Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a large measure of independence under amirs of its own, Oran being the chief seaport of the Abd-elWahid.
In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, the Spaniards fortified the Penon.
He succeeded his father Da'ud as ruler of Khorasan in 1059, and his uncle Togrul Bey as sultan of Oran in 1063, and thus became sole monarch of Persia from the river Oxus to the Tigris.
Thus in 1857 he went to Peru in order to determine the magnetic equator; in1861-1862and 1864, he studied telluric absorption in the solar spectrum in Italy and Switzerland; in 1867 he carried out optical and magnetic experiments at the Azores; he successfully observed both transits of Venus, that of 1874 in Japan, that of 1882 at Oran in Algeria; and he took part in a long series of solar eclipse-expeditions, e.g.
In all the towns of Algeria and Tunisia museums have been founded for storing the antiquities of the region; the most important of these are the museums of St Louis, Carthage and the palace of Bardo (musee Alaoui) near Tunis, those of Susa, Constantine, Lambessa, Timgad, Tebessa, Philippeville, Cherchel and Oran.
Doublet and P. Gauckler; of Oran by R.
They are named after Columba and Oran, who are said to have stopped here after they left Ireland.
TLEMCEN, a town of Algeria, the capital of an arrondissement in the department of Oran, near the frontier:of Morocco, 68 m.
A special manufacture is that of red shawls, used throughout the department of Oran by Jewish women when in mourning.
The Spanish occupation of Oran (1509) struck a fatal blow at the European commerce of the town.
The Beni-Zeiyan, after the capture of Algiers in 1516 by the corsair Barbarossa gradually lost their territory to the Turks, while Tlemcen itself for forty years became tributary to the Spanish governor of Oran.
Bona is in direct steamship communication with Marseilles, and is the centre of a large commerce, ranking after Algiers and Oran alone in Algeria.
It is divided, politically, into three departments, - Oran in the west, Algiers in the centre and Constantine in the east.
Save near the towns and in the cultivated district of Kabylia, the coast is bare and uninhabited; and in spite of numerous indentations, of which the most important going from west to east are the Gulf of Oran, the Gulf of Arzeu, the Bay of Algiers, and the gulfs of Bougie, Stora and Bona, there are few good harbours.
It is a mountainous country intersected with rocky canons and fertile valleys, which occasionally broaden out into alluvial plains like that of the Shelif, or the Metija near Algiers, or those in the neighbourhood of Oran and Bona.
of Bona; Sebkha and El Melah, south of Oran; and three small lakes in the immediate vicinity of La Calle.
In south Oran they determine the principal axes of the mountain ranges.
The Miocene formation obtains its greatest development in Oran and is much expanded in the Tell.
The census showed that in addition to French settlers and their descendants (278,976) there were 117,475 Spaniards (most of whom are found in the department of Oran), 33,153 Italians (chiefly in the department of Constantine), 64,645 Jews, 6217 Maltese, and smaller communities of British, Germans, Levantines and Greeks.
The chief towns are Algiers, the capital and principal seaport, with a population (1906), including Mustapha and other suburbs, of 154,049; Oran (100,499),' a western The figures given are not those of the communes, but of the towns proper, certain classes of persons (such as troops, lunatics, convicts) excluded from the municipal franchise not being counted.
Besides Algiers and Oran the principal seaports are Bona (36,004), Mostaganem (19,528), Philippeville (16,539), Bougie (10,419), Cherchel (4733) and La Calle (2774).
of Arzeu is a Berber village, where are interesting ruins of a Roman settlement, identified by some authorities as the Portus Magnus of Pliny; other authorities claim Oran as occupying the site of Portus Magnus.
from Oran, is an important military station.
Near Jelfa, in the Great Atlas, and at Mechera-Sfa (" ford of the flat stones"), a peninsula in the valley of the river Mina not far from Tiaret in the department of Oran, are vast numbers of megalithic monuments.
" walls " or " buildings ") are in the department of Oran.
The most productive are those of iron and zinc. Lignite is found in the department of Algiers and petroleum in that of Oran.
Algerian onyx from Ain Tekbalet was used by the Romans, and many ancient quarries have been found near Kleber in the department of Oran, some being certainly those from which the long-lost Numidian marbles were taken.
- The carrying trade between Algeria and France is confined, by a law passed in 1889, to French bottoms. The largest port is Algiers, after which follow Oran, Philippeville and Bona.
A decree of 1857 granted to the Paris-Lyons Company the right to construct a line linking Algiers with Oran (266 m.) and Constantine (290 m.) and shorter lines joining the seaports to the trunk line, notably Philippeville to Constantine (54 m.).
By the Turks the country was divided into four provinces - Algiers and Titeri in the centre and south, Constantine in the east and Mascara or Oran in the west.'
(The lycees at Algiers, Oran and Constantine are open to Mahommedans, but few take advantage of them.) Besides the government schools there are establishments conducted by clerics and laymen.
At Oran is a college for European girls.
At the beginning of the 16th century the native dynasties Constantine, and the bey of the west who resided at Y Mascara and afterwards at Oran.
He negotiated directly with the bey of Tunis with a view to installing as beys at Oran and Constantine Tunisian princes who recognized the authority of France.
At the time they occupied only the three towns of Algiers, Bona and Oran, with their suburbs, where their situation was moreover singularly precarious.
