The main line of the Orleans railway passes through a tunnel beneath the town.
The Capetian-Valois dynasty lasted until 1498, when Louis, duke of Orleans, became king as Louis XII., on the death of King Charles VIII.
After studying the arts at Toulouse and law at Orleans and Bologna, he became a canon at Bordeaux and then vicar-general to his brother the archbishop of Lyons, who in 1294 was created cardinal bishop of Albano.
LOUIS PHILIPPE JOSEPH ORLEANS, DUKE OF (1747-1793), called Philippe Egalite, son of Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, and of Louise Henriette of Bourbon-Conti, was born at St Cloud on the 13th of April 1747.
The best testimony for the behaviour of Orleans during this summer is the testimony of an English lady, Mrs Grace Dalrymple Elliott, who shared his heart with the comtesse de Buffon, and from which it is absolutely certain that at the time of the riot of the 12th of July he was on a fishing excursion, and was rudely treated by the king on the next day when going to offer him his services.
The execution of Philippe Egalite made the friend of Dumouriez, who was living in exile, duke of Orleans.
The head of the college, the abbe Antoine Faure, who was from the same part of the country as himself, befriended the lad, and continued to do so for many years after he had finished his course, finding him pupils and ultimately obtaining for him the post of tutor to the young duke of Chartres, afterwards the regent duke of Orleans.
When the duke of Orleans became regent (1715) Dubois, who had for some years acted as his secretary, was made councillor of state, and the chief power passed gradually into his hands.
Her great beauty and romantic history made her the fashion, and she attracted the notice of the regent, Philip, duke of Orleans, whose offers she had the strength of mind to refuse.
Guerrier, De Petro Damiano (Orleans, 1881); W.
of Chateauroux on the Orleans railway.
He was educated at Zurich and at Saumur (where he graduated), studied theology at Orleans under Claude Pajon, at Paris under Jean Claude and at Geneva under Louis Tronchin, and was ordained to the ministry in his native place in 1683.
Below Orleans it takes its course towards the south-west, and lastly from Saumtir runs west, till it reaches the Atlantic between Paimbceuf and St Nazaire.
Orleans 51,208 56,915 57,544
- - Chartres, Meaux, Orleans, Blois, Versailles.
Construction proceeded under this law, but not with very satisfactory results, and new arrangements had to be made between 1852 and 1857, when the railways were concentrated in the hands of six great companies, the Nord, the Est, the Ouest, the Paris-Lyon-Mditerrane, the Orleans and the Midi.
By the 1859 conventions the state railway system obtained an entry into Paris by means of running powers over the Ouest from Chartres, and its position was further improved by the exchange of certain lines with the Orleans company.
The Orleans, running from Paris to Orleans, and thence serving Bordeaux via Tours, Poitiers and Angoulflme, Nantes via Tours and Angers, and Montauban and Toulouse via Vierzon and Limoges.
LOIRET Orleans .
In 1667 Theophile de Besiade, marquis d'Avaray, obtained the office of grand bailiff of Orleans, which was held by several of his descendants after him.
Claude Antoine de Besiade, marquis d'Avaray, was deputy for the bailliage of Orleans in the states-general of 1789, and proposed a Declaration of the Duties of Man as a pendant to the Declaration of the Rights of Man; he subsequently became a lieutenant-general in 1814, a peer of France in 1815, and duc d'Avaray in 1818.
on the duchess-dowager of Orleans who, in 1821, bequeathed them to her son, afterwards King Louis Philippe.
They were again confiscated in 1852, but were restored to the Orleans family by the National Assembly after the Franco-German War.
New Orleans, also on the same parallel is, 4° hotter in summer.
Of these Lake Bomoseen in Rutland (disambiguation)|Rutland county and Willoughby Lake in Orleans county are the largest.
Of the quartz-monzonite type are the whitish granites of Bethel and Rochester (Windsor county) and Randolph (Orange county), the light grey of Dummerston (Windham county), and the darker greys of Cabot (Washington county), Derby (Orleans county), Hardwick and Groton (Caledonia county) and Topsham (Orange county).
of New Orleans.
As duke of Orleans he had certain claims to Milan through his grandmother Valentina, dap~hter of Gian Galeazzo, the first duke.
Canon 13 of the first council of Orleans, which has been cited in this matter, seems to have no application.
How severely strict medieval abstinence was may be gauged from the fact that armies and garrisons were sometimes, in default of dispensations, as in the case of the siege of Orleans in 1429, reduced to starvation for want of Lenten food, though in full possession of meat and other supplies.
The battle of the Herrings (February 1429) was fought in order to cover the march of a convoy of Lenten food to the English army besieging Orleans.
The States General met in December; the edict of Orleans (January 1561) followed, and finally, after the colloquy of Poissy, the edict of January 1562, the most liberal, except that of Nantes, ever obtained by the Protestants of France.
of Rodez by the Orleans railway.
support of Orleans.
its line from San Francisco and Los Angeles to Galveston and New Orleans, running for the greater part of the distance just north of the Mexican border.
The receiver of the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific railway applied for an injunction against Phelan and others, which was granted.
He tried to mediate between his brother Philip the Bold of Burgundy and his nephew Louis, duke of Orleans, and later between John "sans Peur" of Burgundy and Orleans.
He broke with John after the murder of Orleans, though he tried to prevent civil war, and only finally joined the Armagnac party in 1410.
In order to take possession of his new see, he had to brave the wrath of the duke of Burgundy, override the resistance of the clergy and bourgeoisie, and even withstand an armed attack on the part of several lords; but his protector, the duke of Orleans, had his investiture performed by Wenceslaus, king of the Romans.
The principal lines are the Illinois Central, the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley, the Southern, the Mobile & Ohio, the New Orleans & North-eastern, the Kansas City, Memphis & Birmingham, the Mobile, Jackson & Kansas City, the Alabama & Vicksburg, and the Gulf & Ship Island.
At the close of the Seven Years' War (1763) France ceded to Great Britain all her territory east of the Mississippi except New Orleans, and Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain.
Martin, History of North Carolina (2 vols., New Orleans, 1829), which deals with the period before 1776, contains much irrelevant matter and is of little value; F.
he proves conclusively that the mitra mentioned by Theodulph of Orleans (Paraenes.
The indignation with which the queen repelled the idea may have made him think of the duke of Orleans as a possible constitutional king, because his title would of necessity be parliamentary.
After the capture of New Orleans he was commissioned by Lincoln to revise the decisions of the military commandant, General B.
deep. Railway rates have also been a matter of vital importance in recent years; Boston, like New York, complaining of discriminations in favour of Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans and Galveston.
If he had a strong passion, it was to provide for his succession to the throne of France, if his nephew, Louis XV., should die, and he indulged in many intrigues against the house of Orleans, whose right to the succession was supposed to be secured by Philip's solemn renunciation of all claim to the French throne, when he became king of Spain.
Upland, Georgia, New Orleans and Texas varieties.
They are used on a very large scale in the vicinity of oil mills in southern cities like Memphis, New Orleans, Houston, and Little Rock, from Soo to s000 cattle being often collected in a single yard for this purpose.
Bourbon, New Orleans, Upland, Georgia, Sea Island, Pernambuco, Egyptian, &c., were tried but with little permanent success.
Hammond 1 has constructed a table from information supplied by the secretaries of the cotton exchanges at New York, Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, New Orleans and Galveston, showing the sales of " spot " cotton at those ports for the twenty-two years between 1874-1875 and 1895-1896, and in all cases an absolute decline is evident.
