and the published reports of the council of administration of the Ottoman public debt.
Finally the Imperial Ottoman government reserved to itself the right of paying off the whole unified debt at par at any moment, and all the dispositions of the decree of Muharrem not modified by the new " Annex-Decree " were formally confirmed and maintained.
Table B shows the total indebtedness of the Ottoman Empire, exclusive of tribute loans.
The cultivators, on the other hand, may not plant tobacco without permits from the regie, although the power of refusing a permit, except to known smugglers or persons of notoriously bad conduct, seems to be doubtful; nor may they sell to any purchaser, unless for export, except to the regie, while they are bound to deposit the whole of the tobacco crops which they raise in any one year in the entrepots of the regie before the month of August of the year following, [[Table A]].-Showing Revenues ceded to Ottoman Public Debt Administration at Various Periods to 1907-1908.
[[Table B]].-Position of the Ottoman Public Debt on the 1st of March 1326 (March 14, 1910).
Since that time various other concessions have been granted to French and German financial groups, principally the Imperial Ottoman Bank group of Paris and the Deutsche Bank group of Berlin.
These were successful in France, the Imperial Ottoman Bank group agreeing to undertake 30% of the finance without, however, any countenance from the French government - the " Glarus Syndicate " being formed for apportioning interests.
The Bagdad railway must for much time be a heavy Ottoman Railways worked at end of 1908.
The tables on p. 440 show the respective lengths of the various Ottoman railways open and worked at the end of 1908 and the amount of kilometric guarantees which they carried - and the lengths, &c., of railways worked by the various companies according to the nationality of the concessionaire groups.
At the close of the Crimean War a British bank was opened in 1856 at Constantinople under the name of the Ottoman Bank, with a capital of £500,000 fully paid up. In 1863 this was merged in an Anglo-French bank, under a concession from the Turkish government, as a state bank under the name of the Imperial Ottoman Bank, with a capital of £2,700,000, increased in 1865 to £4,050,000 and in 1875 to £10,000,000, one-half of which is paid up. The original concession to the year 1893 was in 1875 extended to 1913, and in 1895 to 1925.
The National Bank of Turkey (a limited Ottoman Company) is a purely British concern with a capital of £1,000,000, founded by imperial firman of the 11th of April 1909, under the auspices of Sir Ernest Cassel.
Throughout Arabia and in Tripoli (Africa) the principal money used is the silver Maria Theresa dollar tariffed by the Ottoman government at 12 piastres.
" foreigners may enjoy the rights of proprietorship on the same conditions as Ottoman subjects throughout the empire, save in the Hejaz.
Property of an individual who has abandoned Ottoman nationality without legal authority so to do does not pass to heirs, whether Ottoman or foreign, but devolves to the state if legal authority has been granted the government under which the foreign heirs live must have accepted the protocol above cited.
of the Dustur (Ottoman Code).
With the exception of the engineer and foreman, the employes must be Ottoman subjects.
Miller, Ottoman Land Code (London, 1892); Medjelle (Ottoman Civil Code) (Nicosia, 1895); Kendall, Turkish Bonds (London, 1898); V.
Caillard, Babington-Smith and Block, Reports on the Ottoman Public Debt (London, 1884-1898, 1899-1902, 1903 -1910); Annuaire oriental du commerce (Constantinople); Journal de la chambre de commerce (Constantinople, weekly); Annual Report of the Regie Co-interessee des Tabacs (Constantinople); Annual Report of the Council of Foreign Bondholders (London); C. Morawitz, Les Finances de la Turquie (Paris, 1902); G.
Young, Corps de droit ottoman (7 vols., Oxford, 1905-1906);1906); Pech, Manuel des societes anonymes fonctionnant en Turquie (Paris, 1906); Alexis Bey, Statistique des principaux resultats des chemins de fer de l'empire ottoman (Constantinople, 1909).
Defence: Djevad Bey, Etat militaire ottoman (Paris, 1885); H.
Lamouche, L'Organisation militaire de l'empire ottoman (Paris, 1895); LebrunRenaud, La Turquie: puissance militaire (Paris, 1895); Hauptman Rasky, Die Wehrmacht der Tiirkei (Vienna, 1905).
C. *) History Legend assigns to Oghuz, son of Kara Khan, the honour of being the father of the Ottoman Turks.
that Osman declared his independence, and accordingly the Turkish historian dates the foundation of the Ottoman Empire from this event.
in 1341 he was succeeded by John Palaeologus, a minor; and Cantacuzenus, the mayor of the palace, appealed to Orkhan for assistance to supplant him, giving in marriage to the Ottoman prince his daughter Theodora.
Ali Bey, the prince at this time, took advantage of Murad's absence in Europe to declare war against him; but the Ottoman ruler returning crushed him at the battle of Konia.
After the disaster of Angora, from which it seemed impossible that the Ottoman fortunes could ever recover, the princes fled each with as many troops as he could induce to Inter- follow him, being hotly pursued by Timur's armies.
Amid the cares of state he found time for works of public utility and for the support of literature and art; he is credited with having sent the first embassy to a Christian power, after the Venetian expedition to Gallipoli in 1416, and the Ottoman navy is first heard of in his reign.
The Turks continued to press the Venetians by land and sea; Albania, which under Scanderberg had for twenty-five years resisted the Ottoman arms, was overrun; and Venice was forced to agree to a treaty by which she ceded to Turkey Scutari and KroIa, and consented to pay an indemnity of ioo,000 ducats (Jan.
was the organizer of the fabric of Ottoman administration in the form which it retained practically unchanged until the reforms of Mahmud II.
Meanwhile in Asia also the Ottoman Empire had been consolidated and extended; but from 1501 onwards the ambitious designs of the youthful Shah Ismail in Persia grew more and more threatening to its security; and though Bayezid, intent on peace, winked at his violations of Ottoman territory and exchanged friendly embassies with him, a breach was sooner or later inevitable.
It also saw the first intercourse between a Russian tsar and an Ottoman sultan, Ivan III.
Egypt, Syria and the Hejaz, the former empire of the Mamelukes, were added to the Ottoman dominions.
In 1542 a formal alliance was concluded between Suleiman and Francis I.; the Ottoman fleet was placed at the disposal of the king of France, and in August 1543, the Turks under Barbarossa, and the French under the duke of Enghien, laid siege to Nice.
The new emperor attacked Tokaj, which was in Turkish possession; the tribute had been allowed again to fall into arrears; and to all this was added that Mahommed Sokolli, the new grand vizier (1565), pressed for new war to wipe out the disgrace of the failure of the Ottoman attack on Malta (May-September 1565).
The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent marked the zenith of the Ottoman power.
Torgud, also the son of Christian parents, was a native of the sanjak of Mentesha in Asia Minor, and began his career as a soldier in the Ottoman sea service.
at the age of twenty-eight, was not calculated to arrest the progress of decay within the Ottoman Empire.
The capture of Veszprem and of Raab (1594) and the failure of the archduke Matthias to take Gran seemed to promise another rapid victory of the Ottoman arms; but Sinan was ill-supported from Constantinople, the situation was complicated by the revolt of Walachia and Moldavia, and the war was destined to last, with varying fortunes, for fourteen years.
Trouble had, however, meanwhile broken out in other parts of the Ottoman dominions.
Elsewhere, too, the Ottoman arms were victorious; in February the Venetians suffered a double defeat in the roadstead of Chios, and the island fell into the hands of the Turks.
By the 12th article the Ottoman government agreed " amicably to discuss " the question of recognizing the tsar's claim to the imperial title, and by the 13th admitted his right to send to Constantinople representatives of whatever rank he might judge fitting (Noradounghian, Recueil, i.
