Four years later East Orange was chartered as a city.
The alarm clock beside her bed indicated 2:00 am in large orange numbers.
Rhyn rolled his eyes and got up, grabbing an orange off the fruit basket on Sasha's desk.
She coveted each addition like an orange in a Christmas stocking.
The sun was casting its last orange rays into the sky when they all loaded onto the wagon and headed into the field.
The sun was bathing the cabin in orange by the time she had finished cleaning and hanging her clothes.
She recognized the huge orange cat seated on the chair across from her.
I gave him some orange juice.
Picking up the glass of orange juice, he took a swallow.
Gladys, bedecked in an orange caftan and a fox fur jacket, smiled a knowing smile to Cynthia and was gone.
part of the Cape and the neighbouring regions of Basutoland and Orange Free State, presents a pleasing appearance.
"I'm obliged to return the picture so I shouldn't have let it out of my hands," he muttered as he reached for a pitcher of orange juice.
Howie visited a suburban home in Orange County, Indiana and pegged the date by an open newspaper.
He retrieved orange juice from the fridge.
In 1814 he was appointed administrator of the Orange principalities; and, when the prince of Orange became king of the Netherlands, Baron Gagern became his prime minister.
The river, here the boundary between the Cape province and Orange Free State, is crossed by a stone bridge 860 ft.
She gulped down some orange juice.
"It's orange roughy," she offered.
The so-called orange tabby is one phase of the erythristic type.
The orange, date-palm and eucalyptus have been acclimatized on the coast of Provence and the Riviera.
The so-called orange tabby is one phase of the erythristic type.
ALIWAL NORTH, a town of South Africa, on the south bank of the Orange River, 4300 ft.
In 1863 the township of East Orange was separated from the township of Orange, which, in turn, had been separated from the township of Newark in 1806.
The orange tabby was twice the size of every other cat he'd seen.
East Orange has a fine water-works system, which it owns and operates; the water supply is obtained from artesian wells at White Oaks Ridge, in the township of Milburn (about 10 m.
East Orange has a fine water-works system, which it owns and operates; the water supply is obtained from artesian wells at White Oaks Ridge, in the township of Milburn (about 10 m.
Both European and African fruit trees grow in the island; there are in places considerable orange groves, especially at Milis, to the north of Oristano.
Crossing the Orange River at this spot in September 1848, Sir Harry noted that it was "a beautiful site for a town," and in the May following the town was founded.
The prince of Orange married the grand duchess Anna Paulowna, sister of Tzar Alexander I.
The king's attitude secured for him the good will and affection of a people, loyal by tradition to the house of Orange, and the revolutionary disturbances of 1848 found no echo in Holland.
At the present day, however, Persians exhibit nearly all the colour and pattern types of the short-haired breeds, the "orange Persian" representing the erythristic phase.
What might have happened we cannot tell; but Descartes threw himself on the protection of the French ambassador and the prince of Orange, and the city magistrates, from whom he vainly demanded satisfaction in a dignified letter,2 were snubbed by their superiors.
The Prinsenhof, previously a monastery, was converted into a residence for the counts of Orange in 1575; it was here that William the Silent was assassinated.
It is now used as a William of Orange Museum.
In the town hall (1618) are some corporation pictures, portraits of the counts of Orange and Nassau, including several by Michiel van Mierevelt (1567-1641), one of the earliest Dutch portrait painters, and with his son Pieter (1595-1623), a native of Delft.
EAST ORANGE, a city of Essex county, New Jersey, U.S.A., in the north-eastern part of the state, adjoining the city of Newark, and about 12 m.
It is now used as a William of Orange Museum.
JAMES ABRAM GARFIELD (1831-1881), twentieth president of the United States, was born on the 19th of November 1831 in a log cabin in the little frontier town of Orange, Cuyahoga county, Ohio.
The illustrative strings and the orange stick representing the poles seemed so real that even to this day the mere mention of temperate zone suggests a series of twine circles; and I believe that if any one should set about it he could convince me that white bears actually climb the North Pole.
Sarah would say, "Seen one orange leaf, seen 'em all."
The major cities in the East hit by nukes were marked in red with concentric circles that faded to orange, yellow, and finally green as they stretched west.
Fall painted the hills in splashes of orange, red and yellow.
Who bought the orange juice with fur in it?
The transition from blue to orange or red at sunset is usually through green, but exceptional conditions may easily disturb the normal state of things.
In 1574 the first provincial synod of Holland and Zealand was held, but William of Orange would not allow any action to be taken independently of the state.
They were opposed to James II., though they had benefited by his Declaration of Indulgence, and they were the first to congratulate the Prince of Orange on his arrival in England.
It is served by the Morris & Essex division of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western railway and by the Orange branch of the Erie (the former having three stations in the city - Grove Street, East Orange and Brick Church), and is connected with Newark, Orange and West Orange by electric line.
The principal manufactures of East Orange are electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies (the factory of the Crocker-Wheeler Co.
The sun turned the dunes orange red and then quickly sank, leaving them in pre-moon darkness.
He'd forgotten what color real fire was, but he found himself thinking it was orange, like the fruit in the basket on Sasha's desk.
She heard no signs of war but saw the distant night sky light up with orange and red flashes.
She looked in the direction where orange and red lights had bloomed earlier.
The kaleidoscopic display of orange, yellow, deep blue and gray was both beautiful and ominous.
By the time the sun shot its first orange rays over the horizon, she was driving the little red sports car out of town.
The corolla is tubular with a spreading limb, and varies widely in colour, being white, yellow, orange, crimson, scarlet, blue or purple.
The kaleidoscopic display of orange, yellow, deep blue and gray was both beautiful and ominous.
Dorothy was too dazed to say much, but she watched one of Jim's big ears turn to violet and the other to rose, and wondered that his tail should be yellow and his body striped with blue and orange like the stripes of a zebra.
Cynthia buttered her toast while Dean dribbled orange blossom honey on three leftover rolls from last night's supper.
25), is to be seen at the south-west corner of the city; it is an enormous excavation in the rock with drains in its sides, at the bottom of which there is now a flourishing orange garden.
She started to hand him what looked like an intricate carving in the side of an orange.
Fred was in the kitchen peeling an orange.
He whistled as he shook it, and the color went from purple to orange.
The room was more welcoming than she expected, the stone walls covered and smoothed with Sheetrock painted a light green and edged with pumpkin orange.
Accordingly, in May 1617, Descartes set out for the Netherlands and took service in the army of Prince Maurice of Orange.
The New Church, formerly the church of St Ursula (14th century), is the burial place of the princes of Orange.
Among the principal buildings are several attractive churches, the city hall, and the club-house of the Woman's Club of Orange.
Around the villages are extensive cultivated fields and orchards, containing fig, pomegranate and orange trees.
Among the plants the wild banana, pepper, orange and mangosteen, rhododendron, epiphytic orchids and the palm; among mammals the bats and rats; among birds the cassowary and rifle birds; and among reptiles the crocodile and tree snakes, characterize this element.
The principal cities and towns are Sydney (pop. 530,000), Newcastle, Broken Hill, Parramatta, Goulburn, Maitland, Bathurst, Orange, Lithgow, Tamworth, Grafton, Wagga and Albury, in New South Wales; Melbourne (pop. 511,900), Ballarat, Bendigo, Geelong, Eaglehawk, Warrnambool, Castlemaine, and Stawell in Victoria; Brisbane (pop. 128,000), Rockhampton, Maryborough, Townsville, Gympie, Ipswich, and Toowoomba in Queensland; Adelaide (pop. about 175,000), Port Adelaide and Port Pirie in South Australia; Perth (pop. 56,000), Fremantle, and Kalgoorlie in Western Australia; and Hobart (pop. 35,500) and Launceston in Tasmania.
His colouring for the most part is unpleasing, partly owing to his violent treatment of skies with crude blues and orange, and his chiaroscuro usually is much exaggerated.
Pitmaston Orange Violette Hative..
The most serious difficulty with which Margaret had to deal arose from the attitude of the great nobles, and among these especially of William (the " Silent ") of Nassau, prince of Orange, Lamoral, count of Egmont, and Philip de Montmorency, count of Hoorn.
Following the example of William of Orange, Hoorn, Berghen and other governors, the magistrates generally declined to enforce the edicts, and offered to resign rather than be the instruments for burning and maltreating their fellow-countrymen.
The regent was alienated from the popular leaders, and was no longer disposed to help William of Orange, Egmont, and Hoorn to secure a mitigation of religious persecution; and the heart of Philip was hardened in its resolve to exterminate heresy in the Netherlands.
William of Orange was not deceived by the specious temporizing of the king.
A few months after the disaster of Jemmingen, Orange, who had now become a Lutheran, himself led a large army into Brabant.
In 1569 William in his capacity as sovereign prince of Orange issued letters-of-marque to a number of vessels to prey upon the Spanish commerce in the narrow seas.
The principal towns gave in their submission to the prince of Orange, and acknowledged him as their lawful stadtholder.
Here he was shut in by a superior force of Spaniards, and made preparations to defend himself until relieved by the army which Orange was collecting on the eastern frontier.
At the same time Orange's friend, the powerful burgomaster of Antwerp, Anthony van Stralen, was seized.
The prince of Orange was publicly declared an outlaw and his property confiscated (January 24, 1568).
One result of the victory of Heiligerlee was the determination of Alva that Egmont and Hoorn Orange outlawed.
Orange however did not despair, and resolved to throw in his lot for good and all with the rebel province of the north.