Tortosa fell into the hands of the duke of Orleans in 1708; during the Peninsular War it surrendered in 1811 to the French under Suchet, who held it till 1814.
Three of these, led by Fulcher of Orleans, Gottschalk and William the Carpenter respectively, failed to reach even Constantinople.
They rode incessantly to battle over burning sands, in full armour 1 For instance, the abbey of Mount Sion had large possessions, not only in the Holy Land (at Ascalon, Jaffa, Acre, Tyre, Caesarea and Tarsus), but also in Sicily, Calabria, Lombardy, Spain and France (at Orleans, Bourges and Poitiers).
of Orleans on the Orleans railway, between that city and Blois.
The lords of Beaugency attained considerable importance in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries; at the end of the 13th century the fief was sold to the crown, and afterwards passed to the house of Orleans, then to those of Dunois and Longueville and ultimately again to that of Orleans.
ABRAHAM NICOLAS AMELOT DE LA HOUSSAYE (1634-1706), French historian and publicist, was born at Orleans in February 1634, and died at Paris on the 8th of December 1706.
In the following year, Spain having declared war against Great Britain, Don Bernardo de Galvez (1756-1794), the Spanish governor at New Orleans, seized most of the English forts in West Florida, and in 1781 captured Pensacola.
The westward expansion of the United States made necessary American ports on the Gulf of Mexico; consequently the acquisition of West Florida as well as of New Orleans was one of the aims of the negotiations which resulted in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.
In retaliation General Andrew Jackson captured the place, but in a few days withdrew to New Orleans.
Two lines of steamboats afford regular communication between San Juan and New York; one of them runs to Venezuelan ports and one to New Orleans; and there are lines to Cuba and direct to Spain.
ALBION, a village and the county-seat of Orleans county, New York, U.S.A., about 30 m.
She had thirteen children - Frederick Henry, drgwned at sea in 1629; Charles Louis, elector palatine, whose daughter married Philip, duke of Orleans, and became the ancestress of the elder and Roman Catholic branch of the royal family of England; Elizabeth, abbess and friend of Descartes; Prince Rupert and Prince Maurice, who died unmarried; Louisa, abbess; Edward, who married Anne de Gonzaga, "princesse palatine," and had children; Henrietta Maria, who married Count Sigismund Ragotzki but died childless; Philip and Charlotte, who died childless; Sophia, who married Ernest Augustus, elector of Hanover, and was mother of George I.
It is served by the Arkansas, Louisiana & Gulf, the Little Rock & Monroe, the% Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific (Queen & Crescent), and the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railways, and by river steamers plying between New Orleans and Camden, Arkansas.
He also arrested Philip, duke of Orleans, who had visited France in disguise.
He was educated in his native city and in New Orleans, where he early entered his step-father's counting-house.
It is served by the railways of the Western and the Orleans Companies and by those of the state, but it has no navigable waterways.
Butler at New Orleans as commander of the Department of the Gulf.
the title of duke of Chartres was hereditary in the family of Orleans.
The mounds were probably formed by some gentle eruptive action like that exhibited in the " mud hills " along the Mississippi below New Orleans; but no explanation is generally accepted.
The marshes encroach most upon the parishes of St Charles, Orleans and Plaquemines.
In Orleans the city of New Orleans occupies nearly all the high ground and encroaches on the swamps.
have fallen within a year at New Orleans, but in this locality the average for a year is about 57.6 in.; at Shreveport the average is 46 in., and for the entire state it is 55 in.
A state sugar experiment station is maintained at Audubon Park in New Orleans, its work embracing the development of seedlings, the improvement of cane varieties, the study of fungus diseases of the cane, the improvement of mill methods and the reconciliation of such methods (for example, the use of sulphur as a bleaching and clarifying agent) with the requirements of " pure food " laws.
There are many fine groves on the Mississippi below New Orleans.
Slightly above one-half of the product of 1900 was from New Orleans, and in 1905 about 45.4%.
Rice is milled at New Orleans, Crowley, Abbeville, Gayden, Jennings and Lake Charles.
The principal roads are the Missouri Pacific (St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, New Orleans & North-western and St Louis, Watkins & Gulf), the Southern Pacific (Morgan's Louisiana & Texas Railroad & Steamship Co.
The Illinois Central, the first railway giving Louisiana connexion with the north, and of immense importance in the trade of New Orleans, has only about 100 m.
They serve the trade of Lake Pontchartrain and the Florida parishes, the lumber, coal, fish, oyster and truck trade of New Orleans, and to some extent are the highway of a miscellaneous coasting trade.
Foreign commerce is almost wholly centred at New Orleans.
The urban element is larger than in any other southern state, owing to the large population of New Orleans.
A colony of Germans sent over by John Law to the Arkansas removed to the Mississippi above New Orleans, and gave to its bank the name of the " German Coast," by which it is still known.
Since that time conditions of health in New Orleans have been revolutionized (in 1907 state control of maritime quarantine on the Mississippi was supplanted by that of the national government), and smaller cities and towns have been stimulated to take action by her example.
At Monroe there is a State Reform School, and at New Orleans a Coloured Industrial Home and School.
There is also a state home for disabled Confederate soldiers at New Orleans on Bayou St John.
One of his first acts was to found the city of New Orleans on its present site in 1718.
Meantime New Orleans had become the seat of government in 1722.
Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795), a distinguished Spanish naval officer and scholar, came to New Orleans in 1766 to take possession for his king.
In the summer of 1769 Alejandro O'Reilly came to New Orleans with a strong military force (3600 troops).
The chief interest of the Spanish period lies in the advance of settlement in the western territories of the United States, the international intrigues - British, French and Spanish - involving the future of the valley, the demand of the United States for free navigation on the Mississippi, and the growing consciousness of the supreme importance of the river and New Orleans to the Union.
With the Spanish governor Estevan Miro, who succeeded Galvez in 1785, James Wilkinson of Kentucky, arrested at New Orleans with a flat-boat of supplies in 1787, intrigued, promising him that Kentucky would secede from the United States and would join the Spanish; but Wilkinson was unsuccessful in his efforts to carry out this plan.
In 1794 Spain, hard pressed by Great Britain and France, turned to the United States, and by the treaty of 1794 the Mississippi river was recognized by Spain as the western boundary of the United States, separating it from Louisiana, and free navigation of the Mississippi was granted to citizens of the United States, to whom was granted for three years the right " to deposit their merchandise and effects in the port of New Orleans, and to export them from thence without paying any other duty than a fair price for the hire of the stores."
At the expiration of the three years the Spanish governor refused the use of New Orleans as a place of deposit, and contrary to the treaty named no other port in its place.
of 33° was organized as the Territory of Orleans, and was given a government less democratic than might otherwise have been the case, because it was intended to prepare gradually for self-government the French and Spanish inhabitants of the territory, who desired immediate statehood.
In November 1811 a convention met at New Orleans and framed a constitution under which, on the 30th of April 181 2, the Territory of Orleans became the state of Louisiana.
In this same year the first steamboat reached New Orleans.
It descended the Ohio and Mississippi from Pittsburg, whence there had already been a thriving river trade to New Orleans for about thirty years.
During the War of 1812 a decisive victory was won by the American forces at Chalmette, near New Orleans, on the 8th of January 1815.
At other times New Orleans has been the capital, and here too have always been various state offices which in other states ordinarily are in the state capital.