The Spaniards took Mers-el-Kebir (1505), Oran (1509), and Bougie and Tripoli (151o).
In the end, the only towns the Spaniards retained on the Algerian coast were Oran and Mers-el-Kebir.
This was sufficient to absorb the attention of the general-in-chief, who left the guardianship of the east and west to the initiative of the generals established at Bona and Oran.
But at Oran, where General Desmichels had succeeded General P. F.
In pursuance of this treaty, French officers were to represent their country at the court of the amir; while the amir on his part was represented in the three French coast towns, Oran, Arzeu and Mostaganem, by vakils who immediately began to act as masters of the natives.
Master of the province of Oran, he crossed the Shelif at the appeal of the natives, the people flocking to witness his progress as that of an emperor.
General Trezel, who had succeeded General Desmichels at Oran, resolved to march against the amir, but was defeated on the banks of the Macta (June 1835).
France reserved to herself only Oran and its environs, Mazagran, Algiers and the Metija; she gave up Tlemcen and the Titeri beylik.
Bugeaud resolutely adopted the offensive, reduced the weight carried by the soldiers in order to increase the mobility of his troops, and carried the war into the province of Oran, from which Abd-el-Kader drew his principal resources.
SIDI-BEL-ABBES, chief town of an arrondissement in the department of Oran, Algeria, 48 m.
of Oran, 1552 ft.
It is encircled by a crenellated and bastioned wall with a fosse, and has four gates, named after Oran, Daia, Mascara and Tlemcen respectively.
TIARET (Taheri), a town of Algeria, in the Tell Atlas, department of Oran, 122 m.
MOSTAGANEM, chief town of an arrondissement in the department of Oran, Algeria, 44 m.
of Oran, on a plateau 278 ft.
In 1080 he conquered the kingdom of Tlemcen and founded the present city of that name, his rule extending as far east as Oran.
After 'Ali's death in 1142, his son Tashfin lost ground rapidly before the Muwahhadis, and in 1145 he was killed by a fall from a precipice while endeavouring to escape after a defeat near Oran.
Remains of camels (C. thomasi) have also been found in the Pleistocene strata of Oran and Ouen Seguen, in Algeria; and certain remains from the Isle of Samos have been assigned to the same genus, although the reference requires confirmation.
ORAN (Arabic Wahran, i.e.
It stands at the head of the Gulf of Oran, on the Mediterranean in 35 0 44' N., o 41' W.
Formerly the seat of the beys of Oran, it is occupied by the general in command of the military division and also serves as barracks.
The museum formed by the Oran Society of Geography and Archaeology (founded in 1878) has a fine collection of antiquities.
Oran is the seat of a large trade.
of Oran) by the line from Arzeu to Saida and Ain Sefra which serves the high plateau whence esparto is obtained.
In consequence of the growing importance of the port and the decision of the French government to make Oran the chief naval station in Algeria, it was decided to build an eastern harbour.
Four miles west of Oran a small promontory forms the harbour of Mers-el-Kebir, formerly a stronghold of the Barbary pirates.
The promontory is strongly fortified and crosses fire with a battery erected to the east of Oran.
A road along the east coast, cut for the most part out of the solid rock, connects Oran and Mers-el-Kebir.
Attempts have been made to identify Oran with the Quiza, and Mers-el-Kebir with the Portus Magnus, of the Romans.
There are, however, no Roman ruins at Oran or at Mers-el-Kebir.
The foundation of Oran is more properly ascribed to Andalusian Arabs, who settled there in the beginning of the 10th century, and gave it its name.
Rapidly rising into importance as a seaport, Oran was taken and retaken, pillaged and rebuilt, by the various conquerors of northern Africa.
Mers-el-Kebir fell into their hands on the 23rd of October 1505, and Oran in May 1509.
Oran became the penal settlement of Spain, but neither the convicts nor the noblemen in disgrace who were also banished thither seem to have been under rigorous surveillance; contemporary accounts speak of constant fetes, games and bull-fights.
Meanwhile the Turks had become masters of Algeria, and expelled the Spaniards from all their possessions except Oran.
The bey Mahommed took possession of Oran in March 1792, and made it his residence instead of Mascara.
Under French rule Oran has regained its ancient commercial activity and has become the second city in Algeria.
Their tribal home seems to have been south of Oran in Algeria, and they seem to have early claimed an Arab origin, though it was alleged by the Arabs that they were descendants of Goliath, i.e.
of Oran, to the frontier of the Carthaginian territory, which nearly coincided with the modern regency of Tunis.
from Algiers, on the line to Oran.
The archbishop organized and directed the expedition which conquered Oran, Tripoli and other points on the African coast.
Spain in self-defence began to conquer the coast towns of Oran, Algiers and Tunis.
Oran Creative Crafts occupy the former pigsty at the Columba Steadings on the beautiful island of Iona.
at Oran after 1473), is chiefly important for his grammar and lexicon, in Arabic; Judah ibn Verga, of Seville (d.
The castle in Hasbeya was held by the crusaders under Count Oran; but in 1171 the Druse emirs of the great Shehab`family (see Druses) recaptured it.
Fort de la Moune (so called from the monkeys said to have haunted the neighbourhood) is at the western end of the harbour, and commands the road from Oran to Mers-elKebir (see below).
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