Already at his summons the states of Holland had Orange takes up met at Dort (July 15) under the presidency of Philip his resi- de Marnix, lord of Sainte Aldegonde, and they had deuce at unanimously recognized William as their lawful stadt- Delft.
The prince of Orange, Don Requesens, who had now formally entered the Calvinist communion, governor- was inexorable in laying down three conditions as general.
In the spring of 1575 conferences with a view to peace were held at Breda, and on their failure Orange, in the face of Spanish successes in Zeeland, was forced to seek foreign succour.
A treaty establishing a firm alliance between the provinces, represented by the states-general, assembled at Brussels on the one part, and on the other by the prince of Orange, and the states of Holland and Zeeland, was agreed upon and ratified under the title of the " Pacification of Ghent."
It was stipulated that there was to be toleration for both Catholics and Protestants; that the Spanish king should be recognized as de jure sovereign, and the prince of Orange as governor with full powers in Holland and Zeeland.
On the advice of the prince of Orange the states-general refused to receive him as governor-general unless he accepted the " Pacification of Ghent."
At this crisis the hands of Orange and the patriotic party were greatly strengthened by a new compact entitled " The Union of Brussels," which was extensively signed es eciall in the southern Netherlands.
" The prince of at Orange," he informed the king, " has bewitched the Orange Brussels.
The eyes of all men turned to the prince of Orange.
He was but twenty years of age, and his sudden intrusion was as embarrassing to the prince of Orange as to Don John.
Never did the diplomatic talents of the prince of Orange shine brighter than at this difficult crisis.
In him Orange was to find an adversary who was not only a great general but a statesman of insight and ability equal to his own.
Of the quartz-monzonite type are the whitish granites of Bethel and Rochester (Windsor county) and Randolph (Orange county), the light grey of Dummerston (Windham county), and the darker greys of Cabot (Washington county), Derby (Orleans county), Hardwick and Groton (Caledonia county) and Topsham (Orange county).
In 1908 the output of limestone was valued at $20,731; there are limestone quarries in Washington and Orange counties and on Isle La Motte.
WILLIAM HENRY SEWARD (1801-1872), American statesman, was born on the 16th of May 1801 in the village of Florida, Orange county, New York.
Its flat-roofed Moorish houses are enclosed by gardens of cactus, dwarf palm, orange and other subtropical plants, interspersed with masses of rock.
of Orange, having married Mary, daughter of Charles I.
The Dutch acknowledged the supremacyof the English flag in the British seas, which Tromp had before refused; they accepted the Navigation Act, and undertook privately to exclude the princes of Orange from the command of their forces.
His policy was in principle the policy of Elizabeth, of Gustavus Adolphus, and - in the following generation - of William of Orange.
of Spain, who ceded it in 1597 to Maurice, prince of Orange.
of this district, and even more to the north, the olive, the fig-tree and the orange thrive luxuriantly on the shores of the Adriatic from Ortona to Vasto.
The shores, especially on the Tyrthenian Sea, present almost a continued grove of olive, orange, lemon and citron trees, which attain a size unknown in the north of Italy.
Sicily is the chief centre of cultivationthe area occupied by lemon and orange orchards in the province of Palermo alone having increased from ff525 acres in 1854 to 54,340 in 1874.
They consist of long leases, under which the landlord shares the costs of improvements and builds farm-houses; also leases of orange and lemon gardens, two-thirds of the prot~uce of which go to the landlord, while the farmer contributes half the cost of farming besides the labor.
He was visited by Dykvelt, William of Orange's agent; and in June 1687 he wrote to William assuring him of his support.
The original prescription is kept by the pharmacist for either three or ten years, according to the country, and a certified copy given to the patient, written on white paper if for internal use, or on coloured paper (usually orange yellow) if for external use.
In 105, Caepio suffered a crushing defeat from the Cimbri at Arausio (Orange) on the Rhone, which was looked upon as a punishment for his sacrilege; hence the proverb Aurum Tolosanum habet, of an act involving disastrous consequences.
White or grey spots may be due to Peronospora, Erysiphe, Cystopus, Entyloma and other Fungi, the mycelium of which will be detected in the discoloured area; or they may be scale insects, or the results of punctures by Red-spider, &c. Yellow spots, and especially bright orange spots, commonly indicate Rust Fungi or other Uredineae; but Phyllosticta, Exoascus, Clasterosporium, Synchytrium, &c., also induce similar symptoms. Certain Aphides, Red-spider, Phylloxera and other insects also betray their presence by such spots.
Chromoplasts are the yellow, orange or red color-bodies found in some flowers and fruits.
He voted for the exclusion of James, duke of York, from the throne, and made overtures to William, prince of Orange, and consequently in 168r he lost both his secretaryship and his seat on the privy council.
It should be mentioned that while Sunderland was thus serving James II., he was receiving a pension from France, and through his wife's lover, Henry Sidney, afterwards earl of Romney, he was furnishing William of Orange with particulars about affairs in England.
For Roman antiquities in Gaul see, beside articles on the modern towns (ARLES, NiMES, ORANGE, &C.), BIBRACTE, ALESIA, ITIUS PORTUS, AQUEDUCT, ARCHITECTURE, AMPHITHEATRE, &C.; for religion see DRUIDISM; for the famous schools of Autun, Lyons, Toulouse, Nimes, Vienne, Marseilles and Narbonne, see J.
The cultivated trees and plants of importance are, besides rubber, the manioc or cassada, the orange tree, lime, cacao, coffee, pineapple (which now runs wild over the whole of Liberia), sour sop, ginger, papaw, alligator apple, avocado pear, okro, cotton (Gossypium peruvianum - the kidney cotton), indigo, sweet potato, capsicum (chillie), bread-fruit, arrowroot (Maranta), banana, yam, "coco"-yam (Colocasia antiquorum, var.
He is known to have been at Avignon and Orange during his life, and is believed to have died in 1344, though Zacuto asserts that he died at Perpignan in 1370.
The orange and lemon groves have also suffered considerably, but new varieties of the orange tree are now being introduced, and an impulse will be given to the export trade in this fruit by the removal of the restriction on its importation into Greece.
This pope reigned only ten months; his successor, John XXIII., raised Pierre d'Ailly to the rank of cardinal (June 6, 1411), and further, to indemnify him for the loss of the bishopric of Cambrai, conferred upon him the administration of that of Limoges (November 3, 1412), which was shortly after exchanged for the bishopric of Orange.
The albino variety especially, which is known as the "golden tench," can be recommended for ornamental waters, as its bright orange colours render it visible for some distance below the surface of the water.
Overlying the Tuscaloosa are the Eutaw sands, characterized by sandy laminated clays, and yellow, orange, red and blue sands, containing lignite and fossil resin.
In the swamps are the bald cypress, the white cedar and the live oak, usually draped in southern long moss; south of Cape Fear river are palmettos, magnolias, prickly ash, the American olive and mock orange; along streams in the Coastal Plain Region are the sour gum, the sweet bay and several species of oak; but the tree that is most predominant throughout the upland portion of this region is the long-leaf or southern pine.
at Chapel Hill, Orange county, in 1900 and again in 1902.
In the " back country " extortionate fees, excessive taxes, and the oppressive manner of collecting them brought about a popular uprising, known as the Regulation, which centred in Orange and Anson counties, but was strong also in Brown, Edgecombe, Johnson, Granville and Halifax counties.
But as little had been accomplished when the superior court met at Hillsboro, Orange county, in September 1770, the Regulators became desperate again, whipped the chief offender, Colonel Edmund Fanning, and demolished his residence.
The palaces, completed in 1627, are now in ruins, but the gardens with their luxuriant vegetation and gigantic cypress and orange trees are well worth a visit.
Compelled by illness to leave the fleet, he found on his return to Dort that the Orange party were in the ascendant, and he and his brother were the objects of popular suspicion and hatred.
Masderallia is common in cultivation and has often brilliant scarlet, crimson or orange flowers.
Beissier, Le Pays d'Arles (1889); Roger Peyre, Nimes, Arles, Orange (1903).
They are minute worms with coloured oil drops (green, olive green or orange) contained in the epidermis.
Hundreds of acres of wheat are lost annually in America by the ravages of the Hessian fly; the fruit flies of Australia and South Africa cause much loss to orange and citron growers, often making it necessary to cover the trees in muslin tents for protection.
The former attacks apple and pear; the latter, which selects orange and citron, was introduced into America from Australia, and carried ruin before it in some orange districts until its natural enemy, the lady-bird beetle, Vedalia cardinalis, was also imported.
The annexation of the Orange River Sovereignty in 1848 followed, finally destroying his hope of maintaining independent native states.
The town lies north of the Drakensberg on the Kraai tributary of the Orange river at an elevation of 5831 ft.
The flowers, which are borne in the leaf-axils at the ends of the stem, are very handsome, the six, generally narrow, petals are bent back and stand erect, and are a rich orange yellow or red in colour; the six stamens project more or less horizontally from the place of insertion of the petals.
MAURICE OF NASSAU, prince of Orange (1567-1625), the second son of William the Silent, by Anna, only daughter of the famous Maurice, elector of Saxony, was born at Dillenburg.
Maurice, who had on the death of his elder brother Philip William, in February 1618, become prince of Orange, was now supreme in the state, but during the remainder of his life he sorely missed the wise counsels of the experienced Oldenbarneveldt.
by a range of low hills extending from the Caledon above Wepener to the Orange river, and south of the Orange by the Telle or Tees river to its source in the Drakensberg.
On every side it is surrounded by British colonies, north by the Orange River Colony, south-west and south by Cape Colony, and east by Natal.