The war that followed marks an epoch in the decay of the Ottoman Empire and in the expansion of Russia.
In May the Ottoman fleet was attacked and destroyed off Cheshme, and the Russian war-ships threatened to pass the Dardanelles.
Its terms were the most onerous as yet imposed on the Ottoman sultans.
In the course of the war with Persia Russia had received permission from the Ottoman government to use, for a limited time, the easy road from the Black Sea to Tiflis by way of the valley of the Rion (Phasis) for the transport of troops and supplies, and this permission had been several times renewed.
In view of the multiple dangers to which the Ottoman Empire was exposed, both from without and °e from within, and of the serious consequences to the world's peace which would result from its break-up, there was a strong feeling among the powers in favour of such a guarantee, and even the emperor Alexander was willing to agree to it in principle.
But nothing could be done until the Porte should have come to terms with Russia as to the Treaty of Bucharest; for, as the British ambassador, Sir Robert Liston, was instructed to point out to the Ottoman government, " it is impossible to guarantee the possession of a territory of which the limits are not determined."
The Ottoman Empire thus remained outside the European concert; Russia maintained her claim to a special right of isolated intervention in its affairs; and the renewal of war between Russia and Turkey was only postponed by the preoccupation of Alexander with his dream of the " Confederation of Europe."
Meanwhile, within the Ottoman Empire there was every sign of a rapidly approaching disintegration.
The Mussulman population of the Morea, taken unawares, was practically exterminated during the fury of the first few days; and, most fatal of all, the defection of the Greeks of the islands crippled the Ottoman navy by depriving it of its only effective sailors.
The atrophy of the Ottoman sea-power had left the archipelago at the mercy of the Greek war-brigs; piracy flourished; and it became essential in the interests of the commerce of all nations to make some power responsible for the policing of the narrow seas.
On the 21st of April the Ottoman army, which had been massed under Hafiz Pasha at.
The news of Nezib was immediately followed by that of the treason of Ahmed Pasha, the Ottoman Mejid, admiral, who, on the plea that the sultan's coun- 1839-1861.
The intervention of the powers, based on the convention of London of the i 5th of July 1840, led to the withdrawal of Ibrahim from Syria, and the establishment by the firman of the 13th of February 1841 of Mehemet Ali as hereditary pasha of Egypt under conditions intended to safeguard the sovereign rights of the Ottoman sultan.
The severe crisis through which the Ottoman Empire had passed accentuated the need for strengthening it by a drastic reform of its system.
By his concert with the other powers in the affair of Mehemet Ali, the tsar had abdicated his claim to a unique influence at Constantinople, and he began to revive the idea of ending the Ottoman rule in Europe, an idea which he had only unwillingly abandoned in 1829 in response to the unanimous opinion of his advisers.
" emperor of France, " not only French pilgrims to Jerusalem, but all members of " Christian and hostile nations " visiting Holy g the Ottoman Empire, had been placed under the protection of the French flag, and by a special article the Frank, i.e.
The Ottoman government, seeking to gain time, proposed a " mixed commission " of inquiry; and to this France agreed, on condition that no documents later than 1740 should be admitted as evidence.
Lord Aberdeen made no secret of his dislike for the Turks, and openly expressed his disbelief in the reality of their reforms; and in January 1853 the tsar, in conversation with Sir Hamilton Seymour, the British ambassador at St Petersburg, spoke of the Ottoman Empire as " the Sick Man," and renewed the proposals for a partition made in 1844.
He demanded the recognition of the status quo in the holy places, and of the tsar's right, under the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji, to the protectorate of all Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman dominions.
On the 5th of May, nevertheless, in obedience to his peremptory instructions, he presented his ultimatum to the Ottoman government, which, backed now by all the other powers, rejected it.
Admitted on equal terms to the European family of nations, the Ottoman government had given a solemn guarantee of its intention to make the long-promised reforms a reality.
A reform not unworthy of notice was effected by the law promulgated on the 18th of June 1867 whereby foreigners were for the first time allowed to hold landed property throughout the Ottoman Empire (save in the Hejaz) on condition of their being assimilated to Ottoman subjects, i.e.
Turkey's severity in repressing the Bulgarian insurrection had raised up in England a storm of public opinion against her, of which the Liberal opposition had taken the fullest advantage; moreover the suspension of payments on the Ottoman debt had dealt Turkey's popularity a blow from which it had never recovered.
It was further provided that Bulgaria should pay to Turkey an annual tribute, and should moreover (as well as the other Balkan states receiving accessions of territory at Turkey's expense) bear a portion of the Ottoman debt.
Shortly before, a revolutionary attack by an Armenian band on the Ottoman bank r at Constantinople brought about a general massacre of Armenians in the capital (where a widespread revolutionary organization undoubtedly existed), in which at least 3000 victims fell, and the persecution of Armenians became the order of the day.
encroachments on the hinterland of Aden brought about a dangerous state of tension between Great Britain and Turkey, which had its parallel in 1906 in similar trespasses by the Ottoman authorities on the Egyptian land frontier near Akaba.
The enforcement of these reforms, however, was postponed sine die owing to the revolution which transformed the Ottoman Empire into a constitutional state; and the powers, anticipating an improvement in the administration of Macedonia by the new government, withdrew their military officers in the summer of 1908.
After the port of Vathy had been bombarded by Ottoman war-ships the revolt was easily crushed.
A regenerated Ottoman Empire might in time be strong enough to demand the evacuation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, g and to maintain or extend the nominal suzerainty over Bulgaria which the sultan had exercised since 1878.
The Ottoman government protested to the powers, but it wisely limited its demands to a claim for compensation.
In all literary matters the Ottoman Turks have shown themselves a singularly uninventive people, the two great schools, the old and the new, into which we may divide their literature, being closely modelled, the one after the classics of Persia, the other after those of modern Europe, and more especially of France.
Had this act been ratified by the government at Athens, a war between Greece and the Ottoman Empire could hardly have been avoided; but a royal rescript was issued by the king of the Hellenes on the 30th of September 1910, declaring vacant the three seats to which the Cretan representatives had been elected; the immediate danger was thus averted.
Hertslet's Treaties Regulating the Trade, ez'c., between Great Britain and Turkey (London, 1875) presents a summary of all the principal treaties between Turkey and other states; see also Gabriel Effendi Noradounghian, Recueil d'actes internationaux de l'empire ottoman, 1300-1789, t.
Why Persian rather than Arabian or any other literature became the model of Ottoman writers is explained by the early history of the race (see Turks).
What had happened to the Seljuks two centuries before happened to the Ottomans now: the less civilized race adopted the culture of the more civilized; and, as the Seljuk Empire fell to pieces and the Ottoman came gradually to occupy its place, the sons of men who had called themselves Seljuks began thenceforth to look upon themselves as Ottomans.
Ottoman literature may be said to open with a few mystic lines, the work of Sultan Veled, son of Maulana Jelal-ud-Din, the author of the great Persian poem the Mathnawi.
Afewyearsafter Constantinople passed into the hands of the Ottomans, some ghazels, the work of the contemporary Tatar prince, Mir `Ali Shir, who under the nom de plume of Nevayi wrote much that shows true talent and poetic feeling, found their way to the Ottoman capital, where they were seen and copied by Ahmed Pasha, one of the viziers of Mahommed II.
The poems of this statesman, though possessing little merit of their own, being for the most part translations from Nevayi, form one of the landmarks in the history of Ottoman literature.
Hitherto all Ottoman writing, even the most highly Classical finished, had been somewhat rude and uncouth; but.
1563), one of the four great poets of the old school, seems to have been a native of Bagdad or its neighbourhood, and probably became an Ottoman subject when Suleiman took possession of the old capital of the caliphs.
