In Nubia, owing to the poverty of the country and its scanty population, the proportion of monuments surviving is infinitely greater than in Egypt.
The results published in the Archaeological Survey of Nubia 6 by Messrs.
A remnant of the Mamelukes fled to Nubia, and a tranquillity was restored to Egypt to which it had long been unaccustomed.
By a second firman of the same date Mehemet Ali was invested with the government of Nubia, Darfur, Khordofan and Sennaar, with their dependencies.
Peoples of three distinct stocks inhabit the country - the comparatively recent Semitic Arab intruders, mainly in Upper Nubia, the Beja (?
In the 7th century the Arabs who had conquered Egypt penetrated into Lower Nubia, where the two Jawabareh and Al-Gharbiya tribes became powerful, and amalgamated with the Nubas of that district.
Burckhardt, Travels in Nubia, e5fc. (London, 1819); G.
fn4 In a Spanish work of about the same date, by an anonymous Franciscan, we are told that the emperor called "Abdeselib, which means servant of the Cross," is a protector of Preste Juan, who is the patriarch of Nubia and Ethiopia, and is lord of many great lands, and many cities of Christians, though they be black as "Catalani."
Dr. Reisner, working for Boston, was not held up by the war, but continued his excavations in the Giza pyramid field and in Nubia, making good finds in both places.
141), and of a letter to George king of Nubia from the king of Abyssinia some time between 978 and 1003, when a Jewish queen Judith was oppressing the Christian population (I.
Except along the narrow valley of the Nile only the southernmost portion of Nubia contains arable land.
The Nile valley afforded a passage by ship or on foot into Nubia, where, however, little wealth was to be sought, though gold and rarities from the Sudan, such as ivory and ebony, came that way and an armed raid could yield a good spoil in slaves and cattle.
In 1819 he returned to England, and published in the following year an account of his travels and discoveries entitled Narrative of the Operations and Recent Discoveries within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia, &c. He also exhibited during 1820-1821 facsimiles of the tomb of Seti I.
Maclver's researches in northern Nubia, begun in 1907, will be found under Sudan: Anglo-Egyptian.
Nubia, however, has no strictly defined limits, and is little more than a geographical expression.
In the paintings we see gardens irrigated by handbuckets and shad ufs; the latter (buckets hung on a lever-pole) were probably the usual means of raising water for the fields in ancient times, and still are common in Egypt and Nubia, although water-wheels have been known.
on hands, feet and back?), also cutting off the nose with banishment to Nubia or the Syrian frontier., In the times of the OldKingdom decapitation was in use, and a decree exists of the Middle Kingdom degrading a nomarch of Coptos and his family for ever from his office and from the priesthood on account of services to a rival pretender.
Farther south, in Nubia, the temples of DabOd and Dakka were built by the Ethiopian Ergamenes, contemporary of Ptolemy IV.; and the temple of Dendur is of Augustus.
succeeded as the husband of his half-sister, but reigned only two or three years, during which he warred in Nubia and placed Tethmosis III., his son by a concubine Esi, upon the throne beside him (c. 1500 B.C.).
Sheshonk secured Thebes, making one of his sons high priest of Ammon, and whereas Solomon appears to have dealt with a king of Egypt on something like an equal footing, Sheshonk re-established Egyptian rule in Palestine and Nubia, and his expedition in the fifth year of Rehoboam subdued Israel as well as Judah, to judge by the list of city names which he inscribed on the wall of the temple of Karnak.
Much of Malik al-N~irs third administration was spent in raids into Nubia, where he endeavoured to set up a creature of his own as sovereign, in attempts at bringing the Bedouins of south-eastern Egypt into subordination, and in persecuting the Nosairis, whose heresy became formidable about this time.
As their numbers thinned, they endeavoured to maintain their little power by training some hundreds of blacks; but again, on the approach of Ismail, another son of the pasha of Egypt, sent with an army in 1820 to subdue Nubia and Sennar, some returned to Egypt and settled in Cairo, while the rest, amounting to about 100 persons, fled in dispersed parties to the countries adjacent to Senngr.
Thoth is found on the earliest monuments symbolized by an ibis (Ibis aethio pica, still not uncommon in Nubia), which bird was sacred to him.