Farragut, with a powerful fleet, ascended the Mississippi past Forts Jackson and St Philip, which defended the approach to New Orleans, and a military force under General B.
Two-thirds of the delegates were from New Orleans.
Nevertheless, the radicals, because it was impossible to call a convention through the medium of the state government, took advantage of this clause to reconvoke the old convention at New Orleans.
One historic clash in New Orleans (on the 14th of September 1874) between the " White League " (" White Man's Party") and the Republican police is commemorated by a monument, and the day is regarded by Louisianans as a sort of state independenceday.
In 1891 the lynching of eleven Italians at New Orleans gave rise to grave difficulties involving Italy, the United States, and the state of Louisiana.
- Compare the bibliography under NEW Orleans and consult also the following.
The editions are as follows: Romance of the History of Louisiana (New York, 1837, 1848); Histoire de la Louisiane (2 vols., Nouvelle Orleans, 1846-1847); Louisiana: its Colonial History and Romance (N.Y., 1851); Louisiana: its History as a French Colony,.
in 3); a third edition of the whole (4 vols., New Orleans, 1885); a final edition, edited by Alcee Fortier (New Orleans, 1905).
Martin's History of Louisiana (2 vols., New Orleans, 1827-1829, later ed.
Condon, continued to 1861, New Orleans, 1882) is also valuable and supplements Gayarre.
1724-1726 1726-1733-1733-1743 1743-1753 1753-1;63 1763-1765-1765-1769Historical Society (New Orleans).
Ficklen above cited, another by the same author in collaboration with Grace King (New Orleans, 1902) and another (more valuable) by Albert Phelps (Boston, 1905), in the American Commonwealth Series.
In 511 the first Council of Orleans ordered that the three days preceding Ascension Day should be celebrated as rogation days with fasting and rogationes.
(Cape Bismarck); and the duke of Orleans, in 1905, ascertained that this point was on an island (the Dove Bay of the German expedition being in reality a strait) and penetrated farther north, to about 78° 16'.
The railways belong chiefly to the Orleans and Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean companies.
in the early days, those especially worthy of mention are Beltrami's; La Decouverte des sources des Mississippi et de la Riviere Sanglante (New Orleans, 1824) and the same author's A Pilgrimage in Europe and America, leading to the Discovery of the Sources of the Mississippi and Bloody Rivers (2 vols., London, 1828); William H.
For a time he was tutor to the Orleans princes.
When made bishop of Orleans in 1849, he pronounced a fervid panegyric on Joan of Arc, which attracted attention in England as well as France.
The last appanage known in France was that enjoyed by the house of Orleans.
He was chosen to draft the resolution of thanks voted by the legislature to General Andrew Jackson after the battle of New Orleans.
His daughter Marie sold the fief of Coucy to Louis, duke of Orleans, in 1400.
In 1864 the princess Isabella, the eldest daughter of the emperor and empress, had married the Comte d'Eu, a member of the Orleans family.
He studied theology at Orleans, was ordained priest in 1824 and placed in charge of the parish of Puiseaux, in the diocese of Orleans.
at New Orleans, leaving a widow and two daughters - Margaret,.
At this time there was much uneasiness in the United States as a result of Spain's restoration of Louisiana to France by the secret treaty of San Ildefonso, in October 1800; and the subsequent withdrawal of the " right of deposit " at New Orleans by the Spanish intendant greatly increased this feeling and led to much talk of war.
Livingston, the resident minister, in obtaining by purchase the territory at the mouth of the Mississippi, including the island of New Orleans, and at the same time authorized him to co-operate with Charles Pinckney, the minister at Madrid, in securing from Spain the cession of East and West Florida.
The first serious conspiracy took place in 1626, the king's brother, Gaston of Orleans, being the centre of it.
Then Gaston of Orleans, who had fled to Lorraine, came back with a small troop to head a rebellion to free the king and country from "the tyrant."
The episcopate of the new metropolitan was marked by a vigour and activity that were felt not merely in his own diocese, but as far as Tours, Orleans and Paris.
The French king's brother, Philip, duke of Orleans, had married Charlotte Elizabeth, a sister of the late elector Charles, and consequently the French king claimed a part of Charles's lands in 1680.
1373), French bishop, was born at Montdidier, although he belonged to a bourgeois family of Orleans, where he first attended school before coming to Paris.
of Toulouse, on the Orleans railway between Figeac and Murat.
Gaines took a prominent part in the operations against the Seminoles in Florida in 1817 (when he was in command of the Southern Military District) and in 1836 and during the Mexican War commanded the department of the South-West, with headquarters at New Orleans.
In February 1789, guided by compass, he traversed the country, practically unknown to white men, from Frederickstown to Quebec, falling in with Indians by the way, with whom he fraternized; and in a subsequent expedition he was formally adopted at Detroit by the Bear tribe of Hurons as one of their chiefs, and made his way down the Mississippi to New Orleans, whence he returned to England.
The parentage of the girl, whose name was Pamela (?1776-1831), is uncertain; but although there is some evidence to support the story of Madame de Geniis that Pamela was born in Newfoundland of parents called Seymour or Sims, the common belief that she was the daughter of Madame de Geniis herself by Philippe (Egalite), duke of Orleans, was probably well founded.
The marquis died at Orleans in 1857.
LOUIS PHILIPPE ORLEANS, DUKE OF (1725-1785), son of Louis, duke of Orleans, was born at Versailles on the 12th of May 1725, and was known as the duke of Chartres until his father's death in 1752.
The duke married Louise Henriette de Bourbon-Conti, who bore him a son Philip (Egalite), duke of Orleans, and a daughter, who married the last duke of Bourbon.
Louis Philippe Joseph, Duke Of Orleans >>
His father was a lawyer, and, designing Moses for his own profession, sent him on the completion of his study of the humanities at Orleans to the university of Poitiers.
In 1841 some slaves who were being carried in the brig "Creole" from Hampton Roads, Virginia, to New Orleans, revolted, killed the captain, gained possession of the vessel, and soon afterwards entered the British port of Nassau.
Upon the death of Henry Stuart, Cardinal York, the last of James II.'s descendants, in 1807, the rightful occupant of the British throne according to legitimist principles was to be found among the descendants of Henrietta, daughter of Charles I., who married Philip I., duke of Orleans.
The French lost 5000 of noble birth killed, including the constable, 3 dukes, 5 counts and 90 barons; 1000 more were taken prisoners, amongst them the duke of Orleans (the Charles d'Orleans of literature).
THEODULF, bishop of Orleans, was born about the middle of the 8th century, of a noble family of Gothic extraction, probably in Spain.
He found favour at the Frankish court, was made abbot of Fleury and of Saint-Aignan, and in 781 became bishop of Orleans.
See C. Cuissard, Theodulphe eveque d'Orleans, sa vie et ses oeuvres, (Orleans, 1892); and a critical study of the writings by M.
The multiple-effect evaporator, originally invented and constructed by Norberto Rilleux in New Orleans in 1840, has under gone many changes in design and construction since Effect that year.
was all-powerful at the French court; and Charles of Orleans, in order to be able to avenge his father, Louis of Orleans, who had been assassinated in 1407 by John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, married Bonne, Bernard's daughter.
With the object of combating the duke of Burgundy's preponderant influence, a league was formed at Gien, including the duke of Orleans and his father-inlaw, the dukes of Berry, Bourbon and Brittany, the count of Alengon and all the other discontented nobles.