From the slopes of the Maluti descend many streams, the largest being the Kornet Spruit, which joins the Senku and other torrents from the Drakensberg to form the upper Orange.
The Caledon also, sweeping southward, unites with the Orange beyond the frontiers of Basutoland.
Epidemics of smallpox and typhoid occur; and leprosy, imported from the Orange River and Cape Colonies, has taken firm hold on the Basuto, of whom about 9r per too() are sufferers from this disease.
Trade is almost entirely with Orange River Colony and Cape Colony.
About 1800 the country was occupied by various tribes of Bechuana, such as Batau, Basuto, Baputi, who then possessed the greater part of what is now Orange River Colony.
He established himself in 1824 on the rock-fortress of Thaba Bosigo, where, in 1831, he successfully defended himself against Mosilikatze; and thereafter became second only to that chief among the natives north of the Orange River.
A few years later, in 1836-1837, large parties of emigrant Boers settled north of the Orange, and before long disputes arose between them and Moshesh, who claimed a great part of the land on which the white farmers had settled.
Fourteen months later (February 1854) Great Britain renounced sovereignty over the farmers settled beyond the Orange, and Moshesh found himself face to face with the newly constituted Free State.
In 1865 a fresh feud occurred between the Orange Free State Boers and the Basuto.
Trade increased, and in 1891 Basutoland was admitted to the customs union, which already existed between Orange Free State, Cape Colony and British Bechuanaland.
Among the other lakes are Orange, Crescent, George, Weir, Harris, Eustis, Apopka, Tohopekaliga, Kissimmee and Istokpoga.
Silver Spring and Blue Spring in Marion county, Blue Spring and Orange City Mineral Spring in Volusia county, Chipola Spring near Marianna in Jackson county, Espiritu Santo Spring near Tampa in Hillsboro county, Magnolia Springs in Clay county, Suwanee Springs in Suwanee county, White Sulphur Springs in Hamilton county, the Wekiva Springs in Orange county, and Wakulla Spring, Newport Sulphur Spring and Panacea Mineral Spring in Wakulla county are the most noteworthy.
On account of its warm climate, Florida has many resorts for health and pleasure, which are especially popular in the season from January to April; the more important are St Augustine, Ormond, Daytona, Palm Beach, Miami, Tampa, White Springs, Hampton Springs, Worthington Springs and Orange Springs.
But the unusual severity of the winters of 1887, 1894 and 1899 (the report of the Twelfth Census which gives the figures for this year being therefore misleading) destroyed three-fourths of the orange trees, and caused an increased attention to stockraising, and to various agricultural products.
Orange culture has recovered much of its importance, but it is carried on in the more southern counties of the state.
Irrigation, introduced in 1888 by the orange growers, has been adapted by other farmers, especially the tobacco-growers of Gadsden county, and so the evil effects of the droughts, so common from February to June, are avoided.
In January 1870 the first piece of real foreign missionary work was begun at Fernando Po, followed in December of the same year by the mission at Aliwal North on the Orange River in South Africa.
The chief event in the history of Brielle is its capture by the Gueux sur Mer, a squadron of privateers which raided the Dutch coast under commission of the prince of Orange.
Taken by the Spaniards in 1587 Zutphen was recovered by Maurice, prince of Orange, in 1591, and except for two short periods, one in 1672 and the other during the French Revolutionary Wars, it has since then remained a part of the United Netherlands.
In 1608 she appeared at court, where her beauty soon attracted admiration and became the theme of the poets, her suitors including the dauphin, Maurice, prince of Orange, Gustavus Adolphus, Philip III.
She left Prague on the 8th of November 1620, after the fatal battle of the White Hill, for Kiistrin, travelling thence to Berlin and Wolfenbiittel, finally with Frederick taking refuge at the Hague with Prince Maurice of Orange.
in 1649 put an end to all hopes from that quarter; and the pension allowed her by the house of Orange ceased in 1650.
Another type of dry reaction, namely, the flame coloration, had been the subject of isolated notices, as, for example, the violet flame of potassium and the orange flame of sodium observed by Marggraf and Scheele, but a systematic account was wanting until Cartmell took the subject up. His results (Phil.
If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide - from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide - white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide - from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide - from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide - from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddishbrown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide - from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide - from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide - from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate - yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat.
In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.
We may here notice an empirical rule formulated by Nietzski in 1879: - the simplest colouring substances are in the greenish-yellow and yellow, and with increasing molecular weight the colour passes into orange, red, violet, blue and green.
In 1637 Breda was recaptured by Frederick Henry of Orange after a four months' siege, and in 1648 it was finally ceded to Holland by the treaty of Westphalia.
In 1696 William, prince of Orange and king of England, built the new castle, one of the finest buildings of the period, which now serves as the military academy.
Other breeds include the Japanese, with an orange coat, broadly banded on the hind-quarters with black; the pink-eyed and short and thick-furred albino Polish; the Siberian, probably produced by crossing the Himalayan with the Angora; and the black-and-tan and blue-and-tan.
Duncan's map of the Orange River State (1:148,705; 1902-1904) and Jeppe's map of the Transvaal (1:476,000; 1899).
A statue commemorates the landing, in 1688, of William of Orange.
The History of the Revolution in England, breaking off at the point where William of Orange is preparing to intervene in the affairs of England, is chiefly interesting because of Macaulay's admiring essay on it and its author.
The appointment was avowedly made in order that an acceptable British statesman, in whom public confidence was reposed, might go to South Africa to consider all the circumstances, and to formulate a policy which should combine the upholding of British interests with the attempt to deal justly with the Transvaal and Orange Free State governments.
The better to understand the point of view of the Cape Dutch and the burghers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Milner also during this period learned both Dutch and the South African "Taal."
The work of reconstructing the civil administration in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony could only be carried on to a limited extent while operations continued in the field.
Immediately following the conclusion of peace Milner published (June 21) the Letters Patent establishing the system of crown colony government in the Transvaal and Orange River colonies, and exchanging his title of administrator to that of governor.
There are large deposits also on Orange Island (in places at least 1800 ft.
As the temperature increases the liquid becomes yellowish, the colour deepening with rise of temperature until at +15° C. it has a deep orange tint.
In Palestine and elsewhere there is a large orange trade, and Basra, in Turkish Arabia, has the largest export of dates in the world.
Orange, olive, cypress and arbutus trees grow throughout the island, which, however, is too dry to have any profusion of vegetation.
In mineralogical collections rounded nodules of brown glass, varying from the size of a pea to that of an orange, may often be seen labelled marekanite.
(1772-1844), king of the Netherlands, born at the Hague on the 24th of August 1772, was the son of William V., prince of Orange and hereditary stadtholder of the United Netherlands by Sophia Wilhelmina, princess of Prussia.
William refused, however, in 1806, in which year by the death of his father he became prince of Orange, to separate his interests from those of his Prussian relatives, and fought bravely at Jena.
Had the king consented at once to the administrative autonomy of Belgium, and appointed the prince of Orange governor of the southern Netherlands, it is probable that the revolt might have been appeased.
At the first there was undoubtedly a strong body of public opinion in favour of such a compromise, and the house of Orange had many adherents in the country.
In other cases the injurious effects of free sulphur are obviated by using instead of it a metallic sulphide, - generally the orange sulphide of antimony; but, for the best results, it is necessary that this should contain from 20 to 30% of uncombined sulphur.
He was conspicuous in the agitation raised by the so-called Orange plot to set aside King William IV.
Phenanthrene-quinone, [C 6 H 4] 2 [CO] 21 crystallizes in orange needles which melt at 198° C. It possesses the characteristic properties of a diketone, forming crystalline derivatives with sodium bisulphite and a dioxime with hydroxylamine.
It seems probable that the Archant was situated in Spain near Vivien's headquarters at Tortosa, and that Guillaume started from Barcelona, not from Orange, to his nephew's help. The account of the disaster was modified by successive trouveres, and the uncertainty of their methods may be judged by the fact that in the ChanQun de Willame two consecutive accounts (I I.
After the defeat of the Spanish Armada, Don Pedro's galley was brought into Torbay; and William, prince of Orange, landed at Torbay on the 5th of November 1688.
The prince of Orange having come over at this time, there was a tendency on the part of the opposition leaders to accept his endeavours to secure a compromise on the exclusion question.
ORANGE, the longest river of South Africa, almost traversing the continent from ocean to ocean.
corner of the Maluti Mountains, the Senku, already known as the Orange, receives the Makhaleng or Kornet Spruit (90 m.), which rises in Machacha Mountain.
The Orange here enters the great inner plateau of South Africa, which at Aliwal North, the first town of any size on the banks of the river, 80 m.
Forty miles lower down the Orange is joined by the first of its large tributaries, the Caledon (230 m.), which, rising on the western side of the Mont aux Sources, flows, first west and then south, through a broad and fertile valley north of the Maluti Mountains.
Thirty miles lower down the Orange reaches, in 25° 40' E., its southernmost point30° 40' S., approaching within 20 m.
Of these southern rivers the chief are the Kraai, which joins the Orange near Aliwal North, the Stormberg and the Zeekoe (Sea Cow), the last named having a length of 120 m.
From its most southern point the Orange turns sharply N.W.
and 27° S., whence a channel known as the Molopo or Hygap runs south to the Orange.
western Cape Colony, is represented by the Brak and Ongers rivers, and, farther west, by the Zak and Olifants rivers, which, united as the Hartebeest, reach the Orange about 25 m.
Between the mouths of the Hartebeest and Molopo, in 28° 35' S., 20° 20' E., are the great waterfalls of the Orange, where in a series of cataracts and cascades the river drops 400 ft.
