The man was tall with Oriental features and striking, turquoise eyes.
Like Paris and other Trojans, he had an Oriental name, Darius.
From that point of view he gazed at the Oriental beauty he had not seen before.
The oriental topaz has been found in New South Wales.
Bagration, a gaunt middle-aged man of medium height with a firm, impassive face of Oriental type, came out after the commander-in-chief.
" Nazarenes"), the ordinary oriental word for "Christians."
His turquoise eyes stood out against his caramel- colored Oriental features.
The oriental man looked her over, almond-shaped turquoise eyes assessing.
He now caused them to build a great capital, Ecbatana, with a royal palace, and introduced the ceremonial of oriental courts; he surrounded himself with a guard and no longer showed' himself to the people, but gave his judgments in writing and controlled the people by officials and spies.
Even before this it had been clear to archaeologists and ethnologists that there was no evidence to support the popular theory that Zimbabwe had been built in very ancient days by some Oriental people.
Involuntarily he noticed a Georgian or Armenian family consisting of a very handsome old man of Oriental type, wearing a new, cloth- covered, sheepskin coat and new boots, an old woman of similar type, and a young woman.
We learn from Oriental writers that one of the Buyid (Buwaihid) sultans in the 10th century of the Flight constructed the great cisterns, which may yet be seen, and have been visited, amongst others, by James Morier and E.
He dropped to his knees on the Oriental rug with her still in his arms.
Certainly the Oriental area, in spite of its considerable size, cannot possibly claim the standing of a primary region.
Other precious stones, including the sapphire, emerald, oriental emerald, ruby, opal, amethyst, garnet, chrysolite, topaz, cairngorm, onyx, zircon, etc., have been found in the gold and tin bearing drifts and river gravels in numerous localities throughout the states.
Experiments hitherto made show that the cultivation of Oriental tobacco may.
He founded an oriental institute at Woking, and for some years edited the Asiatic Quarterly Review.
Kiki whirled from his position before the hearth, his oriental features set off by electric turquoise eyes.
The oriental man held a PDA and was frowning as he read through notes while the others waited for him to speak.
His Oriental features were chiseled, his turquoise eyes bright.
"We started with Asia last time," Kiki snapped, oriental features and towering height marking his mixed breeding.
The coming and going of envoys from many states, Greek and Oriental, taught him something of the actual conditions of the world.
Alexandersage (Halle, 1867), and for Oriental versions, T.
Oriental amethysts also have been found in that state, and the ruby has been found in Queensland, as well as in New South Wales.
the Nearctic and the Palaearctic. The reduction of the Oriental to a subregion, with consequent " provincial " rank of its main subdivisions, will probably be objected to, but these are matters of taste and prejudice.
The Oriental Subregion comprises all the countries and numerous islands between the Palaearctic and Australian areas; it possesses upwards of seventy families, of which, however, only one is peculiar, but this family, the Eurylaemidae or broadbills, is of great importance since it represents all the Subclamatores.
A Sicilian church has nothing in common with a French or an English church; it is sometimes purely Oriental, sometimes a basilica with pointed arches.
Lomba, La Republica Oriental del Uruguay (Montevideo, 1884); The Uruguay Republic, Territory and Conditions, reprinted by order of the ConsulGeneral of Uruguay (London, 1888); V.
If we assume, as we must needs do, that the opinions which Basilides promulgates as the teaching of the "barbari" (Acta Archelai c. 55) were in fact his own, the fragments prove him to have been a decided dualist, and his teaching an interesting further development of oriental (Iranian) dualism.
In its external features the new phenomenon was exceedingly like what is still seen in the East in every zikr of dervishes - the enthusiasm of the prophets expressed itself in no artificial form, but in a way natural to the Oriental temperament.
A wave of intense religious feeling passes over the land and finds its expression, according to the ordinary law of oriental life, in the formation of a sort of enthusiastic religious order.
That very young woman seemed to Pierre the perfection of Oriental beauty, with her sharply outlined, arched, black eyebrows and the extraordinarily soft, bright color of her long, beautiful, expressionless face.
All but the man with Kris's eyes and oriental beauty were sweating and bloodied in at least one spot.
The celebrated Gascoigne's powder, which was sold as late as the middle of the 19th century in the form of balls like sal prunella, consisted of equal parts of crabs' eyes," the black tips of crabs' claws, Oriental pearls, Oriental bezoar and white coral, and was administered in jelly made of hart's horn, but was prescribed by physicians chiefly for wealthy people, as it cost about forty shillings per ounce.
25 sqq.) is quite in accordance with Oriental custom and explains the growth of the present extremely complex sources.
URUGUAY (officially the Oriental Republic of the Uruguay, and long locally called the Banda Oriental, meaning the land on the eastern side of the river Uruguay, from which the country takes its name), the smallest independent state in South America.
de Pena, Album de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay (Montevideo, 1882); R.
Elsewhere it is only represented by P. occidentalis, the largest tree of the Atlantic forests from Maine to Oregon, and by P. oriental is in the eastern Mediterranean.
Though still half oriental, and wholly beautiful, with its Turkish bazaar, its hundred mosques, wooden houses and cypress groves, it was largely rebuilt, after 1878, in western fashion.
Caillard, Babington-Smith and Block, Reports on the Ottoman Public Debt (London, 1884-1898, 1899-1902, 1903 -1910); Annuaire oriental du commerce (Constantinople); Journal de la chambre de commerce (Constantinople, weekly); Annual Report of the Regie Co-interessee des Tabacs (Constantinople); Annual Report of the Council of Foreign Bondholders (London); C. Morawitz, Les Finances de la Turquie (Paris, 1902); G.
An intimate friend of Herder, himself keenly interested in literature, he naturally enough treats the Old Testament as literature - like Lowth, but more thoroughly: and, as an Oriental scholar, he treats it as an Oriental literature.
This period might no doubt be reduced to 480 years by the supposition, in itself not improbable, that some of the judges were local and contemporaneous; the suggestion has also been made that, as is usual in Oriental chronologies, the years of foreign domination were not counted, the beginning of each judge's rule being reckoned, not from the victory which brought him into power, but from the death of his predecessor; we should in this case obtain for the period from the Exodus to the foundation of the Temple 440+x+y years,' which if 30 years be assigned con 1 Petrie, Hist.
There is no evidence of the existence of a cult of Caelus, the occurrence of the name in dedicatory inscriptions being due to Oriental influences, the worship of the sky being closely connected with that of Mithras.
He had the Oriental's power of endurance, alternating with violent and emotional courage.
He became secretary of the American Oriental Society and editor of its Journal, to which he contributed many valuable papers, especially on numerical and temporal categories in early Sanskrit literature.
Monolithic columns of grey oriental granite (except one, which is of cipollino), evidently the spoils of older buildings, on each side support eight pointed arches much stilted.
On the 26th of April 1441 the pope announced that the synod would be transferred to the Lateran; but before leaving Florence a union was negotiated with the Oriental Christians known as Jacobites, through a monk named Andreas, who, at least as regards Abyssinia, acted in excess of his powers.
As for the Greeks, the union met with much opposition, particularly from the monks, and was rejected by three Oriental patriarchs at a synod of Jerusalem in 1443; and after various ineffective attempts to enforce it, the fall of Constantinople in 1453 put an end to the endeavour.
She fed the elephants, and was allowed to climb up on the back of the largest, and sit in the lap of the "Oriental Princess," while the elephant marched majestically around the ring.
The countess was a woman of about forty-five, with a thin Oriental type of face, evidently worn out with childbearing--she had had twelve.
Alexander had come to merge the characters of Macedonian king and Hellenic captain-general, with which he had set out, in that of Oriental despot (Spieker.
In 1869-1879 he was professor of Hebrew in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary (first in Greenville, South Carolina, and after 1877 in Louisville, Kentucky), and in 1880 he became professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages in Harvard University, where until 1903 he was also Dexter lecturer onzbiblical literature.
This conception which is repeated in nearly every Gnostic system, of (seven) world-creating angels, is a specifically oriental speculation.
While the Muscovites of the upper classes were thus beginning to abandon their old oriental habits, their government was preparing to make a political evolution of a similar kind.
of Macedon, occurred sporadically even before Alexander's conquests brought Greek life into contact with oriental traditions.
The fighting, no doubt, on the part of the wazir was conducted with all the savagery of Oriental warfare; but there is no evidence that it was a war of extermination.
Purple corundum, or sapphire of amethystine tint, is called Oriental amethyst, but this expression is often applied by jewellers to fine examples of the ordinary amethystine quartz, even when not derived from Eastern sources.
Sellin, in Oriental.
The story of Ruth, too--how Oriental it is!