Sennar, lying between Nubia and Abyssinia, was in ancient times under Egyptian or Ethiopian influence and its inhabitants appear to have embraced Christianity at an early period.
Reisner & Firth have shown that the early culture of Nubia was closely akin to that of the predynastic Egyptians, which no doubt came from the south.
We find an illustration of this in the fact that a red and black pottery, obviously akin to the predynastic Egyptian, but of finer make, was manufactured in Nubia in the time of the XII.
Perhaps the earliest known instance of his prominent appearance of large size in the sculptures of the temples is under Tahraka, at Jebel Barkal, Nubia, at the beginning of the 7th century B.C. As the protector of children and others he is the enemy of noxious beasts, such as lions, crocodiles, serpents and scorpions.
Elliott Smith, A Contribution to the Study of Mummification in Egypt (Cairo, 1906); The Archaeological Survey of Nubia Bulletins (Cairo, 1908 seq.); Dr Lortet and M.
from Suez to the Strait of Bab el-Mandeb in a nearly straight line, and separating the coasts of Arabia from those of Egypt, Nubia and Abyssinia.
The inscriptions show that they belonged to frontier-prefects whose expeditions into Nubia, &c., are recorded in them.
Gold was obtained chiefly from Nubia: iron was found in small quantities in the country and at one time was worked in the neighborhood of Assugn.
The temple of Isis was the chief sanctuary of the Dodecaschoenus, the portion of Lower Nubia generally held by the Ptolemies and Romans.
Egypt normally included the whole of the Nile valley from the First Cataract to the sea; pure Egyptians, however, formed the population of Lower Nubia above the Cataract in prehistori.c times; at some periods also the land was divided into separate kingdoms, while at others Egypt stretched southward into Nubia, and it generally claimed the neighboring Libyan deserts and oases on the west and the Arabian deserts on the east to the shore of the Red Sea, with Sinai and the Mediterranean coast as far as Rhinocorura (El Arish).
(See further NUBIA.)
After Egypt proper was overrun by the " dynastic Egyptian " people of " Armenoid " stock, who came from Asia and founded the kingdoms of Lower and Upper Egypt, the old barbarous Nilotic culture continued to exist in Nubia.
On the other hand, the name has never included all the inhabitants of Nubia.
Far down in the Sahara, to the south of Tunisia, the Arabs report the existence of a wild ass, apparently identical with that of Nubia.
In this enterprise there has been great advance in Egypt among the Copts, and in 1899 the Pope signalized " the resurrection of the Church of Alexandria " by appointing a Patriarch for Egypt, Libya and Nubia.
The other principal buildings are the temples of Sedenga and of SOlib in Nubia.
He built a temple far up the Nile at Wadi Haifa and there set up a stela commemorating his victories over the tribes of Nubia.
In his later years some expeditions took place into Nubia.
In the year following the massacre the unfortunate exiles were attacked by Ibrahim Pasha, the eldest son of Mehemet Au, in the fortified town of Ibrim, in Nubia.
the sandstone of which we have such a large development in Nubia....
In ancient times Nubia, i.e.
In 1905 gold mining recommenced in Nubia, in the district of Urn Nabardi, which is in the desert, about midway between Wadi Halfa and Abu Hamed.
Coxe, jun., expedition, which devoted its attention to the southern half of Lower Nubia from Haifa to Korosko, while the government excavators explored from Korosko to Aswan.
For it must be clearly appreciated that though all except the southern twenty miles of Lower Nubia has been attached for purposes of administration of Egypt proper, yet this political boundary is purely artificial.
The central and southern Sudan is therefore almost a virgin field for the archaeologist, but the exploration of Lower Nubia has made it possible to write a tentative preface to the new chapters still unrevealed.
Lower Nubia was one of the crucibles in which several times was formed a mixed nation which defied or actually dominated Egypt.
Reisner that the archaic culture first detected at Nagada and Abydos and then at many points as far north as Giza extended southwards into Nubia at least as far as Gerf Husein.
But the exploration of sites in the southern half of Lower Nubia has revealed the existence of a wholly unsuspected independent civilization which grew up during the first six centuries after Christ.
The history of the succeeding periods, moreover, has been partially recovered and the study of architecture enriched by the excavation of numerous churches dating from the time of Justinian, when Nubia was first Christianized, down to the late medieval period when Christianity was extirpated by Mahommedanism.