As it approaches the Atlantic, the Orange, in its efforts to pierce the mountain barrier which guards the coast, is deflected north and then south, making a loop of fully 90 m., of which the two ends are but 38 m.
The river when in flood, at which time it has a depth, of 40 ft., scours a channel through the bar, but the Orange is at all times inaccessible to sea-going vessels.
In the neighbourhood of the Vaal, confluence, where the river passes through alluvial land, and at some other places, the waters of the Orange are used, and are capable of being much more largely used, for irrigation purposes.
The Hottentots call the Orange the Garib (great water), corrupted by the Dutch into Gariep. The early Dutch settlers -called it simply Groote-Rivier.
The first scientific expedition to reach the Orange was that under Captain Henry Hop sent by Governor Tulbagh in 1761, partly to investigate the reports concerning a semi-civilized yellow race living north of the great river.
Hop crossed the Orange in September 1761, but shortly afterwards returned.
Gordon, a Dutch officer -of Scottish extraction, who commanded the garrison at Cape Town, reached the river in its middle course at the spot indicated by Sparrman and named it the Orange in honour of the prince of Orange.
Mission stations north of the 'Orange were established a few years later, and in 1813 the Rev. John Campbell, after visiting Griqualand West for the London Missionary Society, traced the Harts river, and from its junction with the Vaal followed the latter stream to its confluence with the Orange, journeying thence by the banks of the Orange as far as Pella, in Little Namaqualand, discovering the great falls.
The source of the Orange was first reached by the French Protestant missionaries T.
WINBURG, a town in the Orange Free State, 90 m.
from Cape Orange (4° 21' N.) almost due south to the river Chuy (33° 45' S.
farther north than Cape Orange.
Formerly this coast region furnished large quantities of Brazil-wood (Caesalpinia echinata), and the river valleys have long been the principal source of Brazil's best cabinet-wood - rosewood (Dalbergia nigra), jacaranda (Machaeriumfirmum,Benth.),vinhatico (Plathymenia foliosa, Benth.), peroba (Aspidosperma peroba), cedro, &c. The exotic mangabeira (mango) is found everywhere along the coast, together with the bamboo, orange, lemon, banana, cashew, &c.
by the Orange Free State province, N.
Here the land loses its semi-tropical character and resembles more the plains of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.
North of Mont-aux-Sources the mountain ridge sinks to 8000 and less feet, and here are several passes leading into the Orange Free State.
Aloes are common; in part of the midland zone they form when in bloom with abundance of orange and scarlet flowers a most picturesque sight.
A conspicuous veld plant is the orange and crimson leonotis, growing 6 ft.
From Ladysmith a branch line runs north-west into the Orange Free State, crossing the Drakensberg at Van Reenen's Pass.
The Orange Free State line, after leaving Ladysmith, ascends by steep gradients the whole of its own course in Natal territory, and when it gains the summit at Van Reenen's Pass it is 5500 ft.
The chief exports, not all products of the province, are coal, wool, mohair, hides and skins, wattle bark, tea, sugar, fruits and jams. The import trade is of a most varied character, and a large proportion of the goods brought into the country are in transit to the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Natal affording, next to Delagoa Bay, the shortest route to the Rand.
Boshof (afterwards president of the Orange Free State), by far the ablest of the Dutch who had settled in Natal.
Smellekamp (a man who subsequently played a part in the early history of the Transvaal and Orange Free State), concluded a treaty with the volksraad assuring them of the protection of Holland.
Many of the Boers who would not acknowledge British rule trekked once more over the mountains into what are now the Orange Free State and Transvaal provinces.
In a dispute between the Transvaal and the Orange Free State he decided (February 1870) that the Klip river and not the upper Vaal was the frontier stream.
They showed indeed in their dealings both with the natives within their borders and with the Zulus beyond the Tugela a disposition to favour the natives at the expense of their white neighbours in the Transvaal and Orange Free State, and their action against Langalibalele was fully justified and the danger of a widespread native revolt real.
In the following year Natal entered the Customs Union already existing between Cape Colony and the Orange Free State.
It was proposed to include in Natal such portions of the Harrismith and Vrede districts as were comprised by a line following the Elands river north from its source on the Basutoland border to its junction with the Wilge river, and thence drawn straight to the point where the boundaries of Natal, the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony meet on the Drakensberg.
In consideration of this addition to her territory, Natal should take over a portion of the Orange River Colony debt, to be raised at the end of the war, to the amount of £ 200,000.
With regard, however, to the proposed transfer of territory from the Orange River Colony, the circumstances were different.
Natal further built several railway lines in the eastern half of the Orange River Colony, thus opening up new markets for her produce and facilitating her transit trade.
Close to Nivelles is Seneffe, where Conde defeated William of Orange in 1674, and at Nivelles itself the French under Marceau defeated the Austrians in 1794.
by the Orange Free State and Natal, W.
Kynaston, The Geology of the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony, Handbook, British Association (Cape Town, 5905); Trans.
There were 163,000 orange trees and nearly 60,000 other citrus trees, 430,000 grape vines, 276,000 pine plants and 78,000 banana plants.
In May 1903 an inter-colonial council was established to deal with the administration of the railways in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony (known as the Central South African railways), the South African constabulary and other matters common to the Orange River and Transvaal colonies.
In May 1903 a loan of £35,000,000, guaranteed by the imperial government and secured on the general revenues of the Transvaal and Orange River colonies, was issued to the extent of £30,000,000, the balance being raised about the middle of 1904.
The inter-colonial council received and spent in the four years1903-1907over £21,500,000, including some £3,500,000 paid in from revenue by the Transvaal and Orange River colonies to make good deficits.
On the 17th of January 1852 a con- River vention was signed at a farm near the Sand river in the Orange sovereignty by assistant commissioners nominated by the British high commissioner on the one hand, and by Pretorius and other Boers on the other.
Further to strengthen their position, Pretorius and his party unsuccessfully endeavoured to bring about a union with the Orange Free State.
Pretorius, while still president of the Transvaal, had been elected, through the efforts of his partisans, president of the Orange Free State.
If at this stage of their existence the real ambition of the Transvaal Boers was to found a strong and compact republican state, their conduct in opposing a scheme of union with the Orange Free State was foolish to a degree.
de Villiers, chief justice of Cape Colony, while President Brand of the Orange Free State gave the commission the benefit of his advice.
Article 4 stated: " The South African Republic will conclude no treaty or engagement with any state or nation, other than the Orange Free State, nor with any native tribe to the eastward or westward of the Republic, until the same has been approved by her Majesty the Queen."
An attempt was made in 1888, after the conference held between Cape Colony, the Orange Free State and Natal, to induce the Transvaal to enter a customs union.
Reitz as president of the Orange Free State (January 1889) on the death of Sir John Brand, Kruger recognized a new opportunity of endeavouring to cajole the Free State.
But on the very day Mr Chamberlain wrote his despatch the friends of the Transvaal government in Cape Colony and the Orange Free State invited Sir Dr W.
President Kruger had every expectation of large reinforcements from the Dutch in the two British colonies; he believed that, whatever happened, Europe would not allow Boer independence to be destroyed; and he had assured himself of the adhesion of the Orange Free State, though it was not till the very last moment that President Steyn formally notified Sir Alfred Milner of this fact.
The army corps was about to arrive, practically as a whole unit, in South Africa; but it was evident that the exigencies of the situation, and the widely divided areas of invasion, would at least defer the execution of the plan which had been formed for an invasion of the Orange Free State from Cape Colony.
Lord Roberts's plan was first to concentrate to his left, taking every measure to induce the Boers to believe that the original scheme of invasion by the centre would now be resumed, and in this purpose he succeeded so well that his field army with the necessary transport for a cross-country march was assembled between the Orange and the Modder without serious mishap. Cronje at the new centre of gravity was not reinforced, all available Boers drawing down towards Colesberg.
After a halt of eight days at Kroonstad, the main army again moved forward, and, meeting but small resistance, marched without a halt into Johannesburg, which was occupied on the 31st of May, the Orange Free State having been formally annexed by proclamation three days earlier.
Cape Colony to an alarming degree, while, as forerunners of the promised invasion, scattered bodies of Free Staters crossed the Orange River to swell the rebellion.
Pursued closely and finding the rivers in flood De Wet hid some of his men under Kritzinger near the Orange and himself doubled back, traversing again the line of posts east of Bloemfontein.
Kritzinger, Hertzog and bodies of Cape rebels raided Cape Colony as soon as they were able to cross the Orange, and Hertzog penetrated so far that he exchanged shots on the Atlantic coast with a British warship. All that the British forces under Sir Charles Knox and others could do was to localize the raids and to prevent Botha's .
Passing the Bloemfontein-Thaba Nchu line a third time, he crossed the Orange to join Hertzog and rouse the Cape Dutch.
By judicious use of the railway Kitchener concentrated sufficient troops in the colony to cope with the attempt, and, after being hunted for eighteen days, De Wet escaped back into the Orange River Colony with the loss of all his guns, munitions of war and half his force.
Smuts, with a small force from the Magaliesberg, traversed Orange River Colony and stimulated the Cape rebels afresh.
At the time the articles of peace were signed at Pretoria, more than 17,000 Boer children were 1 Milner became at the same time administrator of Orange River Colony.
An agreement was reached whereby a loan of £35,000,000, guaranteed by the imperial government, was to be raised for the benefit of the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony; a further loan of £30,000,000 was to be issued in instalments of £10,000,000 and paid into the British exchequer as the Transvaal's contribution towards the cost of the war.