His language, which is very peculiar, seems to be a sort of mixture of the Ottoman and Azerbaijan dialects of Turkish, and was most probably that of the Persian Turks of those days.
arose the second of the great poets of the old Ottoman school, Nef'i of Erzerum, who owes his preeminence to the brilliance of his 1p.sidas.
This prolific author copied, and so imported into Ottoman literature, a didactic style of ghazel-writing which was then being introduced in Persia by the poet Sa'ib; but so closely did the pupil follow in the footsteps of his master that it is not always easy to know that his lines are intended to be Turkish.
About this time Tash-kOprizada began and 'Ata-ullah continued a celebrated biography of the legists and sheikhs who had flourished under the Ottoman monarchs.
Such is the intentional obscurity in many of the compositions of these two authors that every sentence becomes a puzzle, over which even a scholarly Ottoman must pause before he can be sure he has found its true meaning.
The whole tone, sentiment and form of Ottoman literature have been revolutionized by the new school: varieties of poetry hitherto unknown have been adopted from Europe; an altogether new branch of literature, the drama, has arisen; while the sciences are now treated and seriously studied after the system of the West.
Gibb's History of Ottoman Poetry (5 vols., 1900-8, vol.
The financial arrangement as finally agreed upon was that German financiers should control 40% of the capital of the line; French (through the Imperial Ottoman Bank), 30%; Austrian, Swiss, Italian and Turkish, 20%; and the Anatolian Railway Company, io %.
On the 19th of September, seeing a movement among the Egyptian and Turkish ships in the bay, Codrington informed the Ottoman admiral, Tahir Pasha, that he had orders to prevent hostile movements against the Greeks.
It precipitated the RussoTurkish war of 1828-1829, and, by annihilating the Ottoman navy, weakened the resisting power of Turkey to Russia and later to Mehemet Ali.
He wrote a history, in ten books, of the period from 1298-1463, describing the fall of the Greek empire and the rise of the Ottoman Turks, which forms the centre of the narrative, down to the conquest of the Venetians and Mathias, king of Hungary, by Mahommed II.
Bocskay, to save the independence of Transylvania, assisted the Turks; and in 1605, as a reward for his part in driving Basta out of Transylvania, the Hungarian diet, assembled at Modgyes, elected him prince (1605), on which occasion the Ottoman sultan sent a special embassy to congratulate him and a splendid jewelled crown made in Persia.
Conquered by the Seljuks of Konia, and made the capital of the province of Tekke, it passed after their fall through many hands, including those of the Venetians and Genoese, before its final occupation by the Ottoman Turks under Murad II.
The family of Tekke Oglu, domiciled near Perga, though reduced to submission in 1812 by Mahmud II., continued to be a rival power to the Ottoman governor till within the present generation, surviving by many years the fall of the other great Beys of Anatolia.
In the latter part of the 18th century and the first years of the 19th it was constantly the scene of bloody dissensions between two rival parties, one led by the local janissaries, the other by the sherifs (religious); and the Ottoman governors took the side, now of one, now of the other, in order to plunder a distracted city, too far removed from the centre to be controlled by the sultans, and too near the rebellious pashalik of Acre and the unsettled district of Lebanon not to be affected by the disorders natural to a frontier province.
Tumults and massacres of Christians occurred in 1850 and 1862, accompanied by great destruction of property; but on the whole, since the - consolidation of Ottoman rule over Syria by Abdul Mejid's ministers, Aleppo has been reviving, although its trade is more local than of old.
Only after his death did the Ottoman empire become a menace to Christendom.
These communications had been severed on the Ottoman Empire throwing its lot in with the Central Powers three months after the commencement of the struggle.
The Ottoman authorities were moreover known to have given much attention to the problem of mine-fields especially adapted to the peculiar conditions existing within the Dardanelles; and the development which had taken place in this particular form of defence was such as to render the task of a fleet which should try to force the passage a more difficult one than it would have been a few years earlier.
Sir Sackville Carden, the British commander-in-chief in those waters, proposed that a fleet should try to destroy the Ottoman forts in the Straits and to clear away the mine-fields sown in the channel, by adopting a process of methodical advance.
In reality, a very liberal expenditure of artillery ammunition on the part of the fleet was doing considerably less damage to the Ottoman defences than the Allied sailors imagined to be the case.
As Turkish detachments watching this strip of coastline were known to number only about 2,000 men - the Ottoman authorities never contemplating a hostile landing in force in the locality - the design was to put most of the attacking troops ashore during the night of the 6th-7th as a surprise, and that they should then push on at once and master a range of hills 4 or 5 m.
The only Ottoman detachments which during the 7th and 8th confronted the two British divisions that had made a descent on this locality were those which had been on guard on the spot when the landing was taking place.
The very few Ottoman guns which had been causing the freshly disembarked troops a good deal of annoyance during the 7th had been withdrawn for fear of capture, the defenders fully expecting a forward move by the Allies.
As had been the case at Helles and at Anzac ever since the first opening of land operations in April, only a restricted patch of Ottoman territory had been obtained by the new undertaking, and although the position at Anzac had been extended and improved it remained an extremely bad one.
Large forces were engaged on either side in this battle, and the attack was prepared for by a comparatively speaking heavy bombardment of the Ottoman trenches; in this battleships and cruisers moored in Suvla Bay, in security from submarines, participated.
The campaign by which the Central Powers and Bulgaria crushed Serbia for the time being, and by their triumph opened communications through Bulgaria with the Ottoman Empire, profoundly influenced the situation in the Gallipoli Peninsula.
The Ottoman higher command was well content that the troops under its charge should maintain an attitude of passive defence; they were keeping Allied divisions in idleness which, were they to be transferred to some other one of the theatres of war, might prove invaluable assets to the cause of the Entente.
Monro arrived and recommended evacuation of the peninsula, the Ottoman host gathered about the Dardanelles was already decidedly stronger in point of numbers than was the army which was clinging to patches of littoral without a sheltered base.
But as their numbers grew in the autumn, and as their headquarters staff noted how the invaders were dwindling away owing to transfers to Salonika and to no drafts arriving to replenish wastage, it became possible to keep a number of the Ottoman divisions in reserve, well in rear of the fighting fronts or else on the Asiatic side of the Dardanelles.
But, fortunately for the Allies, their .dispositions had been so skilful that the Ottoman staff had not ascertained that the Anzac and Suvla areas had been almost vacated.
They moreover enjoyed an even more marked superiority in respect to artillery, and this the Ottoman commander-in-chief hastened to turn to account; the heavier guns which had been sweeping the Anzac and Suvla areas for months past were promptly transferred to the high ground overlooking the extremity of the peninsula or to positions on the Asiatic side of the Straits from which the extremity of the peninsula could be effectively taken in flank.
As the staff fully foresaw, the enemy would exert greater vigilance than had been the case while the withdrawals had been in progress from the northern areas, these having given the Ottoman authorities warning of what was likely to happen.
With the object apparently of ascertaining the strength of their opponents, the Ottoman forces on the afternoon of Jan.
Meanwhile the empire seemed in danger of breaking up. Not till 1812 was the war with Russia closed by the treaty of Bucharest, which restored Moldavia and the greater part of Wallachia to the Ottoman government.
The rising in the north was easily crushed; but in the south the Ottoman power was hampered by the defection of the sea-faring Greeks, by whom the Turkish navy had hitherto been manned.
It was no longer the Porte that decided, but the Seraglio, and the sultan's private secretary had more ififluence on the policy of the Ottoman empire than the grand vizier.
On his sole initiative, without consulting his ministers or the council of the empire, he sent instructions to Hafiz Pasha, commanding the Ottoman troops concentrated at Bir on the Euphrates, to advance into Syria.