Firth, Reports on The Archaeological Survey of Nubia; G.
Breasted, Ancient' Records of Egypt (1906-1907), A History of Egypt (1905), Temples of Lower;Nubia (1906), Monuments of Sudanese Nubia (1908); D.
Churches in Lower Nubia (Iwo); F.
by the river) are numerous ruins of monasteries, churches and fortresses of the Christian era in Nubia - notably at Jebel Deka and Magal.
In the northern regions, known as Ethiopia or Nubia, Egyptian influence made itself felt as early as the Old Empire.
The Arab invasion of North Africa in the 7th century, which turned Egypt into a Mahommedan country, had not the same effect in Nubia, the Moslems, though they frequently raided the country, being unable to hold it.
In this way a barrier was erected between the Christians of Nubia and those of Abyssinia.
- The conquest of Nubia was undertaken in 1820 by order of Mehemet Ali, the pasha of Egypt, and was accomplished in s the.
Mehemet Ali gave the command of the army sent to Nubia to his son Ismail, who at the head of some 4000 men left Wadi Halfa in October 1820.
Having conquered Nubia, Sennar and Kordofan the Egyptians set up a civil government, placing at the head of the administration a governor-general with practically unlimited power.2 About this period Mehemet Ali leased from the sultan of Turkey the Red Sea ports of Suakin and Massawa, and by this means got into his hands all the trade routes of the eastern Sudan.
In 1820-22 Nubia, Sennar and Kordofan had been conquered by Egypt, and the authority of the Egyptians was subsequently extended southward, eastward to the Red Sea and westward over Darfur (conquered by Zobeir Pasha in 1874).
His archaeological work included the investigation of lake dwellings and other prehistoric structures; he went with Schliemann to Troy in 1879, fruits of the expedition being two books, ZurLandeskunde der Troas (1880) and Alt-trojanische Gr p ber and Schad (1882); in 1881 he visited the Caucasus, and on his return published Das Graberfeld von Koban im Lande der Osseten; and in 1888 he accompanied Schliemann to Egypt, Nubia and the Peloponnese.
His determination from the study of their pyramids at Napata (the Barkal region) of the succession of the Ethiopian kings, 42 and his revelations of the colonial dominion of the Egyptians in Nubia under the XII.
the state of Meroe was ravaged by the Nubas (?) and the Abyssinians, and in the 6th century its place was taken by the Christian state of Nubia (see Dongola).
NUBIA, a region of north-east Africa, bounded N.
Hamitic) family of tribes (the Ababda, Bisharin, Hadendoa, Beni-Amer, &c.), everywhere between the Nile and the Red Sea; and the Nubians (Nuba or Barabira), in Lower Nubia, where they are now almost exclusively confined to the banks of the Nile, from Assuan southwards to Dongola.
The Nubas appear to have been the aboriginal inhabitants of the country and are believed to be the original stock of the Nubians of the Nile Valley (see Nubia).
They are mainly agriculturists, though some are keen traders (see NUBIA).
This province of Cush extended from Napata just below the Fourth Cataract on the south to El Kab in the north, so that it included the first three nomes of Upper Egypt, which agriculturally were not greatly superior to Nubia.
On the other hand, an expedition by Cambyses against the Ethiopian kingdom of Napata and Meroe came to grief in Nubia.
the kingdom of Napata and Meroe, the modern Nubia.
This applies particularly to the so-called Nubians who inhabit the Dongola mudiria (see Nubia).
The mudirias are Haifa, Red Sea, Dongola and Berber in the north (these include practically all the region known as Nubia); Khartum, Blue Nile and White Nile in the centre; Kassala and Sennar in the east; Kordofan in the west; and Bahrel-Ghazal, Upper Nile (formerly Fashoda) and Mongalla in the south.
Thus the Ethiopians who usurped the crown of the Pharaohs from 740-660 B.C. were of a mixed stock akin to the modern Barabra; the northern Nubians who successfully defied the Roman emperors were under the lordship of the Blemyes (Blemmyes), an East African tribe, and the empire of the Candace dynasty, no less than the Christian kingdoms which succeeded it, included many heterogeneous racial elements (see also Nubia).