With the proceeds of the first loan the debt of the South African Republic was paid off, the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony railways were bought by the state, and new railways and other public works were undertaken.
The earl showed himself finely capable in practice as in theory, vigorous and tolerant, a man to be feared and a leader to be followed; he took the government entirely into his own hands, repressed the jobbery traditional to the office, established schools and manufactures, and at once conciliated and kept in check the Orange and Roman Catholic factions.
The marriage-veil (flammeum) derived its name from its bright orange colour.
raised it to a countship, and in 1551 it passed by marriage to Prince William of Orange Nassau.
1473), and as the birthplace of Philip William of Orange in 1554.
HARRISMITH, a town in the Orange Free State, 60 m.
It was in vain that he married his daughter Mary to the Protestant prince of Orange in 1677.
Protestant nobles of England, enraged at the tolerant policy of James, had been in negotiation with William of Orange since 1687.
He was intercepted at Faversham and brought back, but the politic prince of Orange allowed him to escape a second time (December 23, 1688).
The cacau is at its best in the humid forests of this region and is cultivated in the rich alluvial valleys, and the banana thrives everywhere, as well as the exotic orange and lemon.
The manakins are nearly all birds of gay appearance, generally exhibiting rich tints of blue, crimson, scarlet, orange or yellow in combination with chestnut, deep black, black and white, or olive green; and among their most obvious characteristics are their short bill and feeble feet, of which the outer toe is united to the middle toe for a good part of its length.
Meanwhile, though the Colonial Conference (re-named Imperial) of 1907 showed that there was a wide difference of opinion on the tariff question between the free-trade government and the colonial premiers, in one part of the empire the ministry took a decided step - in the establishment of a self-governing constitution for the Transvaal and Orange River colonies - which, for good or ill, would make the period memorable.
In the early autumn of 1751 La Mettrie, one of the king's parasites, and a man of much more talent than is generally allowed, horrified Voltaire by telling him that Frederick had in conversation applied to him (Voltaire) a proverb about "sucking the orange and flinging away its skin," and about the same time the dispute with Maupertuis, which had more than anything else to do with his exclusion from Prussia, came to a head.
the fortunes of the city were at their lowest, and nowhere was the arrival of the prince of Orange more welcomed.
found himself in danger from the landing of the Prince of Orange he sent for the lord mayor and aldermen and informed them of his determination to restore the city charter and privileges, but he had no time to do anything before his flight.
The Fort Orange Club, the Catholic Union, the Albany Club, the University Club, the City Club of Albany, the Country Club, the German Hall Association and the Adelphi Club are the chief social organizations.
In that year, on a hill near the site of the present Capitol, Fort Orange was built, and around it, as a centre, the new town.
m.) centring at Fort Orange.
The Romans had at their command, of transparent colours, blue, green, purple or amethystine, amber, brown and rose; of opaque colours, white, black, red, blue, yellow, green and orange.
WEPENER, a town of the Orange Free State, 82 m.
Mary, wife of William of Orange.
With the revolution which speedily followed this impolitic trial, new troubles encountered Ken; for, having sworn allegiance to James, he thought himself thereby precluded from taking the oath to William of Orange.
In August an imperial army under Philibert, prince of Orange, advanced on the city.
A battle took place at that spot on the 3rd of August, but in spite of Ferruccio's heroism he was defeated and killed; the prince of Orange also fell in that desperate engagement.
In this way bladders as large as an orange and containing secondary bladders, A each with a scolex, may arise from a single embryo.
Its bulk alone (equal to that of an orange) causes serious disturbances, and its choice of the liver, kidneys, lungs, cranial cavity and other deep-seated recesses, gives rise to profound alterations.
The orange, indigo, lucerne and European vegetables are grown.
The coloration is generally sombre, but to this there are exceptions; the fruit-bats are brownish yellow or russet on the under surface; two South American species are white; Blainville's chin-leafed bat is bright orange; and the Indian painted bat (Cerivoula pieta) with its deep orange dress, spotted with black on the wing-membranes, has reminded observers of a large butterfly.
In some of these the legs as well as the bill are yellow or orange; and in a few both sexes are glossy black.
SHADDOCK (Citrus decumana), a tree allied to the orange and the lemon, presumably native to the Malay and Polynesian islands, but generally cultivated throughout the tropics.
The leaves are like those of the orange, but downy on the under surface, as are also the young shoots.
Among the first wild shrubs and trees that are met with are the chilca (Baccharis Feuillei), with a pretty yellow flower, the Mutisia acuminata, with beautiful red and orange flowers, several species of Senecio, calceolarias, the Schinus molle, with its graceful branches and bunches of red berries, and at higher elevations the lambras (Alnus acuminata), the sauco (Sambucus peruviana), the quenuar (Buddleia incana), and the Polylepis racemosa.
The mango, lichen, pear and orange are indigenous, and several fruits and esculents have been introduced.
The Orange Free State Magazine, the only English magazine published.
(1650-1702), king of England and prince of Orange, was the only son of William II., prince of Orange, stadtholder of the Dutch republic, and Mary, daughter of Charles I.
Power passed into the hands of John de Witt, who represented the oligarchic element and the special interests of one province, Holland, and was taken from the Orange party which represented the more democratic element and the more general interests of the Seven Provinces.
William inherited the baleful lustre, without the substantial power, which his ancestors had given to the name of Orange.
The startling successes of the French produced a revolution among the Dutch people, who naturally turned for help to the scion of the house of Orange.
He accompanied the prince of Orange to England in 1688, and during the Irish campaign he took part in the siege of Carrickfergus and the battle of the Boyne, and was wounded at the battle of Limerick.
1796), Henry and William, and two daughters, Wilhelmina, wife of William of Orange, afterwards William king of the Netherlands, and Augusta, wife of William II., elector of Hesse.
The animal is ` brown,' of a shade from orange or tawny to quite blackish; the tail and feet are ordinarily the darkest, the head lightest, often quite whitish; the ears usually have a whitish rim, while on the throat there is usually a large tawny-yellowish or orange-brown patch, from the chin to the fore legs, sometimes entire, sometimes broken into a number of smaller, irregular blotches, sometimes wanting, sometimes prolonged on the whole under surface, when the animal is bicolor like a stoat in summer.
- Fur rich dark brown; under fur reddish-grey, with clear yellow tips; breast spot usually yellow, varying from bright orange to pale cream-colour or yellowishwhite.
Kriiss; the brightest lines are 6277, 59 60, 5955 and 5836 in the orange and yellow, and 5230 and 4792 in the green and blue.
In the convention parliament summoned by the prince of Orange, in which he sat for Heytesbury, he spoke in favour of a radical resettlement of the constitution, and served on a committee, of which Somers was chairman, for drawing up a new constitution in the form of the Declaration of Right; and he was one of the representatives of the Commons in their conference with the peers on the question of declaring the throne vacant.
It was the scene of attempts by the French to invade Ireland in 1689 and 1796, and troops of William of Orange were landed here in 1697.
His request being granted, Languet spent the last years of his life mainly in the Low Countries, and though nominally still in the service of the elector, he undertook a mission to England for John Casimir of Bavaria and was a valuable adviser to William the Silent, prince of Orange.
William of Orange with a weak field army tried to defend the Yssel-Rhine line, but the French rapidly forced the passage of the Rhine at Tollhuis (June 12th) and passed into the Betuwe (between the Leck and the Waal).
A revolution placed William of Orange at the head of the government.
Thereupon Montecucculi turned northward to meet William of Orange, who evaded Conde's weak army and marched rapidly via Ven16 (22nd October) on Coblenz.
The town of Conde fell on the 26th of April, and the king then manoeuvred against the prince of Orange in the neighbourhood of Valenciennes.
The prince of Orange failed in an attempt to take Charleroi, and Marshal D'Humieres captured St Ghislain.
He afterwards became the confidential counsellor of Maurice, prince of Orange, and afterwards of Frederick Henry, prince of Orange, in their conduct of the foreign affairs of the republic. He was sent on special embassies to Venice, Germany and England, and displayed so much diplomatic skill and finesse that Richelieu ranked him among the three greatest politicians of his time.
DE WITT CLINTON (1769-1828), American political leader, was born on the 2nd of March 1769 at Little Britain, Orange county, New York.
William of Orange, who had passed through several phases of religious conviction, stood first and foremost for toleration.
His great reputation and the influence of Sir William Boswell, the English resident, with the states-general procured his election in 1643 to the chair of mathematics in Amsterdam, whence he removed in 1646, on the invitation of the prince of Orange, to Breda, where he remained till 1652.
The citron, sour orange, lemon and lime grow wild; but the apple and peach do not come to perfection.
The large and brightly coloured bongo (Boocercus euryceros) of the equatorial forest-districts serves in some respects to connect the bushbucks with the elands, having horns in both sexes, and a tufted tail, but a brilliant orange coat with vertical white stripes.
Corps (Prince of Orange), 30,200, headquarters Braine-le-Comte, disposed in the area Enghien-Genappe-Mons.
The prince of Orange, in command at Quatre Bras, had only 7500 troops.
In 1577 it was again captured by William of Orange and permanently incorporated in the United Netherlands.
The Transvaal and the Orange River colonies were enumerated in 1904.
Bauer), a name given to the Dutch farmers of South Africa, and especially to the Dutch population of the Transvaal and Orange River States.
The most pronounced of these upfolded strata in New York form the low Shawangunk mountains, which descend, toward the S.E., to a lowland region of folded strata of limestone, slate and other rocks in Orange and Dutchess counties.
In 1750 the mining of iron ore was begun near Monroe, Orange county.