The ordinary tobacco and cigarette trade is controlled by the Regie Compagnie interessee des tabacs de l'empire Ottoman, and Narquileh tobacco (called " tumbeki " and used in " hubble-bubbles ") is in the hands of a similar organization.
The Hejaz coast and some of the Yemen ports were still held by Mehemet Ali, as viceroy of Egypt, but on his final withdrawal from Arabia in 1845, Hejaz came under direct Turkish rule, and the conquest of Yemen in 1872 placed the whole Red Sea littoral (with the exception of the Midian coast, ceded by Egypt on the accession of Abbas Hilmi Pasha)under Ottoman administration.
as part of the Ottoman dominions.
Janet was reoccupied by Ottoman troops in the summer of 1910, but in deference to French protests the troops were withdrawn pending the delimitation of the frontier.
At the same time Turkey maintained the claim that Tunisians were Ottoman subjects.
When the Seljuk state broke up, and the Osmanli or Ottoman sovereignty arose, Konia decayed, its population dwindled and the splendid early Turkish buildings were suffered to go to ruin.
In the city there is a branch of the Ottoman bank, a government technical school, a French Catholic mission and a school, an Armenian Protestant school for boys, an American mission school for girls, mainly Armenian, and other educational establishments.
The vilayet is now traversed by the Anatolian railway, and contains the railhead of the Ottoman line from Smyrna.
Finally in 1390 Philadelphia, which had for some time been an independent Christian city, surrendered to Sultan Bayezid's mixed army of Ottoman Turks and Byzantine Christians, and the Seljuk power in the Hermus valley was merged in the Ottoman empire.
In the following sections the Lebanon proper will alone be considered, without reference to Anti-Lebanon, because the peculiar political status of the former range since 1864 has effectually differentiated it; whereas the Anti-Lebanon still forms an integral part of the Ottoman province of Syria (q.v.), and neither its population nor its history is readily distinguishable from those of the surrounding districts.
Since the establishment of the privileged province they have lost the Ottoman support which used to compensate for their numerical inferiority as compared with the Christians; and they are fast losing also their old habits and distinctiveness.
An informal French protection had, however, been exercised over them for some time previously, and with it began the feud of Maronites and Druses, the latter incited and spasmodically supported by Ottoman pashas.
It should be added, however, that among the Druses of Shuf, feudalism has tended to re-establish itself, and the power is now divided between the Jumblat and Yezbeki families, a leading member of one of which is almost always Ottoman kaiynakam of the Druses, and locally called amir.
they often persist under Ottoman forms, and three courts of First Instance, under the mejliss, and superior to the petty courts of the mudirs and the village sheikhs, administer justice.
Albania, the traditional claim of France to protect Roman Catholics in the Ottoman Empire has been greatly impaired by the non-religious character of the Republic. Like Italy, she is now regarded by Eastern Catholics with distrust as an enemy of the Holy Father.
The History of the Ottoman Empire, by Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (French translation J.
His justification was the new life which he breathed into the decaying bones of the Ottoman empire.
A second battle, fought in the Dardanelles (July 17-19), ended by a lucky shot blowing up the Venetian flag-ship; the losses of the Ottoman fleet were repaired, and in the middle of August Kuprili appeared off Tenedos, which was captured on the 31st and reincorporated permanently in the Turkish empire.
Thus the Ottoman prestige was restored at sea, while Kuprili's ruthless enforcement of discipline in the army and suppression of revolts, whether in Europe or Asia, restored it also on land.
This Persian title became in later times the special designation of the Kushan kings and is curiously parallel to the use of Arabic and Persian titles (padishah, sultan, &c.) by the Ottoman Turks.
The Imperial Ottoman Bank and the Banque de Salonique have branches in the city, and French is to a remarkable extent the language of commerce.
DRAGOMAN (from the Arabic terjuman, an interpreter or translator; the same root occurs in the Hebrew word targum signifying translation, the title of the Chaldaean translation of the Bible), a comprehensive designation applied to all who act as intermediaries between Europeans and Orientals, from the hotel tout or travellers' guide, hired at a few shillings a day, to the chief dragoman of a foreign embassy whose functions include the carrying on of the most important political negotiations with the Ottoman government, or the dragoman of the imperial divan (the grand master of the ceremonies).
The political relations between the Porte and the European states, more frequent in proportion as the Ottoman power declined, compelled the sultan's ministers to make use of interpreters, who rapidly acquired considerable influence.
His accession marks the definite beginning of the decline of the Ottoman power, which had only been maintained under Selim II.
In view of this general demoralization not even the victorious outcome of the campaigns in Georgia, the Crimea, Daghestan, Yemen and Persia (1578-1590) could prevent the decay of the Ottoman power; indeed, by weakening the Mussulman states, they hastened the process, since they facilitated the advance of Russia to the Black Sea and the Caspian.
OTTOMAN EMPIRE (see 27.426).
- The Turkish Revolution of 1908 was thought, at the time, to promise an era of genuine reformation and revival for the Ottoman Empire; a few years showed that it had opened, instead, the final brief period of that empire's existence.
Long declining, long owing its continuance to the jealousies and conflicting policies of the great European Powers, the Ottoman Empire may be said to have ended, as the result of defeat in war, when its delegates signed the Treaty of Sevres on Aug.
The Committee transferred their attention from the Sultan Abdul Hamid to the Ottoman Parliament - which assembled on Dec. 17 1908 - as the new means to power, and continued as active as ever.
The Committee had, in fact, a definite policy before them for execution; a policy by no means in harmony with the professions of liberty and equality for all Ottoman subjects upon which the revolution had been accomplished.
Racial and national ideals, characteristics, laws and languages of these subject peoples were to be suppressed, by force if necessary, and an Ottoman population created which, outwardly at least, should be homogeneous within the empire's wide confines.
Taking a detached view of Turkish civilization, even of the faith of Islam itself, for the two are inseparable - the Committee saw much wanting, much existing that was cumbersome and useless, much that provided a fatal handicap to the progress of the Ottoman State.
For the good of the Turkish race and the ultimate Ottoman State the Committee intended reformation in these directions as well.
After the prompt suppression of this rebellion, the Committee became sovereign in the direction of Ottoman affairs.
The operations, however, did not result entirely to the advantage of the Turks, who suffered at least one serious reverse, and a compromise followed under which the Druses accepted conscription for the Ottoman army.
The Ottoman Government took these experiences to heart.
Italy had long shown designs on Tripoli, the remaining African province of the Ottoman Empire.
This affair prompted the Ottoman Government to close the Darda nelles and Bosporus against all shipping, a course which caused immense loss and inconvenience to neutral Powers and produced such vigorous protest, particularly from Russia, that the straits were reopened in May.
But difficulties of finance, the impossibility of undertaking effective operations against Italy, and signs of impending trouble in the Balkans at length compelled the Ottoman Government to peace.
18 1912, Tripoli, the last Ottoman territory in Africa, passed into Italian possession.
Following the general elections in April for the Ottoman Chamber, in which the Committee of Union and Progress had exhausted every method of corruption and violence to secure the return of their candidates, 30,000 Albanian clansmen, exasperated by "Turkification" and repression, mustered in organized rebellion.
18 1912 the four Balkan States were at war with the Ottoman Empire.
When war broke out the Ottoman forces in Europe numbered less than 250,000 men, dispersed over Macedonia and Thrace; they were thus at great numerical disadvantage.
The Anatolian troops, ever the bulk of Ottoman armed strength, had to be conveyed great distances by inadequate means of transportation.
Within four weeks the Ottoman Empire had lost Macedonia and Albania except the fortress and district of Yanina whose garrison as yet lay outside the area of operations.