A convention was signed in 1849, which secured the free navigation of the Parana and the independence of the Banda Oriental.
See opening of the letters of Abimelech of Tyre, Bezold's Oriental Diplomacy, Nos.
Soon afterwards his fancy kindled with the first glimpses into Oriental history, the wild " barbaric " charm of which he never ceased to feel.
Shea (London, 1832) (Oriental Translation Fund); L'Histoire de la dynastic des Sassanides, by S.
Poland, Panin opined, would be especially useful in case of Oriental combinations.
trimestriel (1897), pp. 4 1 -54,455-493; and compare Noldeke in Vienna Oriental Journal (1896), pp. 160 sqq.
Yet he was a great king, the type and to some extent the victim of the confusions of his age - Christian in creed and ambition, but more than half oriental in his household.
Hence it is possible, by a comprehensive comparative study of Eastern peoples, in both ancient and modern times, to supplement and illustrate within certain limits our direct knowledge of the early Jewish people, and thus to understand more clearly those characteristics which were [OLD Testament History peculiar to them, in relation to those which they shared with other Oriental peoples.
Like many Oriental works it is a compilation, as may be illustrated from a comparison of Chronicles with Samuel - Kings, and the representation of the past in the light of the present (as exemplified in Chronicles) is a frequently recurring phenomenon.
3 Scientific biblical historical study, nevertheless, is still in a relatively backward condition; and although the labours of scholars since Ewald constitute a distinct epoch, the trend of research points to the recognition of the fact that the purely subjective literary material requires a more historical treatment in the light of our increasing knowledge of external and internal conditions in the old Oriental world.
Tradition depicts him as a worthy successor to his father, and represents a state of luxury and riches impressive to all who were familiar with the great Oriental courts.
They took a keen interest in all the political vicissitudes of the Oriental world.
Biblical, or rather Palestinian, thought has been brought into the world of ancient Oriental life, and this life, in spite of the various forms in which it has from time to time been shaped, still rules in the East.
Although the light thrown upon ancient conditions of life and thought has destroyed much that sometimes seems vital for the Old Testament, it has brought into relief a more permanent and indisputable appreciation of its significance, and it is gradually dispelling that pseudo-scientific literalism which would fetter the greatest of ancient Oriental writings with an insistence upon the verity of historical facts.
The destruction of Jerusalem might be regarded as an event of merely domestic importance; for the Roman cosmopolitan it was only the removal of the titular metropolis of a national and an Oriental religion.
At Berlin (1844-1846) and Halle (1846-1847) he studied theology, philosophy and oriental languages.
In 1866 he received three years' leave of absence to collect fresh materials, and in 1869 succeeded Heinrich Ewald as professor of oriental languages at Gottingen.
He devoted himself ardently to oriental scholarship, and published Zur Urgeschichte der Armenier (1854) and Armenische Studien (1877).
- Some form of liturgical head-dress is common to all the Oriental rites.
To the west is the old town, consisting of steep, narrow, winding streets, and presenting a decidedly oriental appearance.
The words " Asiatic " and " Oriental " are often used as if they denoted a definite and homogeneous type, but Russians resemble Asiatics in many ways, and Turks, Hindus, Chinese, &c., differ in so many important points that the common substratum is small.
It is perhaps on account of this intermediate flavour that the literature of Persia - for instance the adaptations of Omar Khayyam - is more appreciated in Europe than that of other Oriental nations.
Somewhat later the Crusades kept up communication with the Levant, and established there the power of the Roman Church, somewhat to the detriment of oriental Christianity, but intercourse with farther Asia was limited to the voyages of a few travellers.
In the 16th century a new era began with the discovery by the Portuguese of the route to India round the Cape, and the naval powers of Europe started one after another on careers of oriental conquest.
The course of oriental conquest followed the events of European politics, and the possessions of European powers in the East generally changed hands according to the fortunes of their masters at home.
The ultimate victory of England seems due less to any particular aptitude for dealing with oriental problems than to a better command of the seas and to considerations of European politics.
David's sons were estranged from one another, and acquired all the vices of Oriental princes.
Mention may be made of Stahelin's Leben Davids (Basel, 1866), still valuable for the numerous parallels adduced from oriental history; Cheyne's Aids to Devout Study of Criticism (1892), a criticism of David's history in its bearing upon religion; Marcel Dieulafoy, David the King (1902), full, but not critical; H.
7 6 5 ff., is a mixture of Greek traditions with a few oriental elements; here the first king is Medos (the Median empire); his nameless son is succeeded by Cyrus, a blessed ruler, beloved by the gods, who gave peace to all his friends and conquered Lydia, Phrygia, Ionia.
But the costume and physiognomy of the inhabitants, the narrow streets and flatroofed, whitewashed houses, and more than all, the thousands of palm-trees in its gardens and fields, give the place a strikingly Oriental aspect, and render it unique among the cities of Spain.
Such systems have been elaborated chiefly by modern thinkers, but the germs of the ideas are found widely spread in the older Oriental philosophies and in pre-Christian European thought.
Oriental pessimism, at least as understood by Europeans, is best exemplified in Buddhism, which finds in human life sorrow and pain.
In 1789 he was chosen professor ordinarius of Oriental languages at Jena.
His special work was the exposition of the Old and New Testaments in the light of his great Oriental learning and according to his characteristic principle of "natural explanation."
JAMES TOD (1782-1835), British officer and Oriental scholar, was born on the 20th of March 1782, and went to India as a cadet in the Bengal army in 1799.
Babylonia And Assyria) it is impossible to overestimate his services to Oriental scholarship. He travelled widely in the East and continued in later life annual trips up the Nile.
He also contributed important articles to the 9th, 10th and 1 1th editions of the Encyclopaedia Britannica and edited a number of Oriental works.
Competition, in the Darwinian sense, is characteristic not only of modern industrial states, but of all living organisms; and in the narrower sense of the " higgling of the market " is found on the Stock Exchange, in the markets of old towns, in medieval fairs and Oriental bazaars.
As usually happened in this strife of the land power and the sea power, Napoleon's continental policy attained an almost complete success, while the naval and oriental schemes which he had more nearly at heart utterly miscarried.
Rawlinson, The Sixth Oriental Monarchy (1873), and A.
He censured Alexander's adoption of oriental customs, inveighing especially against the servile ceremony of adoration.
MANDAEANS, also known as Sabians, Nasoraeans, or St John's Christians,' an Oriental sect of great antiquity, interesting to the theologian as almost the only surviving example of a ' The first of these names (not Mendaeans or Mandaites) is that given by themselves, and means yvcvvTucot, followers of Gnosis (m, , 111e2, from ml.lxn, Hebr.
But it is equally plain that the Ophite nucleus has from time to time received very numerous and often curiously perverted accretions from Babylonian Judaism, Oriental Christianity and Parsism, exhibiting a striking example of religious syncretism.
Oriental types range far northwards into China and Japan.
Interesting relationships between the Ethiopian and Oriental, the Neotropical and West African, the Patagonian and New Zealand faunas suggest great changes in the distribution of land and water, and throw doubt on the doctrine of the permanence of continental areas and oceanic basins.
It was long supposed to be Venetian, but has been identified as of rare Oriental workmanship. The legend tells how a seneschal of Eden Hall one day came upon a company of fairies dancing at St Cuthbert's Well in the park.
His studies were chiefly in Oriental languages and the textual criticism of the New Testament, though his work as a bibliographer showed such results as the exhaustive list of writings (5300 in all) on the doctrine of the future life, appended to W.
In addition to the native stuffs, an immense quantity of costly Oriental carpets, wall-hangings and other textiles was imported into Venice, partly for its own use, and partly for export throughout western Europe.
Like many other arts in Venice, that of glass-making appears to have been imported from Moslem countries, and the influence of Oriental design can be traced in much of the Venetian glass.
Venice lost her monopoly of oriental traffic.
One genus of Thomisidae (Phognarachne), which inhabits the Oriental region, adopts the clever device of spinning on the surface of a leaf a sheet of web resembling the fluid portions of a splash of bird's dung, the more solid central portions being represented by the spider itself, which waits in the middle of the patch to seize the butterflies or other insects that habitually feed on birds' excrement and are attracted to the patch mistaking it for their natural food.
Nor, indeed, must it be forgotten that the search for new and more direct connexions with the routes of Oriental trade is one of the motives underlying the Crusades themselves, and leading to what may be called the 13th-century discovery of Asia.
They dressed in flowing robes of silk, and their women wore oriental gauzes covered with sequins.
The common use of armorial bearings, and the practice of the tournament, may be Oriental in their origin; the latter has its affinities with the equestrian exercises of the Jerid, and the former, though of prehistoric antiquity, may have received a new impulse from contact with the Arabs.