Larger deposits of serpentine occur at several places in St Lawrence county; and at Warwick, in Orange county, is some beautiful marble of a carmine-red colour occasionally mottled with white or showing white veins.
But more than one-half of the families proceeded up the Hudson to Fort Orange, the successor of Fort Nassau, at the mouth of Tawasentha Creek, and there founded what is now Albany.
On both sides of the entrance to Delaware Bay Samuel Godyn, Samuel Blomaert and five other directors who were admitted to partner ship in the second year (1630) established the manor and colony of Swaanendael; on a tract opposite the lower end of Manhattan Island and including Staten Island, Michael Pauw established the manor and colony of Pavonia; on both sides of the Hudson and extending in all directions from Fort Orange (Albany) Kilian van Rensselaer established the manor and colony of Rensselaerwyck.
The separation from it of what is now New Jersey (q.v.) was begun by the duke's conveyance, in the preceding June, of that portion of his province to Berkeley and Carteret, and among numerous changes from Dutch to English names was that from Fort Orange to Fort Albany.
Gradually the dispute pervaded all classes of society, and the religious questions became entangled with political issues; the partisans of the house of Orange espoused the cause of the stricter Calvinism, whereas the bourgeois oligarchy of republican tendencies, led by Oldenbarnevelt and Hugo Grotius, stood for Arminianism.
In 1617 Prince Maurice of Orange committed himself definitely to the Calvinistic party, found an occasion for throwing Oldenbarnevelt and Grotius into prison, and in November of that year called a synod intended to crush the Arminians.
Nowhere in California is plant life more varied and beautiful; in the vicinity are walnut, olive, lemon and orange groves.
ORANGE FREE STATE, an inland province of British South Africa; formerly - from 1854 to 1 9 00 - an independent republic. From May 1900 to June 191o it was known as the Orange River Colony, since when under the style of Orange Free State it has formed a province of the Union of South Africa.
It lies north of the Orange and south of the Vaal rivers, between 26° 30' and 30 40' S.
No natural boundary marks the western frontier, a line across the veld (separating it from the Griqualand West district of the Cape) from the Orange to the Vaal rivers.
The whole country forms part of the drainage basin of the Orange river, its streams, with insignificant exceptions, being tributaries of the Vaal or Caledon affluents of that river.
Here, between the Caledon and the Orange, is the fertile district of Rouxville.
The north bank of the Orange, from the Kornet Spruit confluence to a point a little east of the spot where the railway from Cape Town to Kimberley crosses the river, forms the southern frontier of the province.
Except the Caledon, Vaal and Orange, they are dry or nearly dry for three or four months in the year, but in the rainy season they are often raging torrents.
Bethulie, 1686, on the Orange river, in the " Conquered Territory," has been the scene of the labours of French Protestant missionaries since 1832, and possesses a fine park.
The first system consists of a trunk line, formed by the junction of lines from Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, which crosses the Orange at Norvals Pont, traverses the province from south to north, passing through Bloemfontein and Kroonstad, and enters the Transvaal at Viljoens Drift (331 m.
This line is joined at Springfontein by a railway from East London which crosses the Orange near Bethulie.
The fruit trees commonly cultivated are the peach, apricot, apple, orange, lemon, pear, fig and plum.
The Roman Catholics number 2 30% of the whites, the head of their church in the province being a vicar apostolic. At the head of the Anglican community, which is in full communion with the Church of England, is the bishop of Bloemfontein, whose diocese, founded in 1863, includes not only the Orange Free State, but Basutoland, Griqualand West and British Bechuanaland.
The country north of the Orange river was first visited by Europeans towards the close of the 18th century.
The majority of the inhabitants appear to have been members of the Bechuana division of the Bantus, but in the valleys of the - Orange and Vaal were Korannas and other Hottentots, and in the Drakensberg and on the western border lived numbers of Bushmen.
Early in the 29th century Griquas established themselves north of the Orange.
Up to this time the few white men who had crossed the Orange had been chiefly hunters or missionaries.
In December 1836 the emigrants beyond the Orange drew up in general assembly an elementary republican form of government.
Meantime a new power had arisen along the upper Orange and in the valley of the Caledon.
The year in which the treaty with Moshesh was made several large parties of Boers recrossed the Drakensberg into the country north of the Orange, refusing to remain in Natal when it became a British colony.
Many of the white farmers in this district, unlike their fellows dwelling farther north, were willing to accept British rule, and this fact induced Mr Justice Menzies, one of the judges of Cape Colony then on circuit at Colesberg, to cross the Orange and proclaim (October 1842) the country British territory, a proclamation disallowed by the governor, Sir George Napier, who, nevertheless, maintained that the emigrant farmers were still British subjects.
The volksraad at Winburg during this period continued to claim jurisdiction over the Boers living between the Orange and the Vaal and was in federation with the volksraad at Potchefstroom, which made a similar claim upon the Great Boers living north of the Vaal.
He recognized the failure of the attempt to govern on the lines of the treaties with the Griquas and Basutos, and on the 3rd of February 1848 he issued a proclamation declaring British sovereignty over the country between the Orange and the Vaal eastward to the Drakensberg.
A nominated legislative council was created, a high court established and other steps taken for the orderly government of the country, which was officially styled the Orange River Sovereignty.
Lord Grey (the 3rd earl), secretary of state for the colonies, in a despatch to Sir Harry Smith dated the 21st of October 1851, declared, "The ultimate abandonment of the Orange Sovereignty should be a settled point in our policy."
In withdrawing from the Sovereignty the British government declared that it had "no alliance with any native chief or tribes to the northward of the Orange River with the exception of the Griqua chief Captain Adam Kok."
The country was declared a republic and named the Orange Free State.
Many of the burghers would have at this time welcomed union with the Transvaal, but learning from Sir George Grey that such a union would nullify the conventions of 1852 and 1854 and necessitate the reconsideration of Great Britain's policy towards the native tribes north of the Orange and Vaal rivers, the project dropped.
The intervention of the governor of Cape Colony led to the of the conclusion of the treaty of Aliwal North (Feb.12,1869), which defined the borders between the Orange Free State and Basutoland.
In the years1870-1871a Discovery large number of diggers had settled on the diamond of the fields near the junction of the Vaal and Orange rivers, which were situated in part on land claimed by the Fi Griqua chief Nicholas Waterboer and by the Free State.
On entering Bloemfontein in 1900 the British obtained possession of certain state papers which contained records of negotiations between the Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
Having recovered from the worst effects of the war the Boers, both in the Transvaal and Orange Colony, began in 1904 to make organized efforts to regain their political ascendancy, and to bring pressure on the government in respect to compensation, repatriation, the position of the Dutch language, education and other subjects on which they alleged unfair treatment.
This agitation, as far as the Orange River Colony was concerned, coincided with the return to South Africa of ex-President Steyn.
He returned to South Africa early in 1903 and was admitted to the bar of the Orange Colony.
The previous (Conservative) government had in March 1905 made public a form of representative govern- government, intended to lead up to self-government meat* for the Transvaal, and had intimated that a similar constitution would be subsequently conferred on the Orange Colony.
There was in the Orange Colony a considerable body of opinion that the party system of government should be avoided, and that the executive should consist of three members elected by the single representative chamber it was desired to obtain, and three members nominated by the governor - in short, what was desired was a restoration as far as possible of the old Free State constitution.
The first parliament under the new British 28th of May a proclamation was issued annexing the Free State to the British dominions under the title of Orange River Colony.
Over £4,000,000 was spent by the British government in Orange Colony alone on these objects.
After the surrender of Cronje at Paardeberg on the 27th of February 1900 Bloemfontein was occupied by the British troops under Lord Roberts (March 13,) and on the constitution met on the 18th of December 1907, when it was announced that the Transvaal and Orange Colony had each given notice of the termination of the intercolonial council with the intention of each colony to gain individual control of its railways and constabulary.
In view of the dissolution of the intercolonial council a convention was signed at Pretoria on the 29th of May which made provision for the division of the common property, rights and liabilities of the Orange Colony and the Transvaal in respect to the railways and constabulary, and established for four years a joint board to continue the administration of the railway systems of the two colonies.
The Orange Colony assumed responsibility for £7,700,000 of the guaranteed loan of £35,000,000, of 1903 (see Transvaal: Finance).
In this convention Mr Steyn took a leading and conciliatory part, and subsequently the Orange River legislature agreed to the terms drawn up by the convention for the unification of the four self-governing colonies.
Beak's The Aftermath of War (1906) is an account of the repatriation work in the Orange River Colony.
Cannon, Map of the Orange River Colony (6 sheets: 4 m.
The prevailing colour of the most admired varieties of the canary is yellow, approaching in some cases to orange, and in others to white; while the most robust birds are those which, in the dusky green of the upper surface of their plumage, show a distinct approach to the wild forms. The least prized are those in which the plumage is irregularly spotted and speckled.
The streets are fairly wide and straight, and several of the houses belonging to aristocratic Moors, descendants of those expelled from Spain, have fine courts surrounded by arcades, some with marble fountains and planted with orange trees.
But his vexatious interference with colonial rights and customs aroused the keenest resentment, and on the 18th of April 1689, soon after news of the arrival of William, prince of Orange, in England reached Boston, the colonists deposed and arrested him.
But now, under the idea that an alliance between Charles and Orange would be more hostile to English liberty than would the progress of the French arms, he acted with Barillon in influencing members of parliament in this sense, and is twice mentioned as receiving the sum of Soo guineas from the ambassador.
Newark was incorporated as a township in 1693, was chartered as a city in 1836 and received another charter in 1857; from it the township of Orange was formed in 1806 and the township of Bloomfield in 1812.