The fall of Adrianople on March 26 ended these unrealities; and on May 30 1913 the Ottoman delegates signed the Treaty of London.
Bulgaria herself was helpless; the Powers would not assist her; her late allies - now her enemies - were not opposed to the Turkish aggression; and in the end Bulgaria executed a treaty restoring the province to the Ottoman Empire.
It is necessary now to glance at the growth of German influence in the Ottoman Empire as being closely connected with the Turkish downfall.
German commercial undertakings had been encouraged and assisted by the German Government to acquire immense and valuable interests within Ottoman domains; among them the construction and working of the great line of railway designed to connect Constantinople with Syria, Arabia and Bagdad.
The bond thus established caused German advice and assistance to be sought in reorganizing the Ottoman army.
1914, Great Britain, Russia and France had all declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
The recovery of lost Ottoman territory, the furthering of Pan-Islamism, and the freeing of the empire from all exasperating fetters of European control, were given as additional and important purposes in view.
Participation in the war involved the Ottoman Empire in hostilities on every front of her territory; it was the penalty of her action and her geographical situation.
It was recognized that in Constantinople lay the heart of the whole Eastern theatre, and that if the Straits were forced and the Ottoman capital occupied, the war in Europe itself would be greatly shortened.
It was one of the empire's historical fronts; beyond it lay the traditional Russian enemy; on the hither side was the Ottoman fortress of Erzerum, the greatest place of arms in Asia Minor.
of Ottoman territory.
In Mesopotamia from 1915 onward the Ottoman Empire had been faced by serious British military operations, here, too, with various changes of fortune.
From this time onward, Arabia, instead of being a possible source of strength to the Ottoman Empire, became the theatre of hostile, operations which presently extended northward to southern Palestine and endangered the left flank of the Turkish army threatening Egypt.
This campaign ended all Ottoman resistance.
The remaining history of the Ottoman Empire up to Dec. 1921 has chiefly to do with the deliberations of the Allied Conference in determining the conditions of peace.
The treaty embodying the terms of the Allied Powers was eventually signed at Sevres by the Ottoman delegates on Aug.
In 1400 Timur pillaged it, and in 1517 it passed, with the rest of Syria, to the Ottoman dominion.
With the treaty of London (1840) Baalbek became really Ottoman, and since the settlement of the Lebanon (1864) has attracted great numbers of tourists.
Glaser, Die Abessinier in Arabien and Afrika (Munich,1895); J.H.Mordtmann, Musee Imperial Ottoman, &c. (Constantinople, 1895); D.
the relations of the various states to the old Holy Roman Empire; the relations of the Ottoman Porte to its Christian provinces.
WAR OF GREEK INDEPENDENCE, the name given to the great rising of the Greek subjects of the sultan against the Ottoman domination, which began in 1821 and ended in 1833 with the establishment of the independent kingdom of Greece.
Had Khosrev, the new Ottoman admiral, been a man of enterprise, he might have regained the command of the sea and, with it, that of the whole situation.
When Church and Cochrane arrived, a general assault on the Ottoman camp was decided on.
That glorious epithet belonged of right to Hungary,which g p g g had already borne the brunt of the struggle with the Ottoman power for more than a century.
Their daring grew with their numbers, and at last they came to be a constant annoyance to all their neighbours, both Christian and Mussulman, frequently involving Poland in dangerous and unprofitable wars with the Ottoman Empire.
In 1699 the long Turkish War, which had been going on ever since 1683, was concluded by the peace of Karlowitz, whereby Podolia, the Ukraine and the fortress of Kamenets Podolskiy were retroceded to the Republic by the Ottoman Porte.
This guarantee was to include the Ottoman dominions, in whose interests, indeed, it had been brought forward.
Midhat Pasha now became grand vizier, reforms were freely promised, and the Ottoman parliament was inaugurated with a great flourish.
An army of 160,000 Turkish veterans led by Sultan Osman in person advanced from Adrianople towards the Polish frontier, but Chodkiewicz crossed the Dnieper in September 1621 and entrenched himself in the fortress of Khotin right in the path of the Ottoman advance.
(1589-1617), sultan of Turkey, was the son of Mahommed III., whom he succeeded in 1603, being the first Ottoman sultan who reached the throne before attaining his majority.
Of these the most important are the Idadieh school, the school of arts and crafts, the Jewish communal school; the Greek college, Zappeion; the Imperial Ottoman Bank and Tobacco Regie; a fire-tower; a theatre; palaces for the prefect of the city, the administrative staff of the second army corps and the defence works commission; a handsome row of barracks; a military hospital; and a French hospital.
After suffering from Persian and Arabic raids, Galatia was conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the 11th century and passed to the Ottoman Turks in the middle of the t4th.
In 1574 he commanded the great expedition against Tunis, which, in spite of the brave defence by the Spanish and Italian garrison, was added to the Ottoman empire.
The Balkan Wars, and Poincare's attitude towards the problem raised by them, greatly increased his prestige; he declared on Dec. 4 to the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Chamber that he was determined to secure respect for the economic and political interests of France, not only in the Balkan Peninsula, but in the Ottoman Empire generally, and especially in Syria.
But with the substitution of Ottoman for Arab empire, resulting in the virtual independence of both Egypt and Tripoli, the district lying between them relapsed to anarchy.
To protect the Cretans the Ottoman government has extended the civil administration and created several small garrisoned posts.
The Ottoman officials discourage travel in the interior, partly from fear of the Senussites, partly from suspicions, excited by the lively interest manifested by Italy in Cyrenaica.
It was taken by the Seljuks, Aidin and Mentesh, late in the 13th century, and about 1390, when ruled by Isa Bey, a descendant of the first-named, acknowledged Ottoman suzerainty.
Nevertheless, he was far from indifferent to the Ottoman danger.
Since Mesopotamia finally came into the power of the Ottoman sultans considerable changes in the population have occurred.
The introduction into the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji of 1774 of a clause by which the Porte guaranteed the rights of its Christian subjects, and of another 'giving Russia the right to interfere on behalf of a new Russian church in Constantinople, advertised the claim of the tsars to be the natural protectors of the Orthodox in the Ottoman dominions; but when she took up arms again in 1788 in alliance with Joseph II., it was to make a mere war of conquest and partition.
in 1515; and since that date it has remained under Ottoman rule.
(1347-1403), Ottoman sultan, surnamed Yilderim or "Lightning," from the great rapidityof his movements, succeeded his father Murad I.
His arms were successful both in Europe and Asia, and he was the first Ottoman sovereign to be styled "sultan," which title he induced the titular Abbasid caliph to confer on him.
It is, however, only fair to add that the sultan was doubtless influenced by the desire to bring about a similar change in the succession to the Ottoman throne and to ensure the succession after him of his eldest son, Yussuf Izz-ed-din.
Abd-ul-Aziz visited Europe in 1867, being the first Ottoman sultan to do so, and was made a Knight of the Garter by Queen Victoria.
His visit to the Holy Land and the solemn pilgrimage to Jerusalem were, in the same way, a striking coup de thiltre designed to strengthen the influence won by Germany in the councils of the Ottoman empire, an influence which she had been careful not to weaken by taking too active a part in the concert of the powers engaged in pressing on the question of Macedonian reform.
A plan had been elaborated at Constantinople for uniting the Volga and Don by a canal, and in the summer of 1569 a large force of Janissaries and cavalry were sent to lay siege to Astrakhan and begin the canal works, while an Ottoman fleet besieged Azov.
But a sortie of the garrison of Astrakhan drove back the besiegers; 15,000 Russians, under Knes Serebianov, attacked and scattered the workmen and the Tatar force sent for their protection; and, finally, the Ottoman fleet was destroyed by a storm.