The study of Oriental languages began in connexion with the Christian missions of the East; Raymond Lull, the indefatigable missionary, induced the council of Vienne to decide on the creation of six schools of Oriental languages in Europe (13 I I).
The earliest Greek alchemistical writings abound with references to Oriental authorities and traditions.
The whole conclave may be compared with the enclosed bazaars or khans of Oriental cities which are usually locked at night.
Being thus elevated, and extending along the river for some 4 m., the city forms a magnificent panorama of buildings in many varieties of oriental architecture.
Closely associated with oriental scholars, and a.
Alexander had at first trusted Persian grandees more freely in this capacity; in Babylonia, Bactria, Carmania, Susiana he had set Persian governors, till the ingrained Oriental tradition of misgovernment so declared itself that to the three latter provinces certainly Macedonians had been appointed before his death.
character of the Oriental great king.
It has been supposed that in offering such worship the Greeks showed the effect of " Oriental " influence, but indeed we have not to look outside the Greek circle of ideas to explain it.
The Macedonians of Alexander were not mistaken in seeing an essential transformation of their national monarchy when Alexander adopted the guise of an Oriental great 2.
Government at the same time, as an Oriental despotism understands it, often has little in view but the gathering in of the tribute and compulsion of the subjects to personal service in the army or in royal works, and if satisfied in these respects will leave much independence to the local authorities.
The Oriental features which Alexander had introduced were not copied.
There was no proskynesis (or certainly not in the case of Greeks and Macedonians), and the king did not wear an Oriental dress.
An elaborate universal alphabet, abounding in diacritical marks, has been devised for the purpose by Professor Lepsius, and various other systems have been adopted for Oriental languages, and by certain missionary societies, adapted to the languages in which they teach.
These miles, however, were not the ordinary Roman miles of l000 paces or 5000 ft., but smaller miles of Greek or Oriental origin, of which six were equal to five Roman miles, and as the latter were equal to 1480 metres, the Portolano miles had a length of only 1233 metres, and 75 2 of the former, and 90 3 of the latter were equal to a degree.
Among other French works of importance deserving notice are Le Neptune oriental of Mannevillette (1745) and more especially the Carte geometrique de la France, which is based upon surveys carried on (1744-1783) by Cesar Francois Cassini de Thury and his son Dominique de Cassini.
The existing Oriental varieties are in most cases characterized by silky hair.
He laboured much to bring about the reunion of the Oriental Churches with the see of Rome, establishing Catholic educational centres in Athens and in Constantinople with that end in view.
The narrow winding streets and the Arab bazaars present an Oriental scene contrasting with the European aspect of the district already described.
The majority of these were Greeks, Italians, Syrians, Armenians and other Levantines, though almost every European and Oriental nation is represented.
The third is the age of the plena spiritus libertas, the age of contemplation, the monastic age par excellence, the age of a monachism wholly directed towards ecstasy, more Oriental than Benedictine.
Ormazd in his exalted majesty is the ideal figure of an Oriental king.
At Geneva are three large collections - Augustin Pyrame de Candolle's, containing the typical specimens of the Prodromus, a large series of monographs of the families of flowering plants, Benjamin Delessert's fine series at the Botanic Garden, and the Boissier Herbarium, which is rich in Mediterranean and Oriental plants.
The Pythagorean theory of numbers, Neoplatonic ideas of emanation, the Logos, the personified Wisdom, Gnosticism - these and many other features combine to show the antiquity of tendencies which, clad in other shapes, are already found in the old pre-Christian Oriental religions.
459 seq.: and for examples of the relationship between old Oriental (especially Babylonian) and Jewish Kabbalistic teaching (early and late), see especially A.
and the early Reformers were alike captivated by the charms of the Kabbalah as propounded by Reuchlin, and not only divines, but statesmen and warriors, began to study the Oriental languages in order to be able to fathom the mysteries of Jewish theosophy.
The study of the whole subject being wrapped up with Gnosticism and Oriental theosophy, the related literature is immense.
The regular Peninsular & Oriental steamer service began a few years later, and in 1857 a railway was opened from Cairo through the desert.
The three main systems are known in Cuba as the occidental, central and oriental.
The oriental mountain region includes the province of Oriente and a portion of Camaguey.
The scenery in the oriental portion of the island is very beautiful, with wild mountains and tropical forests.
Finally, various receipts of which the principal separately specified are government share of railway receipts (Oriental railways and Smyrna-Cassaba railway), ET201,710, and " subscriptions " for the Hejaz railway, ET264,600, form Section VIII.
These belong to the new or European school, which, in spite of the bitter opposition of the partisans of the old Oriental system, has succeeded, partly through its own inherent superiority and partly through the talents and courage of its supporters, in expelling its rival from the position of undisputed authority which it had occupied for upwards of five hundred years.
The seat of the exilarch or resh galutha was transferred from Pumbedita(Pumbeditha or Pombeditha) inBabylonia to Bagdad, which thus became the capital of oriental Judaism; from then to the present day the Jews have played no mean part in Bagdad.
For the rest, the pastoral staff in the Oriental rites is T-shaped.
Iron shipments from the Mesabi and Vermilion ranges, cereals from the Northwest, fruits and vegetables from the Pacific coast, and Oriental products obtained via the great northern railways, are also elements of great importance in the state's commerce.
He was a man of great talents and spoke and wrote many Oriental and European languages.
He was also the first to introduce Oriental founts of type into Rumania, and he printed there the first Arabic missal for the Christians of the East (Ramnicu, 1702).
It will deal briefly (I) with the general idea and the historical evolution of ecclesiastical vestments, (2) with the vestments as at present worn (a) in the Roman Catholic Church, (b) in the Oriental Churches, (c) in the Reformed Churches, (d) in the Anglican Church.
Before discussing the changes made in the various Reformed Churches, due to the doctrinal developments of the 16th century, we may therefore give here a list of the vestments now worn by the various orders of clergy in the Roman Catholic Church and the Oriental Churches.
The general character of the vestments is much the same in the other Oriental rites.
Of oriental origin, its first known performance in Italy occurred in A.D.
A new English version was published in TrUbners Oriental series (1882) by E.
IMMANUEL OSCAR MENAHEM DEUTSCH (1829-1873), German oriental scholar, was born on the 28th of October 1829, at Neisse in Prussian Silesia, of Jewish extraction.
It is true that several of the Neoplatonists professed to accept all the teaching both of Plato and of Aristotle, whereas, in fact, they arbitrarily interpreted Aristotle so as to make him agree with Plato, and Plato so as to make his teachings consistent with the Oriental doctrines which they had adopted, in the same manner as the schoolmen attempted to reconcile Aristotle with the doctrines of the church.
Francke's Collegium orientale theologicum, a practical school of biblical and oriental philology then quite unique, and the author of an annotated Hebrew Bible and various exegetical works of reputation, especially the Adnotationes uberiores in hagiographos (1720).
His oriental studies were reshaped by diligent perusal of the works of Schultens; for the Halle school, with all its learning, had no conception of the principles on which a fruitful connexion between Biblical and Oriental learning could be established.
Hist., 1897-1900; Simon, Les Arachnides de la France (7 vols., Paris, 1874-1881); Thorell, "Arachnida from the Oriental Region," Ann.
While the characteristic features of apocalyptic literature were derived from Judaism, those of Gnosticism sprang partly from Greek philosophy, partly from oriental religions.
Both religions were of Oriental origin; they were propagated about the same time, and spread with equal rapidity on account of the same causes, viz.
The troops in Montevideo also embarked for Portugal, and the Banda Oriental remained a part of Brazil with the title of the Provincia Cisplatina.
The rebellion of the Banda Oriental was followed by a declaration of war with Buenos Aires which had supported it, and operations by sea and land were conducted against that republic in a feeble way.
Financial embarrassments increased to an alarming extent; the emperor was compelled by the British government to make peace with Buenos Aires and to renounce the Banda Oriental; and to fill the sum of disasters Dom Miguel had treacherously usurped the crown of Portugal.
His diligent attendance at the Royal Library attracted the attention of the keeper of the manuscripts, the Abbe Sallier, whose influence procured for him a small salary as student of the oriental languages.
He arrived in Paris on the 14th of March 1762 in possession of one hundred and eighty oriental manuscripts, besides other curiosities.
The Abbe Barthelemy procured for him a pension, with the appointment of interpreter of oriental languages at the Royal Library.
In 1778 he published at Amsterdam his Legislation orientale, in which he endeavoured to prove that the nature of oriental despotism had been greatly misrepresented.
those of subdeacons and readers, and this holds good of the Oriental churches generally, with the single exception of the Armenians.'
The most striking feature of the Oriental fatalism is its complete indifference to material circumstances: men accept prosperity and misfortune with calmness as the decree of fate.
Catholics of the Oriental rite in communion with Rome.
To this day the same book is in great estimation among the learned in the oriental nations, and by the Indians, who cultivate this art, it is called aljabra and alboret; though the name of the author himself is not known."
in adventures in Asia Minor, He was reported in x920-21 to have been employed at Moscow as director of the Asiatic department in the Soviet Government, and to have posed at the Baku Congress of Oriental Peoples as the leader of a great Socialist movement in the middle east and north Africa.
He produced in the end a synthesis of Plato and Aristotle with an admixture of Pythagorean or Oriental mysticism, and is closely allied to the Alexandrian school of thought.
Resigning in 1882 owing to conscientious scruples, he became professor extraordinarius of oriental languages in the faculty of philology at Halle, was elected professor ordinarius at Marburg in 1885, and was transferred to Gottingen in 1892.
That important legal work, The Laws of the Emperors Constantine, Theodosius and Leo, which was composed in Greek about 475, and " which lies at the root of all subsequent Christian Oriental legislation in ecclesiastical, judicial and private matters" (Wright), must have been repeatedly translated into Syriac. The oldest form is contained in a British Museum MS. which dates from the earlier part of the 6th century, and this was edited by Land (Anecd.
The town is oriental in character.
All in all the study of oriental costume down to the days of Hellenism proves to be something more than that of mere apparel, and any close survey of the evidence speedily raises questions which concern old oriental history and thought.
The modern oriental open waistcoat finds its fellow in the jacket or bolero from ancient Crete, and seems to have been distinctively Aegean.
In the late usage at Harran the worshipper, after purifying his garments and his heart, was advised to put on the clothing of the particular god he addressed (de Goeje, Oriental Congress, Leiden, 1 Herod.
Ancient oriental costume then cannot be severed from the history and development of thought.
The Israelite distinctive costume and toilet as part of a distinctive national religion was in harmony with oriental thought, and, as a people chosen and possessed by Yahweh, " a kingdom of priests and an holy nation " (Ex.
These have oriental analogies, and lend support to the tradition that the Etruscans came from Asia.
There can be no doubt that it was in the main Greek medicine, modified to suit other climates, habits and national tastes, and with some important additions from Oriental sources.
In Sicily also the Oriental tendencies of Frederick Barbarossa and Frederick II.
21) mentions the gift of a Ouµaari pcov by the contemporary Chosroes of Persia to the church of Jerusalem; and all the Oriental liturgies of this period provide special prayers for the thurification of the eucharistic elements.
The name has by some later Oriental writers been modified into Hindu Koh (mountain), but this is factitious, and throws no more light on the origin of the title.
The name seems to have become known to European geographers by the Oriental translations of the two Petis de la Croix, and was taken up by Delisle and D'Anville.
The objects produced show no sign of Venetian influence, but are distinctly Oriental in form.
His son Tukulti-In-aristi conquered Babylon, putting its king Bitilyasu to death, and thereby made Assyria the mistress of the oriental world.
Of all the other works of our author mentioned by Oriental writers there has as yet been found only one, the Zadelmusafirin or "travelling provisions of pilgrims" (in the private possession of M.
This Arabic work has not been printed, but a summary of the contents is given by Nicoll in his catalogue of the Oriental MSS.
This is one of the earliest recorded instances of a practice common enough on the accession of Oriental despots.
Boletus edulis, in the Oriental Trehala and in ergot of rye; melibiose, C12H22011, formed, with fructose, on hydrolysing the trisaccharose melitose (or raffinose), C18H32016.5H20, which occurs in Australian manna and in the molasses of sugar manufacture; touranose, C12H22011, formed with d-glucose and galactose on hydrolysing another trisaccharose, melizitose, C,8H32016 2H20, which occurs in Pinus larix and in Persian manna; and agavose, C12H22011, found in the stalks of Agave americana.
He taught with great regularity for upward of thirty years, the only interruptions being that of 1813-1814 (occasioned by the War of Liberation, during which the university was closed) and those occasioned by two prolonged literary tours, first in 1820 to Paris, London and Oxford with his colleague Johann Karl Thilo (1794-1853) for the examination of rare oriental manuscripts, and in 1835 to England and Holland in connexion with his Phoenician studies.
Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol.
Goldziher in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, vols.
The original aim was to influence the old Nestorian Church rather than to set up a new religious body, but the wide difference between Presbyterians and an Oriental Church rendered the attempt abortive, and the result of the labours of the Americans has been the establishment since 1862 of a Syrian Protestant community in Persia, with some adherents in Turkey.
C. Tychsen he devoted himself specially to the study of Oriental languages.
At the close of his academical career in 1823 he was appointed to a mastership in the gymnasium at Wolfenbuttel, and made a study of the Oriental manuscripts in the Wolfenbuttel library.
In 1831 he was promoted to the position of professor ordinarius in philosophy; in 1833 he became a member of the Royal Scientific Society, and in 1835, after Tychsen's death, he entered the faculty of theology, taking the chair of Oriental languages.
The great undertaking was supported by liberal subscriptions, and Walton's political opinions did not deprive him of the help of the Commonwealth; the paper used was freed from duty, and the interest of Cromwell in the work was acknowledged in the original preface, part of which was afterwards cancelled to make way for more loyal expressions towards that restored monarchy under which Oriental studies in England immediately began to languish.
It was adopted by many important British and continental shipping companies, among others by the Peninsular & Oriental, the Inman, the North German Lloyd and the Hamburg American companies.
After spending six years in Constantinople, where he published a Turkish-German Dictionary and various linguistic works, and where he acquired some twenty Oriental languages and dialects, he visited Teheran; and then, disguised as a dervish, joined a band of pilgrims from Mecca, and spent several months with them in rough and squalid travel through the deserts of Asia.
Returning to Hungary, he was appointed professor of Oriental languages in the university of Budapest: there he settled down, contributing largely to periodicals, and publishing a number of books, chiefly in German and Hungarian.
Amongst the best known of his works, besides those alluded to, are Wanderings and Adventures in Persia (1867); Sketches of Central Asia (1868); History of Bokhara (1873); Manners in Oriental Countries (1876); Primitive Civilization of the Turko-Tatar People (1879) Origin of the Magyars (1882); The Turkish People (1885); and Western Culture in Eastern Lands (1906) .
This was due in the first place to the lack of adequate railway communication with the interior of Austria, to the loss of part of the Levant trade through the development of the Oriental railway system, to the diversion of traffic towards the Italian and German ports, and finally to the growing rivalry of the neighbouring port of Fiume, whose interests were vigorously promoted by the Hungarian government.
Beyond the walls extended the gardens and villas of a prosperous Oriental population, especially on the south-west towards the suburb of Meram.
To render the convent self-supporting, he opened schools for various branches of art, and promoted the study of Oriental languages.
His account of the first dawnings of culture, and of the ruder Oriental civilizations, is marked by genuine insight.
The doctrine of emanation is correctly described as of oriental origin.
It appears in various forms in Indian philosophy, and is the characteristically oriental element in syncretic systems like Neoplatonism and Gnosticism.
Though ardent in his pastoral work, he found time for diligent study of Hebrew and other Oriental languages, undertaken chiefly with the view of qualifying himself for the great work of his life, his Commentary on the Holy Scriptures (8 vols., 1810-1826).
Its native population was of the same stock as that of Cappadocia, of which it had formed a part, an Oriental race often called by the Greeks Leucosyri or White Syrians, as distinguished from the southern Syrians, who were of a darker complexion, but their precise ethnological relations are uncertain.
No faience produced either in China or any other Oriental country can dispute the palm with really representative specimens of Satsuma ware.
At last, however, the fate usual to statesmen in oriental countries overtook him, and he incurred the mortal displeasure of Fateh Ali Shah.
It undoubtedly stands in close connexion with the name of the province of Bessarabia, which oriental chroniclers gave in olden times to the whole of Walachia.
The other heraldic signs, the crescent and the star, have evidently been added on the same supposition of an oriental origin of the family.
Nuevo Leon lies partly upon the great Mexican plateau and partly upon its eastern slopes, the Sierra Madre Oriental crossing the state N.W.
The Asiatic Journal (1816) dealt with Oriental subjects.
Among other early Calcutta magazines were the Asiatic Observer (1823-1824), the Quarterly Oriental Magazine (1824-1827), and the Royal Sporting Magazine (1833-1838).
Madras had a Journal of Literature and Science and the Oriental Magazine and Indian Hurkuru (1819).
It now restricts itself to publishing contributions relating to antiquities and the middle ages and Oriental studies.
Oriental, with the title of Turkish Spy, Lettres chinoises, &c. These productions were usually issued in periodical form, and, besides an immense amount of worthless tittle-tattle, contain some valuable matter.
Modern structures include a public hall, and an Oriental institute (in the building erected for the Royal Dramatic College, including a museum of Eastern antiquities, a mosque, and residences for Orientals).
In 1810 Emden became the chief town of the French department of Ems Oriental; in 1815 it was assigned to Hanover, and in 1866 was annexed with that kingdom by Prussia.
He studied Biblical exegesis and oriental languages at the university of Strassburg under E.
The two latter pictures were marked by the rhythm of line and luxury of colour which are among the most constant attributes of his art, and may be regarded as his first dreams of Oriental beauty, with which he afterwards showed so great a sympathy.
If we add to pictures of this class a few Scriptural subjects, a few Oriental dreams, one or two of tender sentiment like "Wedded" (one of the most popular of his pictures, and well known by not only an engraving, but a statuette modelled by an Italian sculptor), a number of studies of very various types of female beauty, "Teresina," "Biondina," "Bianca," "Moretta," &c., and an occasional portrait, we shall nearly exhaust the two classes into which Lord Leighton's work (as a painter) can be divided.
About 30 species, with several genera, are known from the oriental and neotropical regions.
The conditions which led to the second Athenian or Delian Confederacy were fundamentally different, not only in virtue of the fact that the allies had learned from experience the dangers to which such a league was liable, but because the enemy was no longer an oriental power of whose future action there could be no certain anticipation, but Sparta, whose ambitious projects since the fall of Athens had shown that there could be no safety for the smaller states save in combination.
is a zone of dwarf hard-leaved oaks, amongst which occur the Oriental forms Fontanesia phillyraeoides, Acer syriacum and the beautiful redstemmed Arbutus Andrachne.
Then follow the low, dense, prone, pillow-like dwarf bushes, thorny and grey, common to the Oriental highlands - A stragalus and the peculiar Acantholimon.
The alpine flora of Lebanon thus connects itself directly with the Oriental flora of lower altitudes, and is unrelated to the glacial flora of Europe and northern Asia.
At the present day, the title of archbishop is retained in the Roman Catholic Church, the various oriental churches, the Anglican Church, and certain branches of the Lutheran (Evangelical) Church.
Mitchell for the Oriental Translation Fund, 1831), is said to have been founded on evidence collected by order of the sultan Suleiman.
In the train of the Magna Mater came the secret Oriental cult of Bacchus, which grew to such proportions in deities .
But here he and the wiser of his successors drew the line, and though under oriental influence divine honours were paid to the living emperor outside Italy, they were never permitted officially in Rome.
In the popular mind the hosts of exciting oriental cults, which in the 3rd and 4th centuries of the Empire filled Rome with the rites of mysticism and initiation, held undisputed sway; and with the more educated a revived philosophy, less accurate perhaps in thought, but more satisfying to the religious conscience, gave men a clearer monotheistic conception, and a notion of individual relations with the divine in prayer and even of consecration.
In fact, some Oriental scenes and descriptions of incidents were corroborated by a letter from India which arrived just after the experiment; and the same thing happened when the events described were occurring in places less remote.
Joseph Aloysius, brother of Joseph Simon, and professor of Oriental languages at Rome.
Simon, grandnephew of Joseph Simon, was born at Tripoli in 1752, and was professor of Oriental languages in Padua.
Against the Calvinists the synod of 1672 therefore aimed its rejection of unconditional predestination and of justification by faith alone, also its advocacy of what are substantially the Roman doctrines of transubstantiation and of purgatory; the Oriental hostility to Calvinism had been fanned by the Jesuits.
The picturesque account of the meeting with Rebekah throws interesting light on oriental custom.
The huge scale of many of his conceptions can be compared only with that of antique Oriental monuments.
The study of these different inscriptions has utterly revolutionized our knowledge of Oriental history.
The efforts of the students of Oriental archaeology have been constantly stimulated by the fact that their studies brought Archae- them more or less within the field of Bible history.
As the forgotten history of Oriental antiquity has been restored to us, it has come to be understood that, politically speaking, the Hebrews were a relatively insignificant people, whose chief importance from the standpoint of material history was derived from the geographical accident that made them a sort of buffer between the greater nations about them.
Not many years ago it would have been accounted a heresy to suggest that the historical books of the Old Testament had conveyed to our minds estimates of Oriental history that suffered from this same defect; but to-day no one who is competent to speak with authority pretends to doubt that such is really the fact.
From the point of view implied by such words as these, it is only necessary to recall the mental attitude of our grandfathers to appreciate in some measure the revolution in thought that has been wrought in this field within the last half-century, largely through the instrumentality of Oriental archaeology.
We have seen that the general trend of Oriental archaeology has been reconstructive rather than iconoclastic. Equally true Archae- is this of recent classical archaeology.
Here no such ology and revolution has been effected as that which virtually classical created anew the history of Oriental antiquity; yet history.
With the lessons of recent Oriental archaeology in mind, few will be sceptical enough to doubt that some such contest as that described in the Iliad actually occurred.
We have seen that Oriental archaeology has in recent generations revolutionized our conceptions of the antiquity of civilization.
But until recently it had been supposed that Hellas was shut out entirely from this Oriental culture.
That which distinguishes Herat from all other Oriental cities, and at the same time constitutes its main defence, is the stupendous character of the earthwork upon which the city wall is built.
This building, which was erected by Shah Rukh Mirza, the grandson of Timur, over Soo years ago, contains some exquisite specimens of sculpture in the best style of Oriental art.
The Gandhara school of sculpture, of which the best specimens come from the neighbourhood of Kanishka's capital, Purushpura (the modern Peshawar), is a branch of Graeco-Roman art adapted to Oriental religious subjects.
Although Cyrus was defeated at Cunaxa, this rebellion was disastrous inasmuch as it opened to the Greeks the way into the interior of the empire, and demonstrated that no oriental force was able to withstand a band of well-trained Greek soldiers.
Distant's Oriental Cicadidae (London, 1889-1892), and many other papers; M.
The question whether Trajan's Oriental policy was wise is answered emphatically by Mommsen in the affirmative.
This is the story of the appearance at Rome (1122), in the pontificate of Calixtus II., of a certain Oriental ecclesiastic, whom one account styles "John, the patriarch of the Indians," and another "an archbishop of India."
We can find no Oriental corroboration of the claims of Ung Khan to supremacy over the Mongols.
The houses are in general made of undressed stone and mud and are flat-topped, the general aspect of the city being Oriental and un-Abyssinian.
One Oriental species (Sciurus caniceps) presents almost the only known instance among mammals of the assumption during the breeding season of a distinctly ornamental coat, corresponding to the breeding plumage of birds.
From these three arguments he developed an elaborate theosophy which was a syncretism of oriental mysticism and pure Greek metaphysic, and may be regarded as representing the climax of Jewish philosophy.
Leaving all detailed descriptions of these schools to special articles devoted to them, it is sufficient here to say that their doctrines were a synthesis of Platonism, Stoicism and the later Aristotelianism with a leaven of oriental mysticism which gradually became more and more important.
Hartley, contains a library, museum, art gallery, lecture hall, laboratories, and school of science and art associated with that of South Kensington, London; the foundation was created for the advancement of natural history, astronomy, antiquities, and classical and Oriental literature.
Brewer) to Smyrna, Turkey, for the purpose of studying Oriental languages, but after three years he returned to the United States, and in 1837 graduated at Williams College at the head of his class.
But it served as a powerful stimulus to Zeno, who by descent was imbued with oriental mysticism.
Natives of India, an element of considerable extent and importance in this colony, are enumerated apart from the white population, but in full detail, recognizing the remarkable difference between the European and the Oriental in the matter of age distribution and civil condition.
The inner town, surrounded by a dilapidated brick wall, at the gates of which octroi duties are still levied, is a dirty Oriental city, with the usual narrow streets.
He was a man of ability, enthusiasm and learning, a considerable Oriental scholar, and also a keen controversialist.
In 1783 he entered the university of Freiburg, where he became a pupil in the seminary for the training of priests, and soon distinguished himself in classical and Oriental philology as well as in biblical exegesis and criticism.
In the following year he was called to the Freiburg chair of Oriental languages and Old Testament exegesis; to the duties of this post were added in 1793 those of the professorship of New Testament exegesis.
In this work he for the first time systematized an old Oriental (perhaps Phoenician) method of interpreting the popular myths, asserting that the gods who formed the chief objects of popular worship had been originally heroes and conquerors, who had thus earned a claim to the veneration of their subjects.
Adam, as is the custom with later Oriental writers.
He became professor of philosophy, mathematics, and Oriental languages at Wurzburg, whence he was driven (1631) by the troubles of the Thirty Years' War to Avignon.
the palace, which, from an Oriental point of view, was of the first importance (vii.
4 Moreover, an Aramaean dependant 3 On the relation between trade and religion in old Oriental life, see the valuable remarks by G.
His biographers used to be perplexed by a letter purporting to be from Liberius, in the works of Hilary, in which he seems to write, in 352, that he had excommunicated Athanasius at the instance of the Oriental bishops; but the document is now held to be spurious.
After studying Oriental languages as the first student at Lord Wellesley's College of Fort William, he, at the age of nineteen, was appointed political assistant to General Lake, who was then conducting the final campaign of the Mahratta war against Holkar.
with the caprine nurse of the young solar god in Oriental legends, of which that of Zeus and Amalthia is a Capri- variant.'
The nomenclature not only of the hours of the day and of their minutest intervals was supplied by it, but of the months of the year, of the years in the Oriental sixty-year cycle, and of the days in the " little cycle " of twelve days.
Many of his predecessors, too, were men of different fibre from the ordinary Oriental sovereign, while his son Chulalong Korn, who succeeded him in 1868, showed himself an administrator of the highest capacity.
In 1905 an art pottery was established for making "crystal patina" and "robin's egg blue" wares, in imitation, to a certain extent, of old oriental pottery, and Clifton India ware, in imitation of pottery made by the American Indians.
Oriental, Greek and Roman.
1 4 29), were the most conspicuous representatives of this Oriental mysticism.
It is this striving after religious experience that gives to the Oriental monachism of the middle ages its peculiar character.
Eugenius certainly owed his success merely to the political necessities of the emperor of the East, and his union was forthwith destroyed owing to its repudiation by oriental Christendom; yet at the same time his decretals of union were not devoid of importance, for in them the pope reaffirmed the scholastic doctrine regarding the sacraments as a dogma of the Church, and he spoke as the supreme head of all Christendom.
The same conditions have produced similar spiritual aristocracies again and again in the East in more modern times, and even in antiquity more than one Oriental priesthood took a line of development similar to that which we have traced in Judaea.
Becoming a Congregationalist, he accepted in 1842 the chair of biblical criticism, literature and oriental languages at the Lancashire Independent College at Manchester; but he was obliged to resign in 1857, being brought into collision with the college authorities by the publication of an introduction to the Old Testament entitled The Text of the Old Testament, and the Interpretation of the Bible, written for a new edition of Horne's Introduction to the Sacred Scripture.
From the close of the 15th century down to 1783 it was the residence of the Tatar khans of the Crimea; and its streets wear a decidedly oriental look.
For the personal character and administration of Hyder Ali see the History of Hyder Naik, written by Mir Hussein Ali Khan Kirmani (translated from the Persian by Colonel Miles, and published by the Oriental Translation Fund), and the curious work written by M.
There are, besides, a theological academy, founded in 1615; a society of church archaeology, which possesses a museum built in 1900, very rich in old ikons, crosses, &c., both Russian and Oriental; an imperial academy of music; university courses for ladies; a polytechnic, with 1300 students - the building was completed in 190o and stands on the other side of Old Kiev, away from the river.
This category contains articles about Christian denominations that cannot be ordered under Roman Catholicism, Protestantism or Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy.
In 1874 and again in 1875, he presided over the Reunion Conferences held at Bonn and attended by leading ecclesiastics from the British Isles and from the Oriental Church, among whom were Bishop Christopher Wordsworth of Lincoln; Bishop Harold Browne of Ely; Lord Plunket, archbishop of Dublin; Lycurgus, archbishop of Syros and Tenos; Canon Liddon; and Professor Ossinine of St Petersburg.
He had enriched the royal library by many valuable oriental MSS., and was a member of the French Academy, of the Academy of Science, and the Academy of Inscriptions.
The old town, containing several mosques and synagogues and a bazaar, preserves its oriental appearance; the citadel is used as a military magazine.
Returning to Paris, he became professor of vulgar Arabic in the school of living Oriental languages in 1821, and also professor of Arabic in the College de France in 1833.
The rigid line between fact or fiction in religious literature, which readers often wish to draw, cannot be consistently justified, and in studying old Oriental religious narratives it is necessary to realize that the teaching was regarded as more essential than the method of presenting it.
But they are to be judged as Oriental literature and if they contain jarring extravagances and puerilities, one may recall that even in modern Palestine it was found that the natives understood Robinson Crusoe as a religious book more readily than the Pilgrim's Progress (J.
In December, through Spener's influence, Francke accepted an invitation to fill the chair of Greek and oriental languages in the new university of Halle, which was at that time being organized by the elector Frederick III.
and pamphlet portfolios, and is very rich in Oriental and Greek MSS.
Like Abu Tammam he made a collection of early poems, known as the Hamasa (index of the poems contained in it, in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, vol.
With Abel Remusat he was joint founder of the Societe asiatique, and was inspector of oriental types at the royal printing press.
The chief purpose for which betel nuts are cultivated and collected is for use as a masticatory, - their use in this form being so widespread among Oriental nations that it is estimated that onetenth of the whole human family indulge in betel chewing.
The political history of the ancient world ends with the formation, under Diocletian and Constantine, of a universal state bearing the cast of Oriental as well as Graeco-Roman civilization.
Did they know the Oriental religions, Judaism and Christianity in particular?
Since Neoplatonism originated in Alexandria, where Oriental modes of worship were accessible to every one, and since the Jewish philosophy had also taken its place in the literary circles of Alexandria, we may safely assume that even the earliest of the Neoplatonists possessed 1 The resemblance would probably be still more apparent if we thoroughly understood the development of Christianity at Alexandria in the 2nd century; but unfortunately we have only very meagre fragments to guide us here.
-, g Oriental religions from the formidable assault of ardour with formal acuteness, connected the whole mass of traditional lore into a huge system, making good defects, and smoothing away contradictions by means of distinctions and speculations.
From the 4th century downwards, however, the influence of Neoplatonism on the Oriental theologians was of the utmost importance.
The basis of the Gnostic religion and world-philosophy lies in a decided Oriental dualism.
It is an Oriental (Iranian) dualism which here finds expression, though in one point, it is true, the mark of Greek influence is quite clear.
For in Oriental (Persian) dualism it is within this material world that the good and evil powers are at war, and this world beneath the stars is by no means conceived as entirely subject to the influence of evil.
But the form in which the whole is set forth is Oriental, and it must be carefully noted that the Mithras mysteries, so closely connected with the Persian religion, are acquainted with this doctrine of the ascent of the soul through the planetary spheres (Origen, Contra Celsum, vi.
The Sierra Madre Oriental consists of a broken chain of ranges extending along the eastern margin of the plateau from the great bend in the Rio Grande south-eastward to about the 19th parallel.
They form the greater part of the Sierra Madre Oriental and also cover most of the central plateau.
The windward slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental receive the greater part of the rainfall, and the winds, deprived of their moisture, pass over the northern plateau without further precipitation.
It may be possible either that these tribes are the autochthonous inhabitants who dwelt in Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua before the immigration of the prehistoric Maya peoples; or else that they invaded this region after it had been deserted by a prehistoric oriental branch of the Maya family.
In appearance it is thoroughly Oriental - a mass of mean, irregular wooden buildings, threaded by narrow tortuous streets, with a few better buildings.
The third side of the triangle was formed by the strings themselves, the front pillar, which in modern European harps plays such an important part, being always absent in these early Oriental instruments.
Davidson; Dr Benjamin Davies (1814-1875), professor of oriental and classical languages at Stepney Baptist College; the Rev. A.
1 797 D'Israeli published three novels; one of these, Mejnoun andLeila, the Arabian Petrarch and Laura, was said to be the first oriental romance in English.
Delhi boil, Oriental sore, " bouton d'Alep ") to which people in different parts of the East are liable.
It states essentially the Roman doctrine of purgatory, and asserts the world-wide primacy of the pope as the "true vicar of Christ and the head of the whole Church, the Father and teacher of all Christians"; but, to satisfy the Greeks, inconsistently adds that all the rights and privileges of the Oriental patriarchs are to be maintained unimpaired.
As Turkish interests demanded the isolation of the Oriental Christians from their western brethren, and as the orthodox Greek nationalists feared Latinization more than Mahommedan rule, a patriarch hostile to the union was chosen, and a synod of Constantinople in 1472 formally rejected the decisions of Florence.
It is doubtful if the attempts of reformers to spiritualize the Eucharist bring us, except so far as they pruned ritual extravagances, nearer to its original significance; perhaps the Roman, Greek and Oriental churches have better preserved it.
MT.) Timur (Timur i Leng, the lame Timur), commonly known as Tamerlane, the renowned Oriental conqueror, was born in 1336 at Kesh, better known as Shahr-i-Sabz, "the green city," situated some 50 m.
Reference may be made to two more sources of information (I) Supposed likenesses of Timur are to be found in books and in the splendid collection of Oriental manuscripts and drawings in the British Museum.
The dramatist must have heard of Timur in other quarters, equally reliable it may be with those available in the present stage of Oriental research.
Apart from modern European savants and historians, and the more strictly Oriental chroniclers who have written in Persian, Turkish or Arabic, the following authorities may be cited - Laonicus Chalcondylas, Joannes Leunclavius, Joachimus Camerarius, Petrus Perondinus, Lazaro Soranzo, Simon Mairlus, Matthew Michiovius.
According to the Acta Archelai, his missionary activity extended westwards into the territory of the Christian church; but from Oriental sources it is certain that Mani rather went into Transoxiana, western China, and southwards as far as India.
According to the Fihrist, Mani made use of the Persian and Syriac languages; but, like the Oriental Marcionites before him, he invented an alphabet of his own, which the Fihrist has handed down to us.
Among the sources for a history of Manichaeism the most important are the Oriental.
The more complete the picture, however, which may here be obtained of Manichaeisrn, the more cautious must we be in making generalizations from it, for it is beyond doubt that Western Manichaeism adopted Christian elements which are wanting in the original and in the Oriental Manichaeism.
This monastery, like the oriental monasteries generally, is surrounded by a strong and lofty blank stone wall, enclosing an area of between 3 and 4 acres.
This apartment is chiefly used as a hall of meeting, the oriental monks usually taking their meals in their separate cells.
The geographical position of Canada, its railway systems and steamship service for freight across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, are favourable to the extension of the export trade in farm products to European and oriental countries.
When of pale yellowish-green colour the sapphire is called "oriental chrysolite," when greenish-blue "oriental aquamarine," when of brilliant green colour "oriental emerald," and when violet "oriental amethyst."
WILLIAM CAREY (1761-1834), English Oriental scholar, and the pioneer of modern missionary enterprise, was born at Paulerspury, Northamptonshire, on the 17th of August 1761.
In 1801 Carey was appointed professor of Oriental languages in a college founded at Fort William by the marquess of Wellesley.
This crime is regarded by Oriental authors as the reason of the premature death of the sultan (in 1204); but it is more probable that he was murdered because he displeased the Mahommedan clergy, who accused him of atheism.
of Castile by a typical piece of flighty oriental barbarity.
He was a fine example of an oriental founder of a dynasty, and did his work so well that the Omayyads lasted in Spain for two centuries and a half.
The ruins are those of a ruling city of the oriental type which flourished in the pre-Greek period; and they are generally identified with Pteria, a place taken by Croesus after he had crossed the Halys (Herodotus i.
Ferishta is reputed one of the most trustworthy of the Oriental historians, and his work still maintains a high place as an authority.
The malady, moreover, spread eastward with alarming rapidity, and, although it was found to be less disastrous and fatal in Oriental countries than in Europe, the sources of healthy graine became fewer and fewer, till only Japan was left as an uninfected source of European graine supply.
The Japanese palace in the Neustadt, built in 1715 as a summer residence for Augustus II., receives its name from certain oriental figures with which it is decorated; it is sometimes called the Augusteum and contains the royal library.
The Albertinum, formerly the arsenal, built in 1 5591563, was rebuilt 1884-1889, and fitted up as a museum of oriental and classical antiquities, and as the depository of the state archives.
Imitation had necessarily to begin with externals, and Peter at once fell foul of the long beards and Oriental costumes which symbolized the arch-conservatism of old Russia.
During the last four years of his reign Peter's policy was predominantly Oriental.
Each of the larger islands has one or more ports which a local steamboat serves regularly, and Honolulu has the regular service of seven trans-Pacific lines (the American-Hawaiian Steamship Co., the Canadian-Australian Steamship Co., the Matson Navigation Co., the Oceanic Steamship Co., the Pacific Mail Steamship Co., the Mexican Oriental and the Toyo Kisen Kaisha); it is a midway station for vessels between the United States (mainland) and Australia and Southern Asia.
After having been employed for some time in making a catalogue of the Oriental manuscripts at the Sorbonne, he was, in 1670, attached to the French embassy at Constantinople; and in 1673 he travelled in Syria and the Levant, where he copied a great number of inscriptions, and sketched, and in some cases removed historical monuments.
Harlay de Sancy was a learned man and a good linguist, who used his opportunities to acquire a valuable collection of oriental MSS., many of which are now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris.
He there applied himself to Oriental languages, but also attended the last course of lectures delivered by Turnebus in the Greek chair, as well as those of Peter Ramus, whose philosophical method and plan of teaching he afterwards introduced into the universities of Scotland.
In addition to his teaching, however, he also applied himself to studies in Oriental literature, and in particular acquired from Cornelius Bertram, one of his brother professors, a knowledge of Syriac. While he resided at Geneva the massacre of St Bartholomew in 1572 drove an immense number of Protestant refugees to that city, including several of the most distinguished French men of letters of the time.
This division contains the palace of the ruler of Tiryns, a building which shows careful and skilful construction, elaborate decoration, and a well-arranged plan, suitable to the wants1 of a wealthy autocratic chief, who lived in a manner which partly recalls the luxury of an Oriental king, and also resembled the feudal state of a medieval baron, surrounded by a crowd of vassals.
Though their prevailing tendency was practical, and the tenets of the society were kept a profound secret, it is perfectly clear from the concurrent testimony of Philo and Josephus that they cultivated a kind of speculation, which not only accounts for their spiritual asceticism, but indicates a great deviation from the normal development of Judaism, and a profound sympathy with Greek philosophy, and probably also with Oriental ideas.
But as Pythagoras himself came from Samos, and his doctrines have a decidedly Oriental tinge, it may very well be that both he and the Essenes drew from a common source; for there is no need to reject, as is so commonly done, the statements of our authorities as to the antiquity of the Essenes.
Centuries of alien domination have left their mark upon the character and appearance of the Andalusians, a mixed race, who contrast strongly with the true Spaniards and possess many oriental traits.
The former, which rises in the Sierra de Merida, which overlooks the Lake of Maracaibo, has 16 large affluents; the latter has its sources near the Colombian city of Pamplona, and they are only separated from the basin of the river Magdalena by the "Oriental" Andean range.
The "Oriental" Andes of Colombia give birth to another great affluent of the Orinoco, the Arauca, which soon reaches the plain and parallels the Apure on the south.
While the majority of Protestant leaders left the conversion of the heathen to some remote and inscrutable interposition of Providence, the Jesuits, Franciscans, Dominicans and kindred orders were busily engaged in making Roman Catholics of the nations brought by Oriental commerce or American colonial enterprise into contact with Spain, Portugal and France.
Of the half-century that preceded Trajan's great oriental undertaking not much is known.
35, and "Suri" in Oriental.
He was a founder of the American Oriental Society and published an excellent Comprehensive Dictionary of the Greek Language (1826).
Under the same cardinal prefect is found that section of the Propaganda which deals with matters concerning oriental rites (Congregatio specialis pro negotiis ritus Orientalis), the object of which is indicated by its name.
There he remained for eighteen months, but shortly after his return to England he accompanied Groves and other friends on a private missionary enterprise to Bagdad, where he obtained personal knowledge of Oriental life and habits which he afterwards applied with tact and skill in the illustration of biblical scenes and incidents.
the study of the Deluge, showing as it does that similar stories are to be found in primitive literature, both oriental and other) has placed the Bible in close relation with other ancient literature.
Such a view is not pantheism but mysticism (q.v.), and should be compared with the theology of Oriental races.
About the year 1337 this hesychasm, which is obviously related to certain well-known forms of Oriental mysticism, attracted the attention of the learned and versatile Barlaam, a Calabrian monk, who at that time held the office of abbot in the Basilian monastery of St Saviour's in Constantinople, and who had visited the fraternities of Mount Athos on a tour of inspection.
He began his Oriental studies under Tychsen at the university of Rostock, and afterwards prosecuted them at GÃ¶ttingen and Tubingen.
He became a Latin master in Pestalozzi's famous institute in 1804, returned home in 1806, and in the following year was chosen to fill the chair of Oriental languages in the Russian university of Kazan.
The potestas ordinis of the bishop is not peculiar to the Roman Church, and, in general, is claimed by all bishops, whether Oriental or Anglican, belonging to churches which have retained the Catholic tradition in this respect.
The buildings of the old town are chiefly of brick, from four to five storeys in height, with flat roofs, and other oriental peculiarities; while in the new town hewn stone is very largely employed, and the architecture is often of a modern English style.
Although mimicry in the Lepidoptera has been carried to a greater extreme in South America than in any other country of the world, remarkable instances of it have taken place in the Ethiopian and Oriental regions.
The badge is a striking example of Oriental design adapted to a European conventional form.
Stories from Oriental sources were added, and from these collections Maximus Planudes made and edited the collection which has come down to us under the name of Aesop, and from which the popular fables of modern Europe have been derived.
In the Oriental rites there is no surplice, nor any analogous vestment.
ADRIAN RELAND (1676-1718), Dutch Orientalist, was born at Ryp, studied at Utrecht and Leiden, and was professor of Oriental languages successively at Harderwijk (1699) and Utrecht (1701).
A special section (erected by Pius IX.) has charge of the affairs of all the Oriental rites in union with the Roman see.
The Roman Catholics have extensive missions in these countries, directed at winning adherents to the unity of the Holy See from the Oriental Churches, which are regarded as schismatic and heretical.
The chief difficulties have been (1) the antagonism of the officials of the Oriental churches, (2) the suspicion and hostility of Islam, (3) the jealousies, religious and political, connected with the Eastern Question.
Schreiner in the Journal of the German Oriental Society, lii.
At length Ishbaal lost the main prop of his tottering cause by remonstrating with Abner for marrying Rizpah, one of Saul's concubines, an alliance which, according to Oriental notions, implied pretensions to the throne (cp. 2 Sam.
His publications were connected with biblical criticism and interpretation, some of them being for popular use and others more strictly scientific. To the former class belong the Biblical Cyclopaedia, his edition of Cruden's Concordance, his Early Oriental History, and his discourses on the Divine Love and on Paul the Preacher; to the latter his commentaries on the Greek text of St Paul's epistles to the Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians and Galatians, published at intervals in four volumes.
Reimarus (1694-1768), professor of oriental languages in Hamburg, who commanded general respect as a scholar and thinker, wrote a book entitled Apologie oder Schutzschrift fiir die verniinftigen Verehrer Gottes.
Prince, Journal of the American Oriental Society, xxv.
It remains, however, to mention the genus Cissa, including many beautiful forms belonging to the Indian region, and among them the C. speciosa and C. sinensis, so often represented in Oriental drawings, though doubts may be expressed whether these birds are not more nearly related to the pies than to the jays.
The university library, incorporated with the former Classen library, collected by the famous merchants of that name, contains about 200,000 volumes, besides about 4 000 manuscripts, which include Rask's valuable Oriental collection and the Arne-Magnean series of Scandinavian documents.
Salisbury in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, viii.
He studied theology and Oriental languages at Munster, was parish priest at Berkum near Bonn from 1833 to 1839, and professor of Old Testament theology in the Catholic faculty at Breslau from 1839 to his death on the 28th of September 1856.
Physical Features.-The river Paraguay, running from north to south, divides the republic into two sections, the eastern section, or Paraguay Oriental, being the most important.
But climatic conditions and racial temperament rendered the Oriental manner of monasticism unattainable, as a rule, in the West.
St Benedict (c. 500) effected his purpose by a twofold break with the past: he eliminated from the idea of the monastic life the element of Oriental asceticism and extreme bodily austerity; and he put down the tendency, so marked in Egypt and the East, for the monks to vie with one another in ascetical practices, commanding all to live according to the rule.
It is easy to understand that a form of monastic life thus emptied of distinctively Oriental features and adapted to the needs of the West.
The monastic institute was imported early in the 4th century from Egypt into Syria and the Oriental lands.
The streets have been paved and planted with trees, but the town retains much of its Oriental aspect.
One does not look for absolute consistency in oriental narratives, and even this little book contains several internal intricacies which demand investigation.
Alompra is one of the most remarkable figures in modern Oriental history.
In other respects they must have resembled those of Oriental cities - the living apartments all opening towards the interior, and showing only blank walls towards ' It consisted of two parallel stone walls with buttresses, about 55 ft.
and of Oriental philosophy.
Chabot, it was discovered and clearly proved by Neldeke (Vienna Oriental Journal, x.
In the town of Schmiedeberg in the last district, as also in Cottbus (Lusatia), oriental patterns are successfully imitated.
This far from exhausts the external activity of the nation and the government: the establishment of studentships for the study of oriental languages enabled Germans to make their way in the Turkish and Persian empires, and to open up a fresh market for German goods; by the great excavations at Pergamum and Olympia Germany entered with great distinction on a field in which the way had been shown by France and Great Britain.
The stratagem by which Tarquinius obtained possession of the town of Gabii is a mere fiction, derived from Greek and Oriental sources.
He studied theology and oriental languages in the university of his native town, and in 1850 was appointed professor ordinarius of theology at Erlangen, where the school of theologians became almost as famous as that of Tubingen.
1850), became well known as professor of Assyriology in Berlin, and the author of many books of great research and learning, especially on oriental philology.
The Oriental poppy (P. orientale) and its several varieties are fine garden plants, having huge bright crimson flowers with black blotches at the base.
Sometimes the Greek city was not an absolutely new foundation, but an old Oriental city, re-colonized and transformed.
But other religions of Oriental origin penetrated far, the worship of the Phrygian Great Mother, and in the 2nd century A.D.
Then the reconquest of the nearer East by Oriental dynasties was checked by the advance of Rome.
The common description of " the Oriental " as indurated in his antagonism to the alien conqueror here perhaps has some truth in it.
We must bear in mind that he was no cold systematic thinker, but an Oriental visionary, brought up in crass superstition, and without intellectual discipline; a man whose nervous temperament had been powerfully worked on by ascetic austerities, and who was all the more irritated by the opposition he encountered, because he had little of the heroic in his nature.
8 39-9 2 3, of which for the last few years we have possessed an Oriental edition in 30 parts (Cairo A.H.
There are no signs of Oriental influence in her cults, except at Corinth, where she seems to have been identified with Astarte.
The newer quarters, situated near the river, are laid out in the fashion of French cities, but the eastern parts of the town retain, almost unimpaired, their Oriental aspect, and in scores of narrow, tortuous streets, and busy bazaars it is easy to forget that there has been any change from the Cairo of medieval times.
The Oriental City.
The citadel or El-Kala was built by Saladin about 1166, but it has since undergone frequent alteration, and now contains a palace erected by Mehemet Ali, and a mosque of Oriental alabaster (based on the model of the mosques at Constantinople) founded by the same pasha on the site of " Joseph's Hall," so named after the prenomen of Saladin.
In the oriental quarters of the city the curious shops, the markets of different trades (the shops of each trade being generally congregated in one street or district), the easy merchant sitting before his shop, the musical and quaint street-cries of the picturesque vendors of fruit, sherbet, water, &c., with the ever-changing and many-coloured throng of passengers, all render the streets a delightful study for the lover of Arab life, nowhere else to be seen in such perfection, or with so fine a background of magnificent buildings.
Mariette, who was appointed by the viceroy Said Pasha at the instance of the French government, succeeded in making his office effective and permanent, in spite of political intrigues and the whims of an Oriental ruler; he also secured a building on the island of Bulak (Bulaq) for a viceregal museum in which the results of his explorations could be permanently housed.
The Fatimite general Jauhar (variously represented as of Greek, Slav and Sicilian origin), who enjoyed the complete confidence of the Fatimite sovereign, was placed at the head of an army of 100,000 menif Oriental numbers are to be trustedand started from Rakkada at the beginning of March 969 with the view of seizing Egypt.
Of many of the Mameluke sultans there are special chronicles preserved in various European and Oriental libraries.
No change could be made in any law applicable to Europeans without the unanimous consent of fifteen foreign powersa state of affairs wholly incompatible with the condition of Egypt in the 20th centui1y, an oriental country which has assimilated a very considerable portion of European civilization and which is mainly governed by European methods.
It is conspicuously free from that Oriental mysticism which stultifies so much of the later pagan philosophy of Europe.
In 1868 he became ordinary professor at Kiel, and in 1872 was appointed to the chair of Oriental languages at Strassburg, which he resigned in 1906.
Several of his essays first appeared in the Encyclopredia Britannica, and his article on the Koran, with some others, was republished in a volume called Oriental Sketches.
In Oriental systems of taxation high imposts on salt are seldom lacking and are often carried out in a very oppressive way, one result of this being that the article is apt to reach the consumer in a very impure state largely mixed with earth.
It would seem, therefore, that the legend was undoubtedly oriental in origin, though the relationship of the various versions can scarcely be recovered.
None of them, indeed, can be ascribed to a very early period, and hardly any trace can be found of the influence of Assyrian or other Oriental art.