Much opposition, however, was encountered, and the movement was condemned by the council of Orange in 441 and the council of Epaone in 517.
In the spectroscope calcium exhibits two intense lines-an orange line (a), (X 6163), a green line (a), (X 4229), and a fainter indigo line.
These, however, include the orange, mango, mangosteen, shaddock, guava and the durian.
Meanwhile in the Western Church the subject of sin and grace, and the relation of divine and human activity in salvation, received especial attention; and finally, at the second council of Orange in 529, after both Pelagianism and semi-Pelagianism had been repudiated, a moderate form of Augustinianism was adopted,, involving the theory that every man as a result of the fall is in such a condition that he can take no steps in the direction of salvation until he has been renewed by the divine grace given in baptism, and that he cannot continue in the good thus begun except by the constant assistance of that grace, which is mediated only by the Catholic Church.
1577), who became the second wife of William the Silent, prince of Orange.
1630), Mary, princess of Orange (b.
The religious disturbances in the Netherlands attracted him to Antwerp, where as the agent of William of Orange he allowed the insurgents to place him at their head, and was able to save much property from destruction.
In the next year he was sent by the earl of Oxford to serve definitely under the prince of Orange.
A great variety of vegetables and of fruits, especially the orange, is exported.
(1626-1650), prince of Orange, born at The Hague on the 27th of May 1626, was the son of Frederick Henry, prince of Orange, and his wife Amalia von Solms, and grandson of William the Silent.
A prolonged controversy arose, which ended in the states-general in June 1650 commissioning the prince of Orange to visit the towns of Holland and secure a recognition of their authority.
He lost no time in entering into fresh negotiations with the French government, and a draft treaty was already early in October drawn up in Paris and the Count d'Estrades was commissioned to deliver it in person to the prince of Orange.
The animal, which reaches a length of more than 2 ft., is blackish-brown and yellow or orange, and on the thick tail these "warning colours" are arranged in alternate rings.
It was founded by William of Orange in 1575 as a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the tradition being that the citizens were offered the choice between a university and a certain exemption from taxes.
The dwarf-palm, orange, lime, and olive grow in the warmer tracts; and on the higher grounds the thorn-apple, pomegranate, myrtle, esparto and heaths flourish.
Among indigenous fruit-bearing trees, shrubs and vines the state has the bird cherry, black cherry, blueberry, cranberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, strawberry, grape and black currant; and conspicuous among a very great variety of shrubs and flowering plants are the rose, dogwood, laurel, sumac, holly, winterberry, trilliums, anemones, arbutuses, violets, azaleas, eglantine, clematis, blue gentians, orange lilies, orchids, asters and golden rod.
He had interviews with the prince of Orange, with Casimir who was there in the interests of Protestant Germany, with Anjou who came in his own interests or in those of France, and with Don John, who nominally governed the country in Philip's name; the story that he instigated a plot to kidnap or murder Don John is without foundation.
The order of the successive colours in all colourless transparent media is red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.
P. Leroux discovered that iodine vapour refracted the red rays more than the violet, the intermediate colours not being transmitted; and in 1870 Christiansen found that an alcoholic solution of fuchsine refracted the violet less than the red, the order of the successive colours being violet, red, orange, yellow; the green being absorbed and a dark interval occurring between the violet and red.
After spending some time in Friesland and in the Palatinate he was in 1570 taken into the service of William, prince of Orange, and in 1572 was sent as his representative to the first meeting of the States-general assembled at Dordrecht.
by the Orange river, N.E.
by Matabeleland, the Transvaal and Orange River Colony, and W.
In the south the rivers, such as the Molopo and the Kuruman, drain towards the Orange.
Upington (2508) on the north bank of the Orange, an agricultural centre, is the chief town in Gordonia, the western division of southern Bechuanaland.
Mary of Orange >>
Albinos seem to be rather common; and as in other fishes (for instance, the tench, carp, eel, flounder), the colour of most of these albinos is a bright orange or golden yellow; occasionally even this shade of colour is lost, the fish being more or less pure white or silvery.
Although the states-general issued an edict tolerating both parties and forbidding further dispute, the conflict continued, and the Remonstrants were assailed both by personal enemies and by the political weapons of Maurice of Orange, who executed and imprisoned their leaders for holding republican views.
Jacob Cats and Adrian Pauw, in the days of the stadtholders Frederick Henry and William of Orange II.
had to be content with lessened powers, but in the stadtholderless regime1650-1672the grand pensionary became even more influential than Oldenbarneveldt himself, since there was no prince of Orange filling the offices of stadtholder, and of admiral and captain-general of the Union.
inland (W.S.W.) from it, on the slope of Monte Caputo, overlooking the beautiful and very fertile valley called "La Conca d'oro" (the Golden Shell), famed for its orange, olive and almond trees, the produce of which is exported in large quantities.
Much of the neighbouring plain is very fertile, and the town is surrounded with gardens and orchards, in which orange, lemon and citron come to great perfection.
With silver nitrate it gives an orange red precipitate of silver ferricyanide, Ag 3 Fe(NC)s.
In earlier literature the Lafayette formation was described under the name of Orange Sand, and was at one time thought to be the southern equivalent of the glacial drift.
This crime aroused intense excitement throughout the country, and the Orange body, particularly, to which Scott belonged, demanded the immediate punishment of his murderer and the suppression of the rebellion.
The special gland of the musk-deer, which has made the animal so well known, and has proved the cause of unremitting persecution to its possessor, is found in the male only, and is a sac about the size of a small orange, situated beneath the skin of the abdomen, the orifice being immediately in front of the preputial aperture.
In the more settled parts of Cape Colony, the Transvaal and the Orange Free State it now only exists within the enclosures of the large farms, and can hardly be said to be any longer truly wild.
The bitterness is imparted by such substances as bitter orange rind, gentian, rhubarb, quassia, cascarilla, angostura, quinine and cinchona.
Bitters are usually sold under the name of the substance which has been used to give them the predominant flavour, such as orange, angostura or peach bitters, &c. The alcoholic strength of bitters varies, but is generally in the neighbourhood of 40% of alcohol.
It crystallizes from alcohol in orange red plates which melt at 68° C. and boil at 293° C. It does not react with acids or alkalis, but on reduction with zinc dust in acetic acid solution yields aniline.
Methyl orange (helianthin, gold orange, Mandarin orange), (CH 3) 2 N C 6 H 4 N 2 C 6 H 4 SO 3 Na, is the sodium salt of paradimethylaminobenzene-azo-benzene sulphonic acid.
It is an orange crystalline powder which is soluble in water, forming a yellow solution.
Methyl orange is used largely as an indicator.
The constitution of methyl orange follows from the fact that on reduction by stannous chloride in hydrochloric acid solution it yields sulphanilic acid and para-aminodimethyl aniline.
chrysogaster is a large brown rat with an orange belly, which feeds on small fishes and insects.
Dee's Speculum or mirror, a piece of solid pink-tinted glass about the size of an orange, is preserved in the British Museum.
Another form of the drink is made of rum, orange and lemon juice, peel, sugar and water.
but he so alienated the sympathies of the nation by his unconstitutional efforts to further the Roman Catholic religion that an invitation was sent to the prince of Orange to come "to the rescue of the laws and religion of England."
Next to the son of James II., still an infant under his father's control, Mary, princess of Orange, elder daughter of James II., had the strongest claim to the crown; but the claims of the prince of Orange also, even apart from his marriage, were not very remote, since he was the son of Mary, eldest daughter of Charles I.
KROONSTAD, a town of Orange River Colony, 127 m.
On the capture of Bloemfontein by the British during the Anglo-Boer War of1899-1902Kroonstad was chosen by the Orange Free State Boers as the capital of the state, a dignity it held from the 13th of March to the IIth of May 1900.
MARY OF ORANGE (1631-1660), eldest daughter of the English king Charles I., was born in London on the 4th of November 1631.
Her father wished her to marry a son of Philip IV., king of Spain, while her cousin, the elector palatine, Charles Louis, was also a suitor for her hand, but both proposals fell through and she became the wife of a Dutch prince, William, son of Frederick Henry, prince of Orange.
Here the more common European plants and trees give place to the wild olive, the caper bush, the aloe, the cactus, the evergreen oak, the orange, the lemon, the palm and other productions of a tropical climate.
So pronounced an enemy of French preponderance did Innocent become that he approved the League of Augsburg, and was not sorry to see the Catholic James II., whom he considered a tool of Louis, thrust from the throne of England by the Protestant William of Orange.
Having succeeded his father as "bishop" of Halberstadt in 1616, he obtained some experience of warfare under Maurice, prince of Orange, in the Netherlands.
At the first reception, in 1858, of Motley at the royal palace at the Hague, the king presented him with a copy of Groen's Archives as a token of appreciation and admiration of the work done by the "worthy vindicator of William I., prince of Orange."
This bird is still more beautifully coloured than the chaffinch - especially in summer, when, the brown edges of the feathers being shed, it presents a rich combination of black, white and orange.
ocellata, whose plumage almost vies with that of a peacock in splendour, while the bare skin which covers the head is of a deep blue studded with orange caruncles (Proc. Zool.
Baird says that "this persuasion, however fanciful the grounds on which it was based, exercised no small influence in forwarding the success of the designs of William of Orange in the invasion of England."
Their earliest settlements were at Manhattan, Wallabout and Fort Orange (now Albany), where the West India Company formally established the Reformed Church of Holland.