Of more importance to Austria itself was the war with Sweden (1657-60) which resulted in the peace of Oliva, by which the independence of Poland was secured and the frontier of Hungary safeguarded, and the campaigns against the Turks (1662-64 and 1683-99), by which the Ottoman power was driven from Hungary, and the Austrian attitude towards Turkey and the Slav peoples of the Balkans determined for a century to come.
The first war, due to Ottoman aggression in Transylvania, ended with Montecuculi's victory over the grand vizier at Wars with Y g Turkey.
Ottoman power; and for a while the policy of Austria towards the Porte underwent a change that foreshadowed her attitude towards the Eastern Question in the 19th century.
The revolution in Turkey had entirely changed the face of the Eastern Question; the problem of Macedonian reform was swallowed up in that of the reform of the Ottoman empire generally, there was even a danger that a rejuvenated Turkey might in time lay claim to the provinces occupied by Austria-Hungary under the treaty of Berlin; in any case, the position of these provinces, governed autocratically from Vienna, between a constitutional Turkey and a constitutional Austria-Hungary, would have been highly anomalous.
This last obligation was, in virtue of the Capitulations, applicable to Egypt as part of the Ottoman empire.
The only exception, resulting from the Ottoman law under which foreigners are allowed to acquire and hold real property, is the land tax.
In 1517 Egypt became part of the Ottoman empire and was governed by pashas sent from Constantinople, whose influence about 1707 gave way to that of ~fficials chosen from the Mamelukes who bore the title Sheik al-balad.
(7) Period of Burji Mamelukes.BarkUk presently entered into relations with the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I., and by slaying an envoy of Timur incurred the displeasure of the worldconqueror; and in 1394 led an army into Syria with the view of restoring, the Jelairid Ilkhan Abmad to Bagdad (as Barkks vassal), and meeting the Mongol invasion.
Incursions were immediately made by the Ottoman sultan into the territory of Egyptian vassals at Derendeh and Albistan (Ablestin), and Malatia was besieged by his forces.
In the following year (September 29th, 1402) Timur who had in the interval inflicted a crushing defeat on the Ottoman sultan, sent to demand homage from Faraj, and his demand was readily granted, together with the delivery of the princes who had sought refuge from Timur in Egyptian territory.
His reign was marked by friendly relations with the Ottoman sultan Mahommed II., whose capture of Constantinople (1453) was the cause of great rejoicings in Egypt, but also by violent excesses on the part of the Mamelukes, who dictated the sultans policy.
In his reign (1463) there began the struggle between the Egyptian and the Ottoman sultanates which finally led to the incorporation of Egypt in the Ottoman empire.
The P4JrJy dispute began with a struggle over the succession in relations the principality of Karaman, where the two sultans favored rival candidates, and the Ottoman sultan ur ey.
He also offended the Ottoman sultan .Bayezid II.
Owing to this, and also to the fact that an Indian embassy to the Ottoman sultan was intercepted by the agents of Kait Bey, Bayezid II.
declared war against Egypt, and seized Adana, Tarsus and other places within Egyptian territory; extraordinary efforts were made by Kait Bey, whose generals inflicted a severe defeat on the Ottoman invaders.
In I49I, however, after the Egyptians had repeatedly defeated the Ottoman troops, Kait Bey made proposals of peace which were accepted, the keys of the towns which the Ottomans had seized being restored to the Egyptian sultan.
In 1515 there began the war with the Ottoman sultan Selim I.
The actual declaration of war was not made by Selim till May 1515, when the Ottoman sultan had made all his preparations; and at the battle of Merj Dabik, on the 24th of August 1515, Kansuh was defeated by the Ottoman forces and fell fighting.
It would seem that the constant changes in the govern~nent caused the army to get out of control at an early period of the Ottoman occupation, and at the beginning of the 11th Islamic century mutinies became common; in 1013 Troubles (1604) the governor Ibrahim Pasha was murdered by a~,~rmy.thi0 the soldiers, and his head set on the Bab Zuwflla.
With the troubles that beset the metropolis of the Ottoman empire, the governors appointed thence came to be treated by the Egyptians with continually decreasing respect.
Reinforced by All Beys ally ~Ahir, he easily took the chief cities, ending with Damascus; but at this point he appears to have entered into secret negotiations with the Porte, by which he undertook to restore Egypt to Ottoman suzerainty.
The two were soon involved in quarrels, which at one time threatened to break out into open war; but this catastrophe was averted, and the joint rule was maintained till 1786, when an expedition was sent by the Porte to restore Ottoman supremacy in Egypt.
It was not only the very existence of the Ottoman empire that seemed to be at stake, but Egypt itself had become more than ever an object of attention, to British statesplen especially, and in the issue of the struggle were involved the interests of Great Britain in the two routes to India by the Isthmus of Suez and the valley of the Euphrates.
Once more the Ottoman.
On the 24th of October of that year he concluded a preliminary convention by which an Ottoman and a British high commissioner, acting in concert with the khedive, should reorganize the Egyptian army, tranquillize the Sudan by pacific means, and consider what changes might be necessary in the civil administration.
Technically, therefore, the preliminary convention still remains in force, and in reality the Ottoman commissioner continued to reside in Cairo till the close of 1908.
In April a conference was held between the khedive and Mukhtar Pasha, the Ottoman commissioner.
The illiterate brigand, whose boyish ambition had not looked beyond the recovery of his father's beylick, was now established as one of the most powerful viziers under the Ottoman government.
The first of these was the resistance of the little Christian hill community of Suli; the second the Venetian occupation of the coast, within a mile of which - by convention with the Porte - no Ottoman soldier might penetrate.
After some hesitation it was decided to evacuate Parga and hand it over to the Ottoman government, i.e.
By its terms the Pargiots were to receive an asylum in the islands, the Ottoman government undertaking to pay compensation for their property.
Its execution was entrusted to Khurshid Pasha, with the bulk of the Ottoman forces.
He offered to surrender the claim, successfully asserted when the sultan had been excluded from the Holy Alliance and the affairs of the Ottoman empire from the deliberations of Vienna, that the affairs of the East were the " domestic concerns of Russia," and to march into Turkey, as Austria had marched into Naples, " as the mandatory of Europe."
Once more in Russia, far from the fascination of Metternich's personality, the immemorial spirit of his people drew him back into itself; and when, in the autumn of 1825, he took his dying empress for change of air to the south of Russia, in order - as all Europe supposed - to place himself at the head of the great army concentrated near the Ottoman frontiers, his language was no longer that of " the peace-maker of Europe," but of the Orthodox tsar determined to take the interests of his people and of his religion "into his own hands."
Except !in India, where it is controlled by the government, In 1878 seventeen lecture-rooms of the Azhar had 3707 students, of whom only 64 came from Constantinople and the northern parts of the Ottoman Empire, 8 from North Arabia, I from the government of Bagdad, 12 from Kurdistan, and 7 from India with its thirty million Sunnites.
(1517) the Ottoman Selim, who destroyed the Mameluke power, constrained the 'Abbasid Motawakkil III., who lived in Cairo, to make over to him his nominal caliphate.
The Ottoman sultans still bear the title of "successors of the Prophet," and still find it useful in foreign relations, since there is or may be some advantage in the right of the caliph to nominate the chief cadi WO) of Egypt and in the fact that the spiritual head of Khiva calls himself only the nakib (vicegerent) of the sultan.'
For the organization of the `ulema in the Ottoman Empire during the middle ages see E.
Gibb, A History of Ottoman Poetry, ii.
The Turkish population, descended in part from the Ottoman invaders of the 14th and 15th centuries, in part from colonists introduced at various epochs from Asia by the Turkish government, declined considerably during the 19th century, especially in the countries withdrawn from the sultan's authority.