He succeeded his father in 1404, and immediately found himself in conflict with Louis of Orleans, the young brother of Charles VI.
In 1405 he opposed in the royal council a scheme of taxation proposed by the duke of Orleans, which was nevertheless adopted.
He was, however, called back to the council to find that the duke of Orleans and the queen had carried off the dauphin.
Hostilities had been resumed with England; the duke of Orleans had squandered the money raised for John's expedition against Calais; and the two rivals broke out into open threats.
His vassals, however, showed themselves determined to support him in his struggle against the avengers of the duke of Orleans.
The queen and the Orleans party took every advantage of his absence and had Petit's discourse solemnly refuted.
HENRIETTA ORLEANS, DUCHESS OF (1644-1670), third daughter of the English king, Charles I., and his queen, Henrietta Maria, was born during the Civil War at Exeter on the 16th of June 1644.
Then in July 1646 Lady Dalkeith carried the princess in disguise to France, and she rejoined her mother in Paris, where her girlhood was spent and where she was educated as a Roman Catholic. Henrietta was present at the coronation of Louis XIV., and was mentioned as a possible bride for the king, but she was betrothed, not to Louis, but to his only brother Philip. After the restoration of her brother Charles II., she returned to England with her mother, but a few months later she was again in Paris, where she was married to Philip, now duke of Orleans, on the 30th of March 1661.
Jean Baptiste Gaston, Duke Of Orleans >>
His biographical studies, Franz von Assisi (1856; 2nd ed., 1892), Katerina von Siena (1864; 2nd ed., 1892), Neue Propheten (Di Jungfrau von Orleans, Savonarola, Thomas Miinzer) are judiciou and sympathetic. Other works are: Hutterus redivivus oder Dog matik der evang.-luth.
It is the seat of a Moravian mission, and has a good harbour, with regular steamship services to Greytown in Nicaragua, and to New Orleans.
Having failed to secure the bishopric of Orleans in 1097, he became archbishop of Dol in 1107, and went to Rome for his pallium in 1108.
ORLEANS The title of duke of Orleans was first created by King Philip VI.
The second duke of Orleans, created in 1392, was Louis, a younger son of Charles V., whose heir was his son, the poet Charles of Orleans.
in 1498, when the duchy of Orleans was united with the royal domain.
created his brother, Jean Baptiste Gaston, duke of Orleans, and having become extinct on the death of this prince in 1660 the title was revived in the following year by Louis XIV.
Two distinguished families are descended from the first house of Orleans: the counts of Angouleme, who were descended from John, a son of Duke Louis I., and who furnished France with a king in the person of Francis I.; and the counts.
and dukes of Longueville, whose founder was John, count of Dunois, the bastard of Orleans, a natural son of the same duke.
In addition to the dukes of Orleans the most important members of this family are: Anne Marie Louise, duchess of Montpensier;.
Francis, prince of Joinville; Louis Philippe Albert, count of Paris; and the traveller Prince Henry of Orleans.
Charles, duke of Orleans >>
JACQUES BONGARS (1554-1612), French scholar and diplomatist, was born at Orleans, and was brought up in the reformed faith.
He obtained his early education at Marburg and Jena, and returning to France continued his studies at Orleans and Bourges.
During the differences that arose in 1485 between the regent, Anne of Beaujeu, and the dukes of Orleans, Brittany and Alengon, Imbert de Batarn y kept the inhabitants of Orleans faithful to the king.
In 1536 Henry, hitherto duke of Orleans, became dauphin by the death of his elder brother Francis.
Moreover, his younger brother, Charles of Orleans, who was of a more sprightly temperament, was his father's favourite; and the rivalry of Diane and the duchesse d'Etampes helped to make still wider the breach between the king and the dauphin.
He died on the 6th of February 1593, bequeathing, it is said, 1200 crowns to the hospital at Orleans for the twelve "deniers" he received there when "poor and naked" on his way to Paris.
Mlle de Montpensier, the heiress of Mlle de Guise, bequeathed the principality of Joinville to Philip, duke of Orleans (1693).
He bought and resided at the estate of La Source near Orleans, studied philosophy, criticized the chronology of the Bible, and was visited amongst others by Voltaire, who expressed unbounded admiration for his learning and politeness.
of France in 1570 on behalf of the Protestant princes, and escaped death on St Bartholomew's Day (1572) only through the intervention of Jean de Morvilliers, the moderate and influential bishop of Orleans.
He married Anne of Orleans, daughter of Henrietta of England and niece of Louis XIV.
The writer of the Oratorian Commentary (Theodulf of Orleans?) addressing a synod which instructed him to provide an exposition of this work on the faith, writes of it, as " here and there recited in our churches, and continually made the subject of meditation by our priests."
After some years of happy married life she fell under the influence of the dissolute court in which she lived, and the king having become insane (August 1392) she consorted chiefly with Louis of Orleans.
After the assassination of the duke of Orleans (November 23, 1407) she attached herself sometimes to the Armagnacs, sometimes to the Burgundians, and led a scandalous life.
His commercial connections at New Orleans enabled him to hold out the lure of a ready market at that port for Kentucky products, and this added greatly to the strength of the separatist movement.
Before his agent returned, however, he had betrayed his colleague's plans to Jefferson, formed the Neutral Ground Agreement with the Spanish commander of the Texas frontier, placed New Orleans under martial law, and apprehended Burr and some of his alleged accomplices.
In 524, after the murder of Chlodomer's children, Childebert annexed the cities of Chartres and Orleans.
The validity of such grants was first formally recognized by the council of Orleans, A.D.
The next following council of Orleans, 533, broke in upon this principle, by declaring that a bishop could not reclaim from his clergy any grants made to them by his predecessor, excepting in cases of misconduct.
Had it held out even forty-eight hours longer events before Paris and Orleans might have taken a different turn.
He assumed the reins of government at the age of sixteen, and married Princess Anne, daughter of Philip of Orleans and Henrietta of England, and niece of Louis XIV., king of France.
The success was followed by the siege of St Omer and the defeat of William's relieving army by the duke of Orleans (battle of Mont Cassel, April 11th, 1677).
of New Orleans, Louisiana.
Jackson is served by the Illinois Central, the Alabama & Vicksburg, the Gulf & Ship Island, New Orleans Great Northern, and the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley railways, and during the winter by small freight and passenger steamboats on the Pearl River.
The childlessness of the king was a constant threat to the policy of his great minister Richelieu; for the king's brother and heir, Gaston of Orleans, was a determined opponent of that policy.
The attempt to reduce the brigand-soldiery, and especially the ordinances passed by the estates of Languedoil at Orleans in 1439, which not only gave the king an aid of ioo,000 francs (an act which was later used by the king as though it were a perpetual grant and so freed him from that parliamentary control of the purse so important in England), but demanded as well royal nominations to officerships in the army, marked a gain in the royal prerogative which the nobility resolved to challenge.
The ordinance of Orleans was enforced.
Having lost both her parents at an early age, Catherine was sent to a convent to be educated; and she was only fourteen when she was married (1533) at Marseilles to the duke of Orleans, afterwards Henry II.
At the same time her extravagance in dress, jewelry and amusements (including the gardens and theatricals at Trianon, of the cost of which such exaggerated reports were spread about) and her presence at horse-races and masked balls in Paris without the king, gave rise to great scandal, which was seized upon by her enemies, among whom were Mesdames, the count of Provence, and the duke of Orleans and the Palais Royal clique.