The mimicry of these insects therefore is synaposematic; but some, at all events, of the flies like the Bombylid Exoprosopa umbrosa, probably form pseudaposematic elements in the group. Into another category Hymenoptera enter not as models but as mimics, the models being inedible Malacodermatous beetles mostly belonging to the genus Lycus and characterized by orange coloration set off by a large black patch upon the posterior end of the elytra and a smaller black spot upon the thorax.
The ribbon is orange with silver edging.
The ribbon is green with two orange stripes.
The star of silver bears the black eagle on an orange ground surrounded by a silver fillet on which is the motto of the order Suum Cuique.
The ribbon is white with two orange stripes.
The cross is surmounted by a jewelled crown; the ribbon is orange with dark blue edging.
The ribbon is orange with three black stripes.
The ribbon is pale blue with orange stripes.
Besides the blue and purple of the spectrum he was able to recognize only one colour, yellow, or, as he says in his paper, "that part of the image which others call red appears to me little more than a shade or defect of light; after that the orange, yellow and green seem one colour which descends pretty uniformly from an intense to a rare yellow, making what I should call different shades of yellow."
(1657-1713), king of Prussia, and (as Frederick III.) elector of Brandenburg, was the second son of the great elector, Frederick William, by his first marriage with Louise Henriette, daughter of Frederick Henry of Orange.
He helped William of Orange to make his descent on England; added various places, including the principality of Neuchatel, to his lands; and exercised some influence on the course of European politics by placing his large and efficient army at the disposal of the emperor and his allies (see Brandenburg).
Bright orange, yellow, red and purple hues predominate and are set off very effectively against the dark green pines with which the margins of the canyon are fringed, and the white foam of the river at the bottom of the chasm.
Africa (Basutoland, Natal, Transvaal, Orange River Colony), the " Great North-West " of Canada (Athabasca-Mackenzie, Saskatchewan, St Boniface, New Westminster).
long and 3 high at the base, is of a deep orange colour, with a large black oval spot near the tip. The eye, with its double iris of green and yellow, has a broad blue orbit, and is surrounded by a bare space of deep orange skin.
The carriage itself had been lost long before; but we know that about the year 1600 Stevinus, with Prince Maurice of Orange and twenty-six others, made use of it on the seashore between Scheveningen and Petten, that it was propelled solely by the force of the wind, and that it acquired a speed which exceeded that of horses.
In this way hardy rhododendrons of choice sorts, greenhouse azaleas, the varieties of the orange family, camellias, roses, rare conifers, clematises and numerous other plants are increased.
Erysimum Peroffskianum: hardy, 2 ft., deep orange; in erect racemes.
Eschscholtzia crocea flore-pleno: hardy, t 2 ft., orange yellow; double.
heterophylla, coppery orange; M.
Orange, too, is very effective at this season.
aurantiaca, 2 to 3 ft., orange streaked with red, in July and August; A.
high, and bears corymbs of deep yellow and orange flowers in September.
cordifolium, 4 ft., has large cordate leaves, and heads of rich orange flowers in cymose panicles in July.
pulchellus, i ft., rich orange, flowering during the summer, are among the best kinds.
Numerous hybrids have been raised, varying in colour from creamy white to salmon, pink, yellow, red and orange.
aurantiaca major are the most showy, all with yellow or orange flowers.
3 to 6 in., with bluish-violet flowers having a brilliant orange spot, is suitable for rockwork; L.
P. alpinum, 6 in., white with yellow centre; P. nudicaule, i ft., yellow, scented, and P. pilosum, i to 2 ft., deep orange, are ornamental smaller kinds.
rutaefolius, 4 to 6 in., white with orange centre.
high, with rosypurple flower-heads, having a bright orange centre.
Greigi, i ft., orange with dark spot edged with yellow, and having dark spotted leaves; T.
Philadelphus - Mock Orange.
The principal cultivated plants, apart from sugar-cane and coffee, are rice (in great variety of kinds), the coco-nut palm, the areng palm, the areca and the sago palms, maize, yams, and sweet potatoes; and among the fruit trees are the Indian tamarind, pomegranate, guava, papaw, orange and lemon.
After 1849 the canal programme was again taken up by the state, which alone or in conjunction with the provincial authorities constructed the Apeldoorn-Dieren canal (1859-1869), the drainage canals of the " Peel " marsh in North Brabant, and of the eastern provinces, namely, the Deurne canal (1876-1892) from the Maas to Helenaveen, the Almelo (1851-1858) and Overysel (1884-1888) canals from Zwolle, Deventer and Almelo to Koevorden, and the Stieltjes (1880-1884), and Orange (1853-1858 and 1881-1889) canals in Drente, the North Williams canal (1856-1862) between Assen and Groningen, the Ems (1866-1876) ship canal from Groningen to Delfzyl, and the New Merwede, and enlarged the canal from Harlingen by way of Leeuwarden to the Lauwars Zee.
Thus in Overysel, in addition to the canals already mentioned, the Dedemsvaart connects the Vecht with the Zwarte Water near Hasselt; in Drente the Smildervaart and Drentsche Hoofdvaart unites Assen with Meppel, and receives on the eastern side the drainage canals of the Drente fens, namely, the Orange canal and the Hoogeveen Vaart (1850-1860; 1880-1893).
The crown prince or heir apparent is the first subject of the sovereign, and bears the title of the prince of Orange.
He resolved by a secret and sudden attack (17th of January 1583) to make himself master of Antwerp and of the person of Orange.
Two devoted adherents of William of Orange, Paul Buys, advocate of Holland, and Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, pensionary of Rotterdam, were the statesmen who at this difficult juncture took the foremost part in directing the policy of the confederacy.
Nothing but the strong personal influence and indefatigable labours of the prince of Orange stood in the way of a more general defection.
He felt that he was justified in taking this step because of the Ban which Philip had published on the 15th of March 1581, in which Orange had been proclaimed a traitor and miscreant, and a reward offered to any one who would take his life.
The States-General (9th of July 1618) took up the challenge, and the prince of Orange, as captain-general, was placed at the head of a commission to go in the first place to Utrecht, which supported Oldenbarneveldt, and then to the various cities of Holland to insist on the disbanding of the waardgelders.
This important frontier town lying on both sides of the river Meuse was taken by the prince of Orange in the teeth of two relieving armies, Spanish headed by the pensionary Pauw, but with the aid of the diplomatic skill of Aarssens all opposition was overcome.
A large French force was sent into the Netherlands and placed under the command of the prince of Orange.
The wedding of the youthful couple (aged respectively 14 and 10 years) took place on the r 2th of May 1641 (see William Ii., prince of Orange).
The course of the pourparlers would doubtless have run more smoothly but for the infirm health and finally the death of the prince of Orange himself.
A provisional draft of a treaty had already been drawn up before the demise of Frederick Henry, and afterwards, despite the strenuous opposition of the new prince of Orange (who, under the Acte de Survivance, had inherited all his father's offices and dignities) and of two of the provinces, Zeeland and Utrecht, the negotiations were by the powerful support of the States of Holland and of the majority of the States-General, quickly brought to a successful issue.
No sooner was peace concluded than bitter disputes arose between the provincial States of Holland and the prince of Orange, supported by the other six provinces, upon the question of the disbanding of the military forces.
The moment seemed to be favourable for the assertion of provincial sovereignty because of the youth and inexperience of the new prince of Orange.
At this juncture the States-General, as in 1618, appointed a commission headed by the prince of Orange to visit the towns of Holland, and provide for the maintenance of order and the upholding of the Union.
A week after his death, his widow, the princess Mary of England, gave birth to a son who, as William III., was to give added lustre to the house of Orange.
The act of Seclusion, which barred the young prince of Orange from holding the office of stadholder and of captaingeneral, had been one of the conditions on which Cromwell had insisted.
In 1659 a treaty of peace was with concluded between France, England and the United education of theer under was e ounce prince of Orange d Y e P g taken by the States of Holland under the super intendence of de Witt.
In 1672 the stadholdership in five provinces had been made hereditary in the family of the prince of Orange, but William died childless, and the republican burgher party was strong enough to prevent the posts being filled up. William had wished that his cousin, Count John William Friso of Nassau, stadholder of Friesland and Gron- - ingen, should succeed him, but his extreme youth and the jealousy of Holland against a " Frisian " stood in the way of his election.
The league of Augsburg (1686), which followed the revocation of the edict of Nantes, placed Orange at the head of the resistance to French domination.
The United Provinces, as in 1672, seemed to lie at the mercy of their enemies, and as in that eventful year, popular feeling broke down the opposition of the burgher oligarchies, and turned to William IV., prince of Orange, as the saviour of the state.
By the conquest of Dutch Flanders Zeeland was threatened, and the states of that province, in which there were always many Orange partisans, elected (April 1747) William stadholder, captain-general and admiral of Zeeland.
" the Armed Neutrality," but the consequences of the war, in which this act had involved them, was largely visited upon the prince of Orange.
An insult offered to the prince of Orange in 1787 led to an invasion of the country by a Prussian army.
The Orange party was completely triumphant, and William V., under the protection of Prussia and England, with which states the United Provinces were compelled to ally themselves, was restored to power.
The defeat of Leipzig in 1813 was the signal for a general revolt in the Netherlands; the prince of Orange (son of William V.) was recalled, and amidst general Creation provinces to form the kingdom of the Netherlands, of the p g Kingdom which was also to include the bishopric of Liege and of the the duchy of Bouillon, and the prince of Orange was Nether- placed upon the throne on the 15th of March 1815 as lands.
Fox, Cross.-Size 20X7 in., are about as large as the silver and generally have a pale yellowish or orange tone with some silvery points and a darkish cross marking on the shoulders.
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