For the period between the rise of Islam and the beginning of the modern history of Abyssinia there are a few notices in Arabic writers; so we have a notice of a war between Ethiopia and Nubia about 687 (C. C. Rossini in Giorn.
From Nuba, the Arabic form of the name of this people, comes the modern Nubia, a term about the precise meaning of which no two writers are in accord.
The two districts roughly correspond to the conventional divisions of Upper and Lower Nubia respectively.
Politically the whole of Nubia is now included either in Egypt or the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, and has no administrative existence.
at Abu-Simbel, in Nubia, give conclusive proof that the art of writing was widely disseminated among the Greeks at least three centuries:before the age of Alexander.
The latter warred in Palestine and in Nubia, and marked the south frontier of his kingdom by a statue and stelae at Semna beyond the Second Cataract.
He fought also in Syria and in Nubia, besides overcoming factious opposition in his own land.
In his ninth year he turned his attention to the gold mines in the eastern desert of Nubia and improved the road thither.
succeeded at an early age Ratneses and reigned sixty-seven years, during which he finished much that was begun by Seti and filled all Egypt and Nubia with his own monuments, some of them beautiful, but most, necessarily entrusted to inferior workmen, of coarse execution.
The greater number of the temples to the native deities in Upper Egypt and in Nubia (to so m.
This predatory tribe, issuing from Nubia, was long to be- the terror DI Upper Egypt.
He made Nubia tributar~,t, therein extending Moslem arms farther south than they had been extended by any previous sultan.
Nubia at once submitted, the Shagia Arabs immediately beyond the province of Dongola were worsted, the remnant of the Mamelukes dispersed, and Sennr reduced without a battle.
The Wahhabi War, indeed, dragged on till 1818, when Ibrahim (q.v.), the pasha's son, who in 1816 had driven the remnant of the Mamelukes into Nubia, brought it to an end.
453 Maximinus, the general of the emperor Marcian, after inflicting a severe defeat on the Nobatae and Blemmyes who were settled in Lower Nubia, and thence raided Upper Egypt, made peace on terms which included permission for these heathen tribes to visit the temple and even to borrow the image of Isis on certain occasions.
The existence of native Christian states in Nubia hindered for some centuries the spread of Islam in the eastern Sudan, and throughout the country some tribes have remained pagan.
Interesting conclusions as to the early ethnology of Egypt have been derived from the systematic examination of the necropolises of Nubia, necessitated by the heightening of the Aswan dam, as a consequence of which the northern portion of the valley S.
Other work of importance in Nubia immediately before the war was that of Mr. Randall Maclver and Mr. Woolley for the Eckley B.
Breasted, "The Monuments of Sudanese Nubia," in American Journal of Semitic Languages (October 1908), and the work of E.
Of species belonging to allied genera, Pennisetum typhoideum, bajree, sometimes also called Egyptian millet or pearl millet, is largely cultivated in tropical Asia, Nubia and Egypt.
The Nubian goat, which is met with in Nubia, Upper Egypt and Abyssinia, differs greatly in appearance from those previously described.
Its labors embraced not only Egypt and Nubia (as far as Khartum) but also the Egyptian monuments in Sinai and Syria; its immense harvest of material is of the highest value, the new device of taking paper impressions or squeezes giving Lepsius a great advantage over his predecessors, similar to that which was later conferred by the photographic camera.
Abu Salih records (12th century) that the patriarch used always to send letters twice a year to the kings of Abyssinia and Nubia, till Al Hakim stopped the practice.
He subdued Nubia and Sennar in 182022; and then, requiring a larger army, he obtained instructors from France.
The army, commanded in chief by Una under the VIth Dynasty for raids in Sinai or Palestine, comprised levies from every part of Egypt and from Nubia, each under its own leader.
194 seq., translated in Burckhardt's Travels in Nubia, app. iii.).
The Service of Antiquities now boasts a large annual budget and employs a number of European and native officialsa director, curators of the museum, European inspectors and native sub-inspectors of provinces (at Luxor for Upper Egypt and Nubia, at Assiut for Middle Egypt and the Fayum, at Mansura for Lower Egypt, besides a European official in charge of the government excavations at Memphis).
The admirably conducted Archaeological Survey of the portion of Nubia threatened by the raising of the Assuan dam is in the charge of another departmentthe Survey department, directed for many years up to 1909 by Captain H.
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