The department is served by the Orleans railway, and possesses in all more than 300 m.
One of the earliest and most determined of the partisans of a constitutional monarchy under the duke of Orleans, he was deputy for Bayonne in July 1830, when his house in Paris became the headquarters of the revolutionary party.
The rest of his life calls for little notice except that at the time of the July Revolution of 1830, which unseated the elder branch of the Bourbons, he urged Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, to take the throne offered to him by popular acclaim.
On arriving at manhood d'Amboise attached himself to the party of the duke of Orleans, in whose cause he suffered imprisonment, and on whose return to the royal favour he was elevated to the archbishopric of Narbonne, which after some time he changed for that of Rouen (1493).
On the appointment of the duke of Orleans as governor of Normandy, d'Amboise became his lieutenant-general.
In 1498 the duke of Orleans mounted the throne as Louis XII., and d'Amboise was suddenly raised to the high position of cardinal and prime minister.
The earliest record of their presence there is the condemnation of ten canons of Orleans as Manichees in 102 2, and soon after this we find complaints of the prevalence of heresy in northern Italy and in Germany.
Other mints are now in operation at New Orleans, San Francisco and Denver.
The French chose to view this as an unfriendly demonstration, and there was some talk of getting up a counter-ball in Paris, the duke of Orleans to figure as William the Conqueror.
He was commissioned lieutenant in April 1861, and in the Civil War served on the steamsloop "Mississippi" (1861-1863) during Farragut's passage of the forts below New Orleans in April 1862, and at Port Hudson in March 1863; took part in the fighting below Donaldsonville, Louisiana, in July 1863; and in 1864-1865 served on the steam-gunboat "Agawam" with the North Atlantic blockading squadron and took part in the attacks on Fort Fisher in December 1864 and January 1865.
It not only brought him into unremitting conflict with the Protestants and the nobles of France, but also made him the enemy of his mother, of his brother Gaston of Orleans, who made himself the champion of the cause of the nobles, and sometimes even of his wife.
He regained his ascendancy over the king, punished his enemies and forced Marie de' Medici and Gaston of Orleans to sue for pardon.
Richelieu's position was much strengthened by these incidents, but to the end of life he had to struggle against conspiracies which were designed to deprive him of the king's support, and usually Gaston of Orleans had some share in these movements.
He entered into negotiations with Spain and was secretly supported by Gaston of Orleans.
Several of the earlier events of his life, especially his marriage with the princess Louise of Orleans, and the duel that the comte d'Artois provoked by raising the veil of the princess at a masked ball, caused much scandal.
When the plague drove him from Paris, he went to Orleans or Tournehem or St.
It is served by the following railways: the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania system), the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central system), the Chicago, Cincinnati & Louisville, the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific (the lessee of the Cincinnati Southern railway,' connecting Cincinnati and Chattanooga, Tenn., its line ' The Cincinnati Southern railway is of especial interest in that it was built by the city of Cincinnati in its corporate capacity.
The work was carried on under the direction of a board of five trustees appointed by the superior court of Cincinnati in accordance with the so-called Ferguson Act passed by the Ohio legislature in 1869, and the railway was completed to Chattanooga in February 1880 forming part of the so-called Queen & Crescent Route to New Orleans).
In January 1661 she returned to France to be present at the marriage of her daughter Henrietta to the duke of Orleans.
On the death of the regent Orleans in 1723 Fleury, although already seventy years of age, deferred his own supremacy by suggesting the appointment of Louis Henri, duke of Bourbon, as first minister.
But the greatest and most important enterprise was the capture of New Orleans by Flag-Officer D.
Farragut from New Orleans, and the gunboat flotilla from the upper waters, had engaged the batteries in June and July, but had returned to their respective stations, while a Federal force under General Williams, which had appeared before the fortress, retired to Baton Rouge.
In the meanwhile Banks had moved upstream from New Orleans, and laid siege to Port Hudson.
A Confederate attack on the post of Helena, Arkansas, was the last serious fight on the great river, and before the end of July the first merchant steamer from St Louis discharged her cargo at New Orleans.
Of these the earliest of note were undertaken in France in the 9th century by Alcuin in 801, and almost at the same time by Theodulf, bishop of Orleans (787-821).
L'AUBESPINE, a French family which sprang from Claude de l'Aubespine, a lawyer of Orleans and bailiff of the abbey of St Euverte in the beginning of the 16th century, and rapidly acquired distinction in offices connected with the law.
The development of the banana trade dates from 1881, when 3500 bunches of fruit were exported to New Orleans.
The delay, together with the proposal of John Jay, the Secretary for Foreign Affairs and commissioner to negotiate a commercial treaty with the Spanish envoy, to surrender navigation rights on the lower Mississippi for twenty-five years in order to remove the one obstacle to the negotiations, aroused so much feeling that General James Wilkinson and a few other leaders began to intrigue not only for a separation from Virginia, but also from the United States, and for the formation of a close alliance with the Spanish at New Orleans.
The people still continued to have troubles with the Indians and with the Spanish at New Orleans.
Hanno Deiler, Eine vergessene deutsche Colonie: eine Stimme zur Verteidigung des Grafen de Leon (New Orleans, 1900).
Early in 52 B.C. some Roman traders were massacred at Cenabum (Orleans), and, on hearing the news, the Arverni revolted under Vercingetorix and were quickly joined by other tribes, especially the Bituriges, whose capital was Avaricum (Bourges).
In February and March a Spanish force from New Orleans, under Don Bernardo de Galvez, invaded West Florida with success.
ANTOINE FRANCOIS, COMTE DE FOURCROY (1755-1809), French chemist, the son of an apothecary in the household of the duke of Orleans, was born at Paris on the 15th of June 1755.
of Orleans on the main line of the Orleans railway.
Attached to the household of Gaston, duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIII., he gained a complete ascendancy over the weak prince by pandering to his pleasures, and became his adviser in the intrigues against Cardinal Richelieu.
He was military agent in New Orleans in 1809-1810, was deputy quartermaster-general in April - July 1812, and was in active service in the War of 1812 as adjutant and inspector-general in the campaign against York (now Toronto), Canada, and in the attack on York on the 27th of April 1813 was in immediate command of the troops in action and was killed by a piece of rock which fell on him when the British garrison in its retreat set fire to the magazine.
The republic is in regular steam communication on the Atlantic side with New Orleans, New York and Hamburg, by vessels which visit the ports of Barrios (Santo Tomas) and Livingston.
Dallas is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, the Houston & Texas Central, the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, the" St Louis South-western, the Texas & New Orleans, the Trinity & Brazos Valley, and the Texas & Pacific railways, and by interurban electric railways to Fort Worth and Sherman.
In the midwinter month, it is the eastern half of the country that has strong temperature contrasts; the temperature gradients are twice as strong between New Orleans and Minneapolis as on the Pacific coast, and the contrast between Jacksonville, Fla., and Eastport, Me., is about the same as between San Diego, Cal., and the Aleutian Islands.
New York, New Orleans, Boston, Galveston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, San Francisco and Puget Sound are, in order, the leading customs districts of the country in the value of their imports and exports.
Another, the Order of Our Lady of Lourdes, was founded in 1883 for work in the archdiocese of New Orleans.
In the south of the continent France also crowned La Salle's work by founding early in the 18th century New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi.
It was a far cry from New Orleans to Quebec. If France could link them by a chain of settlements and shut in the English to their narrow strip of Atlantic seaboard there was good promise that North America would be hers.