The disorganization and internecine feuds of the various states prepared the way for the Ottoman invasion.
In the 16th century under Solyman the Magnificent (1520-1566) the Ottoman power attained its greatest height; after the unsuccessful siege of Vienna (1683) it began to decline.
The doors were removed to the Ottoman Museum at Constantinople.
He united in his person the best qualities of his predecessors, and possessed the gift of taking full advantage of the talents of the able generals, admirals and 1 Suleiman, eldest son of Bayazid I., who maintained himself as sultan at Adrianople from 1402 to 1410, is not reckoned as legitimate by the Ottoman historiographers, who reckon Suleiman the Magnificent as the first of the name.
The modern subdivisions under the jurisdiction of the Ottoman Empire are in no sense conterminous with those of antiquity, and hence do not afford a boundary by which Palestine can be separated exactly from the rest of Syria in the north, or from the Sinaitic and Arabian deserts in the south and east; nor are the records of ancient boundaries sufficiently full and definite to make possible the complete demarcation of the country.
Under the Ottoman jurisdiction Palestine has no independent existence.
The last stage of the history of Palestine was reached in 1516, when the war between the Ottoman sultan and the Mamelukes of Egypt resulted ir_ the transference of the country to the dominion of the Turks.
Few names or events stand out in the history of this period: perhaps the most interesting personality is that of the Druse prince Fakhr ud-Din (1595-1634), whose expulsion of the Arabs from the coast as far south as Acre and establishment of his own kingdom, in defiance of Ottoman authority - to say nothing of his dilettante cultivation of art, the result of a temporary sojourn in Italy - make him worth a passing notice.
From 1840 onwards the Ottoman government gradually strengthened its hold on Palestine.
The first, called the Persian Gulf section, runs from Karachi to Bushire, from Jask to Muscat, and from Bushire to Fao, where a connexion is made with the Ottoman government line.
To the European diplomatists of the first half of the 19th century the Ottoman empire was still the only East with which they were collectively brought into contact.
The Eastern Question, though its roots are set far back in history - in the ancient contest between the political and intellectual ideals of Greece and Asia, and in the perennial rivalry of the powers for the control of the great trade routes to the East - dates in its modern sense from the treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji in 1774, which marked the definitive establishment of Russia as a Black Sea power and formed the basis of her special claims to interfere in the affairs of the Ottoman empire.
at Tilsit (1807) marked a new phase, which culminated in 1812 in the treaty of Bucharest, in which Russia definitely appeared as the protector of the Christian nationalities subject to the Ottoman sultan.
Russia, apart from her desire to protect the Orthodox nationalities subject to the Ottoman power, aimed at owning or controlling the straits by which alone she could find an outlet to the Mediterranean and the ocean beyond.
Austria, once the champion of Europe against the Turk, saw in the Russian advance on the Danube a greater peril than any to be feared from the moribund Ottoman power, and made the maintenance of the integrity of Turkey a prime object of her policy.
But though Austria, Great Britain and presently France, were all equally interested in maintaining the Ottoman empire, the failure of the congress of Vienna in 1815 to take action in the matter of a guarantee of Turkey, and the exclusion of the Sultan from the Holy Alliance, seemed to endorse the claim of Russia to regard the Eastern Question as "her domestic concern" in which "Europe" had no right to interfere.
It was no longer a question of the partition of Turkey or of a Russian conquest of Constantinople, but of the deliberate degradation by Russia of the Ottoman empire into a weak state wholly dependent upon herself.
The Eastern Question, however, slumbered until, in 1851, the matter of the Holy Places was raised by Napoleon III., involving the whole question of the influence in Ottoman affairs of France under the capitulations of 1740 and of Russia under the treaty of 1774.
The Crimean War followed and in 1856 the treaty of Paris, by which the powers hoped to stem the tide of Russian advance and establish the integrity of a reformed Ottoman state.
It thus, while ostensibly weakening, actually tended to strengthen the Ottoman power of resistance.
The international position of the Ottoman empire was strengthened by the able, if Machiavellian, statecraft of the sultan; while the danger of disruption from within was lessened by the more effective central control made possible by railways, telegraphs, and the other mechanical improvements borrowed from western civilization.
With the spread of the Pan-Islamic movement, moreover, the undefined authority of the sultan as caliph of Islam received a fresh importance even in countries beyond the borders of the Ottoman empire, while in countries formerly, or nominally still, subject to it, it caused, and promised to cause, incalculable trouble.
The belief in the imminent collapse of the Ottoman dominion was weakened almost to extinction; so was the belief, which inspired the treaty cf 1856, in the capacity of Turkey to reform and develop itself on European lines.
But the Ottoman empire remained, the mistress of vast undeveloped wealth.
As the result of the patient and masterly organization of the "young Turks," combined with the universal discontent with the rule of the sultan and the palace camarilla, the impossible seemed to be achieved, and the heterogeneous elements composing the Ottoman empire to be united in the desire to establish a unified state on the constitutional model of the West.
Sooner or later the issue was sure to be raised of the status of those countries, still nominally part of the Ottoman empire, but in effect independent, like Bulgaria, or subject to another state, like Bosnia and Herzegovina.
He died at Cairo, a pensionary of the Ottoman government, in 1538.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia related to the part of the Ottoman Empire that was in Europe.
The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire has been regulated by the Great Powers, or some of them, in the treaties of London, 1832, 1863, 1864, and of Constantinople, 1881, with reference to Greece; and by the treaties of Paris, 1856; London, 1871; Berlin, 1878;1878; London, 1883, with reference to Montenegro, Rumania, Servia, Bulgaria and the navigation of the Danube.
Mahommedans who do not acknowledge the spiritual authority of the Ottoman sultan, such as the Persians and Moors, look to their own rulers for the proclamation of a jihad; there has been in fact no universal warfare by Moslems on unbelievers since the early days of Mahommedanism.
He was master of the holy cities, and the official Moniteur Ottoman denounced his supposed plan of aiming at the caliphate in collusion with the sherif of Mecca.
He defeated the Ottoman advance-guard at Horns on the 9th of July and at Hamah on the 11th, entered Aleppo on the 17th, and on the 29th inflicted a crushing defeat on the main Turkish army under Hussein Pasha at the pass of Beilan.
Ottoman agents, backed by letters from the French charge d'affaires, were sent to Mehemet Ali and to Ibrahim, to point out the imminence of Russian intervention and to offer modified terms. Muraviev himself went to Alexandria, where, backed by the Austrian agent, Count Prokesch-Osten, he announced to the pasha the tsar's immutable hatred of rebels.
He was at the head of 100,000 men, well organized and flushed with victory; the Ottoman army survived only as demoralized rabble.
The work of Moltke, who with other German officers who had been engaged in organizing the Turkish army, threatened to destroy his superiority in the field; the commercial treaty signed by the Ottoman government with Great Britain (Aug.
The old sultan thirsted to crush his rebel ous vassal, at any cost; and on the 21st of April 1839 the Ottoman army, stationed at Bir on the Euphrates, crossed the stream and invaded Syria.
To complete the desperateness of the situation the news reached the capital that Ahmed Pasha, the Ottoman admiral-in-chief, had sailed to Alexandria and surrendered his fleet to Mehemet Ali, on the pretext that the sultan's advisers were sold to the Russians.
So far as the forces of the Ottoman Empire were concerned, From Lord Ponsonby, F.O., Turkey, May 22, 1833.
The emperor Nicholas was prepared to accept the views of Great Britain on the Turco-Egyptian question; to allow the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi to lapse; to act henceforth in the Ottoman Empire only in concert with the other powers, in return for an agreement closing the Dardanelles to the war-ships of all nations and to extend the same principle to the Bosporus.