Another route worked more cheaply than formerly is that by river, from the centre of the winter wheat belt, say at St Louis, to New Orleans, and thence by steamer to Liverpool.
It was the country around Orleans, the pagus Aurelianensis; it lay on both banks of the Loire, and for ecclesiastical purposes formed the diocese of Orleans.
In a geographical sense the region around Orleans is sometimes known as Orleanais, but this is somewhat smaller than the former province.
deep, on which the national government spends large sums of money; yet an increasing amount of Alabama cotton is sent to New Orleans for shipment, and Pensacola, Florida, receives much of the lumber.
Hall (Water Resources of Georgia, p. 2), " there are three springs in north-east Georgia within a stone's throw of each other that send out their waters to Savannah, Ga., to Apalachicola, Fla., and to New Orleans, La."
He became vicar-general of Orleans in 1861, professor of ethics at the Sorbonne in 1862, and, on the death of Barante, a member of the French Academy in 1867, where he occupied the seat formerly held by Voltaire.
The irritation of the latter was greatly Mazarin's own fault; he had tried consistently to play off the king's brother Gaston of Orleans against Conde, and their respective followers against each other, and had also, as his carnets prove, jealously kept any courtier from getting into the good graces of the queen-regent except by his means, so that it was not unnatural that the nobility should hate him, while the queen found herself surrounded by his creatures alone.
On realizing the truth he hastily abdicated in favour of his grandson, the duke of Bordeaux (comte de Chambord), and appointed Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, lieutenant-general of the kingdom (July 30th).
Having completed the usual course at this seminary, he applied himself to the study of law at Orleans, and afterwards went to Paris, where in 1631 he was received as an advocate before the parliament..
At a meeting of the statesgeneral held at Orleans in the December following, the prince of Conde, after being arrested, was condemned to death, and extreme measures were being enacted against the Huguenots; but the deliberations of the Assembly were broken off, and the prince was saved from execution, by the king's somewhat sudden death, on the 5th of the month, from an abscess in the ear.
His first voyage, with his father 1 While he was in New Orleans he adopted David Farragut, who later served with him on the "Essex."
Upon his return to New York in November he urged an expedition against New Orleans, and recommended the appointment of Commander D.
ISAAC JOGUES (1607-1646), French missionary in North America, was born at Orleans on the 10th of January 1607.
present at the siege of Orleans, at which his father was killed.
representatives of the royal Stuarts who are senior to the house of Hanover, for Philip, duke of Orleans (brother of Louis XIV.3, married, as his first wife, Henrietta daughter of Charles I., and, as his second, Charlotte, granddaughter and heiress of the princess Elizabeth (daughter of James I.).
By the former, through their daughter, the queen of Sardinia, he was ancestor, among others, of the princess Maria Theresa of Bavaria, who in 1 9 10 was "heir of line" of the house of Stuart, her eldest son, Prince Rupert, being heir to the throne of Bavaria; and from his second marriage descends the house of Orleans.
He owed his education to an uncle, Nicolas de Besze, counsellor of the Paris parlement, who placed him (1529) under Melchior Wolmar at Orleans, and later at Bourges.
Wolmar, who had taught Greek to Calvin, grounded Beza in Scripture from a Protestant standpoint; after his return to Germany (1534) Beza studied law at Orleans (May 1535 to August 1539), beginning practice in Paris (1539) as law licentiate.
Even in France the English lost ground steadily after the victory of Joan of Arc before Orleans in 1429.
He was educated at Orleans, Va., read law, and was admitted to the bar in 1876.
JEAN BAPTISTE GASTON ORLEANS, DUKE OF (1608-1660), third son of the French king Henry IV., and his wife Marie de Medici, was born at Fontainebleau on the 25th of April 1608.
Known at first as the duke of Anjou, he was created duke of Orleans in 1626, and was nominally in command of the army which besieged La Rochelle in 1628, having already entered upon that course of political intrigue which was destined to occupy the remainder of his life.
Orleans stirred up Cinq-Mars to attempt Richelieu's murder, and then deserted his unfortunate accomplice.
Louis, Duke Orleans >>
Louise was placed early in life in the household of Henriette, duchess of Orleans, sister of Charles II.
In 1670 she accompanied the duchess of Orleans on a visit to Charles II.
The French king, Louis XIV., and after his death the regent Orleans, gave her a pension, and protected her against her creditors.
of New Orleans and 61 m.
Biloxi is both a summer and a winter resort, particularly for the people of New Orleans and Mobile, and has a fine beach, extending for about 12 m.
CHARLES ETIENNE ARTHUR GAYARRE (1805-1895), American historian, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, on the 9th of January 1805.
In 1830 he was elected a member of the House of Representatives of Louisiana, in 1831 was appointed deputy attorney-general of his state, in 1833 became presiding judge of the city court of New Orleans, and in 1834 was elected as a Jackson Democrat to the United States Senate.
He died in New Orleans on the 11th of February 1895.
He was succeeded by his son Louis the Stammerer, the child of Ermentrude, daughter of a count of Orleans,whom he had married in 842, and who had died in 869.
The expedition to New Orleans is separately dealt with.
(1253) gave the members the lands of Boigny near Orleans and a building at the gates of Paris, which they turned into a lazar-house for the use of the lepers of the city.
It has an active river trade with St Louis, Memphis and New Orleans, and five railway outlets - the Missouri Pacific and its branch, the Pine Bluff & Western, and the St Louis South-Western and its two branches, the Pine Bluff Arkansas River and the Aitheimer.
The Regent or Pitt diamond is a magnificent stone found in either India or Borneo; it weighed 410 carats and was bought for £20,400 by Pitt, the governor of Madras; it was subsequently, in 1717, bought for £80,000 (or, according to some authorities, £ 135,000) by the duke of Orleans, regent of France; it was reduced by cutting to '3614 carats; was stolen with the other crown jewels during the Revolution, but was recovered and is still in France.
But Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, willing to gain the people's good wishes by complimenting their favourite, wrote to him as follows: "The thunder has descended on your house; I offer you an apartment in mine."
On the 9th of June 1531 an agreement was signed for the marriage of Henry of Orleans with Catherine de' Medici; but it was not till October 1533 that Clement met Francis at Marseilles, the wedding being celebrated on the 27th.
He was educated at Paris and Orleans, afterwards becoming a teacher of canon law at Oxford and chancellor of the university in 1262.
LOUIS PHILIPPE I., king of the French (1773-1850), was the eldest son of Louis Philip Joseph, duke of Orleans (known during the Revolution as Philippe Egalite) and of Louise Marie Adelaide de Bourbon, daughter of the duc de Penthievre, and was born at the Palais Royal in Paris on the 6th of October 17 73.
The execution of his father in November 1793 had made him duke of Orleans, and he now became the centre of the intrigues of the Orleanist party.
Immediately on his arrival, in February 1800, the duke of Orleans, at the suggestion of Dumouriez, sought an interview with the comte d'Artois, through whose instrumentality he was reconciled with the exiled king Louis XVIII., who bestowed upon his brothers the order of the Saint Esprit.
He was cordially received by Louis XVIII.; his military rank was confirmed, he was named colonel-general of hussars, and such of the vast Orleans estates as had not been sold were restored to him by royal ordinance.
Meanwhile, Thiers issued a proclamation pointing out that a Republic would embroil France with all Europe, while the duke of Orleans, who was "a prince devoted to the principles of the Revolution" and had "carried the tricolour under fire" would be a "citizen king" such as the country desired.
His eldest son, the popular Ferdinand Philippe, duke of Orleans (b.
Weill, La France sous la monarchie de juillet (Paris, 1902); Emile Bourgeois, "The Orleans Monarchy," ch.
The department is traversed by the lines both of the Orleans and Southern railways.
MARIE ALFRED CORNU (1841-1902), French physicist, was born at Orleans on the 6th of March 1841, and after being educated at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole des Mines, became in 1867 professor of experimental physics in the former institution, where he remained throughout his life.
When the duke of Bedford besieged Orleans the inhabitants offered to surrender, but to the duke of Burgundy; whereupon Bedford retorted that "he did not beat the bushes for others to take the birds."
In 1440 he paid the ransom of Charles of Orleans (the son of his father's old enemy), who had been a prisoner in England since the battle of Agincourt; received him with great honour at Gravelines; and married him to Mary of Cleves, upon whom he bestowed a handsome dowry.
In 1442 Philip entered into a conspiracy to give the duke of Orleans a larger share in the affairs of the kingdom.
When nineteen he made a journey as a hired hand on a flatboat to New Orleans.
Being now twenty-one years of age, Abraham hired himself to Denton Offutt, a migratory trader and storekeeper then of Sangamon county, and he helped Offutt to build a flatboat and float it down the Sangamon, Illinois and Mississippi rivers to New Orleans.
The parts of Virginia and Louisiana not affected were those then considered to be under Federal jurisdiction; in Virginia 55 counties were excepted (including the 48 which became the separate state of West Virginia), and in Louisiana 13 parishes (including the parish of Orleans).
In 1424 he was taken prisoner by the English at Verneuil, but was released shortly afterwards, and fought with Joan of Arc at Orleans and Patay in 1429.
Madame de Prie first suggested the Polish princess as a bride for Louis duke of Bourbon, but she was soon betrothed not to him but to Louis XV., a step which was the outcome of the jealousies of the houses of Conde and Orleans, and was everywhere regarded as a mesalliance for the French king.
of Limoges on the Orleans railway.
Four years later he went to continue his studies at the university of Paris, where he became reader in canon law, and then, proceeding to Orleans, became lecturer in the university there.
A vessel owned in Newburyport having taken a cargo of slaves from Baltimore to New Orleans, he characterized the transaction as an act of "domestic piracy," and avowed his purpose to "cover with thick infamy" those engaged therein.
Conti started rather unwillingly for his new kingdom, probably, as St Simon remarks, owing to his affection for Frangoise, wife of Philip II., duke of Orleans, and daughter of Louis XIV.
Louis Armand De Bourbon, prince de Conti (1696-1727), eldest son of the preceding, was treated with great liberality by Louis XIV., and also by the regent, Philip duke of Orleans.
In 1670 Monmouth was with the court at Dover, and it is affirmed by Reresby that the mysterious death of Charles's sister, Henrietta, duchess of Orleans, was due to her husband's revenge on the discovery of her intrigue with the duke.
Meanwhile Bedford had established settled government throughout the north of France, and in 1428 he advanced to the siege of Orleans.
For the movement which was to lead to the deliverance of France from the English invaders, see Joan Of Arc. The siege of Orleans was raised by her efforts on the 8th of May 1429, and two months later Charles VII.
For his former favourites were substituted energetic advisers, his brother-in-law Charles of Anjou, Dunois (the famous bastard of Orleans), Pierre de Breze, Richemont and others.
It is served by the Gulf & Interstate, the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, the Kansas City Southern, the Texas & New Orleans, the Colorado Southern, New Orleans & Pacific, the Beaumont, Sour Lake & Western (from Beaumont to Sour Lake, Tex.), and the (short) Galveston, Beaumont & North-Eastern railways.
In 1439 and 1 44 0 he went to France on missions of peace, and apparently at his instigation the English council decided to release Charles, duke of Orleans.
When Salisbury was killed before Orleans on the 3rd of November 1428, Suffolk succeeded to the command.
Report already represented Suffolk as too friendly with French leaders like Charles of Orleans, and it was with reluctance that he undertook the responsibility of an embassy to France.
James now granted his daughter, a child, to the Dauphin, later Louis XI.; but, as Jeanne d'Arc said, " the daughter of the king of Scotland could not save Orleans," then (1428-1429) besieged in a desultory manner by the English.
Bishop Theodulf of Orleans (d.
On the deposition of Louis Philippe in 1848, the duchess of Orleans struggled to secure the succession to her son, and bore him through an excited populace to the chamber of deputies.
When difficulties arose between France and the United States with regard to the affairs of Mexico, the Orleans princes withdrew from the American army and returned to Europe.
By the death of the latter in 1883 the count became undisputed head of the house of Bourbon; but he did not show any disposition to push his claims. The popularity of the Orleans family, however, was shown on the occasion of the marriage of the comte de Paris's eldest daughter with the duke of Braganza, son of the king of Portugal, in May 1886.
A finer production in every way is Schiller's "romantic tragedy," Die Jungfrau von Orleans (1801).
In unity of style and in the high level of its dramatic diction, Die Jungfrau von Orleans is unsurpassed among Schiller's works.
Seven years before he had started a model farm at Frechine, where he demonstrated the advantages of scientific methods of cultivation and of the introduction of good breeds of cattle and sheep. Chosen a member of the provincial assembly of Orleans in 1787, he busied himself with plans for the improvement of the social and economic conditions of the community by means of savings banks, insurance societies, canals, workhouses, &c.; and he showed the sincerity of his philanthropical work by advancing money out of his own pocket, without interest, to the towns of Blois and Romorantin, for the purchase of barley during the famine of 1788.
The first European settlers, who were French, came by way of the Great Lakes, and established intimate relations with New Orleans by the Mississippi river.
ORLEANS, Duke Of (1674-1723), regent of France, son of Philip I., duke of Orleans, and his second wife, the princess palatine, was born on the 2nd of August 1674, and had his first experience of arms at the siege of Mons in 1691.
After the death of the king, the duke of Orleans went to the parlement, had the will annulled, and himself invested with absolute power.
There existed a party of malcontents who wished to transfer the regency from Orleans to Philip V., king of Spain.
Dubois, formerly tutor to the duke of Orleans, and now his all-powerful minister, caused war to be declared against Spain, with the support of the emperor, and of England and Holland (Quadruple Alliance).
On the majority of the king, which was declared on the 15th of February 1723, the duke of Orleans resigned the supreme power; but he became first minister to the king, and remained in office till his death on the 23rd of December 1723.
The friction between him and General d'Aurelle de Paladines resulted in the loss of the advantage temporarily gained at Orleans, and he was responsible for the campaign in the east, which ended in the destruction of Bourbaki's army.
Havana has frequent steam-boat communication with New York, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Tampa, Mobile, New Orleans and other ports of the United States; and about as frequent with several ports in England, Spain and France.
(c. 970-1031), king of France, was a son of Hugh Capet, and was born at Orleans.
In 1716 Dubois, who was at the Hague at the instance of the regent Orleans, for the purpose of negotiating the Triple Alliance between France, Great Britain and Holland, sought the advice of Basnage, who, in spite of the fact that he had failed to receive permission to return to France on a short visit the year before, did his best to further the negotiations.
He forced the clergy to pay long-neglected feudal dues, and intrigued against the great houses of Anjou and Orleans in Italy.
DENYS PETAU (1583-1652), Jesuit scholar, better known as Dionysius Petavius, was born at Orleans on the 21st of August 1583.
in 1716, because, as the duke of Orleans said, he was neither Jansenist nor Molinist, nor Ultramontanist, but Catholic, died on the 14th of July 1723.
In May 1814 he was commissioned as major-general in the regular army to serve against the British; in November he captured Pensacola, Florida, then owned by Spain, but used by the British as a base of operations; and on the 8th of January 1815 he inflicted a severe defeat on the enemy before New Orleans, the contestants being unaware that a treaty of peace had already been signed.
During his stay in New Orleans he proclaimed martial law, and carried out his measures with unrelenting sternness, banishing from the town a judge who attempted resistance.
First he was an errand boy in a lawyer's office; then he was employed in a printing office; next he became a country school teacher; he founded (1836) and till 1839 edited the Long Islander at Huntingdon, and later edited a daily paper in Brooklyn (the Eagle, 1846-1847) then he was found in New Orleans, on the editorial staff of ths.
Their territory corresponded to the dioceses of Chartres, Orleans and Blois, that is, the greater part of the modern departments of Eure-et-Loir, Loiret, Loir-et-Cher.
The chief towns were Cenabum (not Genabum; Orleans) and Autricum (Chartres).
Up to the 3rd century Autricum (later Carnutes, whence Chartres) was the capital, but in 275 Aurelian changed Cenabum from a vicus into a civitas and named it Aurelianum or Aurelianensis urbs (whence Orleans).
She suffered as a child from an affection of the eyes, and was sent to France for medical treatment, residing with her grandmother, Henrietta Maria, and on the latter's death with her aunt, the duchess of Orleans, and returning to England in 1670.
It is served by the Southern, the Alabama Great Southern, the Mobile & Ohio, and the New Orleans & North Eastern and the Alabama & Vicksburg (Queen & Crescent Route) railways.
In 1903 more than 2,000,000 bunches were consigned to New Orleans.
Later, in the Reconstruction period, he commanded the Fifth Military District (Louisiana and Texas) at New Orleans, where his administration of the conquered states was most stormy, his differences with President Johnson culminating in his recall in September 1867.
In 1875 he was sent to New Orleans to deal with grave civil disorder, a duty which he carried out with the same uncompromising severity that he had previously shown in 1867.
In May 1860 he became postmaster of New York city, and from January until March 1861 he was secretary of the treasury of the United States, in which capacity he issued (January 29, 1861) to a revenue officer at New Orleans a famous order containing the words, "if any one attempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the spot."
Louis (2), called the chevalier sans reproche, defeated and captured the duke of Orleans at the battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier (1488), distinguished himself in the wars in Italy, and was killed at Pavia (1525).
Madeleine died soon after her arrival in Scotland, and in 1538 James made a much more important marriage, being united to Mary (1515-1560), daughter of Claude, duke of Guise, and widow of Louis of Orleans, duke of Longueville.
After 1818 his parents lived in Charleston, South Carolina, and he went to Yale in 1825 for his education, but left without taking a degree, and entered an attorney's office in New Orleans.
He was admitted to the New Orleans bar in 1832.
He compiled with his friend John Slidell a valuable digest of decisions of the superior courts of New Orleans and Louisiana; and as a partner in the firm of Slidell, Benjamin & Conrad, he enjoyed a good practice.
Benjamin joined the northern circuit, and a large proportion of his early practice came from solicitors at Liverpool who had correspondents in New Orleans.
Other vines, such as the Orleans and the Traminer, are also found in small quantities in the Rheingau.
In 1828 Cormenin entered the Chamber of Deputies as member for Orleans, took his seat in the Left Centre, and began a vigorous opposition to the government of Charles X.
After the revolution of July 1830, Cormenin was one of the 221 who signed the protest against the elevation of the Orleans dynasty to the throne; and he resigned both his office in the council of state and his seat in the chamber.
In 1883 she was appointed special agent to allot lands to the Omaha tribes, in 1884 prepared and sent to the New Orleans Exposition an exhibit showing the progress of civilization among the Indians of North America in the quarter-century previous, in 1886 visited the natives of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands on a mission from the commissioner of education, and in 1887 was United States special agent in the distribution of lands among the Winnebagoes and Nez Perces.
of Orleans, on the Orleans railway between that city and Tours.
The famous château of the family of Orleans (see Architecture: Renaissance Architecture in France), a fine example of Renaissance architecture, stands on the more westerly of the two hills.
Opposite is the Gaston wing, erected by Gaston, duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIII., which contains a majestic domed staircase.
In 1429 Joan of Arc made Blois her base of operations for the relief of Orleans.
After his captivity in England, Charles of Orleans in 1440 took up his residence in the château, where in 1462 his son, afterwards Louis XII., was born.
to his brother Gaston, duke of Orleans, who lived there till his death in 1660.
In 586 he was at Coblenz, and on his return to Yvois (the modern Carignan) visited the stylite Wulfilaic; in 588 we hear of him at Metz and also at Chalon-sur-Saone,whither he was sent to obtain from King Guntram the ratification of the pact of Andelot; in 593 he was at Orleans, where Childebert had just succeeded his uncle Guntram.
Its trade is chiefly with New Orleans in plantains, cocoa-nuts, pineapples and other fruit.
BATTLE OF THE HERRINGS, the name applied to the action of Rouvray, fought in 1429 between the French (and Scots) and the English, who, under Sir John Falstolfe (or Falstaff), were convoying Lenten provisions, chiefly herrings, to the besiegers of Orleans.
(See ORLEANS and HUNDRED YEARS' WAR.)
The dead king had endeavoured by his will to control the administration even after his death by a carefully selected council of regency, in which the duke of Orleans should have only the nominal presidency; but with the help of the parlement of Paris the arrangement was at once set aside, and the duke was declared regent with full traditional powers.
The king attained his legal majority at the age of thirteen, shortly before the death of the duke of Orleans.
He upheld American rights in Samoa, pursued a vigorous diplomacy with Italy over the lynching of eleven Italians, all except three of them American naturalized citizens, in New Orleans on the 14th of May 1891, held a firm attitude during the strained relations between the United States and Chile (growing largely out of the killing and wounding of American sailors of the U.S. ship "Baltimore" by Chileans in Valparaiso on the 16th of October 1891), and carried on with Great Britain a resolute controversy over the seal fisheries of Bering Sea, - a difference afterwards settled by arbitration.
He studied at the Lycee Charlemagne, in 1850 became a teacher in New Orleans, Louisiana, and there became acquainted with John Lloyd Stephens's books of travel in Yucatan.
His term of office was also marked by the favour which he showed to the Dominicans, a house of this order at Orleans having sheltered him during his stay in France, and by his earnestness in preaching a crusade.
The later years of her power were marked by the promotion of her old pupils, the children of the king and Mme de Montespan, to high dignity between the blood royal and the peers of the realm, and it was doubtless under the influence of her dislike for the duke of Orleans that the king drew up his will, leaving the personal care of his successor to the duke of Maine, and hampering the duke of Orleans by a council of regency.
However, the regent Orleans in no way molested her, but, on the contrary, visited her at St Cyr and continued her pension of 48,000 livres.
Orleans, the last bulwark of royalty, had been besieged since the 12th of October 1428, and was on the point of surrender when Joan of Arc appeared.
She saved Orleans (May 8, 1429), defeated the English at Patay on the 16th of June, had Charles VII.