Palmerston, on the other hand, believed that the Ottoman empire would never be secure until "the desert had been placed between" the pasha of Egypt and the sultan; and the view that the coalition should be directed against Mehemet Ali was shared by the other powers.
He proposed to the French consul-general at Alexandria to make advances to the Porte, and suggested sending back the Ottoman fleet as an earnest of his good intentions, a course which, it was hoped, "would lead to a direct and amicable arrangement of the Turco-Egyptian question."
On the 11th of September, Suleiman Pasha not having obeyed the summons to evacuate the town, the bombardment was begun, and Ottoman troops were landed to co-operate with the rebels.
Nine days earlier Sir Charles Napier had appeared with a British squadron off Alexandria and, partly by persuasion, partly by threats, had induced Mehemet Ali to submit to the sultan and to send back the Ottoman fleet, in return for a guarantee of the hereditary pashalik of Egypt.
This arrangement was ratified by Palmerston; and all four powers now combined to press it on the reluctant Porte, pointing out, in a joint note of the 30th of January 1841, that "they were not conscious of advising a course out of harmony with the sovereignty and legitimate rights of the sultan, or contrary to the duties imposed on the Pasha of Egypt as a subject appointed by His Highness to govern a province of the Ottoman Empire."
de l'Emp. ottoman (1894), and Spezialkarte v.
But through the intervention of the European Powers Mehemet Ali was obliged to come to terms, and the Ottoman empire was saved.
The Imperial Ottoman Telegraph Co.
British subjects and foreigners, who have resided five years in Cyprus, can exercise the franchise as well as Ottoman subjects.
Actions are divided, according to the nationality of the defendant, into " Ottoman " and " Foreign "; in the latter, the president of the court alone exercises jurisdiction as a rule, so also in criminal cases against foreigners.
The law administered is that contained in the Ottoman codes, modified by ordinances passed by the legislative council.
From 1876 to 1878 Major Alexander P. di Cesnola continued his brother's work, but the large collection which he exhibited in London in 1880 was dispersed soon afterwards.14 On the British occupation of Cyprus in 1878, the Ottoman law of 1874 in regard to antiquities was retained in force.
Gregory [Grigorie] Sturdza (1821-1901), son of the above, was educated in France and Germany, became a general in the Ottoman army under the name of Muklis Pasha, and afterwards attained the same rank in the Moldavian army.
Constitution and Government.Up to the year 1906 the government of Persia was an absolute monarchy, and resembled in its principal features that of the Ottoman Empire, with the exception, however, that the monarch was not the religious head of the community.
From this developed (as already under the Arsacids) that strict principle of legitimacy which is still vigorous in Firdousi It applies, however, to the whole royal house, precisely as in the Ottoman Empire of to-day.
Zeno was sent in 1471 to incite this warlike ruler against the Ottoman sultan, and succeeded in his mission.
Kum and Tauris or Tabriz (then the capital) were also visited by the Italian envoys following in the royal suite; and the incidental notice of these cities, added to Contarinis formal statement that the extensive country of U~suncassan is bounded by the Ottoman Empire and by Caramania, and that Siras (Shiraz) is comprehended in it, proves that at least Azerbaijan, Irak, and the main part of the provinces to the south, inclusive of Fars, were within the dominions of the reigning monarch.
In 1601 the war with the Ottoman Empire, which had been partially renewed prior to the death of Sultan Murad in 1595, with little success on the Turkish side, was now entered upon by Abbas with more vigour.
But the former proportions had been partly reverted to, and, would doubtless have been in some respects exceeded, both in Afghanistan and the Ottoman dominions and on the shores of the Caspian, by the action of this indefatigable general, had not ~ahmasp II.
insignificant gain to Persia.1 Another battle won from the Ottoman troops near Diarbekr by Na~r Ullah Mirza, the young prince who had married a princess of Delhi, left matters much the same as before.
This made Abbas Mirza at once seize upon the fortified places of Toprak Kalah and Ak Sarai within the limits of the Ottoman Empire, and, overcoming the insufficient force sent against him, he was further enabled to extend his inroads to Mush, Bitlis, and other known localities.
The Ottoman army which met him is said to have numbered some 52,000; but victory was on the side of their opponents.
A massacre of Persians at Kerbela might have seriously complicated the dispute, but, after a first burst of indignation and call for vengeance, an expression of the regret of the Ottoman government was accepted as a sufficient apology for the occurrence.
It remained an important city for some time after its final incorporation in the Ottoman empire; but became subsequently an insignificant village.
The province of Bengazi, being still without telegraphs or roads, is one of the most backward in the Ottoman empire.
Before the Ottoman conquest its remains were already buried under several feet of silt.
Two great powers, Egypt and Turkey, challenged the naval and commercial supremacy of the Portuguese, but an Egyptian armada was destroyed by Almeida in 1509, and though Ottoman fleets were on several occasions (as in 1517 and 1521) despatched from Suez or Basra, they failed to achieve any success, and the Portuguese were able to close the two principal trade routes 1 Decadas, XII.
He even sent ambassadors to Rome to protest against ecclesiastical corruption, as well as to checkmate the Venetian diplomatists who threatened Europe with Ottoman of fhe vengeance if the Portuguese commercial monopoly were not relaxed.
It was not till 1675 that, under the first capitulations signed with Turkey, English consuls were established in the Ottoman empire.
Consuls in the Ottoman empire, China, Siam and Korea have extensive judicial and executive powers.
The great natural strength of the site protected it against petty assailants; but, like other towns in that region, it has known many masters - Lydians, Persians, the kings of Pergamum, Romans and Ottoman Turks.
Originally and properly applicable to a status recognized by feudalism, the term vassal state has been used to describe the subordinate position of certain states once parts of the Ottoman Empire, and still loosely connected therewith.
The relations of these states to the Ottoman Porte are very varied.
The patriarch under the old Ottoman system had his own court at Phanar, and his own prison, with a large civil jurisdiction over, and responsibility for, the Greek community.
The founder of the Bijapur dynasty, Yusuf Adil Shah, is said by Ferishta to have been a son of the Ottoman sultan Murad II.
Meanwhile he considered that the integrity and independence of the Ottoman empire must be maintained so far as these other powers were concerned.
(b) In a more restricted sense to designate Mahommedan Turkish-speaking tribes, especially in Russia, who never formed part of the Seljuk or Ottoman Empire, but made independent settlements and remained more or less cut off from the politics and civilization of the rest of the Mahommedan world.
But from 1830 the defence of the Ottoman Empire became one of the cardinal objects of his policy.
He regarded the treaty of Unkiar Skelessi which Russia extorted from the Porte in 1832, when she came to the relief of the sultan after the battle of Konieh, with great jealousy; and, when the power of Mehemet Ali in Egypt appeared to threaten the existence of the Ottoman dynasty, he succeeded in effecting a combination of all the powers,who signed the celebrated collective note of the 27th of July 1839, pledging them to maintain the independence and integrity of the Turkish Empire as a security for the peace of Europe.
The Egyptian forces occupied Syria, and threatened Turkey; and Lord Ponsonby, then British ambassador at Constantinople, vehemently urged the necessity of crushing so formidable a rebellion against the Ottoman power.
From early in the 18th century it was a bone of contention between the Ottoman Turks and the Russians, the latter capturing it five times between 1711 and 1812.
Murad transferred the Ottoman capital from Brusa to Adrianople, where he built a palace and added many embellishments to the town.
Mawarina), a Christian people of the Ottoman Empire in communion with the Papal Church, but forming a distinct denomination.
In 1906, however, a French force from Zinder occupied the town, no opposition being offered by the Ottoman authorities.
He was responsible for the change of policy of Russia towards the Ottoman empire after 1